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1

Feasibility of energy recovery for district heating and cooling from the METRO Renton effluent transfer system: Phase one report  

SciTech Connect

The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing an effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton treatment plant through Seattle's largest industrial area to Duwamish Head. Preliminary evaluation indicates that heat pumps could produce between 500 and 800 million Btu per hour if all of the Renton plant's current flows were utilized. The market for district heating and coolign near the ETS route was divided into five study areas for purposes of Phase 1 work as follows: Sea-Tac International Airport; Tukwila/Renton; Metro South Base and Vicinity; Pacific Highway/Spokane Street; and Spokane Street/Kingdome. In each of these areas heating and cooling demands were inventoried, and preliminary concepts for district heating and cooling service were prepared and subjected to economic assessment. Initial results are presented.

Not Available

1985-08-01

2

Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project  

SciTech Connect

Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

none,

1980-01-01

3

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01

4

District cooling in Stockholm using sea water  

SciTech Connect

In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

Fermbaeck, G. [Stockholm Energie (Sweden)

1995-12-31

5

District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

NONE

1994-12-01

6

1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

Not Available

1993-07-01

7

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01

8

District cooling engineering and design program  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

9

Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface ground temperature data and over the past 30 years have installed more than 15 miles (24 km) of directly buried uninsulated chilled water supply and return distribution piping. The utility engineers now estimate that during the summer cooling season, peak heat gains in the buried chilled water piping exceed 450 tons (1,583 kW) and cause $100,000 in energy losses each year. Ground heat gains due to elevated subsurface temperature have been suspected as production tonnage exceeds end-user sales by 10% during the peak cooling season. The utilities staff decided it was time to reassess method for installing chilled water piping on campus and determine if the university design standard of installing uninsulated buried chilled water piping remains valid for the campus environment.

McCabe, R.E.; Bender, J.J.; Potter, K.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

10

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

Not Available

1984-01-31

11

Moorhead district heating, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

Sundberg, R. E.

1981-01-01

12

Hydraulic Modeling of Large District Cooling Systems for Master Planning Purposes  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Modeling of Large District Cooling Systems for Master Planning Purposes Chen Xu Qiang Chen David E. Claridge Dan Turner Song Deng Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3581 KEYWORD Pipe Network..., District Cooling System, Central Chilled Water System, Master Planning, Hydraulic Simulation ABSTRACT District Cooling Systems (DCS) have been widely applied in large institutions such as universities, government facilities, commercial districts...

Xu, C.; Chen, Q.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.

2006-01-01

13

Energy and economic implications of combining district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation. The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. The economics of alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration depend on many variables, including cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, value of electricity, value and temperature of heat recovered and other factors.

Spurr, M.; Larsson, I.

1995-12-31

14

Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

NONE

1990-04-01

15

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-print Network

) The plant that supplies the chilled water 2) cool storage equipment 3) the system of chilled water transportation 4) the connection of trunk net and the user 5) the software used in the system. For its superiority in energy saving and environment..., it expands quickly. There were many district cooling systems in china. For example, the Putong international airdrome thermoelectricity and cool system and the Zhongguancun district cooling system, Zhongguancun west district is the core...

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01

16

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

Not Available

1984-01-31

17

Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach  

SciTech Connect

On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

NONE

1995-12-01

18

Hydraulic modeling of large district cooling systems for master planning purposes  

E-print Network

District Cooling Systems (DCS) have been widely applied in large institutions such as universities, government facilities, commercial districts, airports, etc. The hydraulic system of a large DCS can be complicated. They often stem from an original...

Xu, Chen

2007-09-17

19

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

Not Available

1984-01-31

20

Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01

21

District cooling and heating with seawater as heat source and sink in Dalian, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the utilization of ocean thermal energy in Dalian. Coastal areas are ideal sites for the application of seawater-source heat pump technology (SWHP) to provide district cooling and heating. The technical requirements and the scheme design in the context of marine climate are discussed. A government-commissioned feasibility study of a proposed district energy site in

Li Zhen; D. M. Lin; H. W. Shu; Shuang Jiang; Y. X. Zhu

2007-01-01

22

Phase transformations during cooling in ?+ ? titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified methodology for investigating the effects of cooling rate from elevated temperature on phase transformations observed in ?+? titanium alloys is described. It involves adaptation and refinement of a circumferentially insulated and instrumented Jominy end quench bar, time–temperature profiles obtained during cooling at locations along the bar length providing a complete thermal history. The ability of this procedure to

T. Ahmed; H. J. Rack

1998-01-01

23

Evaluation of available computer programs for district heating/cooling distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier phase of this study, a survey was conducted of 82 engineering and consulting firms, government agencies, universities, trade associations, and utilities to identify computer programs that would be useful in the analysis of district heating and cooling systems. Four of the programs identified were accepted by BNL for further tests and evaluations, namely: Hydraulic Distribution Network Analysis Program (Consumers Gas Co.); Gas Steady-State System GASSS (Stoner Associates); Liquid Steady-State System LIQSS (Stoner Associates); and SYNTHA III (SYNTHA Corp.). Brief descriptions of each program along with the names and addresses of the owners are provided in Appendix A. This report presents the results of the evaluation of these programs. The evaluation was performed by actually running sample distribution systems on each program. Appendix B and Appendix C contain the data for the hot-water system and the steam-distribution system, respectively. Appendix D presents samples of input and output.

Not Available

1980-02-01

24

GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-06-01

25

District cooling engineering and design program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

26

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-print Network

(hot water) #12;14 Decentralisation Central Plant becomes Energy Plant 11 Mechanical Rooms (water heaters;18 Energy Loop 18 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second The Energy Loop... Today and Tomorrow Michel Caron, ing. Bishop's University John B. Samulack, Ameresco

27

District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

Not Available

1994-03-01

28

Utilization of a Deep Lake Water Direct Cooling Network (DLWDC) for cooling of a large administrative district. Energy and Environmental demonstration and follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLN-DLWDC (Deep Lake Water Direct Cooling Network) facility will cool administrative buildings in the district of Sécheron. The GLN facility will draw water from deep in Léman Little Lake (depth of 35 m) and circulate it through heat exchange facilities (HEFs) that will be located inside each connected buildings. Heat exchangers in the HEFs will remove heat from each

Pierre-Alain VIQUERAT; Bernard LACHAL; Willi WEBER; André MERMOUD; Eric PAMPALONI

29

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS  

E-print Network

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS D. May1 , B. Wunderle1 , F in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid to keep doing so [1, 2], liquid cooling solutions remain an interesting but challenging al- ternative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems  

SciTech Connect

With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems. Beam width is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the momentum Schottky divided by 127 (the harmonic of the Schottky pickup in the Debuncher.) Every three to five minutes, the beam drifts enough to make a significant change in the data. Knowing the revolution frequency and beam width to 0.5 Hz is important. If the beam width exceeds 10 Hz, the quality of the measurement will be impaired. Large beam widths can be caused by excessive forward proton beam current. There are also signs that the front-end amplifiers saturate with beam currents above several hundred microamps. The cooling systems were designed to be very sensitive, (that's why the front end is at liquid helium temperature) so a hundred microamps will go a long way. It should be possible to phase the systems with Pbars as a signal to noise ratio of 30 dB was observed with 100 microamps of beam current.

Pasquinelli, Ralph; /Fermilab

2000-03-09

31

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

32

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

33

ADMX Phase II : Relocation and Millikelvin Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low mass axions are an attractive candidate for making up dark matter. While there are several models for how the Axion couples with other matter, were they to be the majority of the local galactic dark matter halo, they would have a number density on the order of 1014 cm-3. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) is a microwave cavity experiment searching for axion Dark Matter via the axion's electromagnetic coupling. While the original ADMX did not see evidence of axions, the experiment is planned to go through two phases of upgrades to expand its sensitivity and provide a definitive search for axion dark matter. The first phase established the use of a SQUID amplifier which can reduce the amplifier noise temperature to the 100 mK range. In the second phase we will first move the experiment from LLNL to CENPA at the University of Washington. Once the experiment has been moved successfully we will install a dilution refrigerator to cool the cavity to the 100 mK range thus increasing the sensititivity to the level required to scan the remainder of the allowed model space.

Heilman, Jesse; Tracy, Kyle

2010-08-01

34

ADMX Phase II : Relocation and Millikelvin Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Low mass axions are an attractive candidate for making up dark matter. While there are several models for how the Axion couples with other matter, were they to be the majority of the local galactic dark matter halo, they would have a number density on the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) is a microwave cavity experiment searching for axion Dark Matter via the axion's electromagnetic coupling. While the original ADMX did not see evidence of axions, the experiment is planned to go through two phases of upgrades to expand its sensitivity and provide a definitive search for axion dark matter. The first phase established the use of a SQUID amplifier which can reduce the amplifier noise temperature to the 100 mK range. In the second phase we will first move the experiment from LLNL to CENPA at the University of Washington. Once the experiment has been moved successfully we will install a dilution refrigerator to cool the cavity to the 100 mK range thus increasing the sensititivity to the level required to scan the remainder of the allowed model space.

Heilman, Jesse; Tracy, Kyle [University of Washington, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2010-08-30

35

Helium 2 cooling systems with long service live for space use: Phase separation hybrid cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase separation in zero gravity is discussed and the active phase separator for a liquid helium cooled infrared observatory for Spacelab is described. For long-term (more than one year) applications, a hybrid cooling system is required in which refrigerants boiling at higher temperatures are employed. The suitability of hydrogen and neon are investigated as well as that of a secondary solid refrigerant. Analysis indicates that such a hybrid cooling system, using solid neon, can be realized and has substantial advantages compared with a one-stage He2 cooling system.

Klipping, G.; Klipping, I.; Schmidtchen, U.

1982-03-01

36

Helium 2 cooling systems for long term missions in space: phase separation and hybrid cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of helium 2 (superfluid helium) phase separation and hybrid cooling systems for astronomical and aeronomical observations in space, e.g., infrared radiation, was studied. The different aspects of phase separation under conditions of weightlessness are treated and the active phase separator for a liquid helium cooled infrared observatory for Spacelab, German Infrared Laboratory (GIRL) is described. For long-term (more than one year) applications, a hybrid cooling system is required in which refrigerants boiling at higher temperatures are employed. The suitability of hydrogen and neon were investigated as well as that of a secondary solid refrigerant. Analysis indicates that such a hybrid cooling system, using solid neon, can be realized and has substantial advantages compared with a one-stage He 2 cooling system.

Klipping, G.; Klipping, I.; Schmidtchen, U.

1980-09-01

37

Optimization of the engineering design for the Lansing District Cooling System by comparative analysis of the impact of advanced technologies on a conventional design approach. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Lansing Board of Water and Light (LBWL) began investigating development of a cooling district in the Lansing Downtown in 1989 in order to retain and build summer load for its steam utility. A feasibility study was conducted in conjunction with SFT, Inc. and ZBA, Inc. which addressed many factors such as marketability of the product, impact on the summer steam load, distribution system development, system design, probable capital and operating costs, reliability and environmental and other regulatory impacts on a preliminary feasibility basis. The Phase I study completed in September of 1989 provided highly promising results for establishing a District Cooling System (DCS). An existing chilled water production facility owned by the State of Michigan was identified as a potential location for a DCS plant. With these changes a review of the feasibility with a new set of alternatives and sensitivities was evaluated. This enhancement to the Phase I Study was nearing completion when the LBWL in conjunction with Energy, Mines and Resources Canada proposed to conduct the Phase II project in conjunction with DOE. The project was structured to proceed along a dual track to demonstrate the impact of the application of various innovative technologies.

Not Available

1994-02-01

38

Phase transitions in nucleonic matter and neutron-star cooling.  

PubMed

A new scenario for neutron-star cooling is suggested by the correspondence between pion condensation, induced by critical spin-isospin fluctuations, and the metal-insulator phase transition in a 2D electron gas. Above the threshold density for pion condensation, the neutron single-particle spectrum acquires an insulating gap that quenches neutron contributions to neutrino production. In the liquid phase just below the transition, the fluctuations play dual roles by (i) creating a multisheeted neutron Fermi surface that extends to low momenta and activates the normally forbidden direct Urca cooling mechanism, and (ii) amplifying the nodeless P-wave neutron superfluid gap while suppressing S-wave pairing. Lighter stars without a pion-condensed core undergo slow cooling, whereas enhanced cooling occurs in heavier stars via direct Urca emission from a thin shell of the interior. PMID:15524862

Khodel, V A; Clark, J W; Takano, M; Zverev, M V

2004-10-01

39

MUON STORAGE RINGS FOR 6D PHASE SPACE COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

We describe several storage ring designs for reducing the 6-dimensional phase space of circulating muon beams. These rings utilize quadrupole and dipole magnets as well as wedge-shaped, liquid-hydrogen, energy-loss absorbers and energy compensating rf cavities. We obtain evaluations of their cooling performance by particle tracking simulation. Such rings are potentially useful for future Neutrino Factories or Muon Colliders as well as for existing facilities in which cooled, intense muon beams could enhance their physics programs.

KIRK,H.CLINE,D.FUKUI,Y.GARREN,A.

2003-05-12

40

Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

2014-08-01

41

Feasibility of energy recovery for heat pump-assisted district heating and cooling from the Metro Renton wastewater treatment plant and effluent transfer system  

SciTech Connect

The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing a 12-mile effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton wastewater treatment plant to Duwamish Head on Puget Sound. The preliminary stud (Phase I) concluded that the Renton treatment plant's effluent could feasibly sustain large amounts of heat pump output, i.e., 500 to 800 million Btu per hour. Further, the study identified eight locations along the ETS where district heating and cooling (DHC) networks could be favorably established to serve existing businesses and/or new growth. In December 1985 this second phase study was commissioned as a detailed assessment of specific customers in several of the recommended DHC development areas. The potential customers evaluated in this report include: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, the Container Corporation carton manufacturing plant adjacent to the Renton treatment plant, Metro Transit Department's South Base, two buildings at the Boeing Developmental Center, and the Valley 405 Business Park adjacent to the Renton treatment plant. These potential users of effluent-based heating and/or cooling have been evaluated in terms of their heating and cooling demands, the type of effluent-based heat pump system necessary for serving them, and the economics of the effluent-based energy approach. In the cases of Sea-Tac and Container Corporation, the assessments also examine environmental and institutional issues, and generalized feasibilities for financing effluent-based systems.

Not Available

1986-09-01

42

Energy efficient two-phase cooling for concentrated photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated sunlight focused on the aperture of a photovoltaic solar cell, coupled with high efficiency, triple junction cells can produce much greater power densities than traditional 1 sun photovoltaic cells. However, the large concentration ratios will lead to very high cell temperatures if not efficiently cooled by a thermal management system. Two phase, flow boiling is an attractive cooling option for such CPV arrays. In this work, two phase flow boiling in mini/microchannels and micro pin fin arrays will be explored as a possible CPV cooling technique. The most energy efficient microchannel design is chosen based on a least-material, least-energy analysis. Heat transfer and pressure drop obtained in micro pin fins will be compared to data in the recent literature and new correlations for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop will be presented. The work concludes with an energy efficiency comparison of micro pin fins with geometrically similar microchannel geometry.

Reeser, Alexander Douglas

43

Cooling of Compact Stars with Color Superconducting Phase in Quark-hadron Mixed Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M >= 1.5 M ?, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki

2013-03-01

44

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

45

Experimental investigation on phase change spray cooling with R22  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great quantities of experiments were performed to study the effects of two-phase spray cooling with high heat flux used R22 as refrigerant. A detailed research of the performance of spray cooling at different subcooling temperature was conducted. The experimental results show that the critical heat flux can reach 272.04W?cm-2 with R22 as the working medium, and the corresponding surface temperature is 21.11°C These figures prove that the spray cooling has the advantages of high heat flux as well as lower surface temperature. With increasing overcooling degree of refrigerant at the entrance of nozzle, CHF rises at first and goes to stable then. Which means the CHF can be developed by adding the overcooling of refrigerant. However, the development is limited to a certain degree according to the characteristics of the system; namely, the overmuch increment plays a little role to improve CHF value.

Li, Mengjing; Liu, Jionghui; Liu, Xiufang; Hou, Yu

2013-07-01

46

Single-phase and two-phase cooling with an array of rectangular jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to explore the effects of jet width, impingement velocity, and inlet subcooling on the cooling performance of an array of three confined rectangular FC-72 and ethanol jets impacting a 3.0cm×3.0cm heated surface. The single-phase heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing jet velocity and\\/or jet width. A correlation for single-phase cooling was constructed by dividing the flow into

Michael T. Meyer; Issam Mudawar; Chad. E. Boyack; Charles A. Hale

2006-01-01

47

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01

48

Application of fluidized-bed combustion of coal for district heating and cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both steam and hot water, the commonly used heat-transfer fluids for district heating, are generated in boilers. In order to use low-cost solid fuels, the use of boilers is the only practical one because engines and turbines are not yet capable of firing solid fuels. After reviewing design considerations, a fluid bed demonstration plant in district-heating use is described.

Kleinau

1986-01-01

49

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

50

Thermal analysis of two-phase microchannel cooling  

SciTech Connect

A design calculation has been performed to determine thermal limits in support of an experiment in two-phase microchannel water cooling. Under the operating condition (one atmosphere pressure and 23{degrees}C inlet temperature), the calculation predicts that the experimental channel can withstand a maximum surface temperature of 115{degrees}C and a heat flux up to 975 W/cm{sup 2} without exceeding the critical heat flux limit. The predicted results also indicate that a uniform heat flux along the channel in the two-phase domain can be achieved so that the heat losses from the experimental test section can be calculated in a straightforward manner.

Chen, N.C.J.; Felde, D.K.; Yoder, G.L.

1996-09-01

51

COOLING OF COMPACT STARS WITH COLOR SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE IN QUARK-HADRON MIXED PHASE  

SciTech Connect

We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M {>=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 Japan (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 Japan (Japan); Yasutake, Nobutoshi [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)] [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujimoto, Masayuki, E-mail: tsune@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: hashimoto@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

2013-03-01

52

Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling systems  

E-print Network

Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling Pressure-drop oscillation Refrigeration system Two-phase cooling Active control Transient heat load a b s t r a c t Two-loop refrigeration systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power

Peles, Yoav

53

Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

2014-06-01

54

Emerging technology for burning coal for district heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several technologies currently under development that have the potential to enable existing district heating systems to be converted from oil or gas to coal. These technologies are coal water mixtures (CWM) and advanced combustors. For certain applications, these technologies may be used in conjunction with an advanced coal preparation process.

Feibus

1986-01-01

55

The CERES S'COOL Project: Development and Operational Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, the first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft from the Tanegashima launch site in Japan in November 1997. The instrument will measure the radiation budget incoming and outgoing radiant energy - of the Earth. The major feature of interest is clouds, which play a very strong role in regulating our climate. CERES will identify clear and cloudy regions and determine cloud physical and microphysical properties using imager data from a companion instrument. Validation efforts for the remote sensing algorithms will be intensive. As one component of the validation, the S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) project will involve school children around the globe in making ground truth measurements at the time of a CERES overpass. They will report cloud type, height, fraction, and opacity, as well as the local surface conditions. Their observations will be collected at the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and made available over the Internet for educational purposes as well as for use by the CERES Science Team in validation efforts. Pilot testing of the S'COOL project began in January 1997 with two local schools in Southeastern Virginia and one remote site in Montana. National testing in April 1997 involved 8 schools (grades 3 to high school) across the United States. Global testing will be carried out in October 1997. Details of the S'COOL project, which is mainly Internet-based, are being developed in each of these phases according to feedback received from participants. In 1998, when the CERES instrument is operational, a global observer network should be in place providing useful information to the scientists and learning opportunities to the students. Broad participation in the S'COOL project is planned, both to obtain data from a wide range of geographic areas, and to involve as many students as possible in learning about clouds and atmospheric science. This paper reports on the development phase of the S'COOL project, including the reaction of the teachers and students who have been involved. It describes the operational state of the S'COOL network, and identifies opportunities for additional participants.

Chambers, Lin H.; Young, David F.; Racel, Anne M.

1998-01-01

56

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01

57

Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems. Second quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme to significantly improve the performance of the two stage vapor compression cycle by eliminating the rectifier was first investigated with the help of computer simulation, and then incorporated in the experimental setup. Simulation results show that the cycle with a bleed line (modified cycle without the rectifier) has 20 to 30% higher cooling COP as compared to the cycle with the rectifier. It is important to note that this improvement in COP is accompanied by 10 to 15% increase in cooling load. Initial experimental results along with operating experience and description of the data acquisition program are presented here. Results show that hear can be pumped from an average temperature of 0{degrees}C to an average temperature of 100{degrees}C with a pressure ratio as low as 7.1. Cooling COPs up to 1.0 were obtained for cooling loads of about 4.17 kW.

Radermacher, R.

1991-10-01

58

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France)  

E-print Network

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Facultés, 33405 Talence cedex, France Abstract Arsenic-rich (~ 140­1520 mg.kg- 1 ) suspended particulate a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended

Boyer, Edmond

59

Calculation of the pressure rise in the cooling tube of a two-phase cooling system during a quench of an indirectly cooled superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large superconducting detector magnets are indirectly cooled with two-phase helium flowing in cooling tubes attached to the coil or its support structure. Large detector magnets often quench such that most of the magnet stored energy ends up as heat stored in the coil package. The time constant for energy deposition in the coil and support structure is often quite short. This paper presents a method for calculating the peak pressure rise in the magnet two-phase cooling tube during a magnet quench. A comparison of calculated peak pressure rise and measured pressure rise for the PEP-4 solenoid is presented in this report.

Green, M. A.

1994-07-01

60

Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter  

SciTech Connect

The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary.

Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

1993-12-31

61

Micro-thermal-fluid transient analysis and active control for two-phase microelectronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of increasing power densities, microchannel systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power electronic devices. Flow instability is a potential problem in any two-phase microchannel cooling system especially for transient applications. With various two-phase flow stabilities possible in a microscale boiling system, the overall cooling performance deteriorates significantly. For better dynamic thermal management of microelectronic systems,

TieJun Zhang; John T. Wen; Yoav Peles; Tao Tong; Je-Young Chang; Ravi Prasher; Michael K. Jensen

2010-01-01

62

Extremum seeking micro-thermal-fluid control for active two-phase microelectronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address increasing power densities in high power electronic devices, microchannel systems operating in the two-phase regime have been explored in recent years for high heat flux cooling applications. However, flow and thermal oscillations, frequently present in two-phase microchannel cooling, may severely compromise the cooling performance and system integrity. This paper considers the thermal-fluid control of a microchannel evaporator by

Tiejun Zhang; John T. Wen; Agung Julius; Yoav Peles; Michael K. Jensen

2010-01-01

63

Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics  

SciTech Connect

Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

2005-12-01

64

Study of Microsegregation and Laves Phase in INCONEL718 Superalloy Regarding Cooling Rate During Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling rate is an important and controllable variable in casting processing. The effect of cooling rate on the microsegregation and Laves phase in INCONEL718 superalloy castings was studied by high-temperature-laser confocal scanning microscopy and quantitative metallography in this study. The transformation rate of solid phase with a feature of Gaussian distribution in the solidifications at the cooling rates of 0.10 to 14 K/s is acquired. The solidification time and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of cooling rate are analyzed. The amount of Laves phase presents a maximum value at a threshold cooling rate of 3 K/s owing to the opposite effects of cooling rate on the solidification time and SDAS. A modified dimensionless microsegregation index criterion was used for the scaling of solute segregation and Laves phase depending on cooling rates. The prediction of maximal microsegregation and the amount of Laves phase by MSI and experiments provide a guide for cooling rate control in the casting applications.

Ling, Lishibao; Han, Yanfeng; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Haiyan; Shu, Da; Wang, Jun; Kang, Maodong; Sun, Baode

2015-01-01

65

Effect of Continuous Cooling on Secondary Phase Precipitation in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel ZERON-100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of secondary phases in super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a subject of great relevance owing to their dangerous effects on both mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. This paper examines the effect of continuous cooling after solution annealing treatment on secondary phase precipitation in the ZERON-100 SDSS. It considers the influence of cooling rate on volume fraction, morphology and chemical composition. It has been found that the formation of sigma and chi phases can be avoided only at cooling rates higher than 0.7 °C/s. In addition, at the lowest cooling rate the sigma phase amount approaches the equilibrium value, but the chi phase amount remains significantly low.

Calliari, Irene; Bassani, Paola; Brunelli, Katya; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio

2013-12-01

66

Cooling of Compact Stars with Quark-Hadron Mixed Phase in the Colour Superconductive State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A) has been observed, which indicates that the star has large mass and high effective temperature. We suspect that the compact object cools by the standard neutrino emission. We assume that the compact object contains quark matter with colour superconductivity and calculate cooling curves. Considering the Quark-Hadron Mixed Phase, we obtain cooling curves which are found to be consistent with the observations.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-Aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki

2010-08-01

67

A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages

Radu Donose; Michaël De Volder; Jan Peirs; Dominiek Reynaerts

2011-01-01

68

MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement  

SciTech Connect

MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

Hart, T. L. [University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

2010-03-30

69

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01

70

Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01

71

Asymmetric oscillations during phase separation under continuous cooling: A simple model.  

PubMed

We investigate the phase separation of binary mixtures under continuous cooling using the Cahn-Hilliard equation including the effect of gravity. In our simple model, sedimentation is accounted for by instantaneously "removing" droplets from the supersaturated mixture into the coexisting phase once the droplets have reached a defined maximum size. Our model predicts an oscillatory variation of turbidity. Depending on the composition, either both phases oscillate (symmetric oscillations) or only one of the phases oscillates (asymmetric oscillations). In the asymmetric case, droplet sedimentation from the majority phase into the minority phase reduces supersaturation in the minority phase. This inhibits droplet formation in the minority phase. The cooling rate dependence of the period agrees with experimental results. PMID:19045388

Hayase, Yumino; Kobayashi, Mika; Vollmer, Doris; Pleiner, Harald; Auernhammer, Günter K

2008-11-14

72

Planning for Quality Schools: Meeting the Needs of District Families. Phase One: Understanding Current School Supply and Student Enrollment Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…

Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping

2008-01-01

73

Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

Bieli?ski, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jaros?aw

2010-10-01

74

CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

2008-06-19

75

Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium conditions. However, the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation path due to non-equilibrium partitioning of alloying elements cannot be predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams. Also, it is unclear if there is retention of delta ferrite to room temperature due to compositional or thermal effects. This would dramatically affect the austenite to ferrite transformation due to carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the austenite.

Narayana, B [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University, The, Columbus

2010-12-01

76

Modeling phase transformations in ternary systems: Ferrite dissolution during continuous cooling  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion-controlled phase dissolution (or growth) in a ternary system of finite length has been modeled numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The analysis has been applied to study the ferrite to austenite transformation in austenitic stainless steel weldments. The iron-chromium-nickel ternary system was taken as representative of this class of materials. The effect of system geometry was evaluated by considering planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The numerical analysis was extended to the case of continuous cooling, for a range of cooling rates from 0.1 to 100 K/s. The results provide information on how quickly the system deviates from equilibrium during cooling, and what the final compositions and phase fractions are as a function of cooling rate. In most cases, the deviation from equilibrium, in terms of residual ferrite content and composition, increased as the cooling rate increased, as expected. However, under some conditions, it was found that the lowest cooling rates actually deviated further from equilibrium than intermediate cooling rates. This curious phenomenon was investigated in detail and was explained in terms of the indirect path toward final. Such indirect equilibration is often found during and typical of diffusion-controlled transformation behavior in multi-component systems.

Vitek, J.M.; Vitek, S.A.

1995-07-01

77

Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)

1994-03-25

78

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15

79

Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

2013-10-01

80

Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant  

E-print Network

module that automatically determines the on/off states of heat source equipment using cooling/heating loads, has been developed and validated using actual performance measurements. The mean error between the simulated and measured total energy consumption...

Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

81

Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module, for the thermoelectric cooling unit, for the PCM thermal storage unit, and for the outdoor air-water heat exchanger. When modeling PCM thermal storage unit, the enthalpy method has been adopted. Since natural convection has been observed in experiments playing a key effect on heat transfer in PCM, a staged effective thermal conductivity (ke) concept and modified Rayleigh (Ra) number formula have been developed to better capture natural convection's variable effects during the PCM charging process. Therefore, a modeling-based design procedure for thermoelectric cooling system integrating with PCM has been proposed. A case study has been completed for a model office room to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative evaluations to the major system components. Results of this research can be extended to other applications in relevant areas. For instance, the proposed PCM thermal storage unit can be applied to integration with water-cooled conventional air-conditioning devices. Instead of using water cooling, a case study of using the proposed PCM unit for a water-cooled air-conditioner shows a COP increase of more than 25.6%.

Zhao, Dongliang

82

SIMULATIONS OF MULTI-PHASE PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON A SHOWERHEAD WITH STAGGERED FILM-COOLING HOLES  

E-print Network

SIMULATIONS OF MULTI-PHASE PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON A SHOWERHEAD WITH STAGGERED FILM-COOLING HOLES and Nuclear Engineering University Park, PA, USA Yoji Okita and Chiyuki Nakamata IHI Corporation Aero, coolant blowing ratio, and particle temperature were tested. Infrared thermography was used to quantify

Thole, Karen A.

83

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

84

Phase transformations during continuous heating and cooling in a Ti-Al-Ru alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase transformations in a Ti-Al-Ru alloy were studied by performing hightemperature X-ray diffractions using synchrotron radiation. A Ti-32.4 at% Al-4.1 at% Ru alloy was used; it undergoes various phase transformations. Specimens were prepared by arc-melting. The alloy was beta-homogenized at 1300 °C and ice-water quenched. Powdered specimens with particle size ?45 mm were prepared, and packed in a quartz capillary. The X-ray measurements were performed during the step-wise heating and cooling between room temperature and 1220 °C. A single beta phase with relatively small amounts of alpha 2, G and alpha phases were initially present in the sample. Decomposition of the as-quenched beta phase to the equilibrium phases was investigated as well as the phase relationships among the major phases (beta, alpha 2 and G). At an average heating rate of 5.3 °C/min, most of the beta phase decomposed to form the alpha2 and G phases, possibly through eutectoid reaction taking place between 687 °C-709 °C. The gamma phase formed at approximately 917 °C. A reverse eutectoid reaction for the formation of beta phase was observed between 1018 °C and 1220 °C, but was incomplete due to two possible reasons: suspected low diffusion rates in the alpha2 and G phases, and the presence of a relatively large amount of dissolved oxygen, which increases the stability of the alpha 2 phase. beta-ordering could not be detected due to the overlap of the beta' (001) reflection, the most intense superlattice reflection for the beta' phase, and the Ti5Si3 (020) diffraction peaks. During cooling from 1220 °C to room temperature at an average heating rate of 4.8 °C/min, the beta phase partially decomposed to alpha 2 and G phases, but no significant amount of transformation was observed. The (Ti,Al)Ru phase was observed on the X-ray patterns recorded at 1068 °C through 36 °C. The overall reaction rates of the as-quenched Ti-32.4 at% Al-4.1 at% Ru alloy were sluggish. Mathematical expressions for the relationships between lattice parameters and alloy compositions were proposed for the G, beta, and alpha2 phases. It was suspected that the presence of Ru affects the stability of the beta phase. A slight change in Ru content was also detected in the alpha2 and G phases during the phase reactions. Simulated step-wise heating and cooling microstructure contained plate-like alpha 2 phase and the G-phase matrix as the product of the beta decomposition between 683 °C and 709 °C. Small alpha2 particles were observed nearby the interface between the plate-like alpha2 phase and the G phase matrix as a result of the beta decomposition during cooling from 1220 °C. Fundamental information for the processing of an alloy similar to this Ti-Al-Ru alloy is proposed: a deformation processing of single beta phase alloys should be done below 680 °C, and any thermal processing above 680 °C should be avoided due to the presence of the brittle G phase.

Rajsiri, Supphachan

85

Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

2013-12-01

86

Free Cooling Phase-Diagram of Hard-Spheres with Short- and Long-Range Interactions  

E-print Network

We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range shoulders or wells) potentials (in both 2D and 3D). Astonishingly good agreement is found with a mean field theory, where only the energy dissipation term is modified to account for both repulsive or attractive non-contact interactions. Attractive potentials enhance cooling and structure formation (clustering), whereas repulsive potentials reduce it, as intuition suggests. The system evolution is controlled by a single parameter: the non-contact potential strength scaled by the fluctuation kinetic energy (granular temperature). When this is small, as expected, the classical homogeneous cooling state is found. However, if the effective dissipation is strong enough, structure formation proceeds, before (in the repulsive case) non-contact forces get strong enough to undo the clustering (due to the ongoing dissipation of granular temperature). For both repulsive and attractive potentials, in the homogeneous regime, the cooling shows a universal behaviour when the (inverse) control parameter is used as evolution variable instead of time. The transition to a non-homogeneous regime, as predicted by stability analysis, is affected by both dissipation and potential strength. This can be cast into a phase diagram where the system changes with time, which leaves open many challenges for future research.

S. Gonzalez; A. R. Thornton; S. Luding

2014-07-09

87

A new optimization strategy for gaseous phase sampling by an internally cooled solid-phase microextraction technique.  

PubMed

This study describes a new optimization strategy for internally cooled solid-phase microextraction based on a multivariate approach. The coating temperature was changed in an extraction while manipulating the extraction times to improve the extraction of compounds with different volatilities. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PEs) and adipate were used as model compounds in this study. The optimization strategy was in two steps: (1) multivariate optimization of extraction time and initial coating temperature and (2) multivariate optimization of total extraction time and the time required to cool the coating to a lower temperature as determined in step 1. The observed analytical response in relation to the coating temperature was found to be dependent on the analyte volatility and size. The optimized extraction condition for PEs was 23 min extraction while maintaining the coating at 140°C, followed by 7 min of cooling the coating at 10°C. For the PAHs the coating temperature was maintained at 60°C for the first 20 min and at 5°C in the last 20 min of extraction. Comparisons have been made between the proposed optimized conditions with the conventional internally cooled fiber approach and the results thoroughly discussed. The proposed optimization strategy was found to be more effective for all the analytes, especially for the semi-volatiles, compared to the conventional method. PMID:21146826

Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

2011-01-21

88

Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode Gold District, Tuolumne County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain ?20–1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the

Kaye S Savage; Tracy N Tingle; Peggy A O’Day; Glenn A Waychunas; Dennis K Bird

2000-01-01

89

The evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in 2HDM during cooling of Universe  

E-print Network

We consider the evolution of the ground state in the Two Higgs Doublet Model during cooling down of the Universe after the Big Bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

I. F. Ginzburg; I. P. Ivanov; K. A. Kanishev

2009-12-11

90

Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an accurate experimental investigation of the Mpemba effect (that is, of the fact that initially hot water freezes before the colder one) is carried out, showing that, in the adiabatic cooling of water, relevant roles are played by supercooling, and by phase transitions which take place at 6±1 ?C,3.5±0.5 ?C and 1.3±0.6 ?C. The last transition, which occurs with the

S. Esposito; R. De Risi; L. Somma

2008-01-01

91

Phase-noise induced limitations on cooling and coherent evolution in optomechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed theoretical discussion of the effects of ubiquitous laser noise on cooling and the coherent dynamics in optomechanical systems. Phase fluctuations of the driving laser induce modulations of the linearized optomechanical coupling as well as a fluctuating force on the mirror due to variations of the mean cavity intensity. We first evaluate the influence of both effects on cavity cooling and find that for a small laser linewidth, the dominant heating mechanism arises from intensity fluctuations. The resulting limit on the final occupation number scales linearly with the cavity intensity both under weak- and strong-coupling conditions. For the strong-coupling regime, we also determine the effect of phase noise on the coherent transfer of single excitations between the cavity and the mechanical resonator and obtain a similar conclusion. Our results show that conditions for optical ground-state cooling and coherent operations are experimentally feasible and thus laser phase noise does pose a challenge but not a stringent limitation for optomechanical systems.

Rabl, P.; Genes, C.; Hammerer, K.; Aspelmeyer, M.

2009-12-01

92

Decay-phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic modelling is a well established and important field in understanding the evolution of solar flares. However, in order to be of greatest use the results of such models must be compared to statistically significant samples of flare observations. In this talk we observationally investigate the hydrodynamic decay phase evolution of 72 M- and X-class flares using GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE and Hinode/XRT and quantify their cooling rates. The results are then compared to the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES/XRS. This suggests that the energy released during the decay phase may be as significant as that released during the rise phase.

Ryan, Daniel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Gallagher, Peter T

2014-06-01

93

The application of two-phase push-pull cooling module in pin-fin array electronic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-phase push-pull cooling module has been developed for cooling a pin-fin array electronic device. The measured results indicate that when the pin-fin array density is increased the performance of the push-pull module is better than that of traditional forced convection. It was also found that in forced convection cooling the temperature in the downstream region is much higher than

Chao Yu-Lin; Chao Fang-Lin

1992-01-01

94

A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages of zero power consumption and small size in combination with a high flow rate and low manufacturing costs. The valve actuation is provided by the thermal expansion of a liquid (actuation fluid) which, at the same time, actuates the valve and provides feed-back sensing. A maximum flow rate of 38 kg h-1 passes through the valve for a heat load up to 500 W. The valve is able to reduce the pumping power by up to 60% and it has the capability to maintain the IC at a more uniform temperature.

Donose, Radu; De Volder, Michaël; Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek

2011-10-01

95

Influence of Strain History and Cooling Rate on the Austenite Decomposition Behavior and Phase Transformation Products in a Microalloyed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of simple strain path changes as well as post-deformation continuous cooling rate during thermomechanical-controlled processing of microalloyed steel was studied using laboratory physical simulation. The phase transformation characteristics were directly analyzed by dilatometry under various cooling rates. The microstructures of the transformation products were characterized quantitatively using EBSD. The results have shown that while strain path changes impose a considerable influence on the hot flow behavior of the austenite, the cooling rate following hot deformation is the determining factor of the phase transformation mechanism and behavior which establishes the final transformation products and subsequent mechanical properties.

Sun, L.; Muszka, K.; Wynne, B. P.; Palmiere, E. J.

2014-07-01

96

Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

1988-01-01

97

The impact of a phase-change cooling vest on heat strain and the effect of different cooling pack melting temperatures.  

PubMed

Cooling vests (CV) are often used to reduce heat strain. CVs have traditionally used ice as the coolant, although other phase-change materials (PCM) that melt at warmer temperatures have been used in an attempt to enhance cooling by avoiding vasoconstriction, which supposedly occurs when ice CVs are used. This study assessed the effectiveness of four CVs that melted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 °C (CV?, CV??, CV??, and CV??) when worn by 10 male volunteers exercising and then recovering in 40 °C air whilst wearing fire-fighting clothing. When compared with a non-cooling control condition (CON), only the CV? and CV?? vests provided cooling during exercise (40 and 29 W, respectively), whereas all CVs provided cooling during resting recovery (CV? 69 W, CV?? 66 W, CV?? 55 W and CV?? 29 W) (P < 0.05). In all conditions, skin blood flow increased when exercising and reduced during recovery, but was lower in the CV? and CV?? conditions compared with control during exercise (observed power 0.709) (P < 0.05), but not during resting recovery (observed power only 0.55). The participants preferred the CV?? to the CV?, which caused temporary erythema to underlying skin, although this resolved overnight after each occurrence. Consequently, a cooling vest melting at 10 °C would seem to be the most appropriate choice for cooling during combined work and rest periods, although possibly an ice-vest (CV?) may also be appropriate if more insulation was worn between the cooling packs and the skin than used in this study. PMID:23160652

House, James R; Lunt, Heather C; Taylor, Rowan; Milligan, Gemma; Lyons, Jason A; House, Carol M

2013-05-01

98

Numerical Study of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer Using One Phase Liquid Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study in 3-D is performed using water as a cooling fluid to investigate the one phase natural convection heat transfer within enclosure. A heat source representing a computer CPU mounted on one vertical wall of a rectangular enclosure is simulated while a heat sink is installed on the opposite vertical wall of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer compartment is created by using an exhaust fan, and the flow is assumed to be turbulent. The applied power considered ranges from 15 - 40 W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the dimension of the enclosure are investigated. The results illustrate that as the size of the enclosure increase the chip temperature declined. However the drop in the temperature is very small when the width increased more than 50 mm. When the enclosure was filled with water the temperature was reduced by 38%. Also the cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 71.5 °C when the heat input of 40 W was assumed and this is within the current recommended computer electronic chips temperature of no more than 85°C.

Gdhaidh, F. A.; Hussain, K.; Qi, H. S.

2014-07-01

99

Prediction of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams for Dual-Phase Steels from the Intercritical Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present work is the implementation and validation of a model able to predict the microstructure changes and the mechanical properties in the modern high-strength dual-phase steels after the continuous annealing process line (CAPL) and galvanizing (Galv) process. Experimental continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for 13 differently alloying dual-phase steels were measured by dilatometry from the intercritical range and were used to tune the parameters of the microstructural prediction module of the model. Mechanical properties and microstructural features were measured for more than 400 dual-phase steels simulating the CAPL and Galv industrial process, and the results were used to construct the mechanical model that predicts mechanical properties from microstructural features, chemistry, and process parameters. The model was validated and proved its efficiency in reproducing the transformation kinetic and mechanical properties of dual-phase steels produced by typical industrial process. Although it is limited to the dual-phase grades and chemical compositions explored, this model will constitute a useful tool for the steel industry.

Colla, V.; Desanctis, M.; Dimatteo, A.; Lovicu, G.; Valentini, R.

2011-09-01

100

Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing  

E-print Network

An accurate experimental investigation on the Mpemba effect (that is, the freezing of initially hot water before cold one) is carried out, showing that in the adiabatic cooling of water a relevant role is played by supercooling as well as by phase transitions taking place at 6 +/- 1 oC, 3.5 +/- 0.5 oC and 1.3 +/- 0.6 oC, respectively. The last transition, occurring with a non negligible probability of 0.21, has not been detected earlier. Supported by the experimental results achieved, a thorough theoretical analysis of supercooling and such phase transitions, which are interpreted in terms of different ordering of clusters of molecules in water, is given.

S. Esposito; R. De Risi; L. Somma

2007-04-11

101

Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing  

E-print Network

An accurate experimental investigation on the Mpemba effect (that is, the freezing of initially hot water before cold one) is carried out, showing that in the adiabatic cooling of water a relevant role is played by supercooling as well as by phase transitions taking place at 6 +/- 1 oC, 3.5 +/- 0.5 oC and 1.3 +/- 0.6 oC, respectively. The last transition, occurring with a non negligible probability of 0.21, has not been detected earlier. Supported by the experimental results achieved, a thorough theoretical analysis of supercooling and such phase transitions, which are interpreted in terms of different ordering of clusters of molecules in water, is given.

Esposito, S; Somma, L

2007-01-01

102

Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an accurate experimental investigation of the Mpemba effect (that is, of the fact that initially hot water freezes before the colder one) is carried out, showing that, in the adiabatic cooling of water, relevant roles are played by supercooling, and by phase transitions which take place at 6±1 ?C,3.5±0.5 ?C and 1.3±0.6 ?C. The last transition, which occurs with the non-negligible probability of 0.21 with respect to the total number of runs performed, has not been detected earlier. On the basis of our experimental results, we can present a thorough theoretical analysis of supercooling and of such phase transitions, which are interpreted in terms of the different ordering of molecule clusters in water.

Esposito, S.; De Risi, R.; Somma, L.

2008-02-01

103

The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

1981-01-01

104

A Study of Discrepant Reading Achievement of Minority and White Students in a Desegregating School District: Phase One, Two and Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated disparities in reading performance among minority and white students in an urban school district undergoing desegregation in 1980-81. Phase one compared minority and white students on reading comprehension test performance. It was found that white students performed significantly higher on the test than minority students,…

Zafirau, James; Fleming, Margaret

105

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Phase Separation Affected by Cooling Rates and Marangoni Convection in Cu-Cr Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the microstructures upon rapid solidification from the melt which occurs in Cu-Cr electrical contacts after switching operations. As the local cooling rates are difficult to be determined experimentally, we numerically compute the mean radius of Cr-particles from phase separation as a function of the cooling rate by utilizing a convective Cahn-Hilliard model. Based on the computationally derived correlation and on the metallographically observed microstructure, we are able to extract back the local cooling rates during heat treatment. We further examine the effect of Marangoni convection on the phase separation structure in a particularly composed simulation study. We obtain the cooling rate for a given particle size affected by the solutal Marangoni convection.

Wang, Fei; von Klinski-Wetzel, Katharina; Mukherjee, Rajdip; Nestler, Britta; Heilmaier, Martin

2015-04-01

106

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Phase Separation Affected by Cooling Rates and Marangoni Convection in Cu-Cr Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study the microstructures upon rapid solidification from the melt which occurs in Cu-Cr electrical contacts after switching operations. As the local cooling rates are difficult to be determined experimentally, we numerically compute the mean radius of Cr-particles from phase separation as a function of the cooling rate by utilizing a convective Cahn-Hilliard model. Based on the computationally derived correlation and on the metallographically observed microstructure, we are able to extract back the local cooling rates during heat treatment. We further examine the effect of Marangoni convection on the phase separation structure in a particularly composed simulation study. We obtain the cooling rate for a given particle size affected by the solutal Marangoni convection.

Wang, Fei; von Klinski-Wetzel, Katharina; Mukherjee, Rajdip; Nestler, Britta; Heilmaier, Martin

2015-01-01

107

Phase noise measurement of external cavity diode lasers and implications for optomechanical sideband cooling of GHz mechanical modes  

E-print Network

Cavity opto-mechanical cooling via radiation pressure dynamical backaction enables ground state cooling of mechanical oscillators, provided the laser exhibits sufficiently low phase noise. Here, we investigate and measure the excess phase noise of widely tunable external cavity diode lasers, which have been used in a range of recent nano-optomechanical experiments, including ground-state cooling. We report significant excess frequency noise, with peak values on the order of 10^7 rad^2 Hz near 3.5 GHz, attributed to the diode lasers' relaxation oscillations. The measurements reveal that even at GHz frequencies diode lasers do not exhibit quantum limited performance. The associated excess backaction can preclude ground-state cooling even in state-of-the-art nano-optomechanical systems.

Tobias J. Kippenberg; Albert Schliesser; Michael Gorodetsky

2011-12-29

108

Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density  

PubMed

We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity. PMID:11015933

Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

2000-01-17

109

The influence of different cooling processes on phase, microstructure, and magnetocaloric properties of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds are annealed at 1503 K for 5 h and cooled down to room temperature by furnace cooling, air cooling, and quenching in ice water, respectively. The main phase is 1:13 phase in those compounds. The impurity phase is ?-Fe, and the amount of LaFeSi phase is so small that it is hard to be observed in their XRD patterns. 1:13 phase has a precipitation reaction at 1308 K during cooling process and produces LaFeSi phase. But the cooling rate in the high temperature range is very high and the time kept at about 1308 K is very short, also the amount of LaFeSi phase reformed during cooling process is very small. It results in there being almost no difference in XRD patterns and SEM micrographs of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds annealed at 1503 K (5 h) and followed by furnace cooling, air cooling, and quenching in ice water to room temperature respectively. For studying the influence of different cooling processes on magnetic property, the TC, thermal and magnetic hysteresis, magnetocaloric effect, and relative cooling power of those compounds are investigated. The result shows that the maximum ?SM (T, H) and RCP of LaFe11.6Si1.4 prepared by furnace cooling is not smaller than the other two alloys under the field of 0-2 T.

Chen, Xiang; Chen, Yungui; Tang, Yongbo

2014-05-01

110

Confinement Induced Quantum Phase Transition and Polarization Cooling in a Dipolar Crystal of Polar Molecules  

E-print Network

It is well-known that the liquid properties in a strongly confined system can be very different from their ordinary behaviors in an extended system, due to the competition between the thermal energy and the interaction energy. Here we show that, in a low-dimensional self-assembled dipolar crystal, the parabolic optical confinement potential can also strongly affect the quantum many-body properties in the low temperature regime. For example, by changing the confinement aspect ratio, the bulk of the system can undergo a quantum phase transition between a liquid state and a solid state via a nonmonotonic pattern formation of the domain wall. Furthermore, the entropy of a trapped dipolar crystal can be much larger than the liquid state in the weak dipole limit, indicating an intrinsic polarization cooling mechanism via increasing the external field. These highly correlated confinement effects are very important to the experimental preparation of a self-assembled dipolar crystal using ultracold polar molecules.

Yi-Ya Tian; Daw-Wei Wang

2008-09-16

111

A multiscale thermo-fluid computational model for a two-phase cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe a mathematical model and a numerical simulation method for the condenser component of a novel two-phase thermosyphon cooling system for power electronics applications. The condenser consists of a set of roll-bonded vertically mounted fins among which air flows by either natural or forced convection. In order to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms that determine the performance of the condenser and to facilitate the further optimization of its industrial design, a multiscale approach is developed to reduce as much as possible the complexity of the simulation code while maintaining reasonable predictive accuracy. To this end, heat diffusion in the fins and its convective transport in air are modeled as 2D processes while the flow of the two-phase coolant within the fins is modeled as a 1D network of pipes. For the numerical solution of the resulting equations, a Dual Mixed-Finite Volume scheme with Exponential Fitting stabilization is used for 2D heat diffusion and convection while a Primal Mixed Finite Element discretization method with upwind stabilization is used for the 1D coolant flow. The mathematical model and the numerical method are validated through extensive simulations of realistic device structures which prove to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data.

Sacco, Riccardo; Carichino, Lucia; de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; Agostini, Francesco; Gradinger, Thomas

2014-12-01

112

Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern’s features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die’s properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

2006-04-01

113

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01

114

Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III outboard pump limiter in Tore Supra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled mid-plane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmicly heated shots of up to 10 s duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the

R. Nygren; J. Koski; T. Lutz; McGrath; J. Miller; J. Watkins; D. Guilhem; P. Chappuis; J. Cordier; T. Loarer

1995-01-01

115

Thermo-mechanical-metallurgical model to predict geometrical distortions of rings during cooling phase after ring rolling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a validated numerical model able to predict geometrical distortions of rings during cooling phase after hot ring rolling operations. The model is capable to take into account the effects of all the phenomena resulting from the coupling of thermal, mechanical and metallurgical events. As simulation results strongly depend on the accuracy of input data, physical simulation experiments

Silvia Casotto; Frédéric Pascon; Anne Marie Habraken; Stefania Bruschi

2005-01-01

116

High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenyl radical (C_6H_5) is one of the most important reactive intermediates, as it is formed from the homolytic cleavage of a CH bond in benzene (C_6H_6), and hence it plays a central role in the combustion of fossil fuels that are typically rich in aromatics. We recently recorded the first high resolution infrared spectra of jet-cooled phenyl radical in the gas phase. This was obtained by direct absorption laser spectroscopy in a slit-jet discharge supersonic expansion of a phenyl halide precursor (C_6H_5X, i.e. C_6H_5I and C_6H_5Br) diluted in a Neon/Helium gas mixture. We observed an A-type band, which arises from a fundamental excitation of the out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch (?_{19}). The unambiguous assignment of the rotational structure in this band to C_6H_5 is facilitated by comparing 2-line combination differences with the Fourier transform microwave (FTM) and direct absorption millimeter-wave (mm-wave) measurements of the ground state by McMahon et al. A least-squares fit to an asymmetric top Hamiltonian of the rotationally-resolved vibrational band is done to determine upper-state rotational constants and a gas-phase band origin (?_0) of 3071.8904 (10) cm^{-1}. This is in very good agreement with the value of 3071 cm^{-1} for the out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch of phenyl reported by Friderichsen et al. from matrix isolation studies, which indicates a surprisingly small red shift due to the low-temperature argon environment. R. J. McMahon, M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, J. B. Dudek, J. F. Stanton and P. Thaddeus, Ap. J. 590, L61 (2003). A. V. Friderichsen, J. G. Radziszewski, M. R. Nimlos, P. R. Winter, D. C. Dayton, D. E. David and G. B. Ellison, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001).

Sharp-Williams, Erin N.; Roberts, Melanie A.; Nesbitt, David J.

2009-06-01

117

Demonstration of Super Cooled Ice as a Phase Change Material Heat Sink for Portable Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a nontoxic, nonflammable PCM is being developed. The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented along with recommendations for further development of this technology.

Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Bue, Grant C.

2009-01-01

118

The study of a reactor cooling pump under two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the steady pressure field has been investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a nuclear reactor cooling pump. As a multiphase approach the Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid model has been applied to calculated five computational models with different kinds of blades. The analysis of inner flow field of the five model pumps shows that the pressure in the impeller increases with the increase of the gas contents and the pressure distributions are irregular at the inlet of different blades when the gas contents less than 20%. With the increase of the number of blades, the vortexes at the outlet of impeller decrease whereas the vortexes in the deep of the volute markedly increases and high velocity of the fluid huddle is generated gradually at the outlet pipes. Under the action of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, gas phase mainly concentrated at the lower velocity and lower pressure area. The radial force on the impeller gradually increases with the increase of the gas contents.

Wang, P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, F.

2015-01-01

119

Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15/sup 0/F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80/sup 0/F with an outside ambient peak of 93/sup 0/F. Air flow rates within the envelope were less than 1 ft/sec even when the attic fan was operating. The earth cooling tubes provided noticeable sensible cooling to the house. Exit temperatures from the cooling tubes were between 72 to 76/sup 0/F, depending upon the air velocity through the tubes. The thermal chimney performed poorly as an air mover, especially when used to induce flow through the earth cooling tubes. The performance of the earth cooling tube could be improved by using the attic fan to increase the air flow through the cooling tubes and to insure it flowed in the cooling tube, through the envelope and out the thermal chimney. Being an exhaust fan, the attic fan created a negative pressure in the house. While this increased air flow through the cooling tubes, it also increased air infiltration through the building shell, thus increasing load. The humidity level within the living space remains relatively high year-round due to low rates of air infiltration and water vapor transmission through the building skin. The problem is aggravated during the summer by the introduction of cool moist air from the cooling tubes to the envelope and frequently to the inner space. While the cooling tubes are able to reduce the sensible load, and they are incapable of significantly reducing humidity or latent loads. This results in relatively comfortable air temperatures but uncomfortable humidities within the living space.

Akridge, J. M.; Benton, C. C.

1981-01-01

120

SIMULATIONS OF MULTI-PHASE PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON ENDWALL FILM-COOLING HOLES IN TRANSVERSE TRENCHES  

E-print Network

-cooling, are required to prevent turbine component failure due to thermal fatigue. An added element to the already in a transverse trench. NOMENCLATURE a speed of sound A surface area C chord length Cp particle specific heat hfus specific latent heat of fusion D film cooling hole diameter, D=0.46cm dp particle diameter h trench depth I

Thole, Karen A.

121

System definition study: Phase 1 of individual load center, solar heating and cooling residential project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine preferred systems for residential solar and load management heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems in the Northeast and Southwest regions of the United States. A methodology relating the performance of solar and load management heating and cooling systems to utility power generation, costs of supply and weather characteristics was developed. Preferred systems

J. C. Burke; R. L. Merriam; J. L. Swanson

1977-01-01

122

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

123

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

124

Evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

We consider the evolution of the ground state in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling down of the Universe after the big bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); IFPA, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

2010-04-15

125

Sildenafil increases digital skin blood flow during all phases of local cooling in primary Raynaud's phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Digital skin vasoconstriction on local cooling is exaggerated in primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) compared to controls. A significant part of such vasoconstriction relies on the nitric oxide (NO) pathway inhibition. We tested the effect of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil, which potentiates the effect of NO, on skin blood flow. We recruited 15 patients with primary RP, performing local cooling without sildenafil (day 1), after a single 50 mg oral dose (day 2), and 100 mg (day 3). Skin blood flow, skin temperature and arterial pressure were recorded, and data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Sildenafil at 100 mg, but not 50 mg, significantly lessened the cooling-induced decrease in CVC. It also increased resting CVC and skin temperature. These data suggest that 100 mg sildenafil improves digital skin blood flow to local cooling in primary RP. The benefit of sildenafil “as required” should be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:22453196

Roustit, Matthieu; Hellmann, Marcin; Cracowski, Claire; Blaise, Sophie; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

2012-01-01

126

Flow boiling and two-phase flow instabilities in silicon microchannel heat sinks for microsystems cooling   

E-print Network

Flow boiling in microchannels, while very promising as a cooling technology in electronics thermal management, is still a subject being explored that requires further investigation. Before applying this technology for ...

Bogojevi?, Dario

2010-01-01

127

Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow data from 35 stations in and near Alaska were analyzed for changes between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Winter, spring, and summer flow changes and maximum annual flow changes were different for glaciated basins (more than 10% glacier-covered area) than for nonglaciated basins, showing the influence of glaciers on historical streamflowchanges. Mean February flows, for example, increased for the median of available stations by 45% for glaciated basins and by 17% for nonglaciated ones.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.

2009-01-01

128

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: Coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume 1: Beluga coal district analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are

G. Rutledge; G. Edblom

1980-01-01

129

Three phases of cooling and unroofing in the Appalachian Basin, Pennsylvania: Implications for flexural control  

SciTech Connect

Apatite fission-track ages of 111--184 Ma and mean lengths of 10.7--13.1 [mu]m with unimodal, negatively skewed length distributions indicate slow cooling of Ordovician through Permian rocks in an area extending from the Anthracite Basin to the western Appalachian Plateau. Cooling histories modeled from fission-track data show that cooling began immediately following the Alleghanian Orogeny at 250--240 Ma. Ordovician rocks in the Juniata Culmination began to cool slightly earlier at 265 Ma, probably reflecting synorogenic unroofing of this area during formation of the Valley and Ridge duplex. Unroofing histories were modeled from cooling histories using the one-dimensional heat flow equation. Cooling and unroofing histories can be divided into three periods. The initial period of relatively rapid cooling and unroofing extended from the end of the Alleghanian Orogeny into the Jurassic and represents post-orogenic unroofing due to flexural rebound as orogenic load was removed through erosion. Initial unroofing rates are higher in eater Pennsylvania than in the west, consistent with a flexural model. A period of little to no unroofing from the Jurassic into the Miocene began contemporaneously with the inception of drift at the Atlantic continental margin. As the new continental margin subsided, the remaining load dropped below sea level and was no longer subject to removal, resulting in the cessation of flexural rebound and suppression of unroofing in the foreland. The most rapid unroofing occurred from the Miocene to the present. The nature of this event is unknown; however, it is also observed in increased sedimentation rates in the middle Atlantic offshore basins.

Blackmer, G.C.; Gold, D.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Omar, G.I. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Geology Dept.)

1992-01-01

130

Bladder cooling in patients treated with regional hyperthermia of the pelvis using an annular phased array.  

PubMed

Regional hyperthermia for the treatment of deep seated tumors is often limited by excessive heating of normal tissues, usually with associated patient pain and/or discomfort. The use of bladder cooling via perfusion of distilled water through a modified tri-lumen irrigation catheter as an aid to circumventing this problem in one anatomical region is described. This relatively simple technique provided rapid pain relief and permitted completion of the hyperthermia treatment in a satisfactory manner. Modifications of this technique may permit selective heating and/or cooling of the bladder during regional hyperthermia treatments in the pelvis. PMID:3384729

Kapp, D S; Prionas, S D; Fessenden, P; Liu, F F; Lee, E R; Lohrbach, A W

1988-06-01

131

Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

None

1980-01-01

132

Local analysis of three-dimensional air cooled condenser using a two-phase flow diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development and application of an analytical method for the performance prediction of air cooled condensers. A local analysis is employed in which the condenser is considered as a matrix of small basic heat transfer modules. For each element, local film coefficients for both the air and the condensing fluid are determined according to the

J. A. R. Parise; Cartwright

1983-01-01

133

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

1980-01-01

134

Multi-phase-field modeling of diffusive solid phase transition in carbon steel during continuous cooling transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth kinetics and final morphology of ferrite (?) grains are characterized by interfacial energy and boundary mobility, which strongly correlate to constituent phase, misorientation angle and the specific orientation relationship at the ?/? interface, such as the Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientation relationship. In a previous phase-field simulation of the ? grain growth, interfacial energy and mobility is assumed to be constant. Therefore, the simulated morphology of ? grains is equiaxed. In this study, the multi-phase-field (MPF) simulation of ? grain growth during ??? transformation is performed to study the effects of phase- and misorientation-dependent interfacial energy and boundary mobility on the growth kinetics of ? grains. The phase and misorientation dependence of interfacial energy is simply described by the Read-Shockley equation. Our results indicate that the phase- and misorientation-dependent interfacial energy induces ? grain growth along the ? grain boundary so as to reduce the total interfacial energy of the system. Furthermore, by considering both the phase- and misorientation-dependent interfacial energy and boundary mobility, the plausible growth kinetics of ? grains can be reproduced and the morphology of ? grains can be quite similar to the ? grain morphology determined by the KS orientation relationship.

Yamanaka, A.; Takaki, T.; Tomita, Y.

2008-04-01

135

Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem - Phase I. [astronaut liquid cooling garment design and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and test at one-g of a functional laboratory model (non-flight) Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick connect/disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

136

Ice pack heat sink subsystem, phase 2. [astronaut life support cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes the design, development, fabrication, and test at one gravity of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions; the investigation of thermal storage material with the objective of uncovering materials with heats of fusion and/or solution in the range of 300 Btu/lb (700 kilojoules/kilogram); and the planned procedure for implementing an ice pack heat sink subsystem flight experiment. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Kellner, J. D.

1975-01-01

137

Analysis of the solar powered\\/fuel assisted Rankine cycle cooling system. Phase 1: Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this analysis is a solar cooling system which consists of a conventional open-compressor chiller, driven by a novel hybrid steam Rankine cycle. Steam is generated by the use of solar energy collected at about 100C, and it is then superheated to about 600C in a fossil-fuel fired superheater. The steam drives a novel counter-rotating turbine, some of

N. Lior; K. Koai; H. Yeh

1985-01-01

138

Analysis of the solar powered/fuel assisted Rankine cycle cooling system. Phase 1: Revision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this analysis is a solar cooling system which consists of a conventional open-compressor chiller, driven by a novel hybrid steam Rankine cycle. Steam is generated by the use of solar energy collected at about 100C, and it is then superheated to about 600C in a fossil-fuel fired superheater. The steam drives a novel counter-rotating turbine, some of the heat from it is regenerated, and it is then condensed. Thermal storage is implemented as an integral part of the cycle, by means of hot-water which is flashed to steam when needed for driving the turbine. For the solar energy input, both evacuated and double-glazed flat-plate collectors were considered. A comprehensive computer program was developed to analyze the operation and performance of the entire power/cooling system. Each component was described by a separate subroutine to compute its performance from basic principles, and special attention was given to the parasitic losses, including pumps, fans and pressure drops in the piping and heat exchangers, and to describe the off-design performance of the components. The thermophysical properties of the fluids used are also described in separate subroutines. Transient simulation of the entire system was performed on an hourly basis over a cooling season in two representative climatic regions (Washington, DC, and Phoenix, AZ) for a number of system configurations.

Lior, N.; Koai, K.; Yeh, H.

1985-04-01

139

Fast and sensitive method to determine chloroanisoles in cork using an internally cooled solid-phase microextraction fiber.  

PubMed

A new generation of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, an internally cooled fiber (cold fiber with polydimethylsiloxane loading) that allows heating the sample matrix and simultaneously cooling the fiber coating, was used to determine 2,4-dichloroanisole, 2,6-dichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and pentachloroanisole in cork. A comparison between the cold fiber and regular SPME fiber was performed. An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using commercial fibers and an internally cooled SPME fiber (CF-HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was used. The extraction conditions for both CF-HS-SPME and HS-SPME were optimized using full factorial design and Doehlert matrix. The best extraction conditions for CF-HS-SPME were obtained using 10 min of incubation time, 10 min of extraction time, and sample and fiber temperature of 130 and 10 degrees C, respectively. For HS-SPME, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used with 10 min of incubation time, 75 min of extraction time, 85 degrees C of sample temperature, 8 ml of water was added and agitated at 500 rpm. The quantification limits for the target compounds using CF-HS-SPME procedure were between 0.8 and 1.6 ng g(-1) of cork, while for HS-SPME were between 4 and 6 ng g(-1) of cork. Furthermore, the CF-HS-SPME procedure could be used as a non-destructive method after minor modification of the agitator for the autosampler. PMID:17134712

Carasek, Eduardo; Cudjoe, Erasmus; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2007-01-01

140

Screening of tropical fruit volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and internally cooled SPME fiber.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimization and comparison of an internally cooled fiber [cold fiber with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loading] and several commercial solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for the extraction of volatile compounds from tropical fruits were performed. Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using commercial fibers and an internally cooled SPME fiber device coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compounds of five tropical fruits. Pulps of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.), acerola (Malphigia glabra L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.) were sampled. The extraction conditions were optimized using two experimental designs (full factorial design and Doehlert matrix) to analyze the main and secondary effects. The volatile compounds tentatively identified included alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and terpernes. It was found that the cold fiber was the most appropriate fiber for the purpose of extracting volatile compounds from the five fruit pulps studied. PMID:17090108

Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2006-11-15

141

Innovation District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

142

Numerical study of a low permeability microporous heat sink for cooling phased-array radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microporous media is being used to develop an improved forced convection cold plate device for removing waste heat from high frequency phased-array radar apertures. The waste heat, generated by transmit and receive microwave functions mounted in separate electronic modules, is conducted to the surfaces of a thin rectangular enclosure (cold plate) through which coolant flows. The performance of the phased-array

R. M. Weber

1996-01-01

143

Membrane phase behavior during cooling of stallion sperm and its correlation with freezability.  

PubMed

Stallion sperm exhibits great male-to-male variability in survival after cryopreservation. In this study, we have investigated if differences in sperm freezability can be attributed to membrane phase and permeability properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine supra and subzero membrane phase transitions and characteristic subzero membrane hydraulic permeability parameters. Sperm was obtained from stallions that show differences in sperm viability after cryopreservation. Stallion sperm undergoes a broad and gradual phase transition at suprazero temperatures, from 30-10°C, whereas freezing-induced dehydration of the cells causes a more severe phase transition to a highly ordered gel phase. Sperm from individual stallions showed significant differences in post-thaw progressive motility, percentages of sperm with abnormal cell morphology, and chromatin stability. The biophysical membrane properties evaluated in this study, however, did not show clear differences amongst stallions with differences in sperm freezability. Cyclodextrin treatment to remove cholesterol from the cellular membranes increased the cooperativity of the suprazero phase transition, but had little effects on the subzero membrane phase behavior. In contrast, freezing of sperm in the presence of protective agents decreased the rate of membrane dehydration and increased the total extent of dehydration. Cryoprotective agents such as glycerol decrease the amount of energy needed to transport water across cellular membranes during freezing. PMID:22480267

Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Friedel, Katharina; Akhoondi, Maryam; Gojowsky, Marina; Wolkers, Willem F; Sieme, Harald

2012-01-01

144

Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

145

Studies in neutron phase space cooling for cold and ultra-cold neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses problems in the phase space compression of neutrons in two different energy regimes. The first part applies to the cold neutron regime. We constructed a microscopic model for the neutron dynamic structure factor S(Q, o) of solid methane in phase II. The model treats the effects of molecular translations, intra-molecular vibrations and intra-molecular rotations as uncoupled. Total

Yunchang Shin

2008-01-01

146

Gas-phase measurements of combustion interaction with materials for radiation-cooled chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil samples of Ir and Pt are exposed to combustion products in a controlled premixed environment at atmospheric pressure. Electrical heating of the foil samples is used to control the surface temperature and to elevate it above the radiative equilibrium temperature within the test apparatus. Profiles of temperature and OH concentration in the boundary layer adjacent to the specimen surface are measured by laser-induced fluorescence. Measured OH concentrations are significantly higher than equilibrium concentrations calculated for the known mixture ratio and the measured temperature profiles. This result indicates that superequilibrium concentrations of H-atoms and O-atoms are also present in the boundary layer, due to partial equilibrium of the rapid binary reactions of the H2/O2 chemical kinetic system. These experiments are conducted as part of a research program to investigate fundamental aspects of the interaction of combustion gases with advanced high-temperature materials for radiation-cooled thrusters.

Barlow, R. S.; Lucht, R. P.; Jassowski, D. M.; Rosenberg, S. D.

1991-01-01

147

Phase II Testing of Liquid Cooling Garments Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is used to evaluate NASA's liquid cooling garments (LCGs) used in advanced space suits for extravehicular applications. The manikin has 120 separate heated/sweating zones and is controlled by a finite element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. Previous testing showed the thermal sensation and comfort followed the expected trends as the LCG inlet fluid temperature was changed. The Phase II test data demonstrates the repeatability of ADAM by retesting the baseline LCG. Skin and core temperature predictions using ADAM in an LCG/Arctic suit combination are compared to NASA physiological data to validate the manikin/model. Additional LCG configurations are assessed using the manikin and compared to the baseline LCG. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing, including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/chemical protective suits, and fire protection suits.

Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Bue,Grant; Rugh, John

2006-01-01

148

Phase modulation for reduced vibration sensitivity in laser-cooled clocks in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard interrogation technique in atomic beam clocks is square-wave frequency modulation (SWFM), which suffers a first order sensitivity to vibrations as changes in the transit time of the atoms translates to perceived frequency errors. Square-wave phase modulation (SWPM) interrogation eliminates sensitivity to this noise.

Klipstein, W.; Dick, G.; Jefferts, S.; Walls, F.

2001-01-01

149

Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)] [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-04-01

150

Fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible vee-trough reflectors and evacuated tube receivers for solar heating and cooling systems. Final report, Phase II data acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Vee-Trough\\/Evacuated Tube Collector (VTETC) Project, undertaken for the DOE Solar Heating and Cooling Branch, was to show how vee-trough concentrators could improve the heat collection capability and reduce the cost of collectors consisting of evacuated tube receivers. The work was carried out in two phases. During the first phase, the VTETC was analyzed rigorously and various

Selcuk

1978-01-01

151

Research on solar energy storage subsystems utilizing the latent heat of phase change of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental research program designed to assess the potential of a solar energy storage subsystem (thermal capacitor) using the latent heat of fusion of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings, is described. An idealized model of a flat plate thermal capacitor based on uniaxial heat conduction with a change of phase and an absence of

J. A. Bailey; J. C. Mulligan; C. K. Liao; S. I. Guceri

1975-01-01

152

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width of the Tetrataenite Phase and Island Phase in the Cloudy Zone"  

E-print Network

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width these meteorites cooled, and ultimately, how their parent asteroid formed. Meteorites are pieces shown that it is possible to determine the relative cooling rates of meteorites at low temperatures

Mountziaris, T. J.

153

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site. Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

Erkelens, Conrad

1994-03-01

154

Evaluation of the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis after consumption of liver treated by freezing or cooling.  

PubMed

Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and offal from paratenic hosts of the Toxocara canis nematode can cause infection in humans, but there have been a lack of studies examining specific prophylactic measures to combat this mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of infection by T. canis larvae at the initial and chronic phases of visceral toxocariasis after the consumption of mouse liver subjected to cold treatment. This study was divided into two stages using groups (G) of five donor mice inoculated with 2,000 eggs of T. canis. Two days post-inoculation, the livers of donor mice in G1 and G2 were kept at -20 °C and between 0 and 4 °C, respectively, for 10 days. In the first stage of the study, the livers of mice from G1, G2, and G3 (control) were subjected to a tissue digestion technique and found to be positive for infection. In the second stage, which evaluated infection in mice that had consumed livers from donor mice, receiver mice of G4 and G7 were fed with livers of donor mice from G1 (freezing), receiver mice of G5 and G8 were fed with livers of donor mice from G2 (cooling), and receiver mice of G6 and G9 with livers from G3 (control). Then, the tissue digestion technique was performed for recovering larvae from organs and carcasses of mice, at 2 days (G4, G5, and G6) and 60 days after liver consumption (G7, G8, and G9). It was observed that freezing inhibited the viability of 100 % of the larvae, while cooling promoted 87.7 and 95.7 % reductions in the intensity of infection at 2 and 60 days after liver consumption, respectively. Under the studied conditions, cold treatment shows great potential to help control this parasitosis, both in the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis. PMID:23494157

Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; da Costa de Avila, Luciana Farias; de Lima Telmo, Paula; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

2013-06-01

155

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...headquarters. There are three districts: The Community Development District, the Seashore...

2010-07-01

156

District heating strategy model: community manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

1981-10-01

157

New petrological constraints on the last eruptive phase of the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy): Clues from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic analyses of the three youngest pyroclastic products (ca. 86 ky) belonging to the Sabatini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). By means of thermometers, hygrometers and oxygen barometers, we have estimated that the crystallization temperature of magma progressively decreases over time (910-740 °C), whereas the amount of water dissolved in the melt and fO2 progressively increases as compositions of magmas become more differentiated (4.5-6.4 wt.% H2O and 0.4-2.6 ?QFM buffer, respectively). Thermodynamic simulations of phase equilibria indicate that geochemical trends in mafic magmas (MgO > 4 wt.%) can be reproduced by abundant fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene (~ 50 wt.% crystallization), while the trends of more evolved magmas (MgO ? 4 wt.%) originated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase and sanidine (~ 45 wt.% crystallization). The behavior of trace elements highlights that magmatic differentiation is controlled by polybaric differentiation that includes: (1) prolonged fractionation of mafic, anhydrous minerals from a primitive, H2O-poor magma at depth and (2) extraction of a more evolved, H2O-rich magma that crystallizes abundant felsic and subordinated hydrous minerals at shallow crustal levels. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling also reveal that magmas interacted with the carbonate rocks of the subvolcanic basement. The effect of carbonate assimilation accounts for both trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic variations in magmas, suggesting a maximum degree of carbonate assimilation of less than 5 wt.%.

Del Bello, Elisabetta; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; von Quadt, Albrecht; Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier

2014-09-01

158

Relating hydrogen-bonding interactions with the phase behavior of naproxen/PVP K 25 solid dispersions: evaluation of solution-cast and quench-cooled films.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated the relationship between various intermolecular hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) interactions and the miscibility of the model hydrophobic drug naproxen with the hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) across an entire composition range of solid dispersions prepared by quasi-equilibrium film casting and nonequilibrium melt quench cooling. The binary phase behavior in solid dispersions exhibited substantial processing method dependence. The solid state solubility of crystalline naproxen in PVP to form amorphous solid dispersions was 35% and 70% w/w naproxen in solution-cast films and quench-cooled films, respectively. However, the presence of a single mixed phase glass transition indicated the amorphous miscibility to be 20% w/w naproxen for the films, beyond which amorphous-amorphous and/or crystalline phase separations were apparent. This was further supported by the solution state interactions data such as PVP globular size distribution and solution infrared spectral profiles. The borderline melt composition showed cooling rate dependence of amorphization. The glass transition and melting point depression profiles of the system were treated with the analytical expressions based on Flory-Huggins mixing theory to interpolate the equilibrium solid solubility. FTIR analysis and subsequent spectral deconvolution revealed composition and miscibility dependent variations in the strength of drug-polymer intermolecular H-bonding. Two types of H-bonded populations were evidenced from 25% w/w and 35% w/w naproxen in solution-cast films and quench-cooled films, respectively, with the higher fraction of strongly H-bonded population in the drug rich domains of phase separated amorphous film compositions and highly drug loaded amorphous quench-cooled dispersions. PMID:23009610

Paudel, Amrit; Nies, Erik; Van den Mooter, Guy

2012-11-01

159

Monoclinic MB phase and phase instability in [110] field cooled Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O3–4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals  

PubMed Central

We report the finding of a monoclinic MB phase in Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O3–4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)?tetragonal(T)?orthorhombic(O)?monoclinic(MB), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)?MB?O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting MB and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to MB on cooling to room temperature. PMID:19730707

Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2009-01-01

160

Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical studies were made of the heat transfer characteristics of a latent heat storage unit used for a natural circulation cooling /latent heat storage system. Heating and cooling curves of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change of a PCM (lauric acid) was obtained by using anatural circulation loop of R22 which consisted of an electrically heated evaporater, a water cooled condenser and the latent heat storage unit. The latent heat storage unit showed a heat transfer performance which was high enough for practical use. An approximate theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate transient behavior of the latent heat storage unit. Predictions of the refrigerant and outer surface temperatures during the melting process were in fair agreement with the experimental data, whereas that of the refrigerant temperature during the solidification process was considerably lower than the measurement.

Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

161

Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Final report, Phases I-III  

SciTech Connect

The seismic monitoring work of the geothermal project was initiated for the purpose of determining more exactly the relationship between seismicity and the postulated geothermal and related activity in the Albany-Saratoga Springs area in upstate New York. The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

Not Available

1983-06-01

162

High-Resolution Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical: The ?19 Out-of-Phase Symmetric CH Stretch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenyl radical has been studied via sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy in a slit supersonic discharge expansion source, with assignments for the highest frequency b2 out-of-phase C-H symmetric stretch vibration (-19) unambiguously confirmed by ?6 MHz (0.0002 cm-1) agreement with microwave ground state combination differences of McMahon et al. [Astrophys. J. 2003, 590, L61-64]. Least squares analysis of over 100 resolved rovibrational peaks in the sub-Doppler spectrum to a Watson Hamiltonian yields precision excited-state rotational constants and a vibrational band origin (-0 = 3071.8915(4) cm-1) consistent with a surprisingly small red-shift (0.9 cm-1) with respect to Ar matrix isolation studies of Ellison and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 1977]. Nuclear spin weights and inertial defects confirm the vibrationally averaged planarity and 2A1 rovibronic symmetry of phenyl radical, with analysis of the rotational constants consistent with a modest C2v distortion of the carbon backbone frame due to partial sp rehybridization of the ? C radical-center. Most importantly, despite the number of atoms (N = 11) and vibrational modes (3N - 6 = 27), phenyl radical exhibits a remarkably clean jet cooled high-resolution IR spectrum that shows no evidence of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) phenomena such as local or nonlocal perturbations due to strongly coupled nearby dark states. This provides strong support for the feasibility of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy in other aromatic hydrocarbon radical systems.

Buckingham, Grant T.; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J.

2013-10-01

163

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

164

Chiral domains of the SmCPA phase formed by cooling the isotropic liquid or by field-induced nucleation above the clearing temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three homologues belonging to a new class of achiral and asymmetric bent-core mesogens have been synthesized. The mesophase behaviour was investigated using polarizing optical microscopy, and by X-ray and electro-optical measurements. On cooling the isotropic liquid, the SmCPA phase of the dodecyloxy homologue forms a non-birefringent texture which exhibits randomly distributed domains of opposite handedness. Surprisingly, such chiral domains could

Martin W. Schröder; Ulrike Dunemann; Wolfgang Weissflog

2004-01-01

165

Two-phase zone at Al2O3 meltin by laser radiation and at melt solidification under the conditions of free cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and numerical simulation have shown that the two-phase zone of liquid and solid phases concentration, variable over the coordinate, is formed both at alumina heating by laser radiation and at free melt cooling. During heating this zone is formed only at the initial stage of heating. Its width is not large and is lesser than the depth of the heating laser beam penetration due to the effect of intense heat losses through the crystal by thermal radiation and thermal conductivity. Extension of the two-phase zone formed at crystallization is much more under the conditions of free cooling than at melting, and it can cover almost the whole thickness of the melt. Temperature plateau of the brightness (effective) temperature registered at solidification by the pyrometer with the wavelength of 0.65 µm is explained by formation of the extensive two-phase zone. However, this plateau is realized not for all wavelengths. The importance of the melt absorption coefficient influence on probable appearance of temperature plateau is shown. As a result of crystallization with the two-phase zone formation, porous structure consisting of the crystals with small size can be formed. It may cause the diffuse surface reflectivity.

Bityukov, V. K.; Petrov, V. A.; Smirnov, I. V.

2009-09-01

166

Laser cooling in storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The application of the laser cooling technique to longitudinal phase space cooling of stored ion beams is introduced. Results of recent experiments at the ASTRID storage ring are discussed. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics}.

Hangst, J.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

1995-06-01

167

Thermohydraulics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor primary loop during early phases of unrestricted core-heatup accidents  

SciTech Connect

In High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) siting considerations, the Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) are considered as accidents of highest consequence, corresponding to core meltdown accidents in light water reactors. Initiation of such accidents can be, for instance, due to station blackout, resulting in scram and loss of all main loop forced circulation, with none of the core auxiliary cooling system loops being started. The result is a slow but continuing core heatup, extending over days. During the initial phases of such UCHA scenarios, the primary loop remains pressurized, with the system pressure slowly increasing until the relief valve setpoint is reached. The major objectives of the work described here were to determine times to depressurization as well as approximate loop component temperatures up to depressurization.

Kroeger, P.G.; Colman, J.; Hsu, C.J.

1983-01-01

168

Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

Pitts, D.R.

1980-09-30

169

Silico-ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) Iron Ore Sinter Bonding Phases: New Insights into Their Formation During Heating and Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter phases during heating and cooling of synthetic iron ore sinter mixtures in the range 298 K to 1623 K (25 °C to 1350 °C) and at oxygen partial pressure of 5 × 10-3 atm has been characterized using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. SFCA and SFCA-I are the key bonding phases in iron ore sinter, and an improved understanding of their formation mechanisms may lead to improved efficiency of industrial sintering processes. During heating, SFCA-I formation at 1327 K to 1392 K (1054 °C to 1119 °C) (depending on composition) was associated with the reaction of Fe2O3, 2CaO·Fe2O3, and SiO2. SFCA formation (1380 K to 1437 K [1107 °C to 1164 °C]) was associated with the reaction of CaO·Fe2O3, SiO2, and a phase with average composition 49.60, 9.09, 0.14, 7.93, and 32.15 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. Increasing Al2O3 concentration in the starting sinter mixture increased the temperature range over which SFCA-I was stable before the formation of SFCA, and it stabilized SFCA to a higher temperature before it melted to form a Fe3O4 + melt phase assemblage (1486 K to 1581 K [1213 °C to 1308 °C]). During cooling, the first phase to crystallize from the melt (1452 K to 1561 K [1179 °C to 1288 °C]) was an Fe-rich phase, similar in composition to SFCA-I, and it had an average composition 58.88, 6.89, 0.82, 3.00, and 31.68 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. At lower temperatures (1418 K to 1543 K [1145 °C to 1270 °C]), this phase reacted with melt to form SFCA. Increasing Al2O3 increased the temperature at which crystallization of the Fe-rich phase occurred, increased the temperature at which crystallization of SFCA occurred, and suppressed the formation of Fe2O3 (1358 K to 1418 K [1085 °C to 1145 °C]) to lower temperatures.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2012-12-01

170

Is cooling still cool?  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), where patients are cooled to between 32°C and 36°C for a period of 12-24 hours and then gradually rewarmed, may reduce the risk of ischemic injury to cerebral tissue following a period of insufficient blood flow. This strategy of TH could improve mortality and neurological function in patients who have experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). The necessity of TH in OOHCA was challenged in late 2013 by a fascinating and potentially practice changing publication, which found that targeting a temperature of 36°C had similar outcomes to cooling patients to 33°C. This article reviews the current literature and summarizes the uncertainties and questions raised when considering cooling of patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury. Irrespective of whether TH or targeted temperature management is deployed in patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury, it would seem that avoiding hyperpyrexia is important and that a more rigorous approach to neurological evaluation is mandated. PMID:25423577

Subramaniam, Ashwin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Botha, John

2015-03-01

171

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

172

Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

2008-02-12

173

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15

174

Lost in Transition: HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Infection among Young People Living in Post-Emergency Phase Transit Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. Methods In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District’s sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70–18.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28–6.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43–6.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04–5.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Conclusions Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV. PMID:24587034

Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Atim, Stella; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

175

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-print Network

in life-cycle under different ratios The calculation time is 20 years and the simulation time step is 1h. The electricity profile of Wuhan is as follow?electricity price is 0.83 RMB/kWh during 7:00-8:00 and 11:00-18:00; it is 0.332 RMB/kWh during 23...:00-7:00; it is 1.16 RMB/kWh during remaining time. The system energy consumption in life-cycle under different ratio is shown in table 2. Annual operation cost under different cooling storage ratio is shown in Fig.8. The system energy consumption and annual...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01

176

IR and UV spectroscopy of vapor-phase jet-cooled ionic liquid [emim]+ [Tf2N]-: ion pair structure and photodissociation dynamics.  

PubMed

Small gas-phase clusters (ion pairs) of the ionic liquid [emim](+)[Tf2N](-) have been generated in a supersonic expansion. Clusters are investigated via UV photofragmentation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Spectra between 42,000 and 45,000 cm(-1) reveal dynamical branching between direct dissociation of the ion pair to the cation and anion and to radical species. The IR spectrum between 2800 and 3200 cm(-1) was measured by action spectroscopy. Multiple conformations of the ion pair are found to be present in the molecular beam, leading to broad spectral features, further complicated by hydrogen bonding and Fermi resonances. The measured and theoretical spectra compare well, and the jet-cooled ion pair structures present in the molecular beam are strongly hydrogen bonded "stacked" conformers. PMID:24175625

Cooper, Russell; Zolot, Alexander M; Boatz, Jerry A; Sporleder, David P; Stearns, Jaime A

2013-11-27

177

Charge-to-proton readout of a cryogenically cooled detector for the reduction of heat load phase II report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Fiber Optic Transducer Phase II Final Report is a combined effort of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Integrated Optical Circuit Consultants (IOCC). The overall project goal has been to study fiber optics, which has a significantly lower heat load, as an alternative to wire for interconnecting cryogenic detectors to a surrounding room temperature environment. This current work is

M. Lowry; C. McConaghy; R. Becker

1996-01-01

178

Thermomechanical modelling of residual stresses induced by martensitic phase transformation and cooling during quenching of railway wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element (FE) method was used to study the formation of residual stresses in low carbon bainitic–martensitic rail wheels. The FE model combines a commercially available heat treatment software DANTE to the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Material data which include thermo-mechanical properties and kinetics of phase transformations for low carbon bainitic–martensitic (LCBM) steels were obtained from dilatometry experiments

Siva N. Lingamanaik; Bernard K. Chen

2011-01-01

179

Superfast Cooling  

E-print Network

Currently laser cooling schemes are fundamentally based on the weak coupling regime. This requirement sets the trap frequency as an upper bound to the cooling rate. In this work we present a numerical study that shows the feasibility of cooling in the strong coupling regime which then allows cooling rates that are faster than the trap frequency with state of the art experimental parameters. The scheme we present can work for trapped atoms or ions as well as mechanical oscillators. It can also cool medium size ions chains close to the ground state.

S. Machnes; M. B. Plenio; B. Reznik; A. M. Steane; A. Retzker

2010-01-15

180

Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V?o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature ?=? 35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity ?=? 52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature ?=? 24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity ?=? 39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age ?=? 21.3 ± 1.1 years, height ?=? 182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass ?=? 76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds ?=? 50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area ?=? 1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V?o2max ?=? 49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg?1·min?1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

2010-01-01

181

School District Energy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

182

District Data Base Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides guidance to district-wide steering committees about how to compile a database. A district database should contain two types of information including general contextual data that are broadly germane and relevant to all programs. The second type of information is about specific programs. The database should begin as a minimal…

Landon, Glenda L.; Shirer, William R.

183

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

184

Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

185

Search for cool giant exoplanets around young and nearby stars. VLT/NaCo near-infrared phase-coronagraphic and differential imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and future high-contrast imaging instruments. It aims to reduce the stellar speckles that prevent the detection of cool planets by using in/out methane-band images. It attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, such as angular differential imaging (ADI). However, this attenuation depends on the spectral properties of the low-mass companions we are searching for. The implications of this particularity on estimating the detection limits have been poorly explored so far. Aims: We perform an imaging survey to search for cool (Teff< 1000-1300 K) giant planets at separations as close as 5-10 AU. We also aim to assess the sensitivity limits in SDI data taking the photometric bias into account. This will lead to a better view of the SDI performance. Methods: We observed a selected sample of 16 stars (age <200 Myr, distance <25 pc) with the phase-mask coronagraph, SDI, and ADI modes of VLT/NaCo. Results: We do not detect any companions. As for the estimation of the sensitivity limits, we argue that the SDI residual noise cannot be converted into mass limits because it represents a differential flux, unlike what is done for single-band images, in which fluxes are measured. This results in degeneracies for the mass limits, which may be removed with the use of single-band constraints. We instead employ a method of directly determining the mass limits and compare the results from a combined processing SDI-ADI (ASDI) and ADI. The SDI flux ratio of a planet is the critical parameter for the ASDI performance at close-in separations (?1''). The survey is sensitive to cool giant planets beyond 10 AU for 65% and 30 AU for 100% of the sample. Conclusions: For close-in separations, the optimal regime for SDI corresponds to SDI flux ratios higher than ~2. According to the BT-Settl model, this translates into Teff ? 800 K, which is significantly lower than the methane condensation temperature (~1300 K). The methods described here can be applied to the data interpretation of SPHERE. In particular, we expect better performance with the dual-band imager IRDIS, thanks to more suitable filter characteristics and better image quality. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO programs 085.C-0257A, 086.C-0164A, and 088.C-0893A.

Maire, A.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Sylvestre, M.; Baudoz, P.; Galicher, R.; Mouillet, D.

2014-06-01

186

Analysis of oscillating flow cooled SMA actuator  

E-print Network

convection cooling mechanisms are much slower as the exothermic austenitic to martensitic phase transformation is accompanied by the release of significant amount of latent heat. While a number of cooling mechanisms have been studied in SMA actuator...

Pachalla Seshadri, Rajagopal

2005-11-01

187

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA  

E-print Network

COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA BEST ODDS CORP., Plaintiff, vs. IBUS MEDIA LIMITED, a foreign company; IBUS Best Odds Corp. is a Nevada corporation that provides "news and information via a global computer Nevada common law. (Compl., ECF No. 1). On January 21, 2014, Defendants moved to dismiss for lack

Shamos, Michael I.

188

Problems of heat transfer in cooled mirrors in industrial lasers  

SciTech Connect

Different variants of systems for cooling mirrors in industrial lasers are compared: channel type, based on porous structures, stream cooled, cooled with the help of two-phase coolants. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these systems are examined.

Petukhov, B.S.; Alekseev, V.A.; Ziegarnik, Y.A.; Ivanov, F.P.; Ikryannikov, N.P.; Kovalev, S.A.; Narusbek, E.A.; Solov'ev, S.L.; Shikov, V.K.

1985-11-01

189

Cool Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acurex developed a heat stress alleviating, liquid cooled helmet liner for military pilots after a series of accidents in Vietnam suggested heat exhaustion as the cause. System pumped a cooled liquid through channels in the helmet liner proved effective in eliminating 40-60% of stored body heat.

1987-01-01

190

Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

Ruder, Robert

2010-01-01

191

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01

192

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01

193

Cool School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

Stephens, Suzanne

1980-01-01

194

Ventilative cooling  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01

195

Cool Vest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

1982-01-01

196

Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon  

E-print Network

the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels are frequent. The main advantage of the HPS is to carry out simultaneously space heating and space cooling. A R407C HPS prototype was built and tested. The basic concepts of the HPS are detailed in part1

Boyer, Edmond

197

Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system, phase 3, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supporting information is presented on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier three-tone chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system.

Reimann, R. C.; Biermann, W. J.

1984-10-01

198

Effect of the magnetic field applied during cooling on magnetic hysteresis in the low-temperature phase of magnetite: First-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of a magnetic field applied during cooling through the Verwey transition can control the low-temperature (LT) magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetite. This effect is investigated using the first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique. LT FORC distributions were measured at 20 K from four polycrystalline samples after cooling from 300 K in zero magnetic field or in the presence of

A. V. Smirnov

2007-01-01

199

System definition study: Phase 1 of individual load center, solar heating and cooling residential project. Final report. [Impact of solar\\/load management systems on utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine preferred systems for residential solar and load management heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems in the Northeast and Southwest regions of the United States. The program (1) developed a methodology for relating the performance of solar and load management heating and cooling systems to utility power generation, costs of supply and weather

J. C. Burke; R. L. Merriam; J. L. Swanson

1977-01-01

200

Effect of cooling and annealing on the phase composition of a nickel-base superalloy. [66. 7 Ni, 12. 0 Al, 2. 8 Ti. 0. 9 Ta, 9. 6 Cr, 5. 0 Co, 3. 0 W  

SciTech Connect

Concentration gradients of the elements near the [gamma]/[gamma][prime]-interface, as well as in the volume of the precipitates are believed to influence the mechanical behavior of [gamma][prime]-strengthened superalloys. In this paper the effect of cooling rates and annealing on the elemental profiles near the phase boundary and within the precipitates of the single crystal superalloy SRR 99 is demonstrated. It is shown that the observed concentration profiles can be explained by the temperature dependent solubility, the different diffusion rates of elements, and by the shift of the [gamma]/[gamma][prime] interfaces during cooling or Ostwald ripening. On the basis of the chromium distribution within the [gamma][prime]-phase the evolution of the precipitates can be divided into four stages: (1) nucleation, (2) growth, (3) homogenization and (4) Ostwald ripening.

Schmidt, R.; Feller-Kniepmeier, M. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallforschung)

1993-09-01

201

Cooling of MCTs incorporating miniature heat pipes as thermal spreaders  

SciTech Connect

Potential cooling schemes and their advantages and disadvantages for MCT cooling are briefly discussed. Following this discussion, an air cooling system employing miniature heat pipes as thermal spreaders is proposed. A preliminary analysis shows that the proposed air cooling system has the potential to outperform many single-phase liquid cooling systems. A cooling scheme involving installation of miniature heat pipes in the mounting surface of MCTs for single-phase liquid cooling is also proposed. Finally, an EDM wire-cutting method for miniature heat pipe manufacture is introduced, which can be used to directly manufacture miniature heat pipes into the heat sink as an integral part of the cooling system.

Cao, Y. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Beam, J.E.; Donovan, B. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aerospace Power Division

1995-12-31

202

Competency: District Views from Southern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

Tyo, John

1979-01-01

203

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07

204

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis  

E-print Network

for classifying the Office building categories; (3) the relevant methods for daytyping necessary for creating the typical load shapes for energy and cooling load calculation; (4) the relevant robust variability (uncertainty) analysis; (5) typical load shapes...

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01

205

Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Volume 5. Phases I-III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

Not Available

1983-06-01

206

Giant zero field cooled spontaneous exchange bias effect in phase separated La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6}  

SciTech Connect

We report a giant zero field cooled exchange bias (ZEB) effect (?0.65?T) in La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} sample. Magnetic study has revealed a reentrant spin glass ?90?K, phase separation to spin glass and ferromagnetic phases below 50?K and canted antiferromagnetic transition ?10?K. A small conventional exchange bias (CEB) is established with the advent of spontaneous phase separation down to 10?K. Giant ZEB and enhanced CEB effects are found only below 10?K and are attributed to the large unidirectional anisotropy at the interface of isothermally field induced ferromagnetic phase and canted antiferromagnetic background.

Krishna Murthy, J.; Venimadhav, A., E-mail: venimadhav@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.in [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

2013-12-16

207

District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

Mart, Dan

2011-01-01

208

How High Poverty Districts Improve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

2003-01-01

209

FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

210

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

211

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

212

Modelling district nurse expertise.  

PubMed

As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

Burke, Michelle

2014-12-01

213

Rightsizing a School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

2012-01-01

214

Districts Shun Stimulus Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2010-01-01

215

Cooling of Color Superconducting Compact Stars  

E-print Network

We review the status of research on the cooling of compact stars, with emphasis on the influence of color superconducting quark matter phases. Although a consistent microscopic approach is not yet available, severe constraints on the phase structure of matter at high densities come from recent mass and cooling observations of compact stars.

David Blaschke

2006-03-26

216

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper

L. B. Hernandez; O. M. Rabbia

2009-01-01

217

Cool It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun hands-on activity, learners use simple materials to investigate evaporation. How can the evaporation of water on a hot day be used to cool an object? Find out the experimental way! The activity is based on an episode of Cyberchase called "Digit's B-Day Surprise" and was developed to capture kids' interest in math using the appeal of the popular PBS series.

WNET

2009-01-01

218

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

219

Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the restriction in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of e.g. hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and the limitations on passive cooling at low cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the reduction of the radiator area needed by the sorption cooler. By examining the performance of alternative working fluids suitable for different cooling temperatures, the application field of this type of sorption cooling is currently expanded.

Doornink, Jan; Burger, Johannes; ter Brake, Marcel

2007-10-01

220

Sorption cooling: A valid extension to passive cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the expander in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of, e.g., hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and on the limitations of passive cooling for lower cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the reduction of the radiator area needed by the sorption cooler. The application field of this type of sorption cooling in space missions is currently being expanded by examining the performance of alternative working fluids, suitable for different cooling temperatures.

Doornink, D. J.; Burger, J. F.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2008-05-01

221

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Feasibility and Planning Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary. Document No. 74SD419. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings and to provide baseline information for the widespread application of solar energy. The initial step in this program was a study of the technical, economic, societal, legal, and environmental factors…

General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA. Space Div.

222

Energy Accounting for District Heating and Cooling Plants  

E-print Network

Energy accounting combines engineering science with the insights of cost accounting theory. It requires the development of routine procedures to guide the information process on its way to the final decision maker. Energy accounting should not have...

Barrett, J. A.

1979-01-01

223

HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual  

SciTech Connect

HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

1981-03-01

224

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper systems. In this work, we have studied magmatic Ap from Late Miocene dacitic porphyries spatially and temporally associated to the Cu-(Mo) La Huifa- La Negra prospect (4 km NE from the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, Chile). These felsic rocks formed from hydrous magmas as indicated by early crystallized Hb (before Bt). Al-Hb geobarometer indicates that phenocrysts formed at ˜2 Kb, while fine grained groundmass suggests a depressurization. Ap is present as small (˜10-50 microns) subhedral to euhedral prisms included in Fe-Ti oxides, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite phenocrysts (IAp), and as bigger (up to ˜300 microns) isolated microphenocrysts (MAp), indicating crystallization throughout magmatic evolution. About 300 EPM analyses of Cl, F and SO3 have been performed on Ap in different textural positions. Only Ap included in anhydrous phases (mostly Pl and oxides) and unaltered grains from the groundmass were used to evaluate volatile evolution. Calculated apatite saturation temperature following Piccoli and Candela (1994) indicates that they started to crystallize ˜900°C. The most outstanding chemical feature of the studied Ap is their high Cl (up to 4.52 wt%) and SO3 (up to 0.98 wt%) contents, being highest in IAp. Cl/F and Cl/OH strongly decrease from ApI to MAp within all studied samples varying in SiO2 content from 66.3 to 69.7 wt%. They display a continuous and well defined trend. This variation is controlled mainly by Cl decrease and F increase, meanwhile OH remains roughly constant. SO3 in Ap varies from 0.98wt% in IAp to below detection limit (0.02 wt% SO3) in MAp. S and Cl in Ap show a general positive correlation being their contents in IAp higher than those in MAp. The results are consistent with Ap starting to crystallize at ˜2Kb, in equilibrium with an early formed, high temperature, highly saline S-rich magmatic volatile phase that evolved toward less saline less S-rich compositions. The strong decrease of Cl/OH as F increases indicates that the exsolved volatile phase is a single phase (supercritical), in agreement with its P and T of formation. High sulfur contents in IAp suggest the host magma was sulfate-rich, and thus oxidized as it's also suggested by high Mg# (0.66-0.75) in primary ferromagnesian minerals. Sulfur presence, along with Cl, would enhance metal (Cu) partitioning from melt into magmatic volatile phase (Simon et al, 2006), while low crystal charge prevailing during early volatile exsolution would favour coalescence and upward migration processes, to finally accumulation in upper parts of the system. Thus, the aqueous Cl and S-rich fluids exsolved, at high pressure (˜2 Kb), upon magma differentiation at La Huifa-La Negra prospect, could have efficiently extracted metals from the magma and hence, it would have the potential to create a hydrothermal ore deposit provided that the magma was not erupted and that the necessary conditions for subsequent ore deposition prevailed. This is a contribution to DIUC 203-320-013-1 Piccoli, P. and Candela, P. 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Simon, A.C., Pettke, T., Candela, P., Piccoli, P. y Heinrich, C.A., 2006. GCA, 70, 5583-5600.

Hernandez, L. B.; Rabbia, O. M.

2009-05-01

225

Thermal performance analysis of a flat slab phase change thermal storage unit with liquid-based heat transfer fluid for cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of a phase change thermal storage unit. The unit consists of several parallel flat slabs of phase change material (PCM) with a liquid heat transfer fluid (HTF) flowing along the passages between the slabs. A validated numerical model developed previously to solve the phase change problem in flat slabs was

Ming Liu; Frank Bruno; Wasim Saman

2011-01-01

226

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

227

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

228

Pumps, valves and piping for cogeneration and district heating  

SciTech Connect

The two concepts of cogeneration (cogen) and district heating (DH) have certain points of similarity. They are both quite old, fell into disuse some decades ago, have had a renaissance of late, and often are plagued by economics that are only marginal. At present, however, both cogeneration and district heating ride a wave of popular fancy and regulatory whim, all of which has had as one result the inducing of swarms of lawyers and financial soldiers of fortune to flock to the standards, for at least the time being. Although the finances of the two technologies frequently call for innovation, at least the fluid-handling engineering problems are not extraordinary. Pressures, temperatures, flow rates, and corrosion dangers are nearly always within readily mastered limits. The major difficulties arise generally either from the indifference and parsimony of the owners or from the ignorance of the plant management and operations personnel. This report intends to be only a general perspective which the reader must enlarge upon by such other aids as POWER special reports on narrower sectors. Retain in mind the basic definitions for the two technologies: Cogeneration is a simultaneous production of both useful thermal energy (as steam, hot water, or hot gas) and electric power from a fuel source. District heating is the supplying of thermal energy in steam or water to remote and usually noncontiguous locations which are often under separate ownership. District cooling, the increasingly popular supplement to district heating, supplies chilled water under similar circumstances.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-01-01

229

Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN2 circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN2 gas–liquid separator.

Y. F. Fan; L. H. Gong; X. D. Xu; L. F. Li; L. Zhang; L. Y. Xiao

2005-01-01

230

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA  

E-print Network

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA ST. TAMMANY PARISH TAX COLLECTOR CIVIL for collection of sales and use taxes under Louisiana law. The parties have agreed to submit the case distribution system #12;2 that has no physical presence in Louisiana except for the use of common carriers

Shamos, Michael I.

231

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

, contracting, and university admission decisions, violates the United States Constitution. On December 11, 2006UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND 8, 2006 by several plaintiffs who claim that a recently-approved state constitutional amendment

Shyy, Wei

232

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

Rosen, Jay

233

Directions for the '80s: Educational Master Plan. San Francisco Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist staff in the San Francisco Community College District (SFCCD) in synthesizing the trends, events and issues that are likely to influence educational programs and services, this master plan assesses the district's internal and external environments and describes the SFCCD's two-phase planning process. Chapter 1 discusses the…

Duncan-Hall, Tyra L., Ed.

234

A Demographic Analysis of the Impact of Property Tax Caps on Indiana School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the Indiana legislature passed and the governor signed into law House Enrolled Act No. 1001, now referred to as Public Law 146-2008, which capped Indiana school districts' ability to raise revenues from the local property tax without local voter approval. To phase in the impact of the law, the state provided school districts with…

Hirth, Marilyn A.; Lagoni, Christopher

2014-01-01

235

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of...

2010-01-01

236

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19

237

Facilities Study Report to the Board of Education. Phase I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Birmingham school district, not unlike many other districts in the Metropolitan Detroit Area, has been experiencing a declining student enrollment. A committee was appointed to make a thorough study of the facilities and the future needs of the school district and make recommendations. The task was divided into two phases. The first phase was…

Goetz, Frank; And Others

238

Principles and applications of muon cooling  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of the application of ionization cooling to obtain high phase-space density muon beams are described, and its limitations are outlined. Sample cooling scenarios are presented. Applications of cooled muon beams in high-energy accelerators are suggested; high-luminosity ..mu../sup +/-..mu../sup -/ and ..mu..-p colliders at greater than or equal to -TeV energy are possible.

Neuffer, D.

1983-01-01

239

Rural Districts REAP New Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) grants give rural districts a new source of federal funds. REAP has two separate programs that address the specific needs of rural districts. The first is the Small and Rural Schools Achievement Program; the second is the Rural and Low Income Schools Program. Explains the differences in the programs and…

Kusler, Mary Conk

2003-01-01

240

A Tale of Two Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts

Simon, Mark

2012-01-01

241

Congressional Districting: A Historical Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the controversies and consequences involved in drawing proper districts for federal and state representatives. Discusses the Supreme Court's role in deciding these questions. Provides definitions and related court cases concerning gerrymandering and malapportionment, the two most common abuses of the districting process. (MJP)

Baran, Jan Witold; Cronic, Jason P.

1996-01-01

242

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

243

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

244

Pennsylvania School District Testing Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey to gather information concerning school district testing programs in Pennsylvania is reviewed. The information concerns the commercially produced norm referenced and criterion referenced achievement tests, as well as locally produced achievement tests used in the state's school districts. The Pennsylvania Division of Educational Testing…

Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

245

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31

246

National Association of Conservation Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

247

Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore phase change at a molecular level. They trace the path of an atom to view intermolecular interactions and investigate how temperature relates to phase change. Upon activity completion, students will be able to give examples of phase change, explain how the input of energy into a system affects the state of matter, and describe how both latent heat and evaporative cooling play a role in changes of phase.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

248

District Computer Concerns: Checklist for Monitoring Instructional Use of Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist those involved with planning, organizing, and implementing computer use in schools, this checklist can be applied to: (1) assess the present state of instructional computer use in the district; (2) assist with the development of plans or guidelines for computer use; (3) support a start-up phase; and (4) monitor the…

Coe, Merilyn

249

Magneto-optical cooling of atoms.  

PubMed

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces, can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultracold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power. PMID:25078213

Raizen, Mark G; Budker, Dmitry; Rochester, Simon M; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2014-08-01

250

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-print Network

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13

251

Projection of school district enrollments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were to provide a better statistical basis for enrollment projections, to attempt to model the school district's enrollment, and to produce a single estimate of enrollment for each grade, grade group, and ethnic group, and for the total by year. Efforts were also made to provide error estimates for the projections, to design a simple, user-oriented computer program for use by school district administrators, and to work with real data from local school districts and aid them in making projections on an experimental basis. The study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory was concerned with projection methodology and production of a generally usable computer program.

Van Dillen, S. L.; Friedman, L. D.; Cheng, W. K.

1974-01-01

252

The Effect of the Rate of Cooling from High-Temperature Single-Phase Region on the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of AlNi Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of as-cast and melt spun AlNi alloys was studied by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The magnetic properties of the alloys were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The water quenched and melt spun AlNi samples were characterized by zone microstructure formed as a result of solid solution decomposition into ?- and ?2 phases within the miscibility gap. Therefore, the subsequent aging of as-quenched alloy leads to the development of the zone microstructure instead of the decomposition of single-phase solid solution. The absence of preferential precipitations and discontinuous precipitation (DP) reaction was observed at grain boundaries (GB) of as-cast AlNi alloy after aging. The antiphase domains (APD) have been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons prepared by melt spinning. The effects of GB and APD boundaries on the decomposition of a solid solution in the AlNi ribbons were investigated. At first, a thin ?-phase layer is formed along GB and APD boundaries. Then the decomposition leads to the formation of ?2-phase layers on the both sides of ?-phase layer. The GB and APD boundaries, which are decorated by precipitates of ?- and ?2 layers, become visible in the TEM and AFM micrographs. A DP reaction at GBs has been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons after supplementary aging. The cellular microstructure at GBs consisting of alternating lamellas of ?'- and ?'2 phases was formed after aging the ribbons at 773 K (500 °C) for 10 minutes.

Menushenkov, Vladimir P.; Gorshenkov, Mikhail V.; Savchenko, Elena S.; Zhukov, Dmitry G.

2015-02-01

253

Testing and Assessment in Illinois School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of school districts across the state of Illinois in 1999 focused on three dimensions of local assessment practices: (1) why districts give tests; (2) the tests they give; and (3) what they do with test results. Telephone interviews were conducted with district assessment coordinators or superintendents from 75 school districts, including…

Easton, John Q.

254

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County. (c) Sacramento River District includes...included in the Sacramento River District, and that portion...included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra...Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes...San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and San...

2010-01-01

255

Districts That School Year-Round.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four school districts that operate year-round schools: Socorro Independent School District, Texas; Valley View School District, Romeoville, Illinois; Murrieta Valley Unified School near San Diego, California; and Rock Island-Milan School District in northwestern Illinois. Briefly describes three tracks of year-round education:…

McGlynn, Ann

2002-01-01

256

Comments on optical stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.

K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang

2002-10-08

257

Mice: The International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment  

E-print Network

Muon storage rings have been proposed for use as sources of intense high-energy neutrino beams and as the basis for muon colliders. Phase-space compression (cooling) of the muon beam prior to acceleration and storage is needed to optimise performance and cost. Traditional techniques cannot be employed to cool the beam because of decay during the short muon lifetime. Ionisation cooling, a process in which the muon beam is passed through an alternating series of liquid-hydrogen absorbers and accelerating RF-cavities, is the technique proposed to cool the muon beam. An international collaboration has been formed to carry out the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE), and its proposal to Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) has been approved. The status of the MICE cooling channel, the instrumentation, and the implementation at RAL are described, together with the predicted performance of the channel and the measurements that will be made.

P. Drumm

2005-09-16

258

District heating campaign in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-09-01

259

Boise geothermal district heating system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

Hanson, P.J.

1985-10-01

260

Phase transitions in the crystals of L- and DL-cysteine on cooling: intermolecular hydrogen bonds distortions and the side-chain motions of thiol-groups. 1. L-cysteine.  

PubMed

The role of the distortion of the hydrogen bond network and of the motions of the -CH 2SH side chains in the phase transition in the orthorhombic L-cysteine ( (+)NH 3-CH(CH 2SH)-COO (-)) on cooling and the reverse transformation on heating is discussed. The extended character of the phase transition, which was recently discovered by adiabatic calorimetry [ J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 9186 ], and its very high sensitivity to the thermal prehistory of the sample could be interpreted based on the changes in the polarized Raman spectra measured for the single-crystals in several orientations in the temperature range 3-300 K and precise diffraction data on the changes in intramolecular conformations and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. In the low-temperature phase the SH...S hydrogen bonds dominate as compared to the weaker SH...O contacts, and at ambient temperature the situation is inverse. The transition from one phase to another goes via a series of states differing in conformations of the cysteine zwitterions and the intermolecular contacts of the thiol-group. Motions of different molecular fragments (NH 3 (+), CH 2, CH, SH) are activated at different temperatures. Structural strain on cooling involves several dynamic processes, such as a rigid rotation of the molecule in the lattice, a rigid rotation of the NH 3 group with respect to NH 3-CH bond, and the rotation of the thiol side chain resulting in the switching of S-H hydrogen bonding from one type to another. Different NH...O hydrogen bonds forming the framework in the L-cysteine crystal structure are distorted to a different extent, and this provokes the rotation of the -CH 2SH side chains within the cavities of this framework resulting in a change in the coordination from SH...O to SH...S at low temperatures. The results are interesting for understanding the polymorphism of molecular crystals and the factors determining their dynamics and structural instability, and also for biophysical chemistry, since the properties of the hydrogen bonded thiole-groups in biomolecules can be mimicked using L-cysteine in the crystalline state, variations in temperature and pressure serving as powerful tools, to modify the intramolecular conformations and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:18793012

Kolesov, Boris A; Minkov, Vasil S; Boldyreva, Elena V; Drebushchak, Tatyana N

2008-10-01

261

Two-phase flow in high-heat-flux micro-channel heat sink for refrigeration cooling applications: Part II—heat transfer characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second of a two-part study concerning two-phase flow and heat transfer characteristics of R134a in a micro-channel heat sink incorporated as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle. Boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured by controlling heat flux (q?=15.9?93.8W\\/cm2) and vapor quality (xe=0.26?0.87) over a broad range of mass velocity. While prior studies point to either nucleate

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2005-01-01

262

Sizing of nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves for initially sub-cooled gas\\/liquid two-phase flow – The HNE-DS method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current standards for sizing nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves are based on different\\u000a flow models, flow coefficients and nomenclature. They are generally valid only for single-phase gas and\\u000a liquid flow. Common to all is the concept of one-dimensional nozzle flow in combination with a correction\\u000a factor (e.g. the discharge coefficient) to correct for non-idealities of the three-dimensional flow. With

J. Schmidt

2007-01-01

263

Evolution of the Y-rich phase in a super-cooled liquid of Zr 33Y 27Al 15Ni 25  

Microsoft Academic Search

XAFS measurements of the Y and the Zr K-edges are carried out for Zr33Y27Al15Ni25 metallic glass which exhibits two steps of glass transition. XAFS spectra of Y show a drastic change after annealing at just above Tx1 while a very small change for the Zr. Phase separation of Y-rich region is confirmed by an appearance of the strong Y?Y correlation

M. Matsuura; M. Sakurai; K. Suzuki; S. Chen; A. Inoue

1995-01-01

264

77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service [FWS-R6-R-2008-N0186; FF06R06000 134 FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

2012-10-16

265

77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-02-03

266

77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-01-27

267

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

268

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

269

ASTROMAG coil cooling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

1990-01-01

270

Two-phase flow in high-heat-flux micro-channel heat sink for refrigeration cooling applications: Part I––pressure drop characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase pressure drop was measured across a micro-channel heat sink that served as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle. The micro-channels were formed by machining 231?m wide×713?m deep grooves into the surface of a copper block. Experiments were performed with refrigerant R134a that spanned the following conditions: inlet pressure of Pin=1.44–6.60bar, mass velocity of G=127–654kg\\/m2s, inlet quality of xe,in=0.001–0.25, outlet

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2005-01-01

271

Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average density of D2O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ˜210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D2O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called "low-density liquid" and "high-density liquid" phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

Wang, Zhe; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leão, Juscelino B.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

2014-07-01

272

The Calcutta metropolitan district.  

PubMed

11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence. PMID:12268497

1987-01-01

273

Nipissing District Developmental Screen  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine if providing the Nipissing District Developmental Screen (NDDS) free of charge is associated with increased use of this measure and to investigate regional variations in the use of the NDDS in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of purchasing data from before the NDDS was available at no cost compared with analysis of the results of a brief questionnaire completed by those downloading the NDDS for free. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Users of the NDDS. INTERVENTION Provision of free on-line access to the NDDS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patterns of purchasing or downloading of the NDDS by FPs and health care professionals (HCPs) before and after implementation of the program. RESULTS Before the program, 91 FPs (0.9% of FPs in Ontario) purchased the NDDS, and an additional 129 FPs (1.3% of FPs in Ontario) downloaded the NDDS in the year after the start of the program. Including all other HCPs increased the estimated number of users to 504 (representing an estimated 5.0% of all FPs in Ontario). Adjusting for group practice increased the estimate to 16.5% of all FPs in Ontario who had access to the NDDS. There were no significant differences in NDDS usage by FPs between central, southwestern, and northern Ontario (P > .05). Significantly fewer FPs in eastern Ontario accessed the NDDS than FPs in other areas of the province did (P < .001). CONCLUSION Despite measures to increase usage, only a small number of FPs access the NDDS in Ontario. However, free access to the NDDS does seem to contribute to removing barriers to screening, as indicated by a 3-fold increase in the number of FPs accessing the NDDS. Further research is required to investigate the reasons for these trends so that effective methods to increase the use of developmental screening measures in clinical practice can be implemented. PMID:20154233

Limbos, Marjolaine M.; Joyce, David P.; Roberts, G. Jane

2010-01-01

274

Inhomogeneous color superconductivity and the cooling of compact stars  

E-print Network

In this talk I discuss the inhomogeneous (LOFF) color superconductive phases of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, I show the effect of a core of LOFF phase on the cooling of a compact star.

M. Ruggieri

2007-04-13

275

COOLING FORCE MEASUREMENTS IN CELSIUS.  

SciTech Connect

The design of future high energy coolers relies heavily on extending the results of cooling force measurements into new regimes by using simulation codes. In order to carefully benchmark these codes we have accurately measured the longitudinal friction force in CELSIUS by recording the phase shift between the beam and the RF voltage while varying the RF frequency. Moreover, parameter dependencies on the electron current, solenoid magnetic field and magnetic field alignment were carried out.

GALNANDER, B.; FEDOTOV, A.V.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; ET AL.

2005-09-18

276

Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures  

SciTech Connect

The average density of D{sub 2}O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ?210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D{sub 2}O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called “low-density liquid” and “high-density liquid” phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

Wang, Zhe; Chen, Sow-Hsin, E-mail: sowhsin@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Liu, Kao-Hsiang [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Harriger, Leland; Leão, Juscelino B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-07-07

277

Adiabatic cooling of antiprotons.  

PubMed

Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3×10(6) p are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold p and a 3 times lower p temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools p plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded e(-) (with many fewer e(-) than p in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No p are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles. PMID:21405511

Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J

2011-02-18

278

Congressional District Visits in August  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

Hoover, Fushcia

2014-08-01

279

Southwest Florida Water Management District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

280

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01

281

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-print Network

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01

282

Debuncher cooling performance  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the Fermilab Debuncher momentum and transverse cooling systems. These systems use liquid helium cooled waveguide pickups and slotted waveguide kickers covering the frequency range 4-8 GHz.

Derwent, P.F.; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Vander Meulen, David; Werkema, Steven; /Fermilab

2005-11-01

283

Liquid cooled garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

1975-01-01

284

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-print Network

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01

285

Liquid-Cooled Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

1977-01-01

286

7 CFR 989.22 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.22 District. District means any one of...

2011-01-01

287

7 CFR 959.17 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.17 District. District means each of the geographic divisions of...

2011-01-01

288

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2010-01-01

289

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2012-01-01

290

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2011-01-01

291

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2013-01-01

292

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2014-01-01

293

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

294

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2014-01-01

295

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2013-01-01

296

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating...Washington, Payette and Gem Counties, in Idaho. District No. 2 (Oregon Slope...Nampa, and Notus Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale,...

2010-01-01

297

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2011-01-01

298

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2010-01-01

299

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2011-01-01

300

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2013-01-01

301

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

2014-01-01

302

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

2011-01-01

303

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

2012-01-01

304

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

2010-01-01

305

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

2013-01-01

306

Your District Deserves an Audit Committee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

1974-01-01

307

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

2011-01-01

308

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

2010-01-01

309

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

2014-01-01

310

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

2013-01-01

311

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

2012-01-01

312

7 CFR 930.6 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means one of the subdivisions of the...

2014-01-01

313

7 CFR 930.6 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means one of the subdivisions of the...

2011-01-01

314

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

2013-01-01

315

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

2012-01-01

316

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

2011-01-01

317

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

2014-01-01

318

Microbiology of cooling water  

SciTech Connect

An overview of microbiology is given as related to recirculating cooling water systems. Discussions covering the types of microbes that infest cooling water systems, their effects on these systems, and factors influencing growth and health of the microbes are included. The procedures for microbiological control in recirculating cooling systems is also described, including the effects of process contaminants on microbes, commercial microbicides, and an account of biological oxidation processes and the factors for using effluents from these processes for cooling. (DLS)

McCoy, J.W.

1980-01-01

319

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

Not Available

2011-08-01

320

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

Not Available

2011-08-01

321

Groundbreaking High-Performance Building Districts  

E-print Network

/Property Manager or Developer Agree to support the District performance goals through the sharing of the following information with the Dallas 2030 District Leadership Council: Building energy use, water use, and Transportation Mitigation Plan (TMP... or Developer Assessment of current building performance to 2030 District goals Anonymous benchmarking against local peer buildings Guidance for moving towards 2030 District goals Training and ongoing support through educational workshops on tools and best...

Jordan, J.

2014-01-01

322

The Cool Flames Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to volume ratio, and (T(bar) - Tw ) is the spatially averaged temperature excess. This Newtonian form has been validated in spatially-uniform, well-stirred reactors, provided the effective heat transfer coefficient associated with the unsteady process is properly evaluated. Unfortunately, it is not a valid assumption for spatially-nonuniform temperature distributions induced by natural convection in unstirred reactors. "This is why the analysis of such a system is so difficult." Historically, the complexities associated with natural convection were perhaps recognized as early as 1938 when thermal ignition theory was first developed. In the 1955 text "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics", Frank-Kamenetskii recognized that "the purely conductive theory can be applied at sufficiently low pressure and small dimensions of the vessel when the influence of natural convection can be disregarded." This was reiterated by Tyler in 1966 and further emphasized by Barnard and Harwood in 1974. Specifically, they state: "It is generally assumed that heat losses are purely conductive. While this may be valid for certain low pressure slow combustion regimes, it is unlikely to be true for the cool flame and ignition regimes." While this statement is true for terrestrial experiments, the purely conductive heat transport assumption is valid at microgravity (mu-g). Specifically, buoyant complexities are suppressed at mu-g and the reaction-diffusion structure associated with low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignitions can be studied. Without natural convection, the system is simpler, does not require determination of the effective heat transfer coefficient, and is a testbed for analytic and numerical models that assume pure diffusive transport. In addition, mu-g experiments will provide baseline data that will improve our understanding of the effects of natural convection on Earth.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

2001-01-01

323

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

324

Tungsten Helium cooled Target  

E-print Network

Rotating Tungsten Helium cooled Target RoTHeTa Cyril Kharoua Daniela Ene, Ferenc Mezei, Etam Noah 2011 Some history >Granular Tungsten target helium cooled was first proposed by Peter Sievers for a MW a rotating wheel, fitted with tungsten rods and cooled with helium is a viable solution... #12;Page 4Cyril

McDonald, Kirk

325

Controlled Rate Cooling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

326

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24

327

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Yoneharab, K. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)

2010-03-30

328

Vacant District Chair Positions (as of 1/28/2014)  

E-print Network

Bluff in Tehama County) REGION 2: SACRAMENTO & NORTH SIERRAS District 21 ­ El Dorado County District 23: NORTHERN CALIFORNIA District 10/11 ­ Siskiyou County, Humboldt & Eureka Counties District 13 ­ Modoc, Lassen, Plumas Counties District 15 ­ Yuba & Sutter Counties District 16 ­ Tri-County Area (includes Red

Cohen, Ronald C.

329

School District Consolidation: The Benefits and Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School district consolidation is a striking phenomenon. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, 117,108 school districts provided elementary and secondary education in 1939-1940. By 2006-2007, the number of districts had dropped to 13,862, a decline of 88 percent. The rate of consolidation has slowed in recent years, but at…

Duncombe, William D.; Yinger, John M.

2010-01-01

330

Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

1982-01-01

331

The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

332

School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

Kovash, Lynne A.

2009-01-01

333

School District Cash Management. Program Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts

New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

334

7 CFR 916.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area or such other subdivision as may be prescribed pursuant to § 916.31: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Madera and Fresno. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

335

Womens pay in English rural districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines hourly wage payments for women who live in the rural districts of England, both in terms of variability within such districts and in terms of comparisons with non-rural districts. Drawing on the Labour Force Surveys Local Annual Database, the paper argues that, once education, industry and occupation are taken into account, there is little to distinguish wage

Keith Hoggart; Shen Cheng

2006-01-01

336

Northside Maker District Prepared by the  

E-print Network

ScoutNorth & Northside Maker District Prepared by the Carlson Ventures Enterprise Erik Greene, John · Recommendation One: ScoutNorth Filter · Recommendation Two: Northside Maker District · Conclusion #12;Executive ­ ScoutNorth Filter ­ Maker District #12;Research & Findings Overview · Target population (North

Minnesota, University of

337

California's Districts of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

Kronholz, June

2014-01-01

338

District Learning Tied to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

339

Tracking Progress Last updated 12/12/2013 Once-Through Cooling 1  

E-print Network

Tracking Progress Last updated 12/12/2013 Once-Through Cooling 1 Once-Through Cooling Phase, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available and Estuarine Waters for Power Plant Cooling to implement Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U

340

Accounting Systems for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

1983-01-01

341

By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District  

E-print Network

By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District See Stream, Page 5 Dave Derrick, Research Hydraulic of the Tacony Creek in Philadelphia during a workshop July 23. (Photo by Steve Rochette) Corpsaimstorestore partnered with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Philadelphia Water Department to host a stream

US Army Corps of Engineers

342

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

343

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

344

Competition with Charters Motivates Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

2013-01-01

345

Cooling water distribution system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01

346

Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District  

PubMed Central

In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

1990-01-01

347

Performance of the dark energy camera liquid nitrogen cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Camera, the Imager and its cooling system was installed onto the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile in September 2012. The imager cooling system is a LN2 two-phase closed loop cryogenic cooling system. The cryogenic circulation processing is located off the telescope. Liquid nitrogen vacuum jacketed transfer lines are run up the outside of the telescope truss tubes to the imager inside the prime focus cage. The design of the cooling system along with commissioning experiences and initial cooling system performance is described. The LN2 cooling system with the DES imager was initially operated at Fermilab for testing, then shipped and tested in the Blanco Coudé room. Now the imager is operating inside the prime focus cage. It is shown that the cooling performance sufficiently cools the imager in a closed loop mode, which can operate for extended time periods without maintenance or LN2 fills.

Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Alvarez, R.; Bonati, M.; Derylo, G.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A.; Munoz, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schultz, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Zhao, A.

2014-01-01

348

PROGRESS IN DESIGNING A MUON COOLING RING WITH LITHIUM LENSES.  

SciTech Connect

We discuss particle tracking simulations in a storage ring with lithium lens inserts designed for the six-dimensional phase space cooling of muons by the ionization cooling. The ring design contains one or more lithium lens absorbers for transverse cooling that transmit the beam with very small beta-function values, in addition to liquid-hydrogen wedge-shaped absorbers in dispersive locations for longitudinal cooling. Such a ring could comprise the final component of a cooling system for use in a muon collider. The beam matching between dipole-quadrupole lattices and the lithium lenses is of particular interest.

FUKUI,Y.CLINE,D.B.GARREN,A.A.KIRK,H.G.

2004-03-03

349

75 FR 52734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Cooling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Cooling Water Intake Structure Phase II Existing...go to www.regulations.gov. Title: Cooling Water Intake Structure Phase II Existing...another entity for transmission, use a cooling water intake structure (CWIS) that...

2010-08-27

350

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20

351

Solar energy system performance evaluation. Reedy Creek Utility District Office Building, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, March-August 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

This system performance evaluation report presents a summary of the March through August 1978 operation of the Reedy Creek Utility District solar energy system. This system is designed to provide space heating and cooling as well as hot water for a two story modern office building located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. Presented are results of an evaluation of measured

C. T. Wallace; A. R. Brooks; L. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

352

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

353

Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

Perry, Mary

2005-01-01

354

The cooling of particle beams  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

Sessler, A.M.

1994-10-01

355

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-print Network

T he drop in milk production in the summer causes sig- nificant economic losses in the dairy industry. That decrease in production is brought on by heat stress, and studies have documented that cooling lactat- ing cows increases their milk pro... studies have investigat- ed whether cooling dry cows affects postpartum milk produc- tion and reproductive measures, but the results so far have been inconclusive. In deciding whether to install cooling systems for dry cattle, producers should consider...

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17

356

Cannon Drive Relocation Phase 1 Terry Foegler  

E-print Network

Regulator/City CSO 2. Kinnear Road Extension 3. Floodplain Issues 4. Storm Water District Plan 5. IJS/IMS 6 for Cannon from Herrick to King · Phase 1 to CDs: Herrick to north of 315 off ramp · Landscape Plan · Storm Water District Plan · Floodplain evaluation · Preliminary planning for Kinnear Road connection to Cannon

357

Central Utah Water Conservancy District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

358

Hydrogen film cooling investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of flow turning, flow acceleration, and supersonic flow on film cooling were determined experimentally and correlated in terms of an entrainment film cooling model. Experiments were conducted using thin walled metal test sections, hot nitrogen mainstream gas, and ambient hydrogen or nitrogen as film coolants. The entrainment film cooling model relates film cooling effectiveness to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. The experimental apparatus and the analytical model used are described in detail and correlations for the entrainment fraction and film coolant-to-wall heat transfer coefficient are presented.

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

1973-01-01

359

Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

Litvinenko, Vladimir N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

2009-03-20

360

Heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heating and cooling homes and businesses require a major energy commitment. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needed to heat and cool homes and workplaces. Students explore energy requirements in the home and at work and discuss current technologies to improve heating and cooling efficiencies. Articles on heat pumps and solar heating and cooling techniques are accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on air conditioning efficiency and a link to material discussing alternatives to air conditioning are also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

361

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-print Network

's commercial and industrial buildings have a significant, year-round cool ing load during "occupied" hours due to interior heat gain from people, I ights, and equipment. Many bui ldings with non-reflective glass experience significant solar cool ing loads... of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01

362

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01

363

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

364

Volcanoes and Global Cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanic eruptions are thought to be responsible for the global cooling that has been observed for a few years after a major eruption. The amount and global extent of the cooling depend on the force of the eruption and, possibly, its latitude. When large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere, they can produce a large, widespread cooling effect. As a prime example, the effects of Mount Pinatubo, which erupted in June 1991, may have lasted a few years, serving to offset temporarily the predicted greenhouse effect. This site describes the phenomenon of volcanic global cooling and NASA's instruments and missions to study it.

365

Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most precisely determined upper limits for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is set by the thallium (Tl) atomic beam experiment. One way to enhance the sensitivity of the atomic beam setup is to laser cool the Tl atoms to reduce the EDM-like phase caused by the E×v effect. In this report, a cooling scheme based on the 6P3/2(F=2)?6D5/2(F'=3) transition in Tl is proposed. The absolute frequency measurement of this nearly closed-cycle transition was performed in an atomic beam apparatus. Two Ti:sapphire lasers were frequency-doubled using enhancement cavities in X-type configurations to provide the needed 377- and 352-nm light sources for the optical pumping and cooling transitions, respectively. The absolute frequency of this cooling transition is determined to be 851 634 646(56) MHz.

Fan, Isaac; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Lien, Yu-Hung; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Liu, Yi-Wei

2011-10-01

366

Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium  

SciTech Connect

One of the most precisely determined upper limits for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is set by the thallium (Tl) atomic beam experiment. One way to enhance the sensitivity of the atomic beam setup is to laser cool the Tl atoms to reduce the EDM-like phase caused by the Exv effect. In this report, a cooling scheme based on the 6P{sub 3/2}(F=2){r_reversible}6D{sub 5/2}(F{sup '}=3) transition in Tl is proposed. The absolute frequency measurement of this nearly closed-cycle transition was performed in an atomic beam apparatus. Two Ti:sapphire lasers were frequency-doubled using enhancement cavities in X-type configurations to provide the needed 377- and 352-nm light sources for the optical pumping and cooling transitions, respectively. The absolute frequency of this cooling transition is determined to be 851 634 646(56) MHz.

Fan, Isaac; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Lien, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yi-Wei [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shy, Jow-Tsong [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-15

367

Viscosity measurements of subliquidus magmas: Alkali olivine basalt from the Higashi-Matsuura district, Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out viscosity measurements and sampling of a crystal suspension derived from alkali olivine basalt from the Matsuura district, SW Japan, at subliquidus temperatures from 1230 °C to 1140 °C under 1 atm with NNO oxygen buffered conditions. Viscosity increased from 31 to 1235 Pa s with a decrease in temperature from 1230 to 1140 °C. On cooling, olivine first appeared at 1210 °C, followed

Hidemi Ishibashi; Hiroaki Sato

2007-01-01

368

Remark on laser linewidth hazard in opto-mechanical cooling  

E-print Network

I discuss the robustness of the pumped cavity dynamics against phase diffusion of the laser and conclude that opto-mechanical cooling has extreme sensitivity compared to laser cooling of atoms. Certain proposals of ground state opto-mechanical cooling by single cavity would require an unrealistic sharp laser linewidth or equivalently, a very low level of phase noise. A systematic way to cancel classical excess phase noise is the interferometric twin-cavity pumping, initiated for optically trapped macro-mirrors of future gravitational-wave detectors.

Lajos Diósi

2008-07-23

369

Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

Faulkner, F. E.

1971-01-01

370

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

371

Commercial space cooling and air handling technology atlas  

SciTech Connect

Buildings can cost less to construct and be more comfortable. This report tells how reduced cooling loads and whole-system integration of properly sized cooling and air handling equipment can save money and energy, increase occupant comfort, enhance productivity, and free up valuable space. Topics include end use and market data, efficiency standards, indoor air quality, the effects of the CFC phase-out, as well as in-depth technological assessments of load reduction, air handling systems and components, evaporative and radiative cooling and other alternative cooling techniques, unitary and central cooling systems, gas cooling, and thermal storage systems. The appendices contain lists of manufacturers and trade, professional, governmental, and public interest organizations in the space cooling and air handling field, as well as an index.

NONE

1995-07-01

372

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28

373

77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

2012-04-10

374

PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western  

E-print Network

18-1 PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania .........................................18-10 25. Union City Dam, PA .....................................18-11 26. Woodcock Creek Lake, PA

US Army Corps of Engineers

375

PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western  

E-print Network

18-1 PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania .........................................18-11 25. Union City Dam, PA .....................................18-12 26. Woodcock Creek Lake, PA

US Army Corps of Engineers

376

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01

377

S'COOL Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

378

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

379

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

380

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

381

Why Cool Roofs?  

SciTech Connect

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

382

Cool Earth Solar  

SciTech Connect

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2013-04-22

383

S'COOL Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

Bryson, Linda

2004-01-01

384

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26

385

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

386

Botanical evaluation of the Drenthian district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biological Station of Wijster is situated approximately in the centre of the so-called Drenthian district, one of the 11 phytogeographical districts of the Netherlands. This district also extends into NW Germany and consists mainly of base-poor fluvioglacial and drift-sands with underlying boulder clay. The climate is boreo-atlantic, with fairly high rain-fall (about 31 inches), little sunshine, the highest summer

J. J. Barkman; V. Westhoff

1969-01-01

387

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

388

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

389

Turbine blade cooling  

DOEpatents

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20

390

Turbine blade cooling  

DOEpatents

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20

391

Turbine blade cooling  

DOEpatents

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01

392

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

Wagner, E.P. Jr.

1999-01-12

393

Disks around Brown Dwarfs and Cool Stars  

E-print Network

We review the current picture of disks around cool stars and brown dwarfs, including disk fractions, mass estimates, disk structure and dispersal, accretion, dust composition, and the debris disk phase. We discuss these in the framework of recent planet formation models.

Daniel Apai; Kevin Luhman; Michael Liu

2007-02-10

394

Ultracold gases: Shock cooling a universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid cooling across a phase transition leaves behind defects; from domain walls in magnets to cosmic strings. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism that describes this formation of defects is seen at work in the spontaneous creation of solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.

Zwierlein, Martin W.

2013-10-01

395

Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

Morris, Brian G.

1994-01-01

396

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS - ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES UNDERSTANDING COOLING TOWERS MATT SMITH L.S. Enterprises Fort Myers, Florida Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks...

Smith, M.

397

Muon Dynamics and Ionization Cooling at Muon Collider  

SciTech Connect

Muon Dynamics and beam cooling methods for muon colliders are presented. Formulations and effects of Ionization cooling as the preferred method used to compress the phase space to reduce the emittance and to obtain high luminosity muon beams are also included.

Parsa, Z.

1998-11-01

398

The Interrelationship of School District Expenditures and Student Academic Achievement in Oklahoma Public Elementary School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose and Method of Study. The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between school district expenditures and student academic achievement in 102 public elementary school districts in the state of Oklahoma. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationship between school district expenditures and…

Moore, Glenn M.

2012-01-01

399

Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

Espinosa, Ruben W.

2010-01-01

400

One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

Dombrowski, Richard J.

401

Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem  

E-print Network

Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem: applicationsTrois--RiviRivièèresres #12;Vietnam, March 2010 2 IntroductionIntroduction The districting problem consists in partitioning a considering different criteria or constraints.criteria or constraints. #12;Vietnam, March 2010 3 Main criteria

Ferland, Jacques A.

402

From Districts to Schools: The Distribution of Resources across Schools in Big City School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the distribution of resources across school districts is well studied, relatively little attention has been paid to how resources are allocated to individual schools inside those districts. This paper explores the determinants of resource allocation across schools in large districts based on factors that reflect differential school costs or…

Rubenstein, Ross; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Amor, Hella Bel Hadj

2007-01-01

403

20 CFR 702.272 - Informal recommendation by district director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...272 Informal recommendation by district director. (a) If the district director determines that the employee has been...discrimination and is able to resume his or her duties, the district director will recommend that the employer...

2010-04-01

404

76 FR 2431 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Houston District Office Advisory Committee...ACTION: Notice of open Federal advisory...Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public...The meeting is open to the public, however...Houston District Office Advisory...

2011-01-13

405

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

2012-04-01

406

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

2011-04-01

407

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

2014-04-01

408

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

2013-04-01

409

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”....

2014-04-01

410

13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

2012-01-01

411

13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

2014-01-01

412

13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

2011-01-01

413

13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

2013-01-01

414

13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

2010-01-01

415

SUMMARY OF BEAM COOLING AND INTRABEAM SCATTERING.  

SciTech Connect

For heavy-particle beams in storage rings where there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping, beam cooling is an essential tool in obtaining high phase-space density high brightness beams. Advances in various types of cooling such as electron, stochastic, laser and muon cooling are covered in dedicated Conferences. In this series of Workshops (HB2002-06), discussions are aimed only at a few specific subjects which are crucial for future projects. The discussion topics in our session closely followed those discussed during the HB2004 workshop [1]. Specifically, we concentrated on the topics of electron cooling and intrabeam scattering, motivated by the design of the future high-energy coolers [2,3,4]. These cooling projects at high-energy require accurate numerical modeling and experimental verification. A variety of tasks were put together at HB2004 [1]. In our working group we discussed a progress in addressing these tasks. We had 10 presentations [5]-[14] (with additional presentations in the joint sessions) which followed by dedicated discussions. Our main topics of discussions: intrabeam scattering (IBS), electron cooling, and beam stability are summarized.

FEDOTOV, A.V.; MESHKOV, I.N.; WEI, J.

2006-05-26

416

Metallographic Cooling Rate of IVA Irons Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is long standing problem reconciling the chemical evidence that the IVA iron meteorites formed in a core with the diverse cooling rates reported by several researchers. This large inferred range of cooling rates suggests that the IVA irons were distributed at different depths in a parent body with a complex structure when the Widmanstatten pattern formed. On the other hand, some researchers argued that the diverse cooling rates in group IVA result from inaccurate model parameters such as phase diagram, interdiffusion coefficients, and kamacite nucleation and growth mechanisms. In addition, the measured cooling rates may not apply for the same cooling temperature ranges, and the variation in the crystallographic orientations of the Widmanstatten plates on the analysis surface may result in inaccurate measurements of widths needed for the computer simulation models. We have revaluated the major parameters in computer model developed by Hopfe and Goldstein and measured cooling rates for the IVA irons. Such data are useful in evaluating whether these meteorites were part of a single core of a parent body during the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern.

Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.

2005-01-01

417

ElectronicsCooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An important concern facing electronics designers is heat dissipation. Especially in laptop computers and server farms, overheating can be a major problem. ElectronicsCooling is a free, quarterly publication that provides "practical information to the reader that relates to cooling of today's electronics." Every article since the magazine's debut in 1995 can be viewed from this site. Common topics are packaging, thermal design, and technical data related to many types of electronics. Contributions to ElectronicsCooling are generally from industry and academia.

418

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-print Network

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20

419

Opinions about district nurses prescribing.  

PubMed

Opinions about district nurses prescribing The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of district nurses (DNs) and general practitioners (GPs) about nurse prescribing in Sweden in order to elucidate similarities and differences, and relate different opinions to background and psychosocial working factors. In a questionnaire about psychosocial working conditions, seven statements about DNs prescribing were included. The questionnaire was sent to 554 DNs and 566 GPs with a participant rate of 83%. On all items as well as on the total score DNs rated more positively compared with GPs. Amongst the DNs a positive opinion was related to a traditional primary care organization, age < 50, good social support at work, and high workload. A positive opinion amongst GPs was associated with working in a traditional primary care organization, being male GP, and a good social support at work. In a multiple regression analysis, occupation and organization were independently associated with the total score. The result shows a strong professional solidarity amongst GPs and seems to be based on concern about the profession rather than patient care. PMID:12453174

Wilhelmsson, S; Ek, A C; Akerlind, I

2001-01-01

420

Advanced dry-cooling demonstration: Summary: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ammonia phase-change dry cooling system of increased thermal performance for electric power stations was investigated. It features the potential for significant cost savings over conventional dry cooling plants. Economic optimization studies indicate a 58% PWRR reduction from the dry-closed water loop which translates into a 4.4 mills\\/kWh savings over the plant life. The initial feasibility of the phase-change concept,

H. D. Fricke; A. M. Czikk; R. G. Helenbrook; C. E. McHale; K. McIlroy; D. J. Webster

1986-01-01

421

CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

2011-01-01

422

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2012-01-01

423

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2013-01-01

424

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2014-01-01

425

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2010-01-01

426

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2011-01-01

427

Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

2007-01-01

428

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

429

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2011-01-01

430

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2013-01-01

431

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2012-01-01

432

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2014-01-01

433

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2010-01-01

434

Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

Castner, Myra H.; And Others

435

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

436

A Small District's Quest for Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Texas, a financially troubled school district must submit a plan of action to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) for improving its financial situation without harming the quality of education delivered. If things get worse, TEA assigns a financial monitor to advise the district on overcoming its financial problems and to determine if further…

Salinas, Claudio

437

Project Management in a Local School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper embodies three presentations given at a panel discussion on organizing, planning, and managing the local school district. The first presentation on comprehensive planning for change draws a distinction between "a priori" and "a posteriori" planning and relates these two types of planning in coping with school district problems. The next…

Cummings, C. Peter

438

District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

2010-01-01

439

> BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS  

E-print Network

> BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS IMPROVEMENTS FOR QUEENSLAND across Australia From October 2013, new and improved district forecasts will be introduced in Queensland Protection times FURTHER INFORMATION : www.bom.gov.au/NexGenFWS © Commonwealth of Australia, 2013 PTO> Wind

Greenslade, Diana

440

California District Makes Instructional Leadership a Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on Norwalk-La Mirada school district's work to transform the principals of its 29 schools into leaders of instruction, rather than managers of school buildings. Policymakers nationwide increasingly see the shift as crucial for academic achievement, but relatively few districts have taken concrete steps to help principals make…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

441

The New American Urban School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Commission of the States has found that urban school districts face enormous problems. This document looks at a variety of ideas about how to re-engineer the urban school district. These essays encourage educators and the public to think about the nation's urban school systems and how they might better meet the needs of children. The…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

442

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

443

Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

444

A Case Study of School District Consolidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several New England states have been rethinking the system whereby small towns make the key decisions about school budgets and staffing under the banner of local control. Maine already has mandated a reduction in the number of local school districts from 290 to 80, allowing localities to vote on the larger districts. This consolidation, unpopular…

Cronin, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

445

Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

McDaniel, Gwenn

2010-01-01

446

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

447

Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

2012-01-01

448

District of Columbia v. Heller and Originalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 26, 2008, the United States Supreme Court handed down its 5-4 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, striking a District of Columbia statute that prohibits the possession of useable handguns in the home on the ground that it violated the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Justice Scalia's majority opinion drew dissents from Justice Stevens and

Lawrence B. Solum

2009-01-01

449

Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

2012-01-01

450

River Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser  

E-print Network

development Historic preservation Tourism, Park and Recreational Facilities Economic Dislocation AdjustmentRiver Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser 300 Spring Street, Suite 2A Jeffersonville://www.riverhills.cc/ The River Hills Economic Development District (RHEDD) serves a five-county region in southeast Indiana which

451

School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

2009-01-01

452

City Districts Embracing K-8 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with school districts' K-8 configurations. Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York, and Philadelphia are among the districts making the change, driven by a small body of research and a rising pile of anecdotes suggesting that K-8 configurations help academic performance, decrease discipline problems, enhance parent…

Gewertz, Catherine

2004-01-01

453

New Mexico's Very Small School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report addresses characteristics and concerns of New Mexico's 19 smallest school districts with a 1981-82 average daily membership ranging from 262 to 60 students. Information was gathered from a Public School Finance Division questionnaire sent to the 19 superintendents; from a December 1981 meeting with 10 of the smallest districts; from…

Swift, Doug

454

SOME ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORAPUT DISTRICT ORISSA  

PubMed Central

The paper presents the ethnomedicinal use of 35 plants by the tribals of Koraput district to cure 25 diseases they suffer from. Apart from this, a note on the vegetation pattern, tribal population and geography of the district is given here. PMID:22557632

Das, P.K.; Misra, M.K.

1988-01-01

455

SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION FOR THE 1970'S.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FROM 1932 TO 1965, THE NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE UNITED STATES DECREASED FROM 127,649 TO 26,802. IN NEW ENGLAND, HOWEVER, THERE WAS A DECREASE OF LESS THAN 100 DISTRICTS. NEW ENGLAND IS IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY TO AN ELECTRICAL AND TECHNICAL ECONOMY. SCHOOL REDISTRICTING MUST OCCUR ALONG WITH THIS…

CRONIN, JOSEPH M.

456

Supporting Solo at the District Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years passed,…

Woodard, Mary

2011-01-01

457

Industrial Districts: Old Wine in New Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARRISON B. (1992) Industrial districts: old wine in new bottles?, Reg. Studies26, 469–483. According to the theory of industrial districts, a new wave of economic growth is being led in a number of regions in Europe, North America and East Asia by spatially concentrated networks of mostly small and medium sized enterprises, often using flexible production technology and characterized by

Bennett Harrison

1992-01-01

458

Characteristics of Improved School Districts. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research brief presents an overview of a 2004 study by G.S. Shannon and P. Bylsma entitled "Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research" (Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction). The authors reviewed more than 80 research articles that investigated the attributes of schools and districts that have…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

2006-01-01

459

Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

Bidin, Zainin

2012-01-01

460

District-Charter Collaborations on the Rise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Synergy Charter Academy, one of three charter schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), used to occupy a cramped church space in south LA. Despite the facilities challenges, its more than 300 K students have generally scored in the top 10% on statewide tests in reading and math over the past seven years. When the district…

Finkel, Ed

2011-01-01

461

Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

1982-04-26

462

Too cool to work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetocaloric and electrocaloric effects are driven by doing work, but this work has barely been explored, even though these caloric effects are being exploited in a growing number of prototype cooling devices.

Moya, Xavier; Defay, Emmanuel; Heine, Volker; Mathur, Neil D.

2015-03-01

463

Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

Mannlein, Sally

2001-01-01

464

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-print Network

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

465

Sisyphus cooling of lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a wide range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 ?K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single-photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency-locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali-metal species.

Hamilton, Paul; Kim, Geena; Joshi, Trinity; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Tiarks, Daniel; Müller, Holger

2014-02-01

466

Cool Jobs for Girls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a site produced by Work4Women and Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW). WOW defines a cool job as "as high-wage non-traditional occupations, jobs in which women represent less than 25% of the workforce."

467

Cooling of dense stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooling rates were calculated for neutron stars of about one solar mass and 10 km radius, with magnetic fields from zero to about 10 to the 14th power gauss, for extreme cases of maximum and zero superfluidity. The results show that most pulsars are so cold that thermal ionization of surface atoms would be negligible. Nucleon superfluidity and crystallization of heavy nuclei were treated quantitatively, and more realistic hadron star models were chosen. Cooling rates were calculated for a stable hyperon star near the maximum mass limit, a medium weight neutron star, and a light neutron star with neutron-rich heavy nuclei near the minimum mass limit. Results show that cooling rates are a sensitive function of density. The Crab and Vela pulsars are considered, as well as cooling of a massive white dwarf star.

Tsuruta, S.

1972-01-01

468

V E N T U R A B A S I N GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1  

E-print Network

City Amedee Coso Desert Hot Springs Salton Sea Heber Brawley (Abd.) Mesquite (Abd.) East Mesa . STATE, Director . Barstow . Palm Springs . .Desert Hot Springs . El Centro .Needles DIVISION OF OIL, GAS DISTRICT 3 DISTRICT 6 DISTRICT 5 DISTRICT 4 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT

469

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11

470

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01

471

Solar heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

472

CoolTweak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you work with images on a regular basis? And are you interested in adding watermarks to these images? This process just got much easier with CoolTweak. It's quite simple to add watermarks and to share photographs. The neat thing here is that visitors can add their own distinctive watermark by adding their own custom text or logo. This version of CoolTweak is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

Kerangueven, Yann

2013-02-01

473

Spray Cooling Modeling: Droplet Sub-Cooling Effect on Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems.

Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P. [Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC, 700 Research Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Bell 4190 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Silk, Eric A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2008-01-21

474

Numerical analysis of flow pattern of impinging liquid sprays in a cold model for cooling a hot flat plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper treats the numerical analysis of two-phase mist jet flow, which is commonly adopted to cool the solidified shell in the secondary cooling zone of the continuous casting process. Flow structures of the two-phase subsonic jet impinging on a flat plate normal to flow, corresponding to the present cooling situation, are solved on the assumption that particles are perfectly

N. Hatta; H. Fujimoto; H. Takuda

1993-01-01

475

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,� which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

476

Exploration History and Mineral Potential of the Central Arctic Zn-Pb District, Nunavut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration in the central Arctic Zn-Pb District took place in five phases: 1) an initial exploration period (1960 - 70), during which most surface showings on Cornwallis and Little Cornwallis islands were found; 2) a discovery period (1971 - 79), during which the buried Polaris ore body was discovered and its feasibility and viability established, new showings were found farther

KEITH DEWING; ROBERT J. SHARP; TED MURARO

477

Process for cooling particulate coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for drying particulate coal by passing a heated gas through the particulate coal in a heating zone and thereafter cooling the dried particulate coal in a cooling zone, an improvement comprising the addition of a controlled quantity of water to the dried coal in the cool zone so that the coal is cooled by evaporation of

Bonnecaze

1983-01-01

478

Muon Cooling Channels Eberhard Keil  

E-print Network

Muon Cooling Channels Eberhard Keil Katharinenstr. 17, DE-10711 Berlin, Germany Abstract Parameters of muon cooling channels are discussed that achieve cooling of a muon beam from initial to final emittances in all three degrees of freedom in a given length. Published theories of ionisation cooling yield

Keil, Eberhard

479

Design and development of LH2 cooled rolling element radial bearings for the NERVA engine turbopump. Volume 3: Phase 2: Tests on build-ups 16, 17, and 18 at NRDS, Jackass Flats, Nevada, December 1971 - March 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of liquid hydrogen to cool the rolling element radial bearings in the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles is discussed. The fifteen hour service life goal was obtained during the tests. The increase in bearing life was also considered to be produced by: (1) improvements in bearing material, (2) bearing retainer configuration and manufacturing changes, and (3) better control of operating parameters.

Accinelli, J. B.; Koch, D. A.; Reuter, F.

1972-01-01

480

Research Proposal for the Design and Engineering Phase of a Solar Heating and Cooling System Experiment at the Warner Robins Public Library, Warner Robins, Georgia. Submitted to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of reasons are advanced to include a solar heating and cooling experiment in a library building. The unique aspects of the experiment are to be a seasonally adjustable collector tilt and testing of a new generation of absorption air conditioners. After a brief description of the proposed experiment, the proposal contains forms filed by…

Phillips, Warren H.; And Others

481

Research on solar energy storage subsystems utilizing the latent heat of phase change of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings. Semi-annual report, September 1, 1974March 31, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental research program designed to assess the potential of a solar energy storage subsystem (thermal capacitor) utilizing the latent heat of fusion of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings, and supported with grant funds from the National Science Foundation, is described. An idealized model of a flat plate thermal capacitor based on uniaxial heat

J. A. Bailey; J. C. Mulligan; C. K. Liao; S. I. Guceri

1975-01-01

482

Newton's Law of Cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students come to see the exponential trend demonstrated through the changing temperatures measured while heating and cooling a beaker of water. This task is accomplished by first appealing to students' real-life heating and cooling experiences, and by showing an example exponential curve. After reviewing the basic principles of heat transfer, students make predictions about the heating and cooling curves of a beaker of tepid water in different environments. During a simple teacher demonstration/experiment, students gather temperature data while a beaker of tepid water cools in an ice water bath, and while it heats up in a hot water bath. They plot the data to create heating and cooling curves, which are recognized as having exponential trends, verifying Newton's result that the change in a sample's temperature is proportional to the difference between the sample's temperature and the temperature of the environment around it. Students apply and explore how their new knowledge may be applied to real-world engineering applications.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

483

Mechano-caloric cooling device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechano-caloric effect is potentially useful in the He II temperature range. Aside from demonstration work, little quantification effort appears to have been known since other refrigeration possibilities have been available for some time. Successful He II use-related system examples are as follows: in space, the utilization of the latent heat of vaporization has been quite successful in vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) in conjunction with thermomechanical force application in plugs. In magnet cooling systems, the possibility of using the mechano-caloric cooling effect in conjunction with thermo-mechanical circulation pump schemes, has been assessed (but not quantified yet to the extent desirable). A third example is quoted in conjunction with superfluid wind tunnel studies and liquid helium tow tank for surface vessels respectively. In all of these (partially future) R and D areas, the question of refrigerator effectiveness using the mechano-caloric effect appears to be relevant, possibly in conjunction with questions of reliability and simplicity. The present work is concerned with quantification of phenomena including simplified thermodynamic cycle calculations.

Frederking, T. H. K.; Luna, Jack; Abbassi, P.; Carandang, R. M.

1989-01-01

484

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

David Jessey

485

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-print Network

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07

486

Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design  

SciTech Connect

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

2013-06-01

487

40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...otherwise noted. District of Columbia—PM2.5 (Annual NAAQS) Designated area...otherwise noted. District of Columbia—PM2.5 [24-hour NAAQS] Designated...titled “District of Columbia—PM2.5 (Annual NAAQS)” and “District...

2014-07-01

488

District variations in educational resources and student outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, poorer school districts lacking educational resources have formed coalitions and sued their respective states. Their lawsuits claim that interdistrict variations in educational resources violate state constitutions because they deny poorer school districts an equal educational opportunity. Using data from school districts in Virginia, this research investigates two questions. First, whether a school district's level of educational resources

James D. Unnever; Allan C. Kerckhoff; Timothy J. Robinson

2000-01-01

489

An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

2012-01-01

490

School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

Tallman, Mark

2012-01-01

491

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524  

E-print Network

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PO BOX 131 CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524 208-843-2931 PHONE AVENUE, SUITE 1100 PORTLAND, OREGON 97204-1348 FROM: NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PROJECTS DATE: 10/4/06 Dear Council Members: The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District

492

The Creative Cost Management Strategies of Two School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Oregon schools districts that have been effective in managing their resources are Reedsport, a smaller district and the subject of part 1 of this bulletin; and Beaverton, one of the largest districts in the state, the focus of part 2. The Reedsport district plans the use of its funds based on a goal-setting process in the areas of instruction,…

Pheasant, Marilyn

1984-01-01

493

A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

Sampson, Pauline M.

2011-01-01

494

Doppler cooling a microsphere  

E-print Network

Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

P. F. Barker

2010-04-08

495

Doppler cooling a microsphere  

E-print Network

Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

Barker, P F

2010-01-01

496

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

2003-05-12

497

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

498

Liquid cooled exhaust flange  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a liquid-cooled exhaust flange for mating a liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system to a conventional internal combustion engine turbo charger discharge port. It comprises: a generally cylindrical elongated exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in sandwiched relationship between the turbo charger housing and the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; a cooling liquid-jacket housing internally and concentrically connected to the exhaust conduit member adapted to mate in fluidly communicating relationship with a flow of cooling liquid within the liquid-jacketed exhaust conduit system; the liquid-jacket housing covering a substantial portion of the external surface area of the exhaust conduit member so as to reduce the temperature of the external surface of the exhaust flange.

Woods, W.E.

1990-04-24

499

Cooling of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

Pethick, C. J.

1992-01-01

500

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01