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1

Feasibility of energy recovery for district heating and cooling from the METRO Renton effluent transfer system: Phase one report  

SciTech Connect

The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing an effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton treatment plant through Seattle's largest industrial area to Duwamish Head. Preliminary evaluation indicates that heat pumps could produce between 500 and 800 million Btu per hour if all of the Renton plant's current flows were utilized. The market for district heating and coolign near the ETS route was divided into five study areas for purposes of Phase 1 work as follows: Sea-Tac International Airport; Tukwila/Renton; Metro South Base and Vicinity; Pacific Highway/Spokane Street; and Spokane Street/Kingdome. In each of these areas heating and cooling demands were inventoried, and preliminary concepts for district heating and cooling service were prepared and subjected to economic assessment. Initial results are presented.

Not Available

1985-08-01

2

District cooling technology characterization case study: Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed under Part 2 of the project entitled District Heating and Cooling Market Potential and Penetration Study.'' The project's primary objective is to study the potential of conventional and innovative district heating and cooling (DHC) space conditioning systems in the United States, in particular, those areas with significant heating and cooling load requirements. Part 2 entitled Implementation and Application of the Conceptual Approach,'' employs the DHC characterization methodology, previously developed in the initial phase of the project, to compare the economic feasibility of selected DHC system types in a specific community. Task 1 of Part 2 explored a broad-brush'' DHC characterization study of a high-heating load location using Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as a case area. This report addresses the completion of Task 2 of Part 2 which examines the potential of a few selected DHC systems in Austin, Texas, whose climate indicates a large demand for cooling. The subject matter described in this report focuses on the study of some district cooling technologies in Austin using the DHC characterization computer model developed at BNL. The model was employed to compare the economic viability of selected DHC system types, particularly those involving the production of chilled water and slush ice from cogenerator waste heat. Thermal storage applications were also considered. The annualized delivered energy cost was taken as the economic figure-of-merit. 6 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

Coughlan, R.T.; Andrews, J.W.; Piraino, M.; Strasser, J.J.

1990-01-01

3

District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

NONE

1994-12-01

4

Solid oxide fuel cell application in district cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents analysis of the performance of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for district cooling. The cogeneration system is designed to provide cooling for a low-rise residential district of 27,300RT (96MWc). A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generates electric power to operate chillers, and the exhaust fuel and heat from the SOFC run gas turbines and absorption chillers. Thermal energy storage is utilized to reduce system capacity. Part-load operation strategies target maximizing energy efficiency. The operation of the system is compared through an hourly simulation to that of packaged air-conditioning units typically used to cool homes. The CCP system with the district cooling arrangement improves the cooling-to-fuel efficiency by 346%. The peak power requirement is reduced by 57% (24MW) and the total fuel energy is reduced by 54% (750TJy-1). The system cuts annual carbon dioxide emissions to less than half and reduces other harmful emissions. A cost analysis of the system components and operation resulted in a 53% reduction in the cost per ton-hour of cooling over traditional systems.

Al-Qattan, Ayman; ElSherbini, Abdelrahman; Al-Ajmi, Kholoud

2014-07-01

5

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-print Network

effective energy sources. Reduce our emissions of Green House Gases. Target 2016 as the year we can____________________________ March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System;8 Central Plant GREEN LAWN IN JANUARY! Yesterday Inefficient Distribution Steam traps Steam vents Purges

6

Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

1987-12-01

7

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

Not Available

1984-01-31

8

Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach  

SciTech Connect

On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

NONE

1995-12-01

9

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9[degrees]C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

10

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-7-1 The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System Qi Xu Deying Li Wenfa Xu Postgraduate... Deying. The Explore Of The District Cooling System Operation Management. The 4th International Conference On Sustainable Energy Technologies[C]. CHINA ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING PRESS. 2005.9 [4] Lu Qiongwen, Liu Chuanju. The Study on The Operation...

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01

11

Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems; Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project the performance potential of vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits is studied with regard to applications in District Heating and Cooling Systems. Vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits are Rankine cycles in which the pure refrigerant is replaced by a mixture of two or more components. They offer significant advantages over conventional heat pumps leading

K. Amrane; R. Radermacher

1990-01-01

12

Combustion Turbine Inlet Air Cooling (CTIAC): Benefits, Technology Options, and Applications for District Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion turbines (CTs) are increasingly used for electric power generation in combined heat & power (CHP) applications, including those in the district energy arena. CTs exhibit an inherent loss in power output as ambient air temperature rises, at precisely those times when power is most in demand and most highly valued.This article presents the concepts, and the benefits, of cooling

John S. Andrepont

2001-01-01

13

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

14

Assessment of district heating and cooling supply from Goudey Generating Station  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the feasibility analysis of retrofitting the New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) Goudey Generating Station for district heating and cooling supply to the SUNY-Binghamton Campus. The project involved detailed analysis of the power plant retrofit, dispatch analysis of the retrofitted Goudey Station in the New York Power Pool, environmental and permitting assessment, retrofit analysis of the SUNY campus to low temperature hot water and economic analysis.

McIntire, M.E.; Hall, D.; Beal, D.J. [New York State Electric & Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

15

District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

Not Available

1994-03-01

16

Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

1991-10-01

17

Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems  

SciTech Connect

With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems. Beam width is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the momentum Schottky divided by 127 (the harmonic of the Schottky pickup in the Debuncher.) Every three to five minutes, the beam drifts enough to make a significant change in the data. Knowing the revolution frequency and beam width to 0.5 Hz is important. If the beam width exceeds 10 Hz, the quality of the measurement will be impaired. Large beam widths can be caused by excessive forward proton beam current. There are also signs that the front-end amplifiers saturate with beam currents above several hundred microamps. The cooling systems were designed to be very sensitive, (that's why the front end is at liquid helium temperature) so a hundred microamps will go a long way. It should be possible to phase the systems with Pbars as a signal to noise ratio of 30 dB was observed with 100 microamps of beam current.

Pasquinelli, Ralph; /Fermilab

2000-03-09

18

Acoustic Noise Cancellation by Phase Alignment of Cooling Fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing power consumption of computer systems, faster and larger cooling fans are used and acoustic noise management becomes difficult. In this paper, we show that by locking a pair of cooling fan motors into a common frequency and 180 degrees out of phase, the dominant tone most perceptible by human ear can be reduced.

Scott Guthridge; Richard E. Harper; Harry Marr; Bulent Abali

2007-01-01

19

Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the research on a novel floating refrigerant loop that cools high-power electronic devices and the motor/generator with very low cooling energy. The loop can be operated independently or attached to the air conditioning system of the vehicle to share the condenser and other mutually needed components. The ability to achieve low cooling energy in the floating loop is attributable to the liquid refrigerant operating at its hot saturated temperature (around 50 C+). In an air conditioning system, the liquid refrigerant is sub-cooled for producing cool air to the passenger compartment. The ORNL floating loop avoids the sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant and saves significant cooling energy. It can raise the coefficient of performance (COP) more than 10 fold from that of the existing air-conditioning system, where the COP is the ratio of the cooled power and the input power for dissipating the cooled power. In order to thoroughly investigate emerging two-phase cooling technologies, ORNL subcontracted three university/companies to look into three leading two-phase cooling technologies. ORNL's assessments on these technologies are summarized in Section I. Detailed descriptions of the reports by the three university/companies (subcontractors) are in Section II.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-08-17

20

Optimization of the engineering design for the Lansing District Cooling System by comparative analysis of the impact of advanced technologies on a conventional design approach. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Lansing Board of Water and Light (LBWL) began investigating development of a cooling district in the Lansing Downtown in 1989 in order to retain and build summer load for its steam utility. A feasibility study was conducted in conjunction with SFT, Inc. and ZBA, Inc. which addressed many factors such as marketability of the product, impact on the summer steam load, distribution system development, system design, probable capital and operating costs, reliability and environmental and other regulatory impacts on a preliminary feasibility basis. The Phase I study completed in September of 1989 provided highly promising results for establishing a District Cooling System (DCS). An existing chilled water production facility owned by the State of Michigan was identified as a potential location for a DCS plant. With these changes a review of the feasibility with a new set of alternatives and sensitivities was evaluated. This enhancement to the Phase I Study was nearing completion when the LBWL in conjunction with Energy, Mines and Resources Canada proposed to conduct the Phase II project in conjunction with DOE. The project was structured to proceed along a dual track to demonstrate the impact of the application of various innovative technologies.

Not Available

1994-02-01

21

Feasibility of energy recovery for heat pump-assisted district heating and cooling from the Metro Renton wastewater treatment plant and effluent transfer system  

SciTech Connect

The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing a 12-mile effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton wastewater treatment plant to Duwamish Head on Puget Sound. The preliminary stud (Phase I) concluded that the Renton treatment plant's effluent could feasibly sustain large amounts of heat pump output, i.e., 500 to 800 million Btu per hour. Further, the study identified eight locations along the ETS where district heating and cooling (DHC) networks could be favorably established to serve existing businesses and/or new growth. In December 1985 this second phase study was commissioned as a detailed assessment of specific customers in several of the recommended DHC development areas. The potential customers evaluated in this report include: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, the Container Corporation carton manufacturing plant adjacent to the Renton treatment plant, Metro Transit Department's South Base, two buildings at the Boeing Developmental Center, and the Valley 405 Business Park adjacent to the Renton treatment plant. These potential users of effluent-based heating and/or cooling have been evaluated in terms of their heating and cooling demands, the type of effluent-based heat pump system necessary for serving them, and the economics of the effluent-based energy approach. In the cases of Sea-Tac and Container Corporation, the assessments also examine environmental and institutional issues, and generalized feasibilities for financing effluent-based systems.

Not Available

1986-09-01

22

Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

2014-08-01

23

Cooling of Compact Stars with Color Superconducting Phase in Quark-hadron Mixed Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M >= 1.5 M ?, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki

2013-03-01

24

Forced two-phase cooling of the TPC superconducting solenoid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryogenic tests of the TPC 2-meter diameter superconducting solenoid on a 200 W refrigerator with gas-bearing turbines is described. The solenoid is cooled with two phase helium in forced flow around the superconducting winding. The two-phase helium was circulated using either the J-T circuit flow or a bellows type liquid helium pump. The particular problems associated with running a variable load on a gas-bearing turbine refrigerator are discussed.

Green, M. A.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C. E.; Rinta, R. I.; Talaska, D.; Taylor, J. D.; Vanslyke, H.; Watt, R. D.

1983-08-01

25

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

26

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-print Network

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01

27

Technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change materials for cool thermal storage and cool storage systems capital cost estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is confined to the discussion of technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change material (PCM) for cool storage and the cool storage systems capital cost investment. The objective of this study is to determine the potential for using cool storage systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin waxes as PCM are investigated, and static and dynamic

Bo He; Fredrik Setterwall

2002-01-01

28

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

SciTech Connect

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01

29

COOLING OF COMPACT STARS WITH COLOR SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE IN QUARK-HADRON MIXED PHASE  

SciTech Connect

We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M {>=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 Japan (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 Japan (Japan); Yasutake, Nobutoshi [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)] [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujimoto, Masayuki, E-mail: tsune@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: hashimoto@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

2013-03-01

30

Santa Ana Pueblo assessment of district heating and cooling. Final report, 1981-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Santa Ana Pueblo American Indian Tribe, numbering approximately 600 persons occupies two sites, totalling about 60,000 acres, northwest of Albuquerque, New Mexico. With the aid of consultants it has investigated the community's use of energy and a number of sources of fuel to supply a district heating system. The most promising heat source is the production of methane gas

H. Jenkins; M. Giddings

1982-01-01

31

The effect of moisture content on the performance of polyurethane insulation used on a district heating and cooling pipe  

SciTech Connect

The performance of polyurethane pipe insulation used in district heating and cooling subjected to underground water attack has been investigated. The objectives of the experiment were to measure the effective thermal conductivity and the moisture absorption rate of polyurethane pipe insulation under conditions similar to those found in operating systems that have failed and to determine the drying rate and the extent to which the insulation can be dried out once the source of moisture is removed. The insulation was tested at pipe fluid temperatures from 35 F to 260 F (1.6 C to 126.6 C). The surrounding water was maintained at temperatures from 46 F to 100 F (7.7 C to 37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures. Under heated conditions, water absorption continued for 70 days before a steady state was reached. The effective thermal conductivity of the wet polyurethane is 14 to 19 times higher compared with the dry insulation values. Under cooled conditions, water absorption was completed in seven days. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated polyurethane was 50% to 200% higher than that of the dry polyurethane and was typically only about 10% of the value under heated conditions. For both heated and cooled conditions, the increased effective thermal conductivity during submersion demonstrated the tendency to return to the value before submersion after drying.

Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zeng, X.; Ye, L. [Nartron Corp., Reed City, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

32

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01

33

Santa Ana Pueblo assessment of district heating and cooling. Final report, 1981-1982  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Ana Pueblo American Indian Tribe, numbering approximately 600 persons occupies two sites, totalling about 60,000 acres, northwest of Albuquerque, New Mexico. With the aid of consultants it has investigated the community's use of energy and a number of sources of fuel to supply a district heating system. The most promising heat source is the production of methane gas from biomass-utilizing the copious amounts of cattle dung which are readily available from a farm on Tribal grounds. This might be used to: (1) fuel boilers for a district heating system; (2) be piped into individual homes and other users through a dedicated pipeline; or (3) be sold to a local gas company. It might also be compressed in bottles and used as a substitute for gasoline in motor vehicles. There is a supply of geothermal water, its temperature would require enrichment by heat pump or otherwise, and the best locations for wells to tap this resource are uncertain as is also the yield. The heat load requirements of the residential area are not high or concentrated. The cost of retrofitting individual homes to use hot water from a district heating system is estimated at $3,500 each. It was concluded that a much lesser amount of money spent on traditional methods of weatherization would be more cost effective.

Jenkins, H.; Giddings, M.

1982-07-01

34

Retro-Commissioning and Improvement for District Heating and Cooling System Using Simulation  

E-print Network

cooling water temperature which can make RCT minimum. 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Set point of cooling water[? ] COP[-] 60 days ? 9/2? 9/6 ? 9/27? 10/1 (a) 180 230 280 330 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Set point of cooling water[? ] Energy..., COP of the chiller can be improved from 4.0 to 4.3, ,T RCTE E+ can decrease by 2.2%, which is 0.9% of the total energy consumption of the DHC plant. The minimum solution of RCT is hourly different depending on the wet-bulb temperature...

Shingu, H.; Nakajima, R.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01

35

Investigation on Thermal Properties of Phase Change Materials for Cool Storage Air-Conditioning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal properties of phase change cool storage materials including freezing and melting point, freezing and melting latent heat during the phase change process are investigated. The cool storage material is composed of two kinds of phase change materials. In the thermal analysis, the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the latent heat of the phase change material

Fang Guiyin; Li Hui

36

Power plant retrofit to district heating and cooling projects and grid-connected integrated community energy systems projects. Program summary meeting, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community projects were selected in two areas: (1) power plant retrofit to district heating and cooling (DHC) and (2) grid-connected integrated community energy systems (GC-ICES). In the first area, existing power plants were to be retrofitted to recover rejected heat, and thermal piping networks were to be planned and constructed to distribute the heat to the local community. In the

A. S. Kennedy; D. E. Karvelas

1983-01-01

37

Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC  

E-print Network

Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 2(1) To achieve the top-class energy efficiency among the DHC plants in Japan (2) To evaluate the energy saving effects of commissioning and operational improvements TARGETS ESL-IC-14...-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 5ABOUT THE DHC PLANT DHC plant in Nishi-Umeda district of Osaka, Japan The 2nd Plant The 1st Plant ESL-IC-14-09-25 Proceedings of the 14...

Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

2014-01-01

38

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France)  

E-print Network

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Facultés, 33405 Talence cedex, France Abstract Arsenic-rich (~ 140­1520 mg.kg- 1 ) suspended particulate a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended

Boyer, Edmond

39

Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter  

SciTech Connect

The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary.

Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

1993-12-31

40

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and\\/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative

Helmut E. Feustel; Corina Stetiu

1997-01-01

41

Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics  

SciTech Connect

Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

2005-12-01

42

Study of Microsegregation and Laves Phase in INCONEL718 Superalloy Regarding Cooling Rate During Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling rate is an important and controllable variable in casting processing. The effect of cooling rate on the microsegregation and Laves phase in INCONEL718 superalloy castings was studied by high-temperature-laser confocal scanning microscopy and quantitative metallography in this study. The transformation rate of solid phase with a feature of Gaussian distribution in the solidifications at the cooling rates of 0.10 to 14 K/s is acquired. The solidification time and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of cooling rate are analyzed. The amount of Laves phase presents a maximum value at a threshold cooling rate of 3 K/s owing to the opposite effects of cooling rate on the solidification time and SDAS. A modified dimensionless microsegregation index criterion was used for the scaling of solute segregation and Laves phase depending on cooling rates. The prediction of maximal microsegregation and the amount of Laves phase by MSI and experiments provide a guide for cooling rate control in the casting applications.

Ling, Lishibao; Han, Yanfeng; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Haiyan; Shu, Da; Wang, Jun; Kang, Maodong; Sun, Baode

2015-01-01

43

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Power Electronics and Electric Machines Program area, the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently leading a national effort to develop next-generation cooling technologies for hybrid vehicle electronics. Spray cooling has been identified as a potential solution that can dissipate 150-200 W\\/cm2 while maintaining the chip temperature below 125degC. This

Issam Mudawar; Desikan Bharathan; Kenneth Kelly; Sreekant Narumanchi

2009-01-01

44

MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement  

SciTech Connect

MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

Hart, T. L. [University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

2010-03-30

45

A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages

Radu Donose; Michal De Volder; Jan Peirs; Dominiek Reynaerts

2011-01-01

46

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01

47

Study of speed control algorithm in four phase BLDC vehicle cooling fan controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a speed control algorithm of the vehicle cooling fan driven by four phase bifilar winding brushless direct current motor (BLDCM). The related algorithms including rotor position detection of the four-phase BLDCM, speed update and field weakening control are described and analyzed in detail. In the design sensorless BEMF zero-crossing detection algorithm is used to realize the correct

Meihua Xu; Fangjie Zhao; Guoqin Wang; Wenrong Yang

2011-01-01

48

Superfluid phases of triplet pairing and rapid cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

In a simple model it is demonstrated that the neutron star surface temperature evolution is sensitive to the phase state of the triplet superfluid condensate. A multicomponent triplet pairing of superfluid neutrons in the core of a neutron star with participation of several magnetic quantum numbers leads to neutrino energy losses exceeding the losses from the unicomponent pairing. A phase transition of the neutron condensate into the multicomponent state triggers more rapid cooling of superfluid core in neutron stars. This makes it possible to simulate an anomalously rapid cooling of neutron stars within the minimal cooling paradigm without employing any exotic scenarios suggested earlier for rapid cooling of isolated neutron star in Cassiopeia A.

Lev B. Leinson

2014-11-25

49

Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium conditions. However, the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation path due to non-equilibrium partitioning of alloying elements cannot be predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams. Also, it is unclear if there is retention of delta ferrite to room temperature due to compositional or thermal effects. This would dramatically affect the austenite to ferrite transformation due to carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the austenite.

Narayana, B [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University, The, Columbus

2010-12-01

50

A Numerical Investigation of Transpiration Cooling with Liquid Coolant Phase Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a numerical approach to investigate the transpiration cooling problems with coolant phase change within\\u000a porous matrix. A new model is based on the coupling of the two-phase mixture model (TPMM) with the local thermal non- equilibrium\\u000a (LTNE), and used to describe the liquid coolant phase change and heat exchange processes in this article. The effects of thermal

J. X. Shi; J. H. Wang

2011-01-01

51

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-print Network

and business facilities. - Pathways and other amenities help create an attractive riverside environment. - Area space: about 50 ha - Floor space: about 1 million m2 - Daytime population: about 35,000 (As of 2006) Nakanoshima-3chome ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings...? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo chiller 5,063MJ/h - 1 Ice storage tank Storage capacity Number Dynamic type 139,440MJ870m3 8 Heat source equipment Cooling Heating...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01

52

Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.

Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)

1994-03-25

53

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15

54

Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

2013-10-01

55

Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module, for the thermoelectric cooling unit, for the PCM thermal storage unit, and for the outdoor air-water heat exchanger. When modeling PCM thermal storage unit, the enthalpy method has been adopted. Since natural convection has been observed in experiments playing a key effect on heat transfer in PCM, a staged effective thermal conductivity (ke) concept and modified Rayleigh (Ra) number formula have been developed to better capture natural convection's variable effects during the PCM charging process. Therefore, a modeling-based design procedure for thermoelectric cooling system integrating with PCM has been proposed. A case study has been completed for a model office room to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative evaluations to the major system components. Results of this research can be extended to other applications in relevant areas. For instance, the proposed PCM thermal storage unit can be applied to integration with water-cooled conventional air-conditioning devices. Instead of using water cooling, a case study of using the proposed PCM unit for a water-cooled air-conditioner shows a COP increase of more than 25.6%.

Zhao, Dongliang

56

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

57

Phase transformations during continuous heating and cooling in a Ti-Al-Ru alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase transformations in a Ti-Al-Ru alloy were studied by performing hightemperature X-ray diffractions using synchrotron radiation. A Ti-32.4 at% Al-4.1 at% Ru alloy was used; it undergoes various phase transformations. Specimens were prepared by arc-melting. The alloy was beta-homogenized at 1300 C and ice-water quenched. Powdered specimens with particle size ?45 mm were prepared, and packed in a quartz capillary. The X-ray measurements were performed during the step-wise heating and cooling between room temperature and 1220 C. A single beta phase with relatively small amounts of alpha 2, G and alpha phases were initially present in the sample. Decomposition of the as-quenched beta phase to the equilibrium phases was investigated as well as the phase relationships among the major phases (beta, alpha 2 and G). At an average heating rate of 5.3 C/min, most of the beta phase decomposed to form the alpha2 and G phases, possibly through eutectoid reaction taking place between 687 C-709 C. The gamma phase formed at approximately 917 C. A reverse eutectoid reaction for the formation of beta phase was observed between 1018 C and 1220 C, but was incomplete due to two possible reasons: suspected low diffusion rates in the alpha2 and G phases, and the presence of a relatively large amount of dissolved oxygen, which increases the stability of the alpha 2 phase. beta-ordering could not be detected due to the overlap of the beta' (001) reflection, the most intense superlattice reflection for the beta' phase, and the Ti5Si3 (020) diffraction peaks. During cooling from 1220 C to room temperature at an average heating rate of 4.8 C/min, the beta phase partially decomposed to alpha 2 and G phases, but no significant amount of transformation was observed. The (Ti,Al)Ru phase was observed on the X-ray patterns recorded at 1068 C through 36 C. The overall reaction rates of the as-quenched Ti-32.4 at% Al-4.1 at% Ru alloy were sluggish. Mathematical expressions for the relationships between lattice parameters and alloy compositions were proposed for the G, beta, and alpha2 phases. It was suspected that the presence of Ru affects the stability of the beta phase. A slight change in Ru content was also detected in the alpha2 and G phases during the phase reactions. Simulated step-wise heating and cooling microstructure contained plate-like alpha 2 phase and the G-phase matrix as the product of the beta decomposition between 683 C and 709 C. Small alpha2 particles were observed nearby the interface between the plate-like alpha2 phase and the G phase matrix as a result of the beta decomposition during cooling from 1220 C. Fundamental information for the processing of an alloy similar to this Ti-Al-Ru alloy is proposed: a deformation processing of single beta phase alloys should be done below 680 C, and any thermal processing above 680 C should be avoided due to the presence of the brittle G phase.

Rajsiri, Supphachan

58

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-print Network

source heat pump; phase change cooling storage: optimal design; storage ratio 1 Introduction Geothermal energy is increasingly used through the ground source heat pump (GSHP) in many countries. GSHP provides an efficient and environment friendly way... design of the combined system, are listed below: (a) Wuhan is a cooling-dominated area with abundant geothermal energy. Ground source heat pump technology could use renewable energy and the phase change cooling storage technology could shifted peak...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01

59

Transformation behavior of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under continuous cooling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selected alloy for designing a high-density monolithic-type nuclear fuel with U-Zr-Nb alloy as meat and Zry-4 as cladding, has to remain in the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase during the whole fabrication process. Therefore, it is necessary to define a range of concentrations in which the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase does not decompose under the process conditions. In this work, several U alloys with concentrations between 28.2-66.9 at.% Zr and 0-13.3 at.% Nb were fabricated to study the possible transformations of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under different continuous cooling conditions. The results of the electrical resistivity vs temperature experiments are presented. For a cooling rate of 4 C/min a linear regression was determined by fitting the starting decomposition temperature as a function of Nb concentration. Under these conditions, a concentration of 45.3 at.% Nb would be enough to avoid any transformation of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase. In experiments that involve higher cooling conditions, it has been determined that this concentration can be halved.

Komar Varela, C. L.; Gribaudo, L. M.; Gonzlez, R. O.; Aric, S. F.

2014-10-01

60

Free Cooling Phase-Diagram of Hard-Spheres with Short- and Long-Range Interactions  

E-print Network

We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range shoulders or wells) potentials (in both 2D and 3D). Astonishingly good agreement is found with a mean field theory, where only the energy dissipation term is modified to account for both repulsive or attractive non-contact interactions. Attractive potentials enhance cooling and structure formation (clustering), whereas repulsive potentials reduce it, as intuition suggests. The system evolution is controlled by a single parameter: the non-contact potential strength scaled by the fluctuation kinetic energy (granular temperature). When this is small, as expected, the classical homogeneous cooling state is found. However, if the effective dissipation is strong enough, structure formation proceeds, before (in the repulsive case) non-contact forces get strong enough to undo the clustering (due to the ongoing dissipation of granular temperature). For both repulsive and attractive potentials, in the homogeneous regime, the cooling shows a universal behaviour when the (inverse) control parameter is used as evolution variable instead of time. The transition to a non-homogeneous regime, as predicted by stability analysis, is affected by both dissipation and potential strength. This can be cast into a phase diagram where the system changes with time, which leaves open many challenges for future research.

S. Gonzalez; A. R. Thornton; S. Luding

2014-07-09

61

Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural phase transformations in (100)-oriented Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. A cubic (C) ? tetragonal (T) ? monoclinic-C (MC) transformation sequence was observed in the field-cooled condition. Two phase coexistence regions of C + T and T + MC were found. In addition to an increase in the C ? T phase transition temperature and a decrease of the T ? MC one, a broadening of the coexistence regions was also found with increasing field. This broadening can be explained by the presence of polar nano regions within the C, T, and MC phase regions.

Luo, Chengtao; Wang, Yaojin; Wang, Zhiguang; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Viehland, D.

2014-12-01

62

Active two phase cooling of optics. Final technical report, January 22, 1988--July 22, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Two phase cooling of a higher powered laser optics offers a significant potential to advance the state-of-the-art in laser mirror cooling. Significant improvements can be achieved through the transfer of heat via working fluid phase change rather than specific heat capacity. These benefits include reduced jitter, and reduced electrical power consumption. In one actively pumped two phase cooling scheme, a saturated liquid is mechanically pumped into a porous metal layer under the mirror face where a fraction of the fluid is vaporized. The vapor-liquid mixture then leaves the face area and flows to a condenser. The condensate recirculates back to the mirror in a closed loop process. Because the working fluids have high latent heats of vaporization compared to their liquid heat capacities, a significant reduction in flow rate and pressure drop is possible. Analytical and experimental work has shown that a favorable combination of low distortion and low jitter is achievable with this approach. Also, since two phase heat transfer coefficients increase with increasing heat flux, a two phase cooled optic will achieve a lower distortion under non-uniform beam profiles. Jitter data were collected at absorbed heat fluxes up to 80 W/cm{sup 2} using a molybdenum demonstration mirror with methylamine coolant at 20{degrees}C. Low distortion coefficients were used as a design goal for this program at an absorbed heat flux up to 100 W/cm{sup 2}. A demonstration mirror was fabricated and tested for thermal/optical performance.Thermal performance levels in excess of 100 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Tests conducted at the TDTF showed thermal distortion coefficients at or below the design goal for absorbed heat fluxes up to levels in excess of 100 W/cm{sup 2}. No other cooling approach has been demonstrated that uses a low flow rate, low pressure drop cooling scheme, and demonstrates low jitter and low thermal distortion at absorbed heat fluxes near 100 W/cm{sup 2}.

Not Available

1991-12-31

63

Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode Gold District, Tuolumne County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain ?201300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the

Kaye S Savage; Tracy N Tingle; Peggy A ODay; Glenn A Waychunas; Dennis K Bird

2000-01-01

64

Microwave frequency discriminator with a cooled sapphire resonator for ultra-low phase noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

First results are presented for an X-band frequency discriminator using a cooled sapphire microwave resonator. These results show a lower close-in (1-Hz-1-kHz offset) phase noise measurement floor than any oscillator presently available. This performance is made possible by a sapphire whispering-gallery mode resonator which shows the highest quality factor (with Q's up to 30 million) of any RF microwave, or

David G. Santiago; G. John Dick

1992-01-01

65

Decay-phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic modelling is a well established and important field in understanding the evolution of solar flares. However, in order to be of greatest use the results of such models must be compared to statistically significant samples of flare observations. In this talk we observationally investigate the hydrodynamic decay phase evolution of 72 M- and X-class flares using GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE and Hinode/XRT and quantify their cooling rates. The results are then compared to the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES/XRS. This suggests that the energy released during the decay phase may be as significant as that released during the rise phase.

Ryan, Daniel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Gallagher, Peter T

2014-06-01

66

A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages of zero power consumption and small size in combination with a high flow rate and low manufacturing costs. The valve actuation is provided by the thermal expansion of a liquid (actuation fluid) which, at the same time, actuates the valve and provides feed-back sensing. A maximum flow rate of 38 kg h-1 passes through the valve for a heat load up to 500 W. The valve is able to reduce the pumping power by up to 60% and it has the capability to maintain the IC at a more uniform temperature.

Donose, Radu; De Volder, Michal; Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek

2011-10-01

67

Heat-Transfer Measurements in the Primary Cooling Phase of the Direct-Chill Casting Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal modeling of the direct-chill casting process requires accurate knowledge of (1) the different boundary conditions in the primary mold and secondary direct water-spray cooling regimes and (2) their variability with respect to process parameters. In this study, heat transfer in the primary cooling zone was investigated by using temperature measurements made with subsurface thermocouples in the mold as input to an inverse heat conduction algorithm. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to investigate the primary cooling of AA3003 and AA4045 aluminum alloy ingots cast at speeds ranging between 1.58 and 2.10 mm/s. The average heat flux values were calculated for the steady-state phase of the casting process, and an effective heat-transfer coefficient for the global primary cooling process was derived that included convection at the mold surfaces and conduction through the mold wall. Effective heat-transfer coefficients were evaluated at different points along the mold height and compared with values from a previously derived computational fluid dynamics model of the direct-chill casting process that were based on predictions of the air gap thickness between the mold and ingot. The current experimental results closely matched the values previously predicted by the air gap models. The effective heat-transfer coefficient for primary cooling was also found to increase slightly with the casting speed and was higher near the mold top (up to 824 W/m2K) where the molten aluminum first comes in contact with the mold than near the bottom (as low as 242 W/m2K) where an air gap forms between the ingot and mold because of thermal contraction of the ingot. These results are consistent with previous studies.

Caron, Etienne J. F. R.; Baserinia, Amir R.; Ng, Harry; Wells, Mary A.; Weckman, David C.

2012-10-01

68

Carbon-based nanostructured surfaces for enhanced phase-change cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To maintain acceptable device temperatures in the new generation of electronic devices under development for high-power applications, conventional liquid cooling schemes will likely be superseded by multi-phase cooling solutions to provide substantial enhancement to the cooling capability. The central theme of the current work is to investigate the two-phase thermal performance of carbon-based nanostructured coatings in passive and pumped liquid-vapor phase-change cooling schemes. Quantification of the critical parameters that influence thermal performance of the carbon nanostructured boiling surfaces presented herein will lead to improved understanding of the underlying evaporative and boiling mechanisms in such surfaces. A flow boiling experimental facility is developed to generate consistent and accurate heat transfer performance curves with degassed and deionized water as the working fluid. New means of boiling heat transfer enhancement by altering surface characteristics such as surface energy and wettability through light-surface interactions is explored in this work. In this regard, carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings are exposed to low-intensity irradiation emitted from a light emitting diode and the subcooled flow boiling performance is compared against a non-irradiated CNT-coated copper surface. A considerable reduction in surface superheat and enhancement in average heat transfer coefficient is observed. In another work involving CNTs, the thermal performance of CNT-integrated sintered wick structures is evaluated in a passively cooled vapor chamber. A physical vapor deposition process is used to coat the CNTs with varying thicknesses of copper to promote surface wetting with the working fluid, water. Thermal performance of the bare sintered copper powder sample and the copper-functionalized CNT-coated sintered copper powder wick samples is compared using an experimental facility that simulates the capillary fluid feeding conditions of a vapor chamber. Nanostructured samples having a thicker copper coating provided a considerable increase in dryout heat flux while maintaining lower surface superheat temperatures compared to a bare sintered powder sample; this enhancement is attributed primarily to the improved surface wettability. Dynamic contact angle measurements are conducted to quantitatively compare the surface wetting trends for varying copper coating thicknesses and confirm the increase in hydrophilicity with increasing coating thickness. The second and relatively new carbon nanostructured coating, carbon nanotubes decorated with graphitic nanopetals, are used as a template to manufacture boiling surfaces with heterogeneous wettability. Heat transfer surfaces with parallel alternating superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic stripes are fabricated by a combination of oxygen plasma treatment, Teflon coating and shadow masking. Such composite wetting surfaces exhibit enhanced flow-boiling performance compared to homogeneous wetting surfaces. Flow visualization studies elucidate the physical differences in nucleate boiling mechanisms between the different heterogeneous wetting surfaces. The third and the final carbon nanomaterial, graphene, is examined as an oxidation barrier coating for liquid and liquid-vapor phase-change cooling systems. Forced convection heat transfer experiments on bare and graphene-coated copper surfaces reveal nearly identical liquid-phase and two-phase thermal performance for the two surfaces. Surface analysis after thermal testing indicates significant oxide formation on the entire surface of the bare copper substrate; however, oxidation is observed only along the grain boundaries of the graphene-coated substrate. Results suggest that few-layer graphene can act as a protective layer even under vigorous flow boiling conditions, indicating a broad application space of few-layer graphene as an ultra-thin oxidation barrier coating.

Selvaraj Kousalya, Arun

69

Influence of Strain History and Cooling Rate on the Austenite Decomposition Behavior and Phase Transformation Products in a Microalloyed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of simple strain path changes as well as post-deformation continuous cooling rate during thermomechanical-controlled processing of microalloyed steel was studied using laboratory physical simulation. The phase transformation characteristics were directly analyzed by dilatometry under various cooling rates. The microstructures of the transformation products were characterized quantitatively using EBSD. The results have shown that while strain path changes impose a considerable influence on the hot flow behavior of the austenite, the cooling rate following hot deformation is the determining factor of the phase transformation mechanism and behavior which establishes the final transformation products and subsequent mechanical properties.

Sun, L.; Muszka, K.; Wynne, B. P.; Palmiere, E. J.

2014-07-01

70

Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

1988-01-01

71

Numerical Study of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer Using One Phase Liquid Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study in 3-D is performed using water as a cooling fluid to investigate the one phase natural convection heat transfer within enclosure. A heat source representing a computer CPU mounted on one vertical wall of a rectangular enclosure is simulated while a heat sink is installed on the opposite vertical wall of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer compartment is created by using an exhaust fan, and the flow is assumed to be turbulent. The applied power considered ranges from 15 - 40 W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the dimension of the enclosure are investigated. The results illustrate that as the size of the enclosure increase the chip temperature declined. However the drop in the temperature is very small when the width increased more than 50 mm. When the enclosure was filled with water the temperature was reduced by 38%. Also the cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 71.5 C when the heat input of 40 W was assumed and this is within the current recommended computer electronic chips temperature of no more than 85C.

Gdhaidh, F. A.; Hussain, K.; Qi, H. S.

2014-07-01

72

Pressure drop of two-phase helium flowing in a large solenoidal magnet cooling path and a long transfer line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure drop of two-phase helium flowing in a 64 m cooling path of a magnet and a 58 m connecting transfer line was investigated. A large thin superconducting solenoidal magnet, which was developed for the SDC detector (Solenoidal Detector Collaboration for the former SSC project), was used for this experiment. The magnet is 3.8 m in diameter, 2 m in length with a total cold mass of 4.5 tons. It was cooled by two-phase helium flow passing through a serpentine cooling path. The pressure drops of single-phase gas helium flow during cool down and two-phase helium flow in steady cooling were measured and compared with predictions. The measured pressure drop of single-phase helium agreed well with the prediction; however, the measured pressure drop of two-phase helium was much larger than the predictions based on separated and homogeneous flow models. In the high mass-flow region of two-phase flow, slight pressure oscillations were observed in the inlet, outlet and differential pressures of the magnet. The magnet temperature was stable and not affected by those oscillations.

Haruyama, T.; Araoka, O.; Doi, Y.; Kasami, K.; Makida, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, A.

73

Two-phase mist-flow cooling in a tube with a high wall temperature  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in order to apply a large heat capacity of two-phase mist flow to obtain a uniform and gentle cooling of high-temperature surfaces, the effects of mass flow rate, mass flow quality, liquid droplet diameter, and wall heat flux on the rate of increase of fluid temperature in a tube were numerically investigated. The results indicate that a newly defined coefficient of temperature increase is low for droplet diameters less than 200 microns and for low inlet quality. A simple expression between the coefficient and the above parameters, including the effect of temperature dependence of fluid properties, was obtained for the thermally free developed region of the tube. The initial values of gas temperature and relative velocity between the droplet and the gas phase influence the coefficient primarily in the entrance region of the tube.

Namie, S. (Ship Research Inst. (JP))

1990-01-01

74

Cold fiber solid-phase microextraction device based on thermoelectric cooling of metal fiber.  

PubMed

A new cold fiber solid-phase microextraction device was designed and constructed based on thermoelectric cooling. A three-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was used for cooling a copper rod coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hollow fiber, which served as the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The copper rod was mounted on a commercial SPME plunger and exposed to the cold surface of the TEC, which was enclosed in a small aluminum box. A heat sink and a fan were used to dissipate the generated heat at the hot side of the TEC. By applying an appropriate dc voltage to the TEC, the upper part of the copper rod, which was in contact to the cold side of the TEC, was cooled and the hollow fiber reached a lower temperature through heat transfer. A thermocouple was embedded in the cold side of the TEC for indirect measurement of the fiber temperature. The device was applied in quantitative analysis of off-flavors in a rice sample. Hexanal, nonanal, and undecanal were chosen as three off-flavors in rice. They were identified according to their retention times and analyzed by GC-flame ionization detection instrument. Headspace extraction conditions (i.e., temperature and time) were optimized. Standard addition calibration graphs were obtained at the optimized conditions and the concentrations of the three analytes were calculated. The concentration of hexanal was also measured using a conventional solvent extraction method (697+/-143ng/g) which was comparable to that obtained from the cold fiber SPME method (644+/-8). Moreover, the cold fiber SPME resulted in better reproducibility and shorter analysis time. Cold fiber SPME with TEC device can also be used as a portable device for field sampling. PMID:18814881

Haddadi, Shokouh Hosseinzadeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2009-04-01

75

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

76

Feasibility study on a novel cooling technique using a phase change material in an automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of a cooling inventory is generally designed based on which size can endure the excessive heat load situations that occur sporadically. As a result, cooling systems are often too large for most normal driving modes. There have been numerous efforts to downsize the automotive engine cooling system using novel concepts and strategies. Efficient cooling in automobiles is beneficial

Ki-bum Kim; Kyung-wook Choi; Young-jin Kim; Ki-hyung Lee; Kwan-soo Lee

2010-01-01

77

The influence of different cooling processes on phase, microstructure, and magnetocaloric properties of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds are annealed at 1503 K for 5 h and cooled down to room temperature by furnace cooling, air cooling, and quenching in ice water, respectively. The main phase is 1:13 phase in those compounds. The impurity phase is ?-Fe, and the amount of LaFeSi phase is so small that it is hard to be observed in their XRD patterns. 1:13 phase has a precipitation reaction at 1308 K during cooling process and produces LaFeSi phase. But the cooling rate in the high temperature range is very high and the time kept at about 1308 K is very short, also the amount of LaFeSi phase reformed during cooling process is very small. It results in there being almost no difference in XRD patterns and SEM micrographs of LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds annealed at 1503 K (5 h) and followed by furnace cooling, air cooling, and quenching in ice water to room temperature respectively. For studying the influence of different cooling processes on magnetic property, the TC, thermal and magnetic hysteresis, magnetocaloric effect, and relative cooling power of those compounds are investigated. The result shows that the maximum ?SM (T, H) and RCP of LaFe11.6Si1.4 prepared by furnace cooling is not smaller than the other two alloys under the field of 0-2 T.

Chen, Xiang; Chen, Yungui; Tang, Yongbo

2014-05-01

78

The relationship between (Mg,Zn) 3RE phase and 14H-LPSO phase in MgGdYZnZr alloys solidified at different cooling rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mg10Gd3Y1.8Zn0.5Zr (wt.%) (GWZ1032K) alloys are prepared by permanent mold casting at cooling rate of 5K\\/s, or further prepared by melt spinning at cooling rate of 104K\\/s, or by slow solidification at different cooling rates (0.5K\\/s, 0.1K\\/s, 0.01K\\/s and 0.005K\\/s). (Mg,Zn)3RE phase and 14H-LPSO structure in alloys under different conditions are measured by XRD and observed under electron microscope. It shows

S. Zhang; G. Y. Yuan; C. Lu; W. J. Ding

2011-01-01

79

Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the patterns features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the dies properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

2006-04-01

80

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01

81

The study of a reactor cooling pump under two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the steady pressure field has been investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a nuclear reactor cooling pump. As a multiphase approach the Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid model has been applied to calculated five computational models with different kinds of blades. The analysis of inner flow field of the five model pumps shows that the pressure in the impeller increases with the increase of the gas contents and the pressure distributions are irregular at the inlet of different blades when the gas contents less than 20%. With the increase of the number of blades, the vortexes at the outlet of impeller decrease whereas the vortexes in the deep of the volute markedly increases and high velocity of the fluid huddle is generated gradually at the outlet pipes. Under the action of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, gas phase mainly concentrated at the lower velocity and lower pressure area. The radial force on the impeller gradually increases with the increase of the gas contents.

Wang, P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, F.

2015-01-01

82

Gray molasses cooling of 39 K to a high phase-space density  

E-print Network

compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray molasses type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production from efficient subdoppler cooling with light far red-detuned from the cy- cling transition [10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

84

Modelling of temperature history and phase transformations during cooling of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model based on the finite element method and additivity rule has been developed to predict temperature history and microstructural changes during cooling of steel. The utilized model considers the effects of various factors including initial austenite grain size and its role on the kinetics of pearlite and ferrite transformations, amount of residual strain within the cooling material, heat

Siamak Serajzadeh

2004-01-01

85

In vivo MRI using liquid nitrogen cooled phased array coil at 3.0 T  

PubMed Central

A liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled dual-channel array coil was designed and built for use on a 3.0-T whole-body scanner. In vivo imaging of a volunteer's fingers and imaging of a deceased mouse and oil phantom were performed using the LN2 cooled array and a similar room-temperature coil. Imaging results showed that the LN2 cooled array provides a signal-to-noise ratio gain of up to 240% as compared with its room-temperature counterpart. LN2 cooled arrays may be useful for high-resolution clinical imaging of joints, skin, eyes and peripheral vessels as well as for biomedical imaging of small animals in human disease modeling. PMID:16824977

Kwok, Wingchi E.; You, Zhigang

2010-01-01

86

Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow data from 35 stations in and near Alaska were analyzed for changes between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Winter, spring, and summer flow changes and maximum annual flow changes were different for glaciated basins (more than 10% glacier-covered area) than for nonglaciated basins, showing the influence of glaciers on historical streamflowchanges. Mean February flows, for example, increased for the median of available stations by 45% for glaciated basins and by 17% for nonglaciated ones.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.

2009-01-01

87

Three phases of cooling and unroofing in the Appalachian Basin, Pennsylvania: Implications for flexural control  

SciTech Connect

Apatite fission-track ages of 111--184 Ma and mean lengths of 10.7--13.1 [mu]m with unimodal, negatively skewed length distributions indicate slow cooling of Ordovician through Permian rocks in an area extending from the Anthracite Basin to the western Appalachian Plateau. Cooling histories modeled from fission-track data show that cooling began immediately following the Alleghanian Orogeny at 250--240 Ma. Ordovician rocks in the Juniata Culmination began to cool slightly earlier at 265 Ma, probably reflecting synorogenic unroofing of this area during formation of the Valley and Ridge duplex. Unroofing histories were modeled from cooling histories using the one-dimensional heat flow equation. Cooling and unroofing histories can be divided into three periods. The initial period of relatively rapid cooling and unroofing extended from the end of the Alleghanian Orogeny into the Jurassic and represents post-orogenic unroofing due to flexural rebound as orogenic load was removed through erosion. Initial unroofing rates are higher in eater Pennsylvania than in the west, consistent with a flexural model. A period of little to no unroofing from the Jurassic into the Miocene began contemporaneously with the inception of drift at the Atlantic continental margin. As the new continental margin subsided, the remaining load dropped below sea level and was no longer subject to removal, resulting in the cessation of flexural rebound and suppression of unroofing in the foreland. The most rapid unroofing occurred from the Miocene to the present. The nature of this event is unknown; however, it is also observed in increased sedimentation rates in the middle Atlantic offshore basins.

Blackmer, G.C.; Gold, D.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Omar, G.I. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Geology Dept.)

1992-01-01

88

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites.

Erkelens; Conrad

1994-01-01

89

On the theory of the conversion of metallic mixed phases. 5: Fluctuations and nucleation in sub-cooled phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made between fluctuation-theoretical calculations and empirical results. Concentration fluctuations and the resulting separation, and the distribution function of the reversible fluctuations are approximately calculated. The relation of this distribution to the concentration-dependence of the free energy is discussed. Possible effects of fluctuations are discussed, and other attempts to explain the sub-cooling are described.

Borelius, G.

1988-01-01

90

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01

91

Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

None

1980-01-01

92

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic-rich (~1401520mg.kg?1) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50?m). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and

C. Grosbois; A. Courtin-Nomade; E. Robin; H. Bril; N. Tamura; J. Schfer; G. Blanc

2011-01-01

93

Florida School District Teams Technology with Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses steps taken to initiate, implement, and complete the five-year technology plan of Florida's Lee County school district. The project was developed to provide computer access for the district's administrators, teachers, and students. Sidebars present project phases; inservice training opportunities for district staff; services provided by

Spriggs, Valerie, G.; Bohannon, Harriet C.

1995-01-01

94

Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem - Phase I. [astronaut liquid cooling garment design and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and test at one-g of a functional laboratory model (non-flight) Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick connect/disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

95

Numerical study of a low permeability microporous heat sink for cooling phased-array radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microporous media is being used to develop an improved forced convection cold plate device for removing waste heat from high frequency phased-array radar apertures. The waste heat, generated by transmit and receive microwave functions mounted in separate electronic modules, is conducted to the surfaces of a thin rectangular enclosure (cold plate) through which coolant flows. The performance of the phased-array

R. M. Weber

1996-01-01

96

Study of two-phase turbine engine for solar space cooling. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed mathematical description of two promising Biphase refrigeration cycles were developed and programmed on the computer (all known first-order irreversibilities were accounted for). Extensive parameter sweeps were made to identify the most effective working-fluid combinations and to determine the sensitivity of cycle-performance levels. A Cycle configuration was established for a nominal 3-ton air cooled refrigeration system and the design parameters were determined from the computer code. A series of fluid compatibility tests were run to weed out potential fluid combinations that are reactive.

Amend, W.E.

1980-08-01

97

Phase II Testing of Liquid Cooling Garments Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is used to evaluate NASA's liquid cooling garments (LCGs) used in advanced space suits for extravehicular applications. The manikin has 120 separate heated/sweating zones and is controlled by a finite element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. Previous testing showed the thermal sensation and comfort followed the expected trends as the LCG inlet fluid temperature was changed. The Phase II test data demonstrates the repeatability of ADAM by retesting the baseline LCG. Skin and core temperature predictions using ADAM in an LCG/Arctic suit combination are compared to NASA physiological data to validate the manikin/model. Additional LCG configurations are assessed using the manikin and compared to the baseline LCG. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing, including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/chemical protective suits, and fire protection suits.

Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Bue,Grant; Rugh, John

2006-01-01

98

Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual progress report (phase 2), January-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. This steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler it provides the end user with a more useable thermal energy source. Phase 1B of this project was completed in 1986 and consisted primarily of the procurement of equipment and the final design and assembly of a prototype integrated gas-engine vapor-compression system.

DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.

1988-01-01

99

Thermal management of electronics enclosures under unsteady heating\\/cooling conditions using phase change materials (PCM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work on the design and development of a phase-changing materials (PCM) heat exchanger that will actively (using air movers) store energy during high load periods and release it during low load periods. These heat exchangers are to be made of an aluminum tube bundles in which encapsulated PCM materials (such as salts, wax, etc.) are included. Air

Maurice J. Marongiu; Randy Clarksean

1997-01-01

100

Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)] [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-04-01

101

Development of technical basis in the initiating and transition phases of unprotected events for Level2 PSA methodology in sodium-cooled fast reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic safety assessment (Level-2 PSA) methodology was developed for comprehensive risk evaluation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. As part of this development, in this paper, phenomenological event trees were developed as well as technical database to quantify the probability of event sequences in the Level-2 PSA, focusing on the initiating and transition phases of unprotected events. Typical and important accident

Hidemasa Yamano; Ikken Sato; Yoshiharu Tobita

102

Stability and Phase Noise Tests of Two Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cryocooled Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 8K - 10K temperature range was previously demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(sub y) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -15) for measuring times 200 seconds less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 600 seconds using a hydrogen maser as reference. We present here test results for a second unit which allows CSO short-term stability and phase noise to be measured for the first time. Also included are design details of a new RF receiver and an intercomparison with the first CSO unit. Cryogenic oscillators operating below about 10K offer the highest possible short term stability of any frequency sources. However, their use has so far been restricted to research environments due to the limited operating periods associated with liquid helium consumption. The cryocooled CSO is being built in support of the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment and is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3-4 x 10 (exp -15) (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 100 seconds) and phase noise of -73dB/Hz @ 1Hz measured at 34 GHz. Installation in 5 stations of NASA's deep space network (DSN) is planned in the years 2000 - 2002. In the previous tests, actual stability of the CSO for measuring times tau less than or equal to 200 seconds could not be directly measured, being masked by short-term fluctuations of the H-maser reference. Excellent short-term performance, however, could be inferred by the success of an application of the CSO as local oscillator (L.O.) to the JPL LITS passive atomic standard, where medium-term stability showed no degradation due to L.O. instabilities at a level of (sigma)y = 3 x 10 (exp -14)/square root of tau. A second CSO has now been constructed, and all cryogenic aspects have been verified, including a resonator turn-over temperature of 7.907 K, and Q of 7.4 x 10 (exp 8). These values compare to a turn-over of 8.821 K and Q of 1.0 x 10 (exp 9) for the first resonator. Operation of this second unit provides a capability to directly verify for the first time the short-term (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 200 seconds) stability and the phase noise of the CSO units. The RF receiver used in earlier tests was sufficient to meet Cassini requirements for tau greater than or equal to 10 seconds but had short-term stability limited to 2-4 x 10 (exp -14) at tau = 1 second, a value 10 times too high to meet our requirements. A new low-noise receiver has been designed to provide approximately equal to 10-15 performance at 1 second, and one receiver is now operational, demonstrating again short-term CSO performance with H maser-limited stability. Short-term performance was degraded in the old receiver due to insufficient tuning bandwidth in a 100MHZ quartz VCO that was frequency-locked to the cryogenic sapphire resonator. The new receivers are designed for sufficient bandwidth, loop gain and low noise to achieve the required performance.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

1998-01-01

103

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site. Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

Erkelens, Conrad

1994-03-01

104

The influence of cooling conditions on grain size, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of biomedical alloy specimens produced by investment casting.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate and evaluate the effect of the cooling environment on the microstructure, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of an as-cast cobalt alloy. The microstructure of castings has a large bearing on the mechanical properties, grain size, porosity and the morphology of carbide precipitates are thought to influence hardness, tensile strength and ductility. It is postulated that a greater understanding of microstructure and secondary phase precipitate response to casting parameters could lead to the optimisation of casting parameters and serve to reduce the requirement of thermo-mechanical treatments currently applied to refine as-cast structures and achieve adequate mechanical properties. Thermal analysis was performed to determine the critical stages of cooling. Ten millimetre diameter cylindrical specimens which could be machined into tension test specimens were cast and cooled under different conditions to impose different cooling rates. Analytical techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), tensile testing and micro-hardness testing were used to study the specimens. Parameters studied include grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing, secondary phase precipitates, porosity, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation. The microstructure of as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo was found to consist of a dendritic matrix with secondary phases precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These secondary phase precipitates consist of carbides, rich in chromium and molybdenum. The size and area fraction of carbides was found to decrease significantly with increasing cooling rate while the micro-porosity was only marginally affected. The as-cast grains are illustrated for the first time showing a significant difference in size between insulated and naturally cooled specimens. The secondary dendrite arm spacing was determined to be significantly affected by the various cooling environments and the mechanical properties of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength all increased with increasing cooling rate while the ductility decreased. Correlations between microstructural features and mechanical properties are proposed. PMID:23683759

Kaiser, R; Williamson, K; O'Brien, C; Ramirez-Garcia, S; Browne, D J

2013-08-01

105

New petrological constraints on the last eruptive phase of the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy): Clues from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic analyses of the three youngest pyroclastic products (ca. 86 ky) belonging to the Sabatini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). By means of thermometers, hygrometers and oxygen barometers, we have estimated that the crystallization temperature of magma progressively decreases over time (910-740 C), whereas the amount of water dissolved in the melt and fO2 progressively increases as compositions of magmas become more differentiated (4.5-6.4 wt.% H2O and 0.4-2.6 ?QFM buffer, respectively). Thermodynamic simulations of phase equilibria indicate that geochemical trends in mafic magmas (MgO > 4 wt.%) can be reproduced by abundant fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene (~ 50 wt.% crystallization), while the trends of more evolved magmas (MgO ? 4 wt.%) originated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase and sanidine (~ 45 wt.% crystallization). The behavior of trace elements highlights that magmatic differentiation is controlled by polybaric differentiation that includes: (1) prolonged fractionation of mafic, anhydrous minerals from a primitive, H2O-poor magma at depth and (2) extraction of a more evolved, H2O-rich magma that crystallizes abundant felsic and subordinated hydrous minerals at shallow crustal levels. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling also reveal that magmas interacted with the carbonate rocks of the subvolcanic basement. The effect of carbonate assimilation accounts for both trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic variations in magmas, suggesting a maximum degree of carbonate assimilation of less than 5 wt.%.

Del Bello, Elisabetta; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; von Quadt, Albrecht; Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier

2014-09-01

106

Monoclinic MB phase and phase instability in [110] field cooled Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O34.5%PbTiO3 single crystals  

PubMed Central

We report the finding of a monoclinic MB phase in Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O34.5%PbTiO3 single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)?tetragonal(T)?orthorhombic(O)?monoclinic(MB), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)?MB?O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting MB and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to MB on cooling to room temperature. PMID:19730707

Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2009-01-01

107

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about 10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of 700 by half (350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

Habte, Melaku

108

Analytical and experimental study of single and two-phase cooling in miniature straight and helical channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The miniaturization of electronic circuits, higher power levels per chip and increased packaging densities have driven the trend in electronics packaging toward higher heat fluxes. High performance cooling techniques are therefore required to keep junction temperatures low for acceptable electronics reliability. High performance cooling must provide a low junction to coolant thermal resistance and the ability to absorb high heat

Robert Scott Downing

1999-01-01

109

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

110

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width of the Tetrataenite Phase and Island Phase in the Cloudy Zone"  

E-print Network

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width of a series of iron meteorites, which probably formed in one asteroid, in order to learn about how these meteorites cooled, and ultimately, how their parent asteroid formed. Meteorites are pieces

Mountziaris, T. J.

111

Scaling of the linear response function from zero-field-cooled and thermoremanent magnetization in phase-ordering kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the relation between the scaling properties of the linear response function R(t,s), of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization in the context of phase-ordering kinetics. We explain why the retrieval of the scaling properties of R(t,s) from those of TRM and ZFC magnetization is not trivial. Preasymptotic contributions generate a long crossover in TRM, while ZFC magnetization is affected by a dangerous irrelevant variable. Lack of understanding of both these points has generated some confusion in the literature. The full picture relating the exponents of all the quantities involved is explicitly illustrated in the framework of the large-N model. Following this scheme, an assessment of the present status of numerical simulations for the Ising model can be made. We reach the conclusion that on the basis of the data available up to now, statements on the scaling properties of R(t,s) can be made from ZFC magnetization but not from TRM. From ZFC data for the Ising model with d=2,3,4 we confirm the previously found linear dependence on dimensionality of the exponent a entering R(t,s)s-(1+a)f(t/s). We also find evidence that a recently derived form of the scaling function f(x), using local scale invariance arguments [M. Henkel, M. Pleimling, C. Godrche, and J. M. Luck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 265701 (2001)], does not hold for the Ising model.

Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio; Zannetti, Marco

2003-10-01

112

Effect of oxygen on phase formation and thermal stability of slowly cooled Zr 65Al 7.5Cu 17.5Ni 10 metallic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of small amounts of oxygen (0.280.6at.%) on the phase formation and the thermal stability of bulk samples of the Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10 alloy prepared by die casting into a copper mould has been studied by X-ray diffraction, microstructural characterization and differential scanning calorimetry. In contrast to rapidly quenched ribbons, the crystalline volume fraction in slowly cooled bulk samples increases with

A. Gebert; J. Eckert; L. Schultz

1998-01-01

113

Experimental and numerical investigation of single-phase heat transfer using a hybrid jet-impingement\\/micro-channel cooling scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and numerical methods were used to explore the cooling performance of a new hybrid device consisting of a slot jet impinging into a micro-channel, thus capitalizing upon the merits of both cooling configurations. The three-dimensional heat transfer characteristics of this device were analyzed using the standard k? turbulent model. Numerical predictions for liquid PF-5052 show excellent agreement with experimental

Myung Ki Sung; Issam Mudawar

2006-01-01

114

Stochastic cooling at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

Marriner, J.

1986-08-01

115

Low-Temperature Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling for High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management of Defense Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a given heat sink thermal resistance and ambient temperature, the temperature of an electronic device rises fairly linearly with increasing device heat flux. This relationship is especially problematic for defense electronics, where heat dissipation is projected to exceed 1000 W\\/cm2 in the near future. Direct and indirect low-temperature refrigeration cooling facilitate appreciable reduction in the temperature of both coolant

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2009-01-01

116

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

117

Silico-ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) Iron Ore Sinter Bonding Phases: New Insights into Their Formation During Heating and Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter phases during heating and cooling of synthetic iron ore sinter mixtures in the range 298 K to 1623 K (25 C to 1350 C) and at oxygen partial pressure of 5 10-3 atm has been characterized using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. SFCA and SFCA-I are the key bonding phases in iron ore sinter, and an improved understanding of their formation mechanisms may lead to improved efficiency of industrial sintering processes. During heating, SFCA-I formation at 1327 K to 1392 K (1054 C to 1119 C) (depending on composition) was associated with the reaction of Fe2O3, 2CaOFe2O3, and SiO2. SFCA formation (1380 K to 1437 K [1107 C to 1164 C]) was associated with the reaction of CaOFe2O3, SiO2, and a phase with average composition 49.60, 9.09, 0.14, 7.93, and 32.15 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. Increasing Al2O3 concentration in the starting sinter mixture increased the temperature range over which SFCA-I was stable before the formation of SFCA, and it stabilized SFCA to a higher temperature before it melted to form a Fe3O4 + melt phase assemblage (1486 K to 1581 K [1213 C to 1308 C]). During cooling, the first phase to crystallize from the melt (1452 K to 1561 K [1179 C to 1288 C]) was an Fe-rich phase, similar in composition to SFCA-I, and it had an average composition 58.88, 6.89, 0.82, 3.00, and 31.68 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. At lower temperatures (1418 K to 1543 K [1145 C to 1270 C]), this phase reacted with melt to form SFCA. Increasing Al2O3 increased the temperature at which crystallization of the Fe-rich phase occurred, increased the temperature at which crystallization of SFCA occurred, and suppressed the formation of Fe2O3 (1358 K to 1418 K [1085 C to 1145 C]) to lower temperatures.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2012-12-01

118

Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

2008-02-12

119

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15

120

Lost in Transition: HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Infection among Young People Living in Post-Emergency Phase Transit Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. Methods In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu Districts sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.7018.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.286.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.436.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.045.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Conclusions Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV. PMID:24587034

Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Atim, Stella; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

121

Minimally cooled heterojunction laser heterodyne detectors in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxially grown Hg1-xCdxTe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking advantage of Auger suppression techniques, the leakage currents of room temperature infrared detectors operating in the LWIR band can be greatly reduced. At present, these detectors suffer from large 1/f noise and hence the improvement in the detectivity resulting from the reduced leakage currents can only be realized at high frequencies. However, this is not a problem for heterodyne systems which employ intermediate frequencies above 40 MHz. A thermo-electrically cooled Auger suppressed infrared detector operated at 260K has been studied as a heterodyne detector. The device was operated with the application of sufficient local oscillator power to double its dark current (about 0.3 mW) and a NEP of 2 x 10-19 W Hz-1 was deduced from heterodyne measurements. The frequency response is presently limited by a combination of the detector capacitance and the series resistance to about 70 MHz and ways to reduce this series resistance are considered.

Elliott, C. T.; Gordon, N. T.; Phillips, T. J.; Steen, H.; White, A. M.; Wilson, D. J.; Jones, C. L.; Maxey, C. D.; Metcalfe, N. E.

1996-08-01

122

Benchmarking of thermal hydraulic loop models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES), phase-I: Isothermal steady state forced convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As highly promising coolant for new generation nuclear reactors, liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic has been extensively worldwide investigated. With high expectation about this advanced coolant, a multi-national systematic study on LBE was proposed in 2007, which covers benchmarking of thermal hydraulic prediction models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES). This international collaboration has been organized by OECD/NEA, and nine organizations - ENEA, ERSE, GIDROPRESS, IAEA, IPPE, KIT/IKET, KIT/INR, NUTRECK, and RRC KI - contribute their efforts to LACANES benchmarking. To produce experimental data for LACANES benchmarking, thermal-hydraulic tests were conducted by using a 12-m tall LBE integral test facility, named as Heavy Eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of Operability and Safety of PEACER (HELIOS) which has been constructed in 2005 at the Seoul National University in the Republic of Korea. LACANES benchmark campaigns consist of a forced convection (phase-I) and a natural circulation (phase-II). In the forced convection case, the predictions of pressure losses based on handbook correlations and that obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics code simulation were compared with the measured data for various components of the HELIOS test facility. Based on comparative analyses of the predictions and the measured data, recommendations for the prediction methods of a pressure loss in LACANES were obtained. In this paper, results for the forced convection case (phase-I) of LACANES benchmarking are described.

Cho, Jae Hyun; Batta, A.; Casamassima, V.; Cheng, X.; Choi, Yong Joon; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Meloni, P.; Nitti, F. S.; Dedul, V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Komlev, O.; Jaeger, W.; Sedov, A.; Kim, Ji Hak; Puspitarini, D.

2011-08-01

123

School District Energy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

124

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

125

Laser linewidth hazard in optomechanical cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss the robustness of pumped cavity dynamics against phase diffusion of the laser and conclude that optomechanical cooling has extreme sensitivity compared to laser cooling of atoms. Certain proposals for ground-state optomechanical cooling by a single cavity would require an unrealistically sharp laser linewidth or, equivalently, a very low level of phase noise. A systematic way to cancel classical

Lajos Disi

2008-01-01

126

Leaner Class Sizes Add Fiscal Stress to Florida Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a total price tag pushing $10 billion, Florida's "class-size-reduction mandate"--the nation's toughest--is under fire, as school districts call on lawmakers to weaken the 2002 constitutional requirement before it is fully phased in later this year. Starting with the 2008-09 school year, individual districts must meet new size caps in each

McNeil, Michele

2008-01-01

127

Studies on magnetohydrodynamic flow characteristics and heat transfer of liquid metal two-phase flow cooling systems for a magnetically confined fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid metal cooling for the first wall and blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor has various advantages. However, it has the disadvantages of large magnetohydrodynamic pressure drops and heat transfer deterioration under a strong magnetic field. Thus, the present authors have proposed cooling with a helium-lithium annular mist flow as well as the cooling with a liquid metal boiling

Minoru Takahashi; Akira Inoue; Masanori Aritomi; Mitsuo Matsuzaki

1995-01-01

128

Search for cool giant exoplanets around young and nearby stars. VLT/NaCo near-infrared phase-coronagraphic and differential imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and future high-contrast imaging instruments. It aims to reduce the stellar speckles that prevent the detection of cool planets by using in/out methane-band images. It attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, such as angular differential imaging (ADI). However, this attenuation depends on the spectral properties of the low-mass companions we are searching for. The implications of this particularity on estimating the detection limits have been poorly explored so far. Aims: We perform an imaging survey to search for cool (Teff< 1000-1300 K) giant planets at separations as close as 5-10 AU. We also aim to assess the sensitivity limits in SDI data taking the photometric bias into account. This will lead to a better view of the SDI performance. Methods: We observed a selected sample of 16 stars (age <200 Myr, distance <25 pc) with the phase-mask coronagraph, SDI, and ADI modes of VLT/NaCo. Results: We do not detect any companions. As for the estimation of the sensitivity limits, we argue that the SDI residual noise cannot be converted into mass limits because it represents a differential flux, unlike what is done for single-band images, in which fluxes are measured. This results in degeneracies for the mass limits, which may be removed with the use of single-band constraints. We instead employ a method of directly determining the mass limits and compare the results from a combined processing SDI-ADI (ASDI) and ADI. The SDI flux ratio of a planet is the critical parameter for the ASDI performance at close-in separations (?1''). The survey is sensitive to cool giant planets beyond 10 AU for 65% and 30 AU for 100% of the sample. Conclusions: For close-in separations, the optimal regime for SDI corresponds to SDI flux ratios higher than ~2. According to the BT-Settl model, this translates into Teff ? 800 K, which is significantly lower than the methane condensation temperature (~1300 K). The methods described here can be applied to the data interpretation of SPHERE. In particular, we expect better performance with the dual-band imager IRDIS, thanks to more suitable filter characteristics and better image quality. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO programs 085.C-0257A, 086.C-0164A, and 088.C-0893A.

Maire, A.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Sylvestre, M.; Baudoz, P.; Galicher, R.; Mouillet, D.

2014-06-01

129

Cool Suit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acurex developed a heat stress alleviating, liquid cooled helmet liner for military pilots after a series of accidents in Vietnam suggested heat exhaustion as the cause. System pumped a cooled liquid through channels in the helmet liner proved effective in eliminating 40-60% of stored body heat.

1987-01-01

130

Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for

Ruder, Robert

2010-01-01

131

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01

132

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

133

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01

134

Application of analytical capability to predict rapid cladding cooling and quench during the blowdown phase of a large break loss-of-coolant accident. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

Large-break Experiments L2-2 and L2-3 conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility experienced core-wide rapid quenches early in the blowdown transients. To further investigate rapid cladding quenches, separate effects experiments using Semiscale solid-type electric heater rods were conducted in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) over a wide range of inlet coolant conditions. The analytical capability to predict the cladding temperature response from selected LTSF experiments estimated to bound the hydraulic conditions causing the LOFT early blowdown quenches was investigated using the RELAP4 computer code and was shown to be acceptable over the film boiling cooldown phase. This analytical capability was then used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuel rods under the same hydraulic conditions. The calculations show that, under rapid cooling conditions, the behaviors of nuclear and electrical heater rods are significantly different because the nuclear rods are conduction limited, while the electrical rods are convection limited.

Aksan, S.N.; Tolman, E.L.; Nelson, R.A.

1983-01-01

135

The Annual Warm to Cold Phase Transition in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: Diagnosis of the Role of Stratus Cloud-Top Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the last finding, a new feedback mechanism can be envisioned for the rapid development of the coastal southerly surface-wind tendency and stratocumulus clouds-in which the lower tropospheric cooling over the southeastern tropical Pacific, due to longwave radiative cooling from the stratocumulus cloud tops, generates southerly surface winds, which in turn foster stratocumulus growth from the increased meridional cold

Sumant Nigam

1997-01-01

136

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about 10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of

Melaku Habte

2008-01-01

137

Role of conformational isomerism in solvent-mediated charge transfer in chiral (S) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline methanol (THIQM): condensed-phase to jet-cooled spectroscopic studies.  

PubMed

Intramolecular charge-transfer reaction in chiral (S) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline methanol (THIQM) has been investigated in the condensed phase and in jet-cooled conditions by means of laser-induced fluorescence, dispersed emission, resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization, and IR-UV double resonance experiments, as well as quantum chemical calculations. In the condensed phase, THIQM only shows local emission in nonpolar and protic solvents and dual emission in aprotic polar solvents, where the solvent-polarity dependent Stokes shifted emission is ascribed to a state involving charge transfer from the nitrogen lone pair to the benzene ?-cloud. Ab initio calculations reveal two low-energy conformers, which are observed in jet-cooled conditions. In the most stable conformer, THIQM(I), the CH(2)OH substituent acts as a hydrogen bond donor to the nitrogen lone pair in the equatorial position, while the second most stable conformer, THIQM(II), corresponds to the opposite NHO hydrogen bond, with the nitrogen lone pair in the axial position. The two low-energy jet-cooled conformers of THIQM evidenced from the laser-induced fluorescence and dispersed emission spectra only show structured local emission. Complexes with usual solvents reproduce the condensed phase properties. The jet-cooled complex with aprotic polar solvent acetonitrile shows both local emission and charge transfer emission as observed in solution. The jet-cooled hydrate mainly shows local emission due to the unavailability of the nitrogen lone pair through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:21344939

Chakraborty, Amrita; Guchhait, Nikhil; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Lepre, Valeria; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

2011-09-01

138

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF VERMONT  

E-print Network

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF VERMONT GREEN MOUNTAIN CHRYSLER-PLYMOUTH- DODGE AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS, Plaintiff, v. THOMAS W. TORTI, Secretary of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources

Hansen, James E.

139

Cooling Off  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to challenges of maintaining temperatures while living in space. Thinking and acting like scientists and engineers, learners experiment to learn how to measure the specific heat capacity (or simply, specific heat) of water and then design an improved cooling system like those used in spacesuits. This lesson is developed using a 5E model of learning. In the ENGAGE section of the lesson, learners look at NASA technology and its relationship to improvements in athletic clothing and equipment. They learn about technology in spacesuit design and the use of this technology in everyday life. Working in teams, students conduct experiments relating to specific heat capacity on a cooling system they design in the EXPLORE and EXPLAIN sections. They are challenged to improve the cooling system in the EXTEND section of this lesson. Learners assess their understanding and abilities throughout the lesson and revisit the Essential Questions during the EVALUATE section.

NASA

2014-06-27

140

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07

141

Cooling vest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive vest of heat-sealable urethane material, when strapped to person's body, presents significant uncomplicated cooling system for environments where heavy accumulation of metabolic heat exists. Garment is applicable to occupations where physical exertion is required under heavy protective clothing.

Kosmo, J.; Kane, J.; Coverdale, J.

1977-01-01

142

Cooling rate and carbon content effect on the fraction of secondary phases precipitate in as-cast microstructure of ASTM F75 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple test castings were used to study the effect of cooling rate and carbon content in as-cast microstructure of alloy ASTM F75, Co26wt.% Cr5.7wt.% Mo. Alloys with four C content (0.45, 0.33, 0.36 and 0.25wt.%) were poured into investment ceramic molds. In order to obtain different cooling rates, the castings were constituted of three axisymmetrical cylinders of different diameters (12,

L. E. Ramrez-Vidaurri; M. Castro-Romn; M. Herrera-Trejo; C. V. Garca-Lpez; E. Almanza-Casas

2009-01-01

143

FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,

Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

144

By Katie Newton Louisville District  

E-print Network

By Katie Newton Louisville District See Guard, Page 5 Great White Egret (Ardea alba) foraging U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Louisville District has been working closely with the Kentucky Army from the Louisville District to perform a Threatened and Endangered Species investigation of the center

US Army Corps of Engineers

145

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

146

District-Level Downsizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

147

Rightsizing a School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in

Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

2012-01-01

148

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

149

Methods of beam cooling  

SciTech Connect

Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

Sessler, A.M.

1996-02-01

150

Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating  

SciTech Connect

The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

1980-06-01

151

Cool Sportswear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

1982-01-01

152

Cool Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science is quite cool, but you don't need to tell this to the dedicated team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Their website, Cool Science, entertains questions of all kinds, encourages young scientists to "get their hands dirty", and also provides educators with a range of resources, including interactive media features, lesson plans, and lab exercises. These materials are contained with six primary sections: "For Educators", "Biointeractive", "For Curious Kids", and "Ask A Scientist". Educators of all stripes can use the "For Educators" area to focus in on resources organized by type, topic, grade level, and also to sign up for the resources RSS feed. Moving on, the "Biointeractive" area features archived video lectures, virtual labs, and another series of animations on stem cells, cancer, and immunology. There's a great deal to explore here, and it's a site that anyone with an interest in science will want to share with others.

153

Mergers, cooling flows, and evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mergers (the capture of cold gas, especially) can have a profound influence on the hot coronal gas of early-type galaxies and clusters, potentially inducing symptoms hitherto attributed to a cooling flow, if thermal conduction is operative in the coronal plasma. Heat can be conducted from the hot phase into the cold phase, simultaneously ionizing the cold gas to make optical filaments, while locally cooling the coronal gas to mimic a cooling-flow. If there is heat conduction, though, there is no standard cooling-flow since radiative losses are balanced by conduction and not mass deposition. Amongst the strongest observational support for the existence of cooling-flows is the presence of intermediate temperature gas with x-ray emission-line strengths in agreement with cooling-flow models. Here, x-ray line strengths are calculated for this alternative model, in which mergers are responsible for the observed optical and x-ray properties. Since gas around 10(exp 4) K is thermally stable, the cold cloud need not necessarily evaporate and hydrostatic solutions exist. Good agreement with the x-ray data is obtained. The relative strengths of intermediate temperature x-ray emission lines are in significantly better agreement with a simple conduction model than with published cooling-flow models. The good agreement of the conduction model with optical, infrared and x-ray data indicates that significantly more theoretical effort into this type of solution would be profitable.

Sparks, W. B.

1993-01-01

154

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

155

Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bread board heat pump was designed and built to test the performance of a vapor compression heat pump with two stage ammonia-water solution circuits. The design was updated based on the experience gained with the single stage version of this heat pump. A major improvement was obtained by eliminating the rectifier. The new scheme was first investigated by computer

Radermacher

1991-01-01

156

Energy Accounting for District Heating and Cooling Plants  

E-print Network

,000 + 66.000 .. 132,000 lbs/hr. 9. Gas Cost 184,037.760 5,936.702 [f '3 was aha on lina for 21 days during a ]1 day n'll.nth tht?n: CiJpac1ty on Hne .. 66,000 + 66,000 + 21,SSS(21!l1) ? 1500,629 lbs/hr. 10. Tota! Co.t 185,167.434 5,973.143 14. Item 12...

Barrett, J. A.

1979-01-01

157

Sorption cooling: A valid extension to passive cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the expander in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of, e.g., hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and on the limitations of passive cooling for lower cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the reduction of the radiator area needed by the sorption cooler. The application field of this type of sorption cooling in space missions is currently being expanded by examining the performance of alternative working fluids, suitable for different cooling temperatures.

Doornink, D. J.; Burger, J. F.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2008-05-01

158

Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the restriction in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of e.g. hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and the limitations on passive cooling at low cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the reduction of the radiator area needed by the sorption cooler. By examining the performance of alternative working fluids suitable for different cooling temperatures, the application field of this type of sorption cooling is currently expanded.

Doornink, Jan; Burger, Johannes; ter Brake, Marcel

2007-10-01

159

HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual  

SciTech Connect

HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

1981-03-01

160

"Strategic Review of FY06 District & School-Level Resources". In Fulfillment of a Memorandum of Understanding between: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and The Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA). Phase II- Final ERS Report. An Executive Summary and Management Brief Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2006, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and the Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that called for a third-party research firm to analyze resource use across the Los Angeles school system. Education Resource Strategies (ERS) was chosen to conduct this analysis. The study was

Frank, Stephen; Travers, Jonathan

2007-01-01

161

75 FR 52734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Cooling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Approval; Cooling Water Intake Structure Phase II Existing Facilities (Renewal...Title: Cooling Water Intake Structure Phase II Existing Facilities (Renewal...Abstract: The section 316(b) Phase II Existing Facility rule requires...

2010-08-27

162

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

163

Calculation and visual displaying of the water chemistry conditions in return cooling systems at thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matters concerned with treatment of cooling water at thermal power stations are addressed. Problems arising during operation of return cooling systems equipped with cooling towers are analyzed. The software used for monitoring, control, and indication of the hydraulic and water chemistry operating conditions of the circulation system at the Yaivinsk district power station is considered.

Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Ivanov, E. N.; Makushin, A. A.

2013-07-01

164

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

165

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2010-10-01

166

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2012-10-01

167

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2011-10-01

168

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper systems. In this work, we have studied magmatic Ap from Late Miocene dacitic porphyries spatially and temporally associated to the Cu-(Mo) La Huifa- La Negra prospect (4 km NE from the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, Chile). These felsic rocks formed from hydrous magmas as indicated by early crystallized Hb (before Bt). Al-Hb geobarometer indicates that phenocrysts formed at 2 Kb, while fine grained groundmass suggests a depressurization. Ap is present as small (10-50 microns) subhedral to euhedral prisms included in Fe-Ti oxides, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite phenocrysts (IAp), and as bigger (up to 300 microns) isolated microphenocrysts (MAp), indicating crystallization throughout magmatic evolution. About 300 EPM analyses of Cl, F and SO3 have been performed on Ap in different textural positions. Only Ap included in anhydrous phases (mostly Pl and oxides) and unaltered grains from the groundmass were used to evaluate volatile evolution. Calculated apatite saturation temperature following Piccoli and Candela (1994) indicates that they started to crystallize 900C. The most outstanding chemical feature of the studied Ap is their high Cl (up to 4.52 wt%) and SO3 (up to 0.98 wt%) contents, being highest in IAp. Cl/F and Cl/OH strongly decrease from ApI to MAp within all studied samples varying in SiO2 content from 66.3 to 69.7 wt%. They display a continuous and well defined trend. This variation is controlled mainly by Cl decrease and F increase, meanwhile OH remains roughly constant. SO3 in Ap varies from 0.98wt% in IAp to below detection limit (0.02 wt% SO3) in MAp. S and Cl in Ap show a general positive correlation being their contents in IAp higher than those in MAp. The results are consistent with Ap starting to crystallize at 2Kb, in equilibrium with an early formed, high temperature, highly saline S-rich magmatic volatile phase that evolved toward less saline less S-rich compositions. The strong decrease of Cl/OH as F increases indicates that the exsolved volatile phase is a single phase (supercritical), in agreement with its P and T of formation. High sulfur contents in IAp suggest the host magma was sulfate-rich, and thus oxidized as it's also suggested by high Mg# (0.66-0.75) in primary ferromagnesian minerals. Sulfur presence, along with Cl, would enhance metal (Cu) partitioning from melt into magmatic volatile phase (Simon et al, 2006), while low crystal charge prevailing during early volatile exsolution would favour coalescence and upward migration processes, to finally accumulation in upper parts of the system. Thus, the aqueous Cl and S-rich fluids exsolved, at high pressure (2 Kb), upon magma differentiation at La Huifa-La Negra prospect, could have efficiently extracted metals from the magma and hence, it would have the potential to create a hydrothermal ore deposit provided that the magma was not erupted and that the necessary conditions for subsequent ore deposition prevailed. This is a contribution to DIUC 203-320-013-1 Piccoli, P. and Candela, P. 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Simon, A.C., Pettke, T., Candela, P., Piccoli, P. y Heinrich, C.A., 2006. GCA, 70, 5583-5600.

Hernandez, L. B.; Rabbia, O. M.

2009-05-01

169

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

170

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

Rosen, Jay

171

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

, contracting, and university admission decisions, violates the United States Constitution. On December 11, 2006UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND 8, 2006 by several plaintiffs who claim that a recently-approved state constitutional amendment

Shyy, Wei

172

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating... 953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each district...establish and organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers within each...

2010-01-01

173

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

174

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19

175

A Demographic Analysis of the Impact of Property Tax Caps on Indiana School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, the Indiana legislature passed and the governor signed into law House Enrolled Act No. 1001, now referred to as Public Law 146-2008, which capped Indiana school districts' ability to raise revenues from the local property tax without local voter approval. To phase in the impact of the law, the state provided school districts with

Hirth, Marilyn A.; Lagoni, Christopher

2014-01-01

176

National Association of Conservation Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

177

Cooling tower  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cooling tower comprising: an outer structure composed of a side wall and a top cover; the top cover having an opening on its center with a deflection device for reducing re-circulation of air within the housing; a motor which is fixed in a motor seat and whose shaft forms a spindle which rotates a rotatable cylinder; a rotatable cylinder having sides which have a plurality of small apertures, a centrifugal fan being an integral part of the rotating cylinder, the bottom portion of the cylinder engaging the shaft of the motor, the centrifugal fan comprising: a first flange on the top portion, a second flange on the portion with apertures, a plurality of blades which are equally spaced and fixed between the first and second flanges; a screen positioned concentrically around the rotatable cylinder and secured onto the inside of the top cover of the outer structure, the screen comprising a net and a frame, the frame further comprising a flange and skirt, the frame being secured onto the inside of the top cover of the outer structure with the flange, the skirt extending upwards and inwards through the bottom portion of the rotatable cylinder, the net adherent to the frame.

Liu, W.H.

1987-08-18

178

Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating  

SciTech Connect

The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

1980-03-01

179

Film cooling performance of liner cooling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the film cooling performance of several liner cooling devices are obtained over the range of velocity and density ratios relevant to gas turbines. Among the devices with tangential injection, the wiggle strip device and the machined ring with skirt construction provide the most effective film cooling. The addition of a skirt to the wiggle strip may improve its

B. R. Pai; R. Lakshminarayanan

1981-01-01

180

A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks  

E-print Network

November 2011 Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC Stacks Heat generation Cooling Review a b with liquid (water or antifreeze coolant), and (iv) cooling with phase change (evaporative cooling and coolingReview A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

Kandlikar, Satish

181

Transfer Education: San Mateo County Community College District. Board Report Numbers 85-4-1C and 85-12-2C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1984, a study was conducted in the San Mateo County Community College District (SMCCCD) to examine the state of transfer education in the district. During the first phase of the study, available data were gathered and examined with respect to: (1) flow of district transfers to the University of California (UC) and California State University

Young, Frank

182

Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling-jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual progress report (Phase 1B) January-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler it provides the end user with a more-usable thermal-energy source.

DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.; Balsavich, J.

1987-01-01

183

Designing a Comprehensive School District Assessment Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive assessment plan designed by the Kitsap (Washington) School District. This plan clarifies district assessment purposes and aligns student evaluation with the district's new performance-based content standards. The test provides a model for other districts seeking to integrate curriculum standards, instruction, and

Elman, Linda; Chappuis, Stephen; Chappuis, Jan

1998-01-01

184

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-print Network

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially suppressed 3P_2 neutron gap if free quarks occur for M < 1.3 M_sun, as it follows from our EoS, one could not appropriately describe the neutron star cooling data existing by today. It is suggested to discuss a "2SC+X" phase, as a possibility to have all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X-gap is of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV. Density independent gaps do not allow to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X-gap that decreases with increase of the density could allow to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model.

H. Grigorian

2005-02-28

185

The Effect of the Rate of Cooling from High-Temperature Single-Phase Region on the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of AlNi Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of as-cast and melt spun AlNi alloys was studied by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The magnetic properties of the alloys were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The water quenched and melt spun AlNi samples were characterized by zone microstructure formed as a result of solid solution decomposition into ?- and ?2 phases within the miscibility gap. Therefore, the subsequent aging of as-quenched alloy leads to the development of the zone microstructure instead of the decomposition of single-phase solid solution. The absence of preferential precipitations and discontinuous precipitation (DP) reaction was observed at grain boundaries (GB) of as-cast AlNi alloy after aging. The antiphase domains (APD) have been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons prepared by melt spinning. The effects of GB and APD boundaries on the decomposition of a solid solution in the AlNi ribbons were investigated. At first, a thin ?-phase layer is formed along GB and APD boundaries. Then the decomposition leads to the formation of ?2-phase layers on the both sides of ?-phase layer. The GB and APD boundaries, which are decorated by precipitates of ?- and ?2 layers, become visible in the TEM and AFM micrographs. A DP reaction at GBs has been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons after supplementary aging. The cellular microstructure at GBs consisting of alternating lamellas of ?'- and ?'2 phases was formed after aging the ribbons at 773 K (500 C) for 10 minutes.

Menushenkov, Vladimir P.; Gorshenkov, Mikhail V.; Savchenko, Elena S.; Zhukov, Dmitry G.

2015-02-01

186

Venus rack cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A rack cooling system for the VENUS detector has been developed. It uses forced-air cooling and has enough cooling power for crates with as much as 1500 watts of power consumption. The design and the cooling performance for FASTBUS crates are reported.

Tanaka, R.; Arai, Y.; Ishihara, N.

1986-02-01

187

Laser Cooling without Spontaneous Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter reports the demonstration of laser cooling without spontaneous emission, and thereby addresses a significant controversy. It works by restricting the atom-light interaction to a time short compared to a cycle of absorption followed by natural decay. It is achieved by using the bichromatic force on an atomic transition with a relatively long excited state lifetime and a relatively short cooling time so that spontaneous emission effects are minimized. The observed width of the one-dimensional velocity distribution is reduced by 2 thereby reducing the "temperature" by 4 . Moreover, our results comprise a compression in phase space because the spatial expansion of the atomic sample is limited. This accomplishment is of interest to direct laser cooling of molecules or in experiments where working space or time is limited.

Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

2015-01-01

188

ASTROMAG coil cooling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

1990-01-01

189

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

190

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

191

78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...

2013-06-21

192

The Calcutta metropolitan district.  

PubMed

11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence. PMID:12268497

1987-01-01

193

Plugging of cooling holes in film-cooled turbine vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plugging of vane cooling holes by impurities in a marine gas turbine was closely simulated in burner rig tests where dopants were added to the combustion products of a clean fuel (Jet-A). Hole plugging occurred when liquid phases, resulting from the dopants, were present in the combustion products. Increasing flame temperature and dopant concentration resulted in an increased rate of deposition and hole plugging.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

194

Intermediate Energy Electron Cooling for Antiproton Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron cooling at low energies ((gamma) slightly greater than one) has been shown to be an extremely effective means to increase the phase space density of proton beams. This document starts with a review of the progress made in low energy electron cooling, followed by a brief look at the parameters of intermediate energy electron cooling. ((gamma) of five to ten). The results of an emittance measurement done on an electrostatic accelerator are presented indicating that such a device would be ideal for intermediate energy electron cooling. A complete electron optics design of the system is done next, solving the beam envelope evolution problem in the presence of emittance, space charge, and acceleration. Application of intermediate energy electron cooling to the Fermilab antiproton source is theoretically studied. The amount of time it takes for the antiproton beam to cool is calculated including the effects of finite electron beam temperature, betatron oscillations, and intrabeam scattering. A four ampere electron beam will cool the Fermilab antiproton beam in half an hour. Lastly, the final equilibrium antiproton emittances obtainable are estimated. Equilibrium between the competing processes of intrabeam scattering and electron cooling exists when the transverse antiproton beam emittances are 0.12 (pi) mm-mr and the longitudinal antiproton beam emittance is (DELTA)p/p = 1 x 10('-5). This represents a phase space density increase of about 15 in each transverse plane, and an improvement of 20 in the energy resolution of the accumulator. Possible instabilities of such a dense beam are investigated.

Larson, Delbert John

195

Autoionization-detected infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled aromatic cations in the gas phase: CH stretching vibrations of isolated p-ethylphenol cations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first observation of CH stretching vibrations of isolated aromatic molecular cations in the gas phase was performed by using autoionization-detected infrared (ADIR) spectroscopy. Aromatic and alkyl CH stretching vibrations of p-ethylphenol ( p-EP) in the cationic ground state were observed and compared with those of the neutral ground state. Distinct high-frequency shifts of these vibrations upon ionization were found. CH stretching vibrations of the p-EP-Ar cluster cation were also measured by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy, providing essentially the same vibrational spectrum as that of the bare cation.

Fujii, Asuka; Fujimaki, Eiji; Ebata, Takayuki; Mikami, Naohiko

1999-04-01

196

Converting existing power plants to district energy supply  

SciTech Connect

Existing single purpose steam electric generating stations can be retrofitted to supply thermal energy for district heating and cooling systems. In modern systems, such retrofits usually involve diverting steam from the turbine cycle to specially designed heat exchangers where the steam is condensed and the temperature of the water to be supply to the district heating system is raised. Chilled water can be generated by steam driven chillers. The steam can be extracted from the cycle at existing feedwater heating extraction points, at new extraction points made in the turbine casing, or at crossovers between turbine sections. An alternative is to convert a turbine to backpressure mode by eliminating or bypassing the lowest pressure stages and exhausting the total flow to a district heating condensing heat exchanger. Retrofitting existing turbine generators stations to provide steam for distracting energy provides a means for improving the overall fuel efficiency of a station to very high values. This is possible because much of the heat which is rejected as waste in a normal single purpose plant can be sold as a useful product. The value of the heat sold by the combined heat and electric generating station is naturally much lower per unit of energy than the electricity but the economics may still be very attractive because the relatively low pressure at which steam is supplied to a district energy system allows much of the energy available for generation to be obtained before the steam is extracted from the cycle. For a retrofit to be economically attractive, the value of the steam extracted for district energy must exceed all the costs associated with providing it. These costs include replacement of any lost electric power generation, payback for the capital cost of the retrofit, operating and maintenance costs associated with the extraction and any additional fuel consumption beyond that required for generation without extraction.

Oliker, I. [Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ (United States)

1996-11-01

197

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

198

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-print Network

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01

199

Radial turbine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

Roelke, Richard J.

1992-01-01

200

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state materialan elastic shape memory metal alloyas a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01

201

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2013-01-01

202

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2012-01-01

203

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2014-01-01

204

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2011-01-01

205

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2010-01-01

206

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2012-01-01

207

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2014-01-01

208

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2013-01-01

209

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2011-01-01

210

7 CFR 959.17 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions 959.17 District. District means each of the geographic divisions of...

2011-01-01

211

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2010-01-01

212

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following districts of the production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim Wells, Nueces, Kleberg, Brooks,...

2010-01-01

213

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2011-01-01

214

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2010-01-01

215

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2014-01-01

216

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2012-01-01

217

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2013-01-01

218

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2010-01-01

219

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

220

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2014-01-01

221

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2011-01-01

222

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2013-01-01

223

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2013-01-01

224

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2014-01-01

225

7 CFR 920.12 - District  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions 920.12 District District means the applicable one of the following...

2011-01-01

226

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2012-01-01

227

Water-cooled electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60W

G. Dumont; Ph. Fontaine Vive Roux; B. Righini

2000-01-01

228

Controlled Rate Cooling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

229

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

230

Head cooling and heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of head and body cooling during hyperthermia were investigated to determine whether head cooling alone would overcome some of the problems of heat stress. Measurements of body temperature, heart rate, psychomotor performance and subjective comfort were made during cycles of head and body heating and cooling. Heart rates were highest with head and body heating, less with head

D. C. Reader; S. A. Nunneley; R. J. Maldonado

2009-01-01

231

The Cool Flames Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to volume ratio, and (T(bar) - Tw ) is the spatially averaged temperature excess. This Newtonian form has been validated in spatially-uniform, well-stirred reactors, provided the effective heat transfer coefficient associated with the unsteady process is properly evaluated. Unfortunately, it is not a valid assumption for spatially-nonuniform temperature distributions induced by natural convection in unstirred reactors. "This is why the analysis of such a system is so difficult." Historically, the complexities associated with natural convection were perhaps recognized as early as 1938 when thermal ignition theory was first developed. In the 1955 text "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics", Frank-Kamenetskii recognized that "the purely conductive theory can be applied at sufficiently low pressure and small dimensions of the vessel when the influence of natural convection can be disregarded." This was reiterated by Tyler in 1966 and further emphasized by Barnard and Harwood in 1974. Specifically, they state: "It is generally assumed that heat losses are purely conductive. While this may be valid for certain low pressure slow combustion regimes, it is unlikely to be true for the cool flame and ignition regimes." While this statement is true for terrestrial experiments, the purely conductive heat transport assumption is valid at microgravity (mu-g). Specifically, buoyant complexities are suppressed at mu-g and the reaction-diffusion structure associated with low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignitions can be studied. Without natural convection, the system is simpler, does not require determination of the effective heat transfer coefficient, and is a testbed for analytic and numerical models that assume pure diffusive transport. In addition, mu-g experiments will provide baseline data that will improve our understanding of the effects of natural convection on Earth.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

2001-01-01

232

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

Not Available

2011-08-01

233

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

Not Available

2011-08-01

234

Evaporative cooling of the dipolar radical OH  

E-print Network

Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling: it led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed matter phenomena. More recently, great progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases, whose permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate rich, novel, and controllable phases, dynamics, and chemistry in these ultracold systems. However, while many strides have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not yet been achieved due to unfavorable elastic-to-inelastic ratios and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. We now report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of hydroxyl (OH) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least an order of magnitude in temperature and three orders in phase-space density, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and sufficiently large initial populations, much colder temperatures are possible, and even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical -- or anything else it can sympathetically cool -- may now be in reach.

Benjamin K. Stuhl; Matthew T. Hummon; Mark Yeo; Goulven Qumner; John L. Bohn; Jun Ye

2012-09-27

235

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24

236

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

2010-03-01

237

The model of District Medical Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the infrastructure for the healthcare system, The District Medical Data Center need to be built at first. The model of architecture of District Medical Data Center is proposed in the paper. Both the advantages and disadvantages of the model are set forth while the view is presented. The District Medical Data Center is patient-centered instead of accounting-centered in the

Zhang Jiemin; Lu Jinsheng

2010-01-01

238

Working Together: Districts and the State Department.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Department of Education officials visited Azusa Unified School District as part of their study on the governance of education after Proposition 13. This article summarizes, from the District's perspective, the discussions on categorical programs and ways the State Department could help the district to improve education.

Beall, Lewis L.

1978-01-01

239

Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a

Cline, David S.

2011-01-01

240

Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District was authorized and formed by the State of Vermont on January 8, 1946, under the provisions of the Soil Conservation Act No. 246 of the Acts of the 1939 Vermont General Assembly. It is one of 14 Conservation Districts in the state of Vermont. Windham District is a political subdivision of the State

Vice Chairperson; Gail MacArthur; Andrea Darrow

241

District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the

Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

2014-01-01

242

7 CFR 916.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area or such other subdivision as may be prescribed pursuant to 916.31: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Madera and Fresno. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

243

California's Districts of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any

Kronholz, June

2014-01-01

244

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

245

Marketing Techniques for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."

Lane, John J., Ed.

246

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

247

Competition with Charters Motivates Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school

Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

2013-01-01

248

Diversity at Sherwood Forest District  

E-print Network

Working with inner city schools #12;Diversity at Sherwood Social deprivation Community WoodlandsDiversity at Sherwood Forest District #12;Diversity at Sherwood Forestry Commission #12;Diversity at Sherwood Sherwood's Team Shortlisted for Civil Service `Diversity and Equality Award' #12;Diversity

249

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

250

Disk instabilities and cooling fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion disk outbursts, and their subsequent decline, offer a unique opportunity to constrain the physics of angular momentum transport in hot accretion disks. Recent work has centered on the claim by Cannizzo et al. that the exponential decay of luminosity following an outburst in black hole accretion disk systems is only consistent with a particular form for the dimensionless viscosity, ?=35(cs/r?)3/2. This result can be understood in terms of a simple model of the evolution of cooling fronts in accretion disks. In particular, the cooling front speed during decline is ~?Fcs,F(cs,F/r?)n, where F denotes the position of the cooling front, and the exact value of n depends on the hot state opacity, (although generally n~1/2). Setting this speed proportional to r constrains the functional form of ? in the hot phase of the disk, which sets it apart from previous arguments based on the relative durations of outburst and quiescence. However, it remains uncertain how well we know the exponent n. In addition, more work is needed to clarify the role of irradiation in these systems and its effect on the cooling front evolution.

Vishniac, Ethan T.

1998-04-01

251

Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional  

E-print Network

and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50­100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package, the current single-phase cooling technology is projected to pro- vide adequate cooling, albeit with high , significant changes need to be made in both electrical and cooling technologies through a new level

Kandlikar, Satish

252

Cooling-rate effects in a model of (ideal?) glass  

E-print Network

Using Monte Carlo simulations we study cooling-rate effects in a three-dimensional Ising model with four-spin interaction. During coarsening, this model develops growing energy barriers which at low temperature lead to very slow dynamics. We show that the characteristic zero-temperature length increases very slowly with the inverse cooling rate, similarly to the behaviour of ordinary glasses. For computationally accessible cooling rates the model undergoes an ideal glassy transition, i.e., the glassy transition for very small cooling rate coincides a thermodynamic singularity. We also study cooling of this model with a certain fraction of spins fixed. Due to such heterogeneous crystalization seeds the final state strongly depends on the cooling rate.Only for sufficiently fast cooling rate does the system end up in a glassy state while slow cooling inevitably leads to a crystal phase.

A. Lipowski; D. Johnston

1999-10-22

253

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20

254

The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part III GIS Coverage for the Valle de Jurez Irrigation District 009 (ID-009) (Distrito de Riego 009) Chihuahua, Mxico  

E-print Network

November 2009 November 2009 NMWRRI Report No. 348, Part III TWRI TR 359, Part III The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) New Mexico Water... COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-359, Part III 2009 The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part III GIS Coverage for the Valle...

Granados, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Sheng, Zhuping; King, J. Phillip; Creel, Bobby; Brown, Christopher; Michelsen, Ari

2009-01-01

255

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

256

The cooling of particle beams  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

Sessler, A.M.

1994-10-01

257

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-print Network

T he drop in milk production in the summer causes sig- nificant economic losses in the dairy industry. That decrease in production is brought on by heat stress, and studies have documented that cooling lactat- ing cows increases their milk pro... studies have investigat- ed whether cooling dry cows affects postpartum milk produc- tion and reproductive measures, but the results so far have been inconclusive. In deciding whether to install cooling systems for dry cattle, producers should consider...

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17

258

S'COOL Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This flyer is a two-page overview of the Student Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) education project. It covers the project's educational contributions, societal benefits, educational outgrowths, and scientific findings. The flyer shows the numbers and locations of S'COOL participation and regional observation coverage. It also contains URLs for online resources (e.g., GLOBE contrail education and S-COOL Website).

2005-01-01

259

Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

Litvinenko, Vladimir N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

2009-03-20

260

Heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heating and cooling homes and businesses require a major energy commitment. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needed to heat and cool homes and workplaces. Students explore energy requirements in the home and at work and discuss current technologies to improve heating and cooling efficiencies. Articles on heat pumps and solar heating and cooling techniques are accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on air conditioning efficiency and a link to material discussing alternatives to air conditioning are also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

261

Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Elias, Yuval [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mor, Tal [Computer Science Department, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Weinstein, Yossi [Physics Department, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2011-04-15

262

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

263

Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A

Perry, Mary

2005-01-01

264

High-Temperature Turbine-Technology Program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Design and development of a regeneratively fuel cooled high temperature gas turbine combustor for operation on low Btu gas  

SciTech Connect

The fuel-air requirements for low Btu gas combustors result in a paucity of cooling air which results in low Btu gas-fueled air cooled combustor designs with annular configurations with complex flow path schemes to maximize cooling efficiency. These design trends are in the direction of reduced maintainability and reliability. Alternatively, if the low Btu gas can be utilized as a cooling medium before it is combusted, conventional multiple can arrangements with simple convection-cooled liner can be developed. This report describes the design, fabrication and test of a full scale industrial gas turbine burner can with convective cooling of the liner wall by 150 Btu/scf gaseous fuel typical of air-blown gasification of coal. The entire primary combustion zone burner wall surface area was cooled with 375/sup 0/F LBG fuel, which after cooling the wall was reinjected for combustion. The fuel gas cooling passage is a concentric annulus of nominal .140'' height, designed to limit linear temperature to a maximum of 1200/sup 0/F at approximately 4% gas supply pressure loss. The 10-in. internal diameter combustor can was successfully operated up to 6 atmospheres pressure, burning 150 Btu/scf gaseous fuel up to 3000/sup 0/F average exit temperature. The fuel cooling effect and combustor exit emissions levels were determined for gas supply temperatures of 150 and 375/sup 0/F. All liner temperature measurements were well below the average 1200/sup 0/F estimated for the 3000/sup 0/F design point. This was confirmed by post-test visual inspection of all components which were found in excellent condition. In addition, the NO/sub x/ emissions level at the nominal 3000/sup 0/F combustor exit temperature was substantially below the EPA regulatory level of 75 ppM when adjusted for pressure level effect of 15 atm and 15% oxggen.

Not Available

1982-07-01

265

Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium  

SciTech Connect

One of the most precisely determined upper limits for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is set by the thallium (Tl) atomic beam experiment. One way to enhance the sensitivity of the atomic beam setup is to laser cool the Tl atoms to reduce the EDM-like phase caused by the Exv effect. In this report, a cooling scheme based on the 6P{sub 3/2}(F=2){r_reversible}6D{sub 5/2}(F{sup '}=3) transition in Tl is proposed. The absolute frequency measurement of this nearly closed-cycle transition was performed in an atomic beam apparatus. Two Ti:sapphire lasers were frequency-doubled using enhancement cavities in X-type configurations to provide the needed 377- and 352-nm light sources for the optical pumping and cooling transitions, respectively. The absolute frequency of this cooling transition is determined to be 851 634 646(56) MHz.

Fan, Isaac; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Lien, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yi-Wei [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shy, Jow-Tsong [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-15

266

Stacking with stochastic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10 5 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the ' old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

Caspers, Fritz; Mhl, Dieter

2004-10-01

267

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

268

Low-temperature water reactor for the district heating atomic power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural convection low-pressure water reactor can be utilized as a source of district heating. This provides inherent safety factors under conditions requiring emergency core cooling. The reactor pressure vessel is contained within a prestressed concrete shell, both of which are designed to withstand accident overpressure. This also results in a relatively thin-walled reactor vessel that can be fabricated on-site.

S. A. Skvortsov; I. N. Sokolov; L. V. Krauze; Yu. G. Nikiporetz; Y. V. Philimonov

1978-01-01

269

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

270

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-print Network

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

271

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

272

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26

273

S'COOL Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2009-04-01

274

Why Cool Roofs?  

SciTech Connect

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

275

Cool Earth Solar  

SciTech Connect

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2013-04-22

276

Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

Faulkner, F. E.

1971-01-01

277

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28

278

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

Wagner, E.P. Jr.

1999-01-12

279

Turbine blade cooling  

DOEpatents

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20

280

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

281

HOW DOES THE DISTRICT LOOK FROM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to explore image-building strategies developed by industrial district firms and collective agents operating within local systems. As globalisation increases, the ability to project a positive, identity-congruent industrial district image may be a crucial competitive factor at an international level. Through in-depth interviews with Sassuolo district senior managers, together with secondary source information, we explore the ceramic tile

Gianluca Marchi; Elisa Martinelli

282

Patterns of Government for Wisconsin School Districts. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines the characteristics of the five kinds of Wisconsin school districts: the common school district, the union high school district, the city school district, the unified school district, and the city of the first class. The report discusses general characteristics, annual meetings, school board duties and powers, mechanisms

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Board and Administrator Services.

283

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

284

Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija

2011-01-01

285

Disks around Brown Dwarfs and Cool Stars  

E-print Network

We review the current picture of disks around cool stars and brown dwarfs, including disk fractions, mass estimates, disk structure and dispersal, accretion, dust composition, and the debris disk phase. We discuss these in the framework of recent planet formation models.

Daniel Apai; Kevin Luhman; Michael Liu

2007-02-10

286

Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the

McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

2003-01-01

287

The Interrelationship of School District Expenditures and Student Academic Achievement in Oklahoma Public Elementary School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose and Method of Study. The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between school district expenditures and student academic achievement in 102 public elementary school districts in the state of Oklahoma. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationship between school district expenditures and

Moore, Glenn M.

2012-01-01

288

A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Missouri District Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Missouri district is a small rural school district with 450 students and 51 staff with a total of 210 client computers. The district consists of two schools (K-6 and 7-12) housed in a single building. This document contains the results of the four 2004 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) case studies: (1) Software costs; (2) Hardware costs; (3)

Consortium for School Networking, 2004

2004-01-01

289

Quasistatic Field-Cooled Dielectric Response in Relaxor Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasistatic dielectric response in PMN relaxor system was studied as a function of the dc electric field by utilizing a charge accumulation technique in a field-cooled experiment. An anomaly associated with the onset of spontaneous polarization was observed in the linear field-cooled dielectric response when crossing electric field threshold line E T (T) separating the relaxor and ferroelectric phases in

Z. Kutnjak; A. Levstik; R. Pirc

2002-01-01

290

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Water of Yangluo Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal pollution due to the cooling water project of the phase IV expansion project of Yangluo power plant is studied using a 2-D horizontal mathematical model, to predict the flow and temperature fields of the warm water outflow from the power plant. Based on the calculated area of thermal pollution of this cooling water project, proposals to reduce the

Wenqian Qu; Xiaofeng Zhang; Xinhua Lu

2009-01-01

291

Implementation of Stochastic Cooling Hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider  

SciTech Connect

The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab

2011-08-01

292

A New Kind of School District: How Local Leaders Can Create Charter Districts. The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This short paper discusses the advantages of and outlines key design issues for creating charter districts. The design issues are divided into three categories representing the three central elements of the environment the districts are trying to create for their schools: the opportunity to perform, incentives to perform, and capacity to perform.

Hassel, Bryan

293

Doppler cooling a microsphere.  

PubMed

Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity-dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the whispering gallery mode resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. The scattering force is not limited by saturation but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20?m diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers. PMID:20868038

Barker, P F

2010-08-13

294

Personal Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

1986-01-01

295

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-print Network

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20

296

ElectronicsCooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An important concern facing electronics designers is heat dissipation. Especially in laptop computers and server farms, overheating can be a major problem. ElectronicsCooling is a free, quarterly publication that provides "practical information to the reader that relates to cooling of today's electronics." Every article since the magazine's debut in 1995 can be viewed from this site. Common topics are packaging, thermal design, and technical data related to many types of electronics. Contributions to ElectronicsCooling are generally from industry and academia.

2002-01-01

297

S'COOL Bookmarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bookmarks featuring the S'COOL project - Student Cloud Observations On-Line - are presented here in both teacher's and student's versions. The teacher's version includes a brief introduction to the CERES satellite instrument on the front, and a short description of the role of student cloud observers on the back. The student's version, which is also available in Spanish and French, describes cloud formation on one side and provides a very brief introduction to S'COOL and CERES on the other. S'COOL engages students in making and reporting ground truth observations of clouds then comparing those observations with data from the CERES satellite instrument.

298

Metallographic Cooling Rate of IVA Irons Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is long standing problem reconciling the chemical evidence that the IVA iron meteorites formed in a core with the diverse cooling rates reported by several researchers. This large inferred range of cooling rates suggests that the IVA irons were distributed at different depths in a parent body with a complex structure when the Widmanstatten pattern formed. On the other hand, some researchers argued that the diverse cooling rates in group IVA result from inaccurate model parameters such as phase diagram, interdiffusion coefficients, and kamacite nucleation and growth mechanisms. In addition, the measured cooling rates may not apply for the same cooling temperature ranges, and the variation in the crystallographic orientations of the Widmanstatten plates on the analysis surface may result in inaccurate measurements of widths needed for the computer simulation models. We have revaluated the major parameters in computer model developed by Hopfe and Goldstein and measured cooling rates for the IVA irons. Such data are useful in evaluating whether these meteorites were part of a single core of a parent body during the formation of the Widmanstatten pattern.

Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.

2005-01-01

299

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is Moon Mountain District Sonoma County....

2014-04-01

300

Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

Mannlein, Sally

2001-01-01

301

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-print Network

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

302

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-print Network

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Mller

2014-03-20

303

Keeping Your Cool  

MedlinePLUS

... About Helmets H2O Smartz Keeping Your Cool The Bully Roundup Comeback Play it Safe Safety Smartz Having ... Out Your Issues Break the Anger Chain The Bully Roundup Comebacks Choices & Consequences Feeling Left Out? Tricks ...

304

Turbine airfoil film cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental data obtained in this program gives insight into the physical phenomena that occur on a film cooled airfoil, and should provide a relevant data base for verification of new design tools. Results indicate that the downstream film cooling process is a complex function of the thermal dilution and turbulence augmentation parameters with trends actually reversing as blowing strength and coolant-to-gas temperature ratio varied. The pressure surface of the airfoil is shown to exhibit a considerably higher degree of sensitivity to changes in the film cooling parameters and, consequently, should prove to be more of a challenge than the suction surface in accurately predicting heat transfer levels with downsteam film cooling.

Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

1987-01-01

305

Cool Jobs for Girls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a site produced by Work4Women and Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW). WOW defines a cool job as "as high-wage non-traditional occupations, jobs in which women represent less than 25% of the workforce."

306

Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by

Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

2007-01-01

307

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

308

Brevard District Plan for Career Education Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Brevard County Plan was written to include goals and objectives for the years 1974-77. Goals for 1974-75 include promoting the career education concept in all district schools (emphasizing the various career education elements at appropriate grade levels), setting up placement services, coordinating county and district goals, program

Thomas, Olive W.

309

District of Columbia v. Heller and Originalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 26, 2008, the United States Supreme Court handed down its 5-4 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, striking a District of Columbia statute that prohibits the possession of useable handguns in the home on the ground that it violated the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Justice Scalia's majority opinion drew dissents from Justice Stevens and

Lawrence B. Solum

2009-01-01

310

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2010-01-01

311

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2011-01-01

312

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2012-01-01

313

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2014-01-01

314

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2013-01-01

315

Improving Districts: Systems That Support Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current focus on accountability for results, many schools are finding ways to continuously improve their practices and better meet the needs of all children. School districts, too, are focused on the goal of continuous improvement. Nine districts, remarkable for the success they have demonstrated in helping the majority of their schools,

WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

316

Teacher-Quality Checklist for School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts struggle with multiple--and often incompatible--data systems for tracking payroll, collecting teacher evaluations, recruiting and hiring. Aligning these systems and annually assessing where a district stands is the first step towards developing a smart human capital strategy. This checklist outlines the goals, data and questions a

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

2010-01-01

317

School Turnarounds: The Essential Role of Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inspiration for this book was a crucial observation: that if the school turnaround movement is to have widespread and lasting consequences, it will need to incorporate meaningful district involvement in its efforts. The result is a volume that considers school turnaround efforts at the district level, examining the evidence thus far and

Zavadsky, Heather

2012-01-01

318

Affirmative Action Plan for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a model for use by any size or type of school district in developing an affirmative action plan. The model is intended to give districts a clear idea of what affirmative action requires and what type of program must be implemented for affirmative action to be successful. Separate sections of the booklet discuss numerical

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

319

Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction

Castner, Myra H.; And Others

320

School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

2009-01-01

321

Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

322

The New American Urban School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Commission of the States has found that urban school districts face enormous problems. This document looks at a variety of ideas about how to re-engineer the urban school district. These essays encourage educators and the public to think about the nation's urban school systems and how they might better meet the needs of children. The

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

323

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

324

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2011-01-01

325

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2012-01-01

326

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2013-01-01

327

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

328

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-print Network

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation of the DH plant Imanta · Selection of the heat pump/chiller · Operation of the heat pump/chiller · Summary

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

329

Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Intermittent attention to the district as the unit of study has left a void in our understanding of the complexities associated with the ability of district-level leaders to contribute to successful, systemic educational reform. In this article, the authors address this void by providing a narrative synthesis of previous findings,

Rorrer, Andrea K.; Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph

2008-01-01

330

The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation

Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

331

School Attendance and District and School Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size of schools and districts in which they are located has become a salient policy issue in recent years. While consolidation of school districts and expanding high school size were in vogue from the 1960s until recently, funding agencies are now sponsoring projects to reduce school size under the assumption that smaller schools will lead to

Jones, John T.; Toma, Eugenia F.; Zimmer, Ron W.

2008-01-01

332

Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Public elementary and secondary education is financed in many states at least partially at the local level and school district budgets in many states are determined by voter referenda. To date, however, there have been no studies that sought to explain why the proportion of school district budget proposals in a state that are approved by voters in referenda

Ronald G Ehrenberg; Randy A. Ehrenberg; Christopher L. Smith; Liang Zhang

2003-01-01

333

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

334

SOME ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORAPUT DISTRICT ORISSA  

PubMed Central

The paper presents the ethnomedicinal use of 35 plants by the tribals of Koraput district to cure 25 diseases they suffer from. Apart from this, a note on the vegetation pattern, tribal population and geography of the district is given here. PMID:22557632

Das, P.K.; Misra, M.K.

1988-01-01

335

Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address

McDaniel, Gwenn

2010-01-01

336

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

337

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

338

Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of

Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

2012-01-01

339

Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English

Bidin, Zainin

2012-01-01

340

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

341

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01

342

Solar heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

343

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS MAKE MONEY Robert Burger President ABSTRACT Question:-Why is the low bidder system a sacred cow? If contractors understand, by specifications, that the second low bidder will be awarded the contract all bidders will do... cooling tower designer can use a larger box size and reduce the horsepower 25 to 30%. However this larger box size costs more money than the smaller box. It will have more evaporation fill surface than a smaller box with a higher horsepower motors...

Burger, R.

344

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11

345

Advanced cooling techniques for FASTBUS electronics  

SciTech Connect

A multi-phase research and development effort has been conducted to explore improved cooling techniques for the FASTBUS system. The research was supported by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Some of the relevant, major requirements and limits of this system are: 1. The cooling system should not significantly interfere with the rapid handling of the cards; 2. The die temperatures of the integrated circuits should not exceed 85/sup 0/C; 3. The temperature differential between the dies of emitter coupled logic (ECL) circuits that connect directly to each other should not exceed 30/sup 0/C; 4. The temperature differential of the cooling air between any two points in the module should not exceed 20/sup 0/C; 5. In air cooled modules, the air temperature should not exceed 60/sup 0/C anywhere; and 6. The noise emanating from the computer should be at a tolerable level. The first requirement, together with some related considerations, virtually excludes any direct liquid cooling schemes. Thus heat removal from the chips themselves can be achieved either by convection to air or by a heat conducting structure which transfers the heat to the coolant used. The second through fourth requirements are generally rigorous. However, the fifth is for plastic encased microchips (CA3083 16-pin, high current transistor, dual in-line package) and can be relaxed for other types with lower internal thermal resistances. Our work can be divided into three parts. The first dealt with the development of an air cooled system based on the state-of-the-art of commercially available technology. The second explored various air cooling techniques and the third, examined methods where the heat from the chips was conducted to water cooled plates located parallel to the chip carrying cards.

Chato, J.C.; Golliher, E.L.; Downing, R.W.

1986-02-01

346

On radiational cooling computations in clouds.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expressions are derived for the cooling or heating rates for clouds in which the condensed phase is either ice or water. Values are computed for ice and water clouds over a reasonable temperature range for pressures of 1000, 500, and 200 mb. The importance is shown of adequately allowing for the latent load in computations of radiative cooling or heating rates based on measurements of radiative divergence in clouds. It is shown that, other things being equal, the effect of the latent load is always greatest at low levels and higher temperatures.

Knollenberg, R. G.

1972-01-01

347

A study on the energy performance of three schemes for widening application of water-cooled air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hong Kong Government intends to reduce greenhouse gases emissions from power stations through widening application of the more energy efficient water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) in buildings. Consideration is being given to the development of centralized, district wide systems for supplying seawater for once-through condenser cooling (the CPSSCC scheme), or for make-up of water losses at cooling towers (the CPSSCT

F. W. H. Yik; J. Burnett; I. Prescott

2001-01-01

348

Cool Flame Quenching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism, following the work on diffusion-controlled cool flames by Fairlie et,al., 2000.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

2001-01-01

349

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER  

SciTech Connect

Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

2009-02-10

350

Spray Cooling Modeling: Droplet Sub-Cooling Effect on Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems.

Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P. [Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC, 700 Research Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Bell 4190 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Silk, Eric A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2008-01-21

351

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,? which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

352

Cooled RF Stacking Injection in the Iucf Cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indiana University Cooler is an electron-cooled storage ring and synchrotron designed primarily for internal target nuclear physics experiments. The Cooler is injected by a two-stage cyclotron which delivers 300 nA of polarized proton beam at kinetic energies up to 200 MeV. The desired luminosity of multipass internal target experiments in the Cooler requires that the ring current be increased by 10^2 to 10^4 times. Multiturn injection of the fully stripped ions was therefore necessary. A difficulty of multiturn injection of the Cooler involves the small design aperture of the ring: the transverse acceptance and momentum acceptance of the Cooler are both only about an order of magnitude larger than that of the injected beam. The smaller aperture design was an essential feature to bring down the construction and operating cost. Use of the electron cooling technology, on the other hand, makes the phase space density of the stored beam compressible in the Cooler. The total longitudinal emittance of the tightly bunched cyclotron beam is quite small, making phase space density-conserved longitudinal stacking possible. A good combination of longitudinal stacking and electron cooling has the potential to avoid both the accumulation rate limit imposed by cooling and the phase space saturation limit imposed by incompressibility of phase space volume. This thesis addresses development of longitudinal stacking with electron cooling at the IUCF Cooler. Effort was concentrated on circumventing the difficulties caused by the aperture limitation while maximizing the benefit of electron cooling phase space density compression. Aside from the general design and beam experiments on multiturn accumulation, much of the discussion focuses on special considerations for Cooler stacking. They include beam momentum spread reduction by synchrotron phase space rotation, stack phase displacement reduction by deceleration in a small bucket and electron cooling, longitudinal debunching stack heating reduction by adiabatic and precursor rf manipulations, and transverse kicker stack heating reduction by fundamental frequency rf bunching and electron cooling.

Pei, Xiaomin

353

Conduction and cooling flows  

E-print Network

Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have confirmed the presence of large temperature gradients within the cores of many relaxed clusters of galaxies. Here we investigate whether thermal conduction operating over those gradients can supply sufficient heat to offset radiative cooling. Narayan & Medvedev (2001) and Gruzinov (2002) have noted, using published results on cluster temperatures, that conduction within a factor of a few of the Spitzer rate is sufficient to balance bremsstrahlung cooling. From a detailed study of the temperature and emission measure profiles of Abell 2199 and Abell 1835, we find that the heat flux required by conduction is consistent with or below the rate predicted by Spitzer in the outer regions of the core. Conduction may therefore explain the lack of observational evidence for large mass cooling rates inferred from arguments based simply on radiative cooling, provided that conductivity is suppressed by no more than a factor of three below the full Spitzer rate. To stem cooling in the cluster centre, however, would necessitate conductivity values at least a factor of two larger than the Spitzer values, which we consider implausible. This may provide an explanation for the observed star formation and optical nebulosities in cluster cores. The solution is likely to be time dependent. We briefly discuss the possible origin of the cooler gas and the implications for massive galaxies.

L. M. Voigt; R. W. Schmidt; A. C. Fabian; S. W. Allen; R. M. Johnstone

2002-06-13

354

Newton's Law of Cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students come to see the exponential trend demonstrated through the changing temperatures measured while heating and cooling a beaker of water. This task is accomplished by first appealing to students' real-life heating and cooling experiences, and by showing an example exponential curve. After reviewing the basic principles of heat transfer, students make predictions about the heating and cooling curves of a beaker of tepid water in different environments. During a simple teacher demonstration/experiment, students gather temperature data while a beaker of tepid water cools in an ice water bath, and while it heats up in a hot water bath. They plot the data to create heating and cooling curves, which are recognized as having exponential trends, verifying Newton's result that the change in a sample's temperature is proportional to the difference between the sample's temperature and the temperature of the environment around it. Students apply and explore how their new knowledge may be applied to real-world engineering applications.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

355

Optimization of evaporative cooling C. A. Sackett, C. C. Bradley, and R. G. Hulet  

E-print Network

Optimization of evaporative cooling C. A. Sackett, C. C. Bradley, and R. G. Hulet Physics Recent experiments have used forced evaporative cooling to produce Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases. The evaporative cooling process can be optimized to provide the maximum phase-space density

Sackett, Cass

356

Coronal Structures in Cool Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many papers have been published that further elucidate the structure of coronas in cool stars as determined from EUVE, HST, FUSE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations. In addition we are exploring the effects of coronas on the He I 1083081 transition that is observed in the infrared. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Ground-based magnetic Doppler imaging of cool stars suggests that active stars have active regions located at high latitudes on their surface. We have performed similar imaging in X-ray to locate the sites of enhanced activity using Chandra spectra. Chandra HETG observations of the bright eclipsing contact binary 44i Boo and Chandra LETG observations for the eclipsing binary VW Cep show X-ray line profiles that are Doppler-shifted by orbital motion. After careful analysis of the spectrum of each binary, a composite line-profile is constructed by adding the individual spectral lines. This high signal-to-noise ratio composite line-profile yields orbital velocities for these binaries that are accurate to 30 km/sec and allows their orbital motion to be studied at higher time resolutions. In conjunction with X-ray lightcurves, the phase-binned composite line-profiles constrain coronal structures to be small and located at high latitudes. These observations and techniques show the power of the Doppler Imaging Technique applied to X-ray line emission.

Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

2004-01-01

357

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

358

Research Proposal for the Design and Engineering Phase of a Solar Heating and Cooling System Experiment at the Warner Robins Public Library, Warner Robins, Georgia. Submitted to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of reasons are advanced to include a solar heating and cooling experiment in a library building. The unique aspects of the experiment are to be a seasonally adjustable collector tilt and testing of a new generation of absorption air conditioners. After a brief description of the proposed experiment, the proposal contains forms filed by

Phillips, Warren H.; And Others

359

Design and development of LH2 cooled rolling element radial bearings for the NERVA engine turbopump. Volume 3: Phase 2: Tests on build-ups 16, 17, and 18 at NRDS, Jackass Flats, Nevada, December 1971 - March 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of liquid hydrogen to cool the rolling element radial bearings in the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles is discussed. The fifteen hour service life goal was obtained during the tests. The increase in bearing life was also considered to be produced by: (1) improvements in bearing material, (2) bearing retainer configuration and manufacturing changes, and (3) better control of operating parameters.

Accinelli, J. B.; Koch, D. A.; Reuter, F.

1972-01-01

360

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

361

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

362

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Students Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

363

Doppler cooling a microsphere  

E-print Network

Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

P. F. Barker

2010-04-08

364

Doppler cooling a microsphere  

E-print Network

Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

Barker, P F

2010-01-01

365

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended investigation students determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when its cold and how they cool the brood when its hot. In the process, students will discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible. Required materials and step-by-step instructional guidelines are included in a pdf guide. Teachers and students may extend upon this activity by using their honeybee investigations to design open-ended experiments to determine ways to heat and cool things through direct contact (conduction), through the movement of air or water (convection), and by evaporation.

Bob Madsen, Dull K.

366

Cooling of dense stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some recent work on thermal properties of dense stars is described. It is now generally believed that pulsars are rotating, magnetic neutron stars (Gold, 1968). Moreover, theoretical considerations and some observational evidence (such as the speed-ups of the Crab and Vela pulsars) suggest the presence of superfluids in neutron stars. In the earlier cooling calculations the effect of magnetic fields and superfluidity was not taken into account. In the recent work, emphasis was placed on the effect of these new factors, which were expected to reduce cooling rates significantly. The new outcome may prove valuable for the understanding of pulsar and X-ray star problems.

Tsuruta, S.

1974-01-01

367

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

368

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

369

Cooling with Sunshades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about passive cooling methods. Learners will construct a simple device to measure how effective different materials are for protecting against sunlight, explain how heat relates to the motion of atoms and molecules, describe how heat can be transmitted from one place to another, explain how sunlight arriving on Earth interacts with matter, and describe how MESSENGER is protected by a simple sunshade in the hot Mercurian environment. Materials required to do this activity include several commonly-found items (e.g., coffee cans, ice cubes, tape, ruler, calculators, stopwatch, and scale). This is lesson 3 of 4 at the Grade 9-12 range of "Staying Cool."

370

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a three-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force-the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultralow temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, Jos P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-11-01

371

S'COOL Poster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images, charts and text aligned to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project are presented on this PDF version of a two-sided classroom poster. S'COOL engages students in making and reporting ground truth observations of clouds then comparing those observations with data from the CERES satellite instrument. The poster includes background information on the CERES instrument, images of clouds by both type and altitude, and charts and text explaining related topics such as surface cover, air pressure, temperature, time, latitude and longitude, and relative humidity.

2013-01-21

372

{open_quotes}Understanding district energy customer behavior - the key to getting customers and keeping them happy{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

The market share achieved by district energy systems is frequently represented as a percentage of a particular country`s total energy consumption, or as a percentage of the energy used for heating and cooling. While such characterizations of district energy`s market share are valid and important from a producer`s perspective, the position of the customer is not well represented. The effectiveness of communicating market share in this way greatly depends on the district energy customers` knowledge about the local, regional and national energy markets. It also fails to take into account the differences among customer buildings and their individual energy consumption patterns. An alternative view of market share is suggested when the perspective of the district energy markets shifts from that of the producer`s to the ends user`s. End users of district energy typically are responsible for the ownership and/or the operation of a building. This includes providing energy for comfort, lighting and any processes being conducted in the building. Fundamentally, district energy customers are in the property management business. Their business operations are represented and rated with respect to the building area they manage. Frequently, several buildings are managed by one company. An extensive amount of research has been done about the behavior of consumers when making buying decisions. This includes the fact that product and service buying behavior differs. Also, the field of customer satisfaction is rich with clues on how to keep our customers happy with their decisions to use district energy. This report presents key considerations about buyer behavior and customer satisfaction as they relate to marketing in the district energy field.

Kattner, J.F.

1995-09-01

373

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

374

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

375

An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform

Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

2012-01-01

376

A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district

Sampson, Pauline M.

2011-01-01

377

The Creative Cost Management Strategies of Two School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Oregon schools districts that have been effective in managing their resources are Reedsport, a smaller district and the subject of part 1 of this bulletin; and Beaverton, one of the largest districts in the state, the focus of part 2. The Reedsport district plans the use of its funds based on a goal-setting process in the areas of instruction,

Pheasant, Marilyn

1984-01-01

378

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524  

E-print Network

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PO BOX 131 CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524 208-843-2931 PHONE AVENUE, SUITE 1100 PORTLAND, OREGON 97204-1348 FROM: NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PROJECTS DATE: 10/4/06 Dear Council Members: The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District

379

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01

380

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26

381

Solidere : the battle for Beirut's Central District  

E-print Network

The Beirut Central District was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War which extended from 1975 to 1990. Unable to reconstruct the center itself, the Lebanese government turned to a private Real Estate Holding Company ...

Mango, Tamam, 1981-

2004-01-01

382

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...County, Imperial County, Riverside County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists of Sonoma County, Napa County, and Marin County. [41 FR 17528, Apr. 27, 1976, as amended at 71 FR 41351, July 21, 2006]...

2014-01-01

383

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County, Imperial County, Riverside County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists of Sonoma County, Napa County, and Marin County. [41 FR 17528, Apr. 27, 1976, as amended at 71 FR 41351, July 21, 2006]...

2013-01-01

384

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County, Imperial County, Riverside County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists of Sonoma County, Napa County, and Marin County. [41 FR 17528, Apr. 27, 1976, as amended at 71 FR 41351, July 21, 2006]...

2012-01-01

385

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Riverside County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists of Sonoma County, Napa County, and Marin County. [41 FR 17528, Apr. 27, 1976, as amended at 71 FR 41351, July 21,...

2011-01-01

386

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Riverside County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists of Sonoma County, Napa County, and Marin County. [41 FR 17528, Apr. 27, 1976, as amended at 71 FR 41351, July 21,...

2010-01-01

387

7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN ...Producer and Handler Members 1210.401 District...producer and two handler members on the Board. ...subpart. (f) The Board member nomination process...chairperson to the Board staff in a manner that...

2010-01-01

388

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR...the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the geographic location of areas of...

2013-01-01

389

Northside Maker District Prepared by the  

E-print Network

ScoutNorth & Northside Maker District Prepared by the Carlson Ventures Enterprise Erik Greene, John · Real-time demographics data Key Partners · Workforce development programs (buy-in) · METP (owner

Minnesota, University of

390

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations 932.121 Producer districts. Pursuant to the authority in ...

2014-01-01

391

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations 932.121 Producer districts. Pursuant to the authority in ...

2012-01-01

392

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations 932.121 Producer districts. Pursuant to the authority in ...

2013-01-01

393

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations 932.121 Producer districts. Pursuant to the authority in ...

2010-01-01

394

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations 932.121 Producer districts. Pursuant to the authority in ...

2011-01-01

395

Buffalo district heating system design and construction  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the introduction of district heating in Buffalo, NY from feasibility study to implementation. The reemergence of district heating in the US and associated advantages are reviewed. Advanced piping technology which has enabled district heating to compete economically with alternative technologies is summarized. Identification and analysis of the customer heat load considered in downtown Buffalo for the pilot system and future expansion is discussed. Various options for initiating construction of a district heating system were considered as exemplified by the configuration for the pilot system which was selected to serve five downtown buildings. A conceptual plan is presented which permits the system to expand in an economically viable manner. The report concludes with an economic analysis which simulates the operation and expansion of the system. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Oliker, I.

1987-11-01

396

Rochester City School District Peer Assistance Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author evaluates the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) program in the Rochester City School District, Rochester, NY. The author evaluates the system's strengths and weaknesses and discusses the program's alignment with New York State requirements.

Chierichella, Patrick

2010-01-01

397

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim Wells, Nueces, Kleberg, Brooks, Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of...

2014-01-01

398

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2014-01-01

399

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2010-01-01

400

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2011-01-01

401

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2012-01-01

402

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2013-01-01

403

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2010-01-01

404

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2011-01-01

405

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2012-01-01

406

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2014-01-01

407

The cooling rate dependence of crystallization for liquid copper: A molecular dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of tight-binding scheme have been performed to study the relationship between the resulting crystallization microstructure of the liquid copper and the cooling rate. Below the glass-forming critical cooling rate, the metastable hcp phase and the stable fcc phase can coexist in the resulting configuration with all sorts of proportion and various forms such as layering and phase separation. The sizes and the distributions of the two crystalline phases depend on the cooling rate: the faster the cooling rate the larger percents of the metastable hcp phase and the more easily the layering take place. From the split of peaks of the angular distribution function, for both hcp and fcc phase the faster the cooling rate is the more imperfect they are, which may be considered as the precursor of glass-forming.

Liu, C. S.; Xia, Junchao; Zhu, Z. G.; Sun, D. Y.

2001-05-01

408

A study of the operating conditions and power performance characteristics of power units upon increasing the cooling capacity of their chimney-type cooling towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating conditions and power performance characteristics of the Armenian nuclear power stations Unit 2 equipped with a K-220-4.3 turbine and of the Razdan district power stations units equipped with K-200-12.8 and K-300-23.5 turbines are studied. The effect from increasing the cooling capacity of chimney-type cooling towers obtained by installing built-in rotary vertical panels instead of the existing louver-type devices is evaluated.

Muradyan, A. K.; Arshakyan, D. T.

2007-11-01

409

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

410

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an open-ended investigation to determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when its cold and how they cool the brood when its hot. Students will also discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible.

Mr. Bob Madsen (Dull Knife Memorial College)

1999-07-01

411

COOLING TOWER PLUME MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators. In order to better under...

412

Tungsten Helium cooled Target  

E-print Network

characteristics >Rotating seal >Maintenance >Lifetime >Conclusion #12;Page 3Cyril Kharoua ­ 4th HPTW ­ Malmö ­ May metal technology Avoid Water cooling / corrosion issue related to tungsten target and therefore avoid!) Rotating seals to be adapted from existing solutions Heavy assembly #12;Page 7Cyril Kharoua ­ 4th HPTW

McDonald, Kirk

413

Electron Cooling of RHIC  

SciTech Connect

We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eCool/.

I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; Yu.I. Eidelman; A.V. Fedotov; W. Fischer; D.M. Gassner; H. Hahn; M. Harrison; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; A.K. Jain; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; W.W. MacKay; G.J. Mahler; N. Malitsky; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; K.A.M. Mirabella; C. Montag; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; G. Parzen; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; D. Trbojevic; G. Wang; J. Wei; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; D.T. Abell; D.L. Bruhwiler; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; A.V. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; J.R. Delayen; Y.S. Derbenev; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; L. Merminga; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; J.S. Sekutowicz

2005-05-16

414

Groundbreaking High-Performance Building Districts  

E-print Network

Groundbreaking High-Performance Building Districts ESL-KT-14-11-28 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 ? The Centre for Building Performance is a Registered Provider with The American Institute... written permission of the speaker is prohibited. ? The Centre for Building Performance 2014 ESL-KT-14-11-28 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 ? Understand the history and development of the 2030 Districts...

Jordan, J.

2014-01-01

415

A Research Report of Small/Rural School Districts in New Mexico Compared to School Districts of Similiar Size Nationwide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1982-83 survey produced data used to compare 17 small/rural K-12 New Mexico school districts (900 students or fewer) with 642 similar districts nationwide. Of New Mexico's 88 school districts, 43 were identified as qualifying (48.9%, enrolling 16,648 students), for comparison to 4,125 similar districts nationwide. A questionnaire mailed to

Barker, Bruce O.; Muse, Ivan D.

416

The ReDistricting Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Redistricting Game is designed to educate, engage, and empower citizens around the issue of political redistricting. Currently, the political system in most states allows the state legislators themselves to draw the lines. This system is subject to a wide range of abuses and manipulations that encourage incumbents to draw districts which protect their seats rather than risk an open contest.By exploring how the system works, as well as how open it is to abuse, The Redistricting Game allows players to experience the realities of one of the most important (yet least understood) aspects of our political system. The game provides a basic introduction to the redistricting system, allows players to explore the ways in which abuses can undermine the system, and provides info about reform initiatives - including a playable version of the Tanner Reform bill to demonstrate the ways that the system might be made more consistent with tenets of good governance. Beyond playing the game, the web site for The Redistricting Game provides a wealth of information about redistricting in every state as well as providing hands-on opportunities for civic engagement and political action.

California, University O.

417

Hitaveita (district heating) in Akureyri  

SciTech Connect

Akureyri is a town of 15,000 inhabitants located in central N-Iceland. It has been heated by geothermal energy since the end of the seventies. Prior to that, it was partly heated by electricity, but mainly with oil burners, located within individual buildings. During the period 1928-1970, several attempts were made to exploit known hot spring areas in the vicinity of Akureyri. These attempts failed. Following the jump in energy price during the oil crisis of 1973, considerable effort was put into further exploration. Based on resistivity soundings, the Laugaland field was selected for deep drilling. In 1975, this resulted in the discovery of a big feed zone, which initially yielded around 100 1/s of 90{degrees}C hot water by free flow. Two years later another big feed zone was located at the Ytri-Tjarnir geothermal field initially yielding 50 1/2 of 80{degrees}C water. Based on short-term pump tests, and simulations by the Theis model, it was estimated that these two fields together could yield 240 1/s with a water level drawdown to 190 m below the surface. This was expected to satisfy the energy need for space heating in Akureyri. In 1977, Hitaveita Akureyrar was, therefore, established. Construction of the district heating system was initiated in 1976 and most of the town had been connected in 1979.

Flovenz, O.G.; Axelsson, G. [Orkustofnun, Reykjavik (Iceland); Arnason, F.; Finnsson, M. [Hitaveita Akureyrar, Akureyri (Iceland)

1996-11-01

418

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

419

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented.

Chattopadhyay, S.

1982-09-01

420

District energy as a response to climate change: The experience in Europe and the potential in America  

SciTech Connect

Climate change has the potential to be the most serious problem that civilization faces, and the greenhouse gases responsible for the danger are due to human activities. District energy is a concept that results from combining district heating and cooling with the generation of electricity. District energy can play an important role in the climate-change strategies under consideration by policy makers by offering a technology to significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The well-documented economic and environmental benefits of a district energy system utilizing various combinations of simultaneous generation of heat, chilled water, and electricity are discussed briefly in this paper. An overview of the technological innovations, applications, and future trends in district energy systems with cogeneration is provided, particularly as they relate to the renovation and replacement of existing systems. At the present time, district energy is underutilized and serves only 1.3% of the US energy needs. This paper presents a simple model for implementing increased utilization of district energy in the US based on the experience in comparable European Union (EU) countries. Attainment of the Kyoto Climate Change Protocol, the 7% reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from 1990 levels by the year 2012, is discussed in the context of the potential contribution of increased utilization of district energy. By reaching par with comparable EU countries, the US could achieve a 3% reduction in total national CO{sub 2} emissions. With 100% implementation of district energy serving the heating market sector, the US could achieve an 8.5% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. Further significant reduction in CO{sub 2} is possible with district energy concepts by redirecting national policy on the use of internal combustion engines through integration of the transportation energy sector with industrial, building, and power plant sectors; a major electrification of the transportation infrastructure would likely result. Increased implementation of district energy thereby addresses the risks posed by current global climate change theories and is a necessary condition for the US to achieve CO{sub 2} emission reductions.

McCabe, R.E.; Price, B.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Pierce, M.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

1998-12-31

421

An Overview of Operational Characteristics of Selected Irrigation Districts in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley: Delta Lake Irrigation District  

E-print Network

District?s Organizational Chart, 2005 ................................... 25 C1 1929 Willacy County Control and Improvement District Board Members........... 47 C2 Construction of the Main J Canal, 1930... for the development and construction of the District?s canal system in an attempt to expand irrigation from the Rio Grande. The contractor for the system was Trinity Farms Construction Company (Harding Collection) (Exhibit C1). By 1910, most of the land and water...

Wolfe, Clint D.; Stubbs, Megan J.; Pennington, Ellen L.; Rister, M. Edward; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Rogers, Callie S.

422

Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the concept of a computer room fresh air cooling system with evaporative humidification. The system offers significantly lower energy consumption than conventional cooling units, with 24% reduction for Dallas and 56% reduction...

Wenger, J. D.

1985-01-01

423

Crystal Size and Cooling Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity relates to the process of igneous rock formation by the cooling of magma. It can be used to illustrate how the rate at which molten rock cools affects the size of the crystals that form within the solid rock - rapid cooling producing small crystals, slower cooling producing larger ones. Hot, saturated solutions of lead iodide are cooled at different rates. The solution that cools faster produces smaller crystals. Students relate this to samples of rhyolite and granite and discover that the intrusive igneous rock (the granite) has cooled slowly from magma, and the rhyolite lava (extrusive igneous rock) has cooled very quickly. This leads to a fuller explanation of the terms intrusive and extrusive. The site also has an alternative demonstration in which melted Salol is placed on hot and cold glass slides with similar results.

424

Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

1991-01-01

425

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

26-1 OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, all embraced in the drainage basin-8 Environmental Page 24. Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Lowe Brule Sioux Tribe and State of South Dakota Terrestrial

US Army Corps of Engineers

426

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA  

E-print Network

an establishment of religion prohibited by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is made1 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA TAMMY KITZMILLER, et applicable to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment, as well as the Constitution of the Commonwealth

Ray, David

427

How Does District Principal Evaluation Affect Learning-Centered Principal Leadership? Evidence from Michigan School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used Hierarchical Multivariate Linear models to investigate relationships between principals' behaviors and district principal evaluation purpose, focus, and assessed leadership activities in 13 school districts in Michigan. The study found that principals were more likely to engage in learning-centered leadership behaviors when the

Sun, Min; Youngs, Peter

2009-01-01

428

The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting

Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

2005-01-01

429

Renovated cooling at PIMU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic temperature control system for the cool water circuit at the PIMU section is described. The system consists of a temperature reader, control, offset and switch print, a programmable logic circuit (plc) and a motor speed control unit for the ventilators. From 21 to 6 C, with every 1.4 C temperature increase an extra cooling unit is switched on up to 30 C; every unit is switched off 1.4 C lower than its switching on temperature. Switching on a unit, an air value is opened and a ventilator starts on 10% of its maximum power and is regulated with the temperature increase within the 1.4 C step.

Degroen, P.

1985-04-01

430

Radial turbine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

Roelke, Richard J.

1992-01-01

431

Cool Site of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need a daily web fix of something new? Try The Cool Site of the Day. Every night at midnite the Cool Site of the Day gets set to point at a new Cool Site. You'll never know what's there until you take the link so expect to be surprised.

432

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01

433

Cooled thin metal liner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first metal sheet (34) has openings (46) in registration with depressions (40) in a second contacting metal sheet (36). Each depression has a downstream wall (42) at an angle of 24.degree. from the plane of the sheets. A metering hole (56) in the depression amidst cooling air in a direction to first impinge against an overlaying portion (48) of the first plate, before it diffuses along the downstream wall.

Liang, George P. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

434

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOEpatents

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01

435

Hot Potato, Cool Foil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore material properties by applying some basic principles of heat transfer. They use calorimeters to determine the specific heat of three substances: aluminum, copper and another of their choice. Each substance is cooled in a freezer and then placed in the calorimeter. The temperature change of the water and the substance are used in heat transfer equations to determine the specific heat of each substance. The students compare their calculated values with tabulated data.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

436

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-print Network

LOREN W. McCANNON President McCannon Consultin~ Group, Inc. San Die~o, CA With the general increase in electricity rates, commercial and industrial customers have become stron~lv motivated to seek methods of achievin~ reductions... in electric bills. At the same time, electric utilities have been faced with risin~ construction costs, more strin~ent re~ulations, and increasin~ environmental constraints re~ardin~ development of new generatin~ facilities. As the viability of cool...

McCannon, L.

437

Project S'COOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

1998-01-01

438

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

439

Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

1974-01-01

440

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS -- ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES Cooling Water Optimization Dr. JACK MATSON Environmental Engg. Dept. University of Houston Houston, Texas A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower...

Matson, J.

441

Excess vibrational modes and high thermoelectric performance of the quenched and slow-cooled two-phase alloy Cu0.2Ag2.8SbSeTe2.  

PubMed

In this article we examine the low-temperature specific heat of slow-cooled Cu(0.2)Ag(2.8)SbSeTe(2) and the thermoelectric performance of quenched samples. We find that the low-temperature specific heat is dominated by two Einstein terms of approximate energies of 2.5 and 5 meV. The specific-heat behavior is consistent with the amorphous low-temperature thermal conductivity behavior and validates the glassy nature of the structure. We performed the synthesis of quenched samples in an attempt to eliminate the presence of micro-cracks, whose existence presumably enhances electronic scattering. We find that quenching eliminates the presence of micro-cracks but does not result in an improvement of the figure of merit. Specifically, the highest ZT obtained in the quenched samples (ZT = 1.5), though very competitive, is still significantly less that the ZT obtained in the slow-cooled samples (ZT = 1.75). PMID:21415478

Drymiotis, F R; Lindsey, S; Capps, J; Lashley, J C; Rhodes, D; Zhang, Q R; Nucklos, C; Drye, T B

2011-04-01

442

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

2015-01-01

443

Design and optimization of geothermal power generation, heating, and cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the world's geothermal power plants have been built in 1970s and 1980s following 1973 oil crisis. Urgency to generate electricity from alternative energy sources and the fact that geothermal energy was essentially free adversely affected careful designs of plants which would maximize their performance for a given geothermal resource. There are, however, tremendous potentials to improve performance of many existing geothermal power plants by retrofitting, optimizing the operating conditions, re-selecting the most appropriate binary fluid in binary plants, and considering cogeneration such as a district heating and/or cooling system or a system to preheat water entering boilers in industrial facilities. In this dissertation, some representative geothermal resources and existing geothermal power plants in Nevada are investigated to show these potentials. Economic analysis of a typical geothermal resource shows that geothermal heating and cooling may generate up to 3 times as much revenue as power generation alone. A district heating/cooling system is designed for its incorporation into an existing 27 MW air-cooled binary geothermal power plant. The system as designed has the capability to meet the entire heating needs of an industrial park as well as 40% of its cooling needs, generating potential revenues of $14,040,000 per year. A study of the power plant shows that evaporative cooling can increase the power output by up to 29% in summer by decreasing the condenser temperature. The power output of the plant can be increased by 2.8 percent by optimizing the maximum pressure in the cycle. Also, replacing the existing working fluid isobutane by butane, R-114, isopentane, and pentane can increase the power output by up to 2.5 percent. Investigation of some well-known geothermal power generation technologies as alternatives to an existing 12.8 MW single-flash geothermal power plant shows that double-flash, binary, and combined flash/binary designs can increase the net power output by up to 31 percent, 35 percent, and 54 percent, respectively, at optimum operating conditions. An economic comparison of these designs appears to favor the combined flash/binary design, followed by the double-flash design.

Kanoglu, Mehmet

444

Cooled artery extension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

445

Rotary engine cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

446

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOEpatents

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

447

Heat pipe cooled probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

Camarda, C. J. (inventor); Couch, L. M.

1984-01-01

448

Passive Cooling of a Micromechanical Oscillator with a Resonant Electric Circuit  

E-print Network

We cool the fundamental mode of a miniature cantilever by capacitively coupling it to a driven rf resonant circuit. Cooling results from the rf capacitive force, which is phase shifted relative to the cantilever motion. We demonstrate the technique by cooling a 7 kHz cantilever from room temperature to 45 K, obtaining reasonable agreement with a model for the cooling, damping, and frequency shift. Extending the method to higher frequencies in a cryogenic system could enable ground state cooling and may prove simpler than related optical experiments in a low temperature apparatus.

K. R. Brown; J. Britton; R. J. Epstein; J. Chiaverini; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland

2007-09-26

449

Parameters affecting electrostatic cooling. [high voltage convective cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage electrostatic field is discussed which enhances the rate of normal convective cooling. This cooling rate is a function of starting temperature and voltage applied, and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure or the heat capacity of the surrounding media. It appears that the cooling rate is also a function of current flow; however, additional work is needed to separate other variables from the effect of current flow. The maximum increase in heat loss over the normal convective cooling was approximately 0.167 C/sec (0.3 F/sec) at 316 C (600 F) and 20,000 V. From the data taken it is assumed that the addeded rate of cooling would be increased with higher temperatures and higher voltages. It appears that a high voltage field disrupts the molecular layer of air surrounding a hot body and increases the rate of convective cooling.

Demorest, K. E.; Gause, R. L.

1976-01-01

450

Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling of Muons  

SciTech Connect

In the linear solenoid channel, studied here, a half integer resonance is induced such that the normal ellip-tical motion of particles in x-x' phase space becomes hyperbolic, with particles moving to smaller x and larger x' as they pass down the channel. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points of the channel then cool the angular divergence of the beam by the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. Chromatic aberration, the detuning effect consid-ered here, is where the momentum-dependent betatron frequency causes off- momentum particles to be out of resonance with the focusing lattice. Choosing suitable synchrotron motion parameters, the resonance condi-tion can be maintained. This paper reports the first simulation to test this prediction.

Slawomir Bogacz; Yaroslav Derbenev; Kevin Beard; Rolland Johnson

2005-06-21

451

Modeling a Transient Pressurization with Active Cooling Sizing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As interest in the area of in-space zero boil-off cryogenic propellant storage develops, the need to visualize and quantify cryogen behavior during ventless tank self-pressurization and subsequent cool-down with active thermal control has become apparent. During the course of a mission, such as the launch ascent phase, there are periods that power to the active cooling system will be unavailable. In addition, because it is not feasible to install vacuum jackets on large propellant tanks, as is typically done for in-space cryogenic applications for science payloads, instances like the launch ascent heating phase are important to study. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize cryogenic tank pressurization during ventless cryogen storage without active cooling, but few tools exist to model this behavior in a user-friendly environment for general use, and none exist that quantify the marginal active cooling system size needed for power down periods to manage tank pressure response once active cooling is resumed. This paper describes the Transient pressurization with Active Cooling Tool (TACT), which is based on a ventless three-lump homogeneous thermodynamic self-pressurization model1 coupled with an active cooling system estimator. TACT has been designed to estimate the pressurization of a heated but unvented cryogenic tank, assuming an unavailable power period followed by a given cryocooler heat removal rate. By receiving input data on the tank material and geometry, propellant initial conditions, and passive and transient heating rates, a pressurization and recovery profile can be found, which establishes the time needed to return to a designated pressure. This provides the ability to understand the effect that launch ascent and unpowered mission segments have on the size of an active cooling system. A sample of the trends found show that an active cooling system sized for twice the steady state heating rate would results in a reasonable time for tank pressure recovery with ZBO of a liquid oxygen propellant tank.

Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Elchert, Justin P.

2011-01-01

452

District Courts as Patent Laboratories Jeanne C. Fromer*  

E-print Network

307 District Courts as Patent Laboratories Jeanne C. Fromer* Introduction .....................................................................................................................307 I. The Federal Circuit's Supervisory Role in Patent Law..........................................308 II. District Courts as the Federal Circuit's Patent Laboratories..............................311

Loudon, Catherine

453

40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section... District of ColumbiaOzone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective... X District of ColumbiaOzone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section... District of ColumbiaOzone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective... District of ColumbiaOzone (8-Hour Standard)...

2012-07-01

455

20 CFR 704.401 - Administration; compensation districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration; compensation districts. 704...Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S...Instrumentalities Act 704.401 Administration; compensation districts. For...

2010-04-01

456

Collective private urban renewal in New Bedford's historic district  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the waterfront historic district in New Bedford, Massachusetts. It is, hopefully, the beginning of a process of collective private renewal that may lead the revival of the district as a vital element ...

Bullard, John K. (John Kilburn)

1974-01-01

457

7 CFR 966.160 - Reestablishment of districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Reestablishment of Districts 966.160 Reestablishment of districts....

2011-01-01

458

46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES...Definitions 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose...

2011-10-01

459

46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard activities within the officer's district, which include the inspection,...

2014-10-01

460

46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES...Definitions 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose...

2010-10-01

461

46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES...Definitions 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose...

2013-10-01

462

46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES...Definitions 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose...

2014-10-01

463

46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES...Definitions 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose...

2012-10-01

464

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

465

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

466

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01

467

The Administrative Control of Principals in Effective School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings of a research study on the district-level control of principals in 12 effective school districts in California. Primary research objectives were (1) to expand knowledge on the nature of administrative control, (2) to develop a better understanding of the processes and activities in effective school districts, and (3)

Murphy, Joseph; And Others

468

The Siberian Federal District: status quo and perspectives of development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the economic development trends of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) in comparison with the national trends. It notes similarity between mega-district and national economic and demographic processes, processes of reproduction and industry-related distribution of labor and the precedence of national over purely regional economic conditions in the economic development of the district. The authors find serious enough

Yu. S. Yershov; N. M. Ibragimov; L. V. Melnikova

2005-01-01

469

78 FR 60268 - Race to the Top-District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Race to the Top--District AGENCY: Office...deadline of the fiscal year (FY) 2013 Race to the Top--District competition for...the application deadline in the FY 2013 Race to the Top--District competition...

2013-10-01

470

The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given

Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

2014-01-01

471

Portfolio School Districts for Big Cities: An Interim Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first report from an ongoing study of four urban school districts (New York, New Orleans, Chicago, and the District of Columbia) that are experimenting with new school designs and new ways of holding schools accountable for performance. This report introduces the idea of a "portfolio school district," and shows how some leading school

Hill, Paul; Campbell, Christine; Menefee-Libey, David; Dusseault, Brianna; DeArmond, Michael; Gross, Betheny

2009-01-01

472

District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%

Holmstrom, Annette

2010-01-01

473

Making the Grade: The Economic Evolution of American School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant factor for many people deciding where to live is the quality of the local school district, with superior schools creating a price premium for housing. The result is a "race to the top," as all school districts attempt to improve their performance in order to attract homebuyers. Given the importance of school districts to the daily

Fischel, William A.

2009-01-01

474

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section 9.143...Viticultural Areas 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name...described in this section is Spring Mountain District. (b) Approved...

2012-04-01

475

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section 9.143...Viticultural Areas 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name...described in this section is Spring Mountain District. (b) Approved...

2014-04-01

476

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section 9.143...Viticultural Areas 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name...described in this section is Spring Mountain District. (b) Approved...

2013-04-01

477

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section 9.143...Viticultural Areas 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name...described in this section is Spring Mountain District. (b) Approved...

2011-04-01

478

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section 9.143...Viticultural Areas 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name...described in this section is Spring Mountain District. (b) Approved...

2010-04-01

479

A Vision for the Los Angeles Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Vision Statement" brochure by the Chancellor of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) "sets forth the path and direction he wants the District's nine community colleges to take in preparing students for the challenges of the 21st century" and emphasizes that the district will stimulate and assure a learning environment where

Phelps, Donald G.

480

33 CFR 67.50-5 - First Coast Guard District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First Coast Guard District. 67.50-5...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS...District Regulations 67.50-5 First Coast Guard District....

2011-07-01

481

33 CFR 67.50-5 - First Coast Guard District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First Coast Guard District. 67.50-5...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS...District Regulations 67.50-5 First Coast Guard District....

2010-07-01

482

27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is Diamond Mountain District. (b)...

2013-04-01

483

27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is Diamond Mountain District. (b)...

2014-04-01

484

27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is Diamond Mountain District. (b)...

2012-04-01

485

Industrial Districts and Regional Economic Development: A Regulation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIGIOVANNA S. (1996) Industrial districts and regional economic developoment: a regulation approach, Reg. Studies30, 373386. This paper examines the regulatory underpinnings of industrial districts. As many regional governments have been forced to accept greater responsibility for their own economic futures, the industrial district model has been presented as an attractive path to economic development. The underlying assumption among many policy

Sean Digiovanna

1996-01-01

486

Multipole Method to Compute Heat Losses from District Heating Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The district heating industry is currently searching for new installation fashions for district heat distribution networks in order to decrease the cost of installation. The heat losses cause a large part of the lifetime cost and environmental impacts of district heating networks. This paper presents how the multipole method can be used for quick and accurate determination of heat

Camilla Persson; Johan Claesson

487

The Road to a Green District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in

Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

2011-01-01

488

The Road to a Green District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be

Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

2010-01-01

489

Solid waste disposal in district health facilities.  

PubMed

Hospital waste is not necessarily difficult to dispose of. In most cases it can be safely dumped in a properly designed waste pit. Waste management problems at district hospitals in developing countries are usually caused more by lack of information than by financial or technical difficulties. PMID:7999223

Halbwachs, H

1994-01-01

490

Effective Records Management: The District Administrator's Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts should have a records management system through which student, employee, and related documents are maintained. Explains the meaning of records management, the implications of choosing not to establish an ongoing program, and how to be a leader in the program. (eight references) (MLF)

Marrese, Marylynn

1990-01-01

491

February 3rd Dear School District Professional,  

E-print Network

to a single-sex cabin of ten children per group. Two counselors, who are Cal State Fullerton students for the 7 to 14 years old children attending your school district. Each year, the students at Cal State Fullerton fund and staff an entirely free summer camp program for 140 underprivileged children who reside

de Lijser, Peter

492

Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

by irrigation districts (IDs) or individuals, private corporations, cities, and environmental groups (collectively called non-IDs hereafter)2 2 As per the 1978 Census of Agriculture there are nine categories..., Population, Building Permits, and Personal Income .................... 119 Figure 3.5. Relative Growths of Population and Nonfarm Establishments .............. 120 Figure 3.6. Water Level in Amistad International Reservoir...

Ghimire, Narishwar

2013-04-11

493

Briefing Paper on: School District Data Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes efforts by the state of New York to ensure the accuracy and integrity of data reported by school districts. The Office of the State Comptroller (OSC) has taken the lead in reviewing these data, focusing on the uses of attendance and enrollment data and making recommendations for improvement in state systems and local

McCall, H. Carl

494

Leveraging Mental Health Dollars into Your District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage

Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa

2009-01-01

495

Michigan School District Buys Energy Management System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the aid of a federal grant for energy conservation, the Warren Consolidated School System (Michigan) will purchase a Margaux 6400 Building Management system to manage energy usage in 35 district buildings. Reasons for selecting the system and system capabilities are briefly discussed. (Author/JN)

Technological Horizons in Education, 1982

1982-01-01

496

New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work

Sawchuk, Stephen

2012-01-01

497

Urban Districts Compare Notes on Operation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban school systems are large businesses, charged with running a wide range of noninstructional functions that typically do not garner them much national notice. Now, thanks to the work of a coalition of big-city districts, their leaders are gathering data on how those operations are run, in the hope of improving their business practices. The

Aarons, Dakarai I.

2009-01-01

498

NOT FOR PUBLICATION UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT  

E-print Network

District Judge This lawsuit involves a dispute between two competitors, Syncsort Incorporated sued IRI in this Court alleging, among other claims, misappropriation of trade secrets and unfair judgment. The Court ruled that Syncsort's trade secret misappropriation and unfair competition claims could

Shamos, Michael I.

499

Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of

Ash, Katie

2013-01-01

500

Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As policymakers debate the merits of new tests and intervention strategies to improve student achievement, some districts are exploring a more basic warning sign: Are students even showing up? A growing consensus of research points to chronic absence--defined by the national policy group Attendance Counts as missing 10 percent of school or

Sparks, Sarah D.

2010-01-01