Sample records for district cooling phase

  1. District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.J.

    1991-01-02

    The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

  2. Phase two laboratory testing of Direct Freeze ice slurry district cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winters

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the laboratory development progress of a proprietary ice production technology (Direct Freeze) for ice-water slurry district cooling systems. The current work builds on a previous Phase 1 effort performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of the current Phase 2 effort was divided into two separate areas. The first, Ice Slurry Hydraulic Characterization Tests,

  3. Phase two laboratory testing of Direct Freeze ice slurry district cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.J.

    1991-04-01

    This report documents the laboratory development progress of a proprietary ice production technology (Direct Freeze) for ice-water slurry district cooling systems. The current work builds on a previous Phase 1 effort performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of the current Phase 2 effort was divided into two separate areas. The first, Ice Slurry Hydraulic Characterization Tests, involved the measurement of the hydraulic characteristics of an ice-water slurry system over a wide range of conditions with no oil present in the system. The second, Ice Slurry Cooling Simulation Tests, characterized the real-time operation of a Direct Freeze district cooling system using a bench scale simulation loop. This report documents and analyzes the technical results from these Phase 2 tests and also expands on the Phase 1 economic evaluation. Future studies should identify a replacement for CFC-114 in the Direct Freeze process and identify ways to avoid process line ice blockages. 24 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Feasibility of energy recovery for district heating and cooling from the METRO Renton effluent transfer system: Phase one report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing an effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton treatment plant through Seattle's largest industrial area to Duwamish Head. Preliminary evaluation indicates that heat pumps could produce between 500 and 800 million Btu per hour if all of the Renton plant's current flows were utilized. The market for district heating and coolign near the ETS route was divided into five study areas for purposes of Phase 1 work as follows: Sea-Tac International Airport; Tukwila/Renton; Metro South Base and Vicinity; Pacific Highway/Spokane Street; and Spokane Street/Kingdome. In each of these areas heating and cooling demands were inventoried, and preliminary concepts for district heating and cooling service were prepared and subjected to economic assessment. Initial results are presented.

  5. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  6. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  7. District heating and cooling for efficient energy supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alojz Poredos; Andrej Kitanovski

    2011-01-01

    Supplying customers with heating and cooling energy from district energy systems essentially contributes to the rational use of energy and to environmental protection. In the past few years, the use of district cooling has been significantly increased in some countries. The energy supply of cooling and heating for urban districts is usually separated. While a part of a district is

  8. Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. McCabe; J. J. Bender; K. R. Potter

    1995-01-01

    Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface

  9. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  10. District heating and cooling market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    For more than 10 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research on and development of district steam, hot-water, and chilled-water systems in the residential and commercial sectors. In 1991, DOE sponsored a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to reestimate the national market for district heating and cooling (DHC) systems to the year 2010. ANL had previously developed a DHC market-penetration model and used it to project future market penetration. The first step in the project was to conduct a literature search to identify major data sources on historical DHC markets and any past studies on the future market potential of DHC systems. On the basis of an evaluation of the available data and methodologies for estimating market penetration of new technologies, it was concluded that ANL should develop a new econometric model for forecasting DHC markets. By using the 1989 DOE/Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Surveys (CBECS) public-use-tape data, a model was estimated for steam, hot-water, and chilled-water demand in the buildings surveyed. The model provides estimates of building steam, hot-water, and chilled-water consumption and expenditures between now and the year 2010. The analysis shows that the total U.S. market for district steam, hot water, and chilled water could grow from 0.8 quadrillion British thermal units (quad) in 1989 to 1.0 quad by 2000 and 1.25 quad by 2010. The demand for chilled water could nearly double in the forecast period, and its share could approach one-third of the total DHC market. This model, and the results, should be of use to policymakers, researchers, and market participants involved in the planning and implementation of community-based, energy-conserving, and environmentally beneficial energy systems.

  11. The feasibility and economics of slush ice district cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Metz; P. Margen

    1987-01-01

    District cooling systems offer advantages over individual building systems by allowing the selection of central sites close to rivers or other low summer temperature heat sinks, sites close to open spaces for cool storage, and the advantage of reducing specific chiller and cool storage costs by economy of scale. These advantages are obtained at the penalty of the cost of

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell application in district cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qattan, Ayman; ElSherbini, Abdelrahman; Al-Ajmi, Kholoud

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents analysis of the performance of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for district cooling. The cogeneration system is designed to provide cooling for a low-rise residential district of 27,300 RT (96 MWc). A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generates electric power to operate chillers, and the exhaust fuel and heat from the SOFC run gas turbines and absorption chillers. Thermal energy storage is utilized to reduce system capacity. Part-load operation strategies target maximizing energy efficiency. The operation of the system is compared through an hourly simulation to that of packaged air-conditioning units typically used to cool homes. The CCP system with the district cooling arrangement improves the cooling-to-fuel efficiency by 346%. The peak power requirement is reduced by 57% (24 MW) and the total fuel energy is reduced by 54% (750 TJ y-1). The system cuts annual carbon dioxide emissions to less than half and reduces other harmful emissions. A cost analysis of the system components and operation resulted in a 53% reduction in the cost per ton-hour of cooling over traditional systems.

  13. Application of solar ponds to district heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.

    1981-04-01

    A preliminary investigation is reported of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas and Washington, D.C. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth vs surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs and distribution system costs). Finally, solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

  14. District cooling and thermal storage in pharmaceutical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, R.; Morgan, T. [Stanley Consultants, Inc., Muscatine, IA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Many of the guidelines for designing a central or district cooling plant can be applied to the pharmaceutical industry. Most pharmaceutical companies with central cooling plants have operated these plants very inefficiently for many years and these problems are now being addressed by the industry. The Clean Air Act and new tax guidelines have forced the pharmaceutical industry to address their utility costs. This paper will address some of the common problems faced by the industry and describe measures the industry has taken to correct them.

  15. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  16. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  17. Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

  18. Maryvale Terrace: Geothermal residential district space heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 qpm each of 2200 F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145.

  19. R and D pilot plant project for evaluating a direct freeze ice slurry based district cooling system: Revised final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knodel

    1988-01-01

    This report quantifies the potential for an ice slurry district cooling system based on an innovative direct freeze ice production technology as part of the US Department of Energy project ''District Heating and Cooling Technology Research: District Cooling\\/Ice Slurries''. The results will be used by DOE to guide RandD strategies to develop a technically viable and economically sensible ice slurry

  20. Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems; Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Amrane; R. Radermacher

    1990-01-01

    In this project the performance potential of vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits is studied with regard to applications in District Heating and Cooling Systems. Vapor compression heat pumps with solution circuits are Rankine cycles in which the pure refrigerant is replaced by a mixture of two or more components. They offer significant advantages over conventional heat pumps leading

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer in Polyurethane Insulated District Cooling and Heating Pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Eriksson; Bengt Sundén

    1998-01-01

    The heat and mass transfer in PUR insulated pipes used for dis trict cooling and district heating is studied. During the aging of the pipes, the blowing agent, in this study CO2 for the PUR foam will diffuse out through the casing and air components will diffuse into the foam. This diffusion will deterio rate the thermal properties of the

  2. Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-print Network

    Webb, Peter

    Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling-15, as requested. Building Name Building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status 74 5/3/2013 5/24/2013 ON Molecular Cellular Biology 186 4/26/2013 ON Moos Tower 142 4/26/2013 ON Nils

  3. March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System

    E-print Network

    87 F ­ 93 F 15 000 gallons Propylene Glycol #12;17 Energy Loop 17 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling tons) 15,000 Gallons Propylene Glycol Design Min - Max 24 F, 100 F (-4 C, 38 C) #12;Geothermal #12 effective energy sources. Reduce our emissions of Green House Gases. Target 2016 as the year we can

  4. Optimal capacity planning of heat pump/thermal storage system used for district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Koichi; Shiba, Takashi [Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    An optimal capacity planning method is proposed for heat pump/thermal storage system used for district heating and cooling. Equipment capacities and utility maximum demands are determined so as to minimize the annual total cost in consideration of the system`s operational strategy for the hourly varying energy demand in a year. The operational problem of the heat pump/thermal storage system is large scale one and a numerical method is proposed to solve the problem by using sensitivity analysis method. In a numerical study for district heating and cooling, seasonal utilization is investigated for thermal storage tanks from the economic viewpoint. From the result obtained, it is ascertained that the proposed method is a useful tool for the fundamental system`s planning problem.

  5. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research

    E-print Network

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Xiaochun Song Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer China Architecture design & research Group Beijing, China mep-h@263.net Yali Zhang Ying Li Hang Wei Yuping He Engineer Engineer Engineer Senior...ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-7-4 Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research Wencheng Zhang Wenji Guan Yungang Pan Gao Ding...

  6. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant

    E-print Network

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  7. District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

  8. Helium 2 cooling systems for long term missions in space: phase separation and hybrid cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Klipping; I. Klipping; U. Schmidtchen

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of helium 2 (superfluid helium) phase separation and hybrid cooling systems for astronomical and aeronomical observations in space, e.g., infrared radiation, was studied. The different aspects of phase separation under conditions of weightlessness are treated and the active phase separator for a liquid helium cooled infrared observatory for Spacelab, German Infrared Laboratory (GIRL) is described. For long-term (more

  9. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  10. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  11. District energy or distributed heating/cooling? A case study in life-cycle O & M cost decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Madigan, D.W. [van Zelm Heywood & Shadford, Inc., West Hartford, CT (United States); Evans, E.A. [Boulder Energy Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Cornell University is building a new home for its Johnson Graduate School of Management. Facilities planners wanted to know if they should connect the new building to the campus district energy system or install local on-site primary heating and cooling equipment. The basis for making this decision was total life-cycle cost to install, operate, and maintain the HVAC equipment. To ensure that the lowest possible life-cycle cost would prevail, numerous combinations of water-side and air-side systems were considered. Rigorous analysis was conducted on each option using computer simulation to characterize hourly heating, cooling and electrical load shapes. This information enabled quantification of utility costs and identification of peak loads for on-site equipment sizing and costing purposes. Peak heating and cooling load information allowed assessment of district energy system capacity impacts and quantification of required district system capital expenditures. After thorough engineering analysis of a broad range of options, including on-site gas-fired cooling and thermal energy storage, life-cycle economic analysis pointed to district energy as the most cost-effective source of heating and cooling for the new building. This paper presents details on the engineering analysis and the life-cycle economic analysis and articulates the benefits of conducting a comprehensive simulation-based engineering study.

  12. Macroeconomic effects under the proposed District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982. Technology-related policy evaluation using a market penetration model and a macromodel

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.

    1983-08-01

    In its energy conservation programs, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research into and development of district heating and cooling systems to meet energy demands in the residential and commercial sectors. Toward this goal, DOE requested Argonne National Laboratory to estimate the macroeconomic effects of the Senate bill known as the ''District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982.'' The first step was to estimate market penetration of district heating and cooling cogeneration energy systems under the provisions of the proposed act, using Argonne's district heating and cooling market penetration model. This model provided annual estimates of district heating and cooling investment and energy savings. In the second step, macroeconomic effects of district heating and cooling under the Act's provisions were estimated using the annual model of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. The conclusion is that district heating and cooling penetration under the Act could have significant favorable effects on gross national product, US employment, fuel import costs, and similar factors. The analysis assumes that district heating and cooling can overcome the institutional and environmental barriers that have impeded it in the past. 16 references, 17 figures, 13 tables.

  13. Gasifier wastewater treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Mann; W. G. Willson; J. G. Hendrikson; S. L. Winton

    1984-01-01

    The principle goal of the gasification research at UNDERC is to develop environmental data on the treatability of wastewaters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. Research activities are focused around the cooling tower, where the reuse of treated gasification wastewaters has not been demonstrated in this country. The objective of Phase I cooling tower testing was to evaluate the effectiveness

  14. FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    into the environment and a pump and pipes to drive and contain the working fluid (most often water). Most presented in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid cooling concept is pro- posed, where all pumps, valves and piping are fully integrated on board level

  15. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-08-17

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the research on a novel floating refrigerant loop that cools high-power electronic devices and the motor/generator with very low cooling energy. The loop can be operated independently or attached to the air conditioning system of the vehicle to share the condenser and other mutually needed components. The ability to achieve low cooling energy in the floating loop is attributable to the liquid refrigerant operating at its hot saturated temperature (around 50 C+). In an air conditioning system, the liquid refrigerant is sub-cooled for producing cool air to the passenger compartment. The ORNL floating loop avoids the sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant and saves significant cooling energy. It can raise the coefficient of performance (COP) more than 10 fold from that of the existing air-conditioning system, where the COP is the ratio of the cooled power and the input power for dissipating the cooled power. In order to thoroughly investigate emerging two-phase cooling technologies, ORNL subcontracted three university/companies to look into three leading two-phase cooling technologies. ORNL's assessments on these technologies are summarized in Section I. Detailed descriptions of the reports by the three university/companies (subcontractors) are in Section II.

  16. Optimization of the engineering design for the Lansing District Cooling System by comparative analysis of the impact of advanced technologies on a conventional design approach. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Lansing Board of Water and Light (LBWL) began investigating development of a cooling district in the Lansing Downtown in 1989 in order to retain and build summer load for its steam utility. A feasibility study was conducted in conjunction with SFT, Inc. and ZBA, Inc. which addressed many factors such as marketability of the product, impact on the summer steam load, distribution system development, system design, probable capital and operating costs, reliability and environmental and other regulatory impacts on a preliminary feasibility basis. The Phase I study completed in September of 1989 provided highly promising results for establishing a District Cooling System (DCS). An existing chilled water production facility owned by the State of Michigan was identified as a potential location for a DCS plant. With these changes a review of the feasibility with a new set of alternatives and sensitivities was evaluated. This enhancement to the Phase I Study was nearing completion when the LBWL in conjunction with Energy, Mines and Resources Canada proposed to conduct the Phase II project in conjunction with DOE. The project was structured to proceed along a dual track to demonstrate the impact of the application of various innovative technologies.

  17. Microwave link phase compensation for longitudinal stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mernick, K.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Johnson, B.; Severino, F.

    2010-05-02

    A new microwave link has been developed for the longitudinal stochastic cooling system, replacing the fiberoptic link used for the transmission of the beam signal from the pickup to the kicker. This new link reduces the pickup to kicker delay from 2/3 of a turn to 1/6 of a turn, which greatly improves the phase margin of the system and allows operation at higher frequencies. The microwave link also introduces phase modulation on the transmitted signal due to variations in the local oscillators and time of flight. A phase locked loop tracks a pilot tone generated at a frequency outside the bandwidth of the cooling system. Information from the PLL is used to calculate real-time corrections to the cooling system at a 10 kHz rate. The design of the pilot tone system is discussed and results from commissioning are described.

  18. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  19. Feasibility of energy recovery for heat pump-assisted district heating and cooling from the Metro Renton wastewater treatment plant and effluent transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) is constructing a 12-mile effluent transfer system (ETS) from its Renton wastewater treatment plant to Duwamish Head on Puget Sound. The preliminary stud (Phase I) concluded that the Renton treatment plant's effluent could feasibly sustain large amounts of heat pump output, i.e., 500 to 800 million Btu per hour. Further, the study identified eight locations along the ETS where district heating and cooling (DHC) networks could be favorably established to serve existing businesses and/or new growth. In December 1985 this second phase study was commissioned as a detailed assessment of specific customers in several of the recommended DHC development areas. The potential customers evaluated in this report include: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, the Container Corporation carton manufacturing plant adjacent to the Renton treatment plant, Metro Transit Department's South Base, two buildings at the Boeing Developmental Center, and the Valley 405 Business Park adjacent to the Renton treatment plant. These potential users of effluent-based heating and/or cooling have been evaluated in terms of their heating and cooling demands, the type of effluent-based heat pump system necessary for serving them, and the economics of the effluent-based energy approach. In the cases of Sea-Tac and Container Corporation, the assessments also examine environmental and institutional issues, and generalized feasibilities for financing effluent-based systems.

  20. Energy efficient two-phase cooling for concentrated photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeser, Alexander Douglas

    Concentrated sunlight focused on the aperture of a photovoltaic solar cell, coupled with high efficiency, triple junction cells can produce much greater power densities than traditional 1 sun photovoltaic cells. However, the large concentration ratios will lead to very high cell temperatures if not efficiently cooled by a thermal management system. Two phase, flow boiling is an attractive cooling option for such CPV arrays. In this work, two phase flow boiling in mini/microchannels and micro pin fin arrays will be explored as a possible CPV cooling technique. The most energy efficient microchannel design is chosen based on a least-material, least-energy analysis. Heat transfer and pressure drop obtained in micro pin fins will be compared to data in the recent literature and new correlations for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop will be presented. The work concludes with an energy efficiency comparison of micro pin fins with geometrically similar microchannel geometry.

  1. Two-phase flow instability analysis for transient electronics cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TieJun Zhang; Yoav Peles; John T. Wen; Michael K. Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Because of increasing power densities, refrigeration systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power electronic components. This paper presents a framework for the transient analysis of pressure-drop refrigerant flow instabilities under both steady-state and transient imposed heat loads. Based on an analytical two-phase flow model, the system pressure and other effects on flow characteristics are quantitatively studied,

  2. Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

  3. Gasifier wastewater treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The principle goal of the gasification research at UNDERC is to develop environmental data on the treatability of wastewaters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. Research activities are focused around the cooling tower, where the reuse of treated gasification wastewaters has not been demonstrated in this country. The objective of Phase I cooling tower testing was to evaluate the effectiveness of using minimally treated wastewater (solvent extracted and steam stripped - referred to as stripped gas liquor) as makeup to a cooling tower. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation. Foaming of the circulating water will be a problem using SGL as makeup and foaming control will be required. The SGL feed cooling system supported a high level of biological activity (1 to 10 million/ml). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified as the predominant specie in the system. Severe fouling can be expected for all carbon steel surfaces. Fouling of stainless steel was not a major problem. General corrosion rates of 10 to 24 mils/yr were measured for carbon steel in various parts of the system. Carbon steel heat exchanger tube analysis indicated pitting corrosion penetration rates of 20 to 125 mils/yr under deposits. Computer analysis also indicated a strong potential for scaling from calcium carbonate precipitation. Results from this study indicate that the use of stripped gas liquor similar to that produced by the UNDERC pilot gasifier as cooling tower makeup is limited by a number of potentially serious operating problems. This water could be used for cooling tower makeup only after additional treatment or possibly with the use of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and other control methods. 12 references, 6 figures, 7 tables. (DMC)

  4. Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

    1997-04-01

    Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

  5. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  6. Liouville`s theorem and phase-space cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-09-28

    A discussion is presented of Liouville`s theorem and its consequences for conservative dynamical systems. A formal proof of Liouville`s theorem is given. The Boltzmann equation is derived, and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is shown to be rigorously true for a continuous medium. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Discussion is given as to when the various equations are applicable and, in particular, under what circumstances phase space cooling may occur.

  7. Thermal analysis of two-phase microchannel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Felde, D.K.; Yoder, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    A design calculation has been performed to determine thermal limits in support of an experiment in two-phase microchannel water cooling. Under the operating condition (one atmosphere pressure and 23{degrees}C inlet temperature), the calculation predicts that the experimental channel can withstand a maximum surface temperature of 115{degrees}C and a heat flux up to 975 W/cm{sup 2} without exceeding the critical heat flux limit. The predicted results also indicate that a uniform heat flux along the channel in the two-phase domain can be achieved so that the heat losses from the experimental test section can be calculated in a straightforward manner.

  8. Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC

    E-print Network

    Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

    2014-01-01

    : 2,900kW TR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller (Constant Speed ) Cooling Capacity : 3,516kW (1,000RT) 2 TR3,4 Inverter Centrifugal Chiller Cooling Capacity : 1,758kW (500RT) 2 BTR1,2 Centrifugal Chiller for Ice Storage Cooling Capacity : 1,571kW (447RT) 2 Ice... of efficiency and running cost 2. Commissioning and optimizing the number of operating inverter centrifugal chillers and the start/stop timing 3. Commissioning and optimizing the flow control on the cooling water 11 EXAMPLES OF COMMISSIONING AND OPERATIONAL...

  9. The CERES S'COOL Project: Development and Operational Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Young, David F.; Racel, Anne M.

    1998-01-01

    As part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, the first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft from the Tanegashima launch site in Japan in November 1997. The instrument will measure the radiation budget incoming and outgoing radiant energy - of the Earth. The major feature of interest is clouds, which play a very strong role in regulating our climate. CERES will identify clear and cloudy regions and determine cloud physical and microphysical properties using imager data from a companion instrument. Validation efforts for the remote sensing algorithms will be intensive. As one component of the validation, the S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) project will involve school children around the globe in making ground truth measurements at the time of a CERES overpass. They will report cloud type, height, fraction, and opacity, as well as the local surface conditions. Their observations will be collected at the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and made available over the Internet for educational purposes as well as for use by the CERES Science Team in validation efforts. Pilot testing of the S'COOL project began in January 1997 with two local schools in Southeastern Virginia and one remote site in Montana. National testing in April 1997 involved 8 schools (grades 3 to high school) across the United States. Global testing will be carried out in October 1997. Details of the S'COOL project, which is mainly Internet-based, are being developed in each of these phases according to feedback received from participants. In 1998, when the CERES instrument is operational, a global observer network should be in place providing useful information to the scientists and learning opportunities to the students. Broad participation in the S'COOL project is planned, both to obtain data from a wide range of geographic areas, and to involve as many students as possible in learning about clouds and atmospheric science. This paper reports on the development phase of the S'COOL project, including the reaction of the teachers and students who have been involved. It describes the operational state of the S'COOL network, and identifies opportunities for additional participants.

  10. User manual for GEOCITY: A computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H. D.; Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    1982-09-01

    A model to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir is discussed. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factor or commercial building. All the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output are included. The indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual are given.

  11. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

  12. Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Facultés, 33405 Talence cedex, France Abstract Arsenic-rich (~ 140­1520 mg.kg- 1 ) suspended particulate a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended

  13. Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

  14. Solidification Characteristics Modeling of Phase Change Material in Plate Capsule of Cool Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiyin Fang; Zhi Chen

    2011-01-01

    The analytical solutions to solidification characteristics of a phase change material in the plate capsule of a cool storage system are presented. The influence of the Stefan number (the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat of a cool storage material) on phase change solidification thickness and temperature distribution in the solid region is analyzed. The phase change solidification thickness

  15. The University of Minnesota saves approximately $3 million annually as a result of district cooling,

    E-print Network

    Webb, Peter

    water returns to industrial sized air conditioners called chillers that remove the heat from the water buildings circulating cold water through cooling coils to remove heat from the air. The resulting warmed energy savings due to efficient pumping of chilled water and increased equipment efficiency are as high

  16. Cooling of Sr to high phase-space density by laser and sympathetic cooling in isotopic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, G.; Drullinger, R. E.; Poli, N.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and LENS, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Polo Scientifico-Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    Based on an experimental study of two-body and three-body collisions in ultracold strontium samples, a novel optical-sympathetic cooling method in isotopic mixtures is demonstrated. Without evaporative cooling, a phase-space density of 6x10{sup -2} is obtained with a high spatial density that should allow us to overcome the difficulties encountered so far to reach quantum degeneracy for Sr atoms.

  17. Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling

  18. Design considerations relating to non-thermal aspects of passive 2-phase immersion cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip E. Tuma

    2011-01-01

    There is renewed interest in passive 2-phase immersion for cooling power electronics and high performance computers. This can be attributed to recent research showing its performance potential compared with more complex and costly techniques, to innovations that simplify its application and to a general trend toward higher power densities. Though the thermal performance capabilities of passive 2phase immersion cooling are

  19. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An assessment is made of four applications of biomass and solar energy conversion technologies. The first is an energy self-sufficient farm that provides all of its space heating and hot water needs by burning wood obtained by selective timber cutting on the farm acreage. The heating system is a commerical boiler furnace. A Purox gasification system is described which uses wood feedstock with a capacity of 850 dry tons/day. This system requires 2,000 farms, each with 30 acres of wooded land having a sustainable capacity of 5 dry tons/day per acre. The efficiency of silviculture plantations is then addressed in regard to different conversion strategies. Finally, a solar heat and cooling system designed for a one story school building is assessed. Land and materials requirements, climatology, and economic factors are discussed.

  20. Estimating market penetration of new district heating and cooling systems using a combination of economic cost and diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-05-10

    The economic-cost model and the diffusion model are among the many market-penetration forecasting approaches that are available. These approaches have been used separately in many applications. In this paper, the authors briefly review these two approaches and then describe a methodology for forecasting market penetration using both approaches sequentially. This methodology is illustrated with the example of market-penetration forecasting of new district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in the Argonne DHC Market Penetration Model, which was developed and used over the period 1979--1983. This paper discusses how this combination approach, which incorporates the strengths of the economic-cost and diffusion models, has been superior to any one approach for market forecasts of DHC systems. Also discussed are the required modifications for revising and updating the model in order to generate new market-penetration forecasts for DHC systems. These modifications are required as a result of changes in DHC engineering, economic, and market data from 1983 to 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Verification of the energy-saving effect of the district heating and cooling system—Simulation of an electric-driven heat pump system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoji Nagota; Yoshiyuki Shimoda; Minoru Mizuno

    2008-01-01

    A district heating and cooling system (DHC) is expected to be a promising energy-saving measure for high-density business areas in Japan. However, it has not been verified what advantages of the DHC are important for energy conservation. The clarification of this issue is supposed to contribute to improving the energy efficiency of the DHC.This paper focuses on the electric-driven heat-pump-type

  2. Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut E. Feustel; Corina Stetiu

    1997-01-01

    Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and\\/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative

  3. Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling systems

    E-print Network

    Peles, Yoav

    -generation electronic systems, such as radar, di- rected-energy lasers, and electromagnetic weapons, will exceed 1000 WTwo-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling Accepted 26 July 2010 Available online 21 August 2010 Keywords: Electronics cooling Flow instability

  4. Sildenafil increases digital skin blood flow during all phases of local cooling in primary Raynaud's Phenomenon

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Sildenafil increases digital skin blood flow during all phases of local cooling in primary's; sildenafil; microcirculation; local cooling. inserm-00767054,version1-19Dec2012 Author manuscript, published. We tested the effect of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil, which potentiates the effect of NO, on skin blood

  5. Two-phase cooling system with a jet pump for spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri V. Fairuzov; Victor V. Bredikhin

    1995-01-01

    A two-phase cooling system with a jet pump is proposed for the thermal control of spacecraft. The system does not require an external source of energy, the pumping of the working fluid is performed by the work that is produced in a thermodynamic cycle being carried out in the heat transport loop. The cooling system has no moving parts or

  6. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  7. Two-Phase Cooling of Targets and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments

    E-print Network

    Thome, J R; Park, J E

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the LTCM lab’s decade of experience with two-phase cooling research for computer chips and power electronics will be described with its possible beneficial application to high-energy physics experiments. Flow boiling in multi-microchannel cooling elements in silicon (or aluminium) have the potential to provide high cooling rates (up to as high as 350 W/cm2), stable and uniform temperatures of targets and electronics, and lightweight construction while also minimizing the fluid inventory. An overview of two-phase flow and boiling research in single microchannels and multi-microchannel test elements will be presented together with video images of these flows. The objective is to stimulate discussion on the use of two-phase cooling in these demanding applications, including the possible use of CO2.

  8. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieli?ski, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jaros?aw

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  9. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  10. Thermal design space prediction in two-phase direct liquid cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. T. Lee; M. Mahalingam

    1992-01-01

    Software for predicting the optimum operating conditions for a two-phase liquid cooling environment is presented. This software consists of a data bank which includes a variety of physical and thermodynamic properties of fluorocarbons. It also includes heat transfer correlations which cover the range from single-phase boiling incipience, to nucleate boiling, to critical heat flux. The heat flux of the integrated

  11. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  12. Ejector gas cooling. Phase 1. Final report, 1 April 1987-30 April 1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. MacCracken; B. M. Silvetti; R. Hrbek

    1988-01-01

    Closed-circuit ejector cooling systems have never in the past achieved acceptable operating efficiencies in their vapor-compression cycle using standard refrigerants. Despite their long history, relative simplicity, quietness, rugged design, low maintenance and low cost, they could not compete with electric-motor-driven compressors. Phase I is an assessment of two immiscible fluids in an ejector cooling system with different latent heat capacity

  13. Modeling phase transformations in ternary systems: Ferrite dissolution during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Vitek, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The diffusion-controlled phase dissolution (or growth) in a ternary system of finite length has been modeled numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The analysis has been applied to study the ferrite to austenite transformation in austenitic stainless steel weldments. The iron-chromium-nickel ternary system was taken as representative of this class of materials. The effect of system geometry was evaluated by considering planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The numerical analysis was extended to the case of continuous cooling, for a range of cooling rates from 0.1 to 100 K/s. The results provide information on how quickly the system deviates from equilibrium during cooling, and what the final compositions and phase fractions are as a function of cooling rate. In most cases, the deviation from equilibrium, in terms of residual ferrite content and composition, increased as the cooling rate increased, as expected. However, under some conditions, it was found that the lowest cooling rates actually deviated further from equilibrium than intermediate cooling rates. This curious phenomenon was investigated in detail and was explained in terms of the indirect path toward final. Such indirect equilibration is often found during and typical of diffusion-controlled transformation behavior in multi-component systems.

  14. Cubic ?-phase U–Mo alloys synthesized by splat-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Ngan, Nhu-T. H.; Tkach, I.; Mašková, S.; Havela, L.; Warren, A.; Scott, T.

    2013-09-01

    U–Mo alloys are the most promising materials fulfilling the requirements of using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in research reactors. From a fundamental standpoint, it is of interest to determine the basic thermodynamic properties of the cubic ?-phase U–Mo alloys. We focus our attention on the use of Mo doping together with ultrafast cooling (with high cooling rates ?106 K s?1), which helps to maintain the cubic ?-phase in U–Mo system to low temperatures and on determination of the low-temperature properties of these ?-U alloys. Using a splat cooling method it has been possible to maintain some fraction of the high-temperature ?-phase at room temperature in pure uranium. U-13 at.% Mo splat clearly exhibits the pure ?-phase structure. All the splats become superconducting with Tc in the range from 1.24 K (pure U splat) to 2.11 K (U-15 at.% Mo). The ?-phase in U–Mo alloys undergoes eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic ?-uranium and tetragonal ??-phase upon annealing at 500 °C, while annealing at 800 °C has stabilized the initial ? phase. The ?-U easily absorbs a large amount of hydrogen (UH3 hydride), while the cubic bcc phase does not absorb any detectable amount of hydrogen at pressures below 1 bar and at room temperature. At 80 bar, the U-15 at.% Mo splat becomes powder consisting of elongated particles of 1–2 mm, revealing amorphous state.

  15. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOEpatents

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  16. Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

    2013-10-01

    We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

  17. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module, for the thermoelectric cooling unit, for the PCM thermal storage unit, and for the outdoor air-water heat exchanger. When modeling PCM thermal storage unit, the enthalpy method has been adopted. Since natural convection has been observed in experiments playing a key effect on heat transfer in PCM, a staged effective thermal conductivity (ke) concept and modified Rayleigh (Ra) number formula have been developed to better capture natural convection's variable effects during the PCM charging process. Therefore, a modeling-based design procedure for thermoelectric cooling system integrating with PCM has been proposed. A case study has been completed for a model office room to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative evaluations to the major system components. Results of this research can be extended to other applications in relevant areas. For instance, the proposed PCM thermal storage unit can be applied to integration with water-cooled conventional air-conditioning devices. Instead of using water cooling, a case study of using the proposed PCM unit for a water-cooled air-conditioner shows a COP increase of more than 25.6%.

  18. Study of a splat cooled Cu-Zr-noncrystalline phase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revcolevschi, A.; Grant, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    By rapid quenching from the melt, using the splat forming gun technique, a noncrystalline phase has been obtained in a Cu-Zr alloy containing 60 at. % Cu. Upon heating, rapid crystallization of the samples takes place at 477 C with a heat release of about 700 cal per mol. The variation of the electrical resistivity of the samples with temperature confirms the transformation. Very high resolution electron microscopy studies of the structural changes of the samples upon heating are presented and show the gradual crystallization of the amorphous structure.

  19. Transient state study of electric motor heating and phase change solid-liquid cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bellettre; V. Sartre; F. Biais; A. Lallemand

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on modelling of an autosynchronous electric motor stator, operating at transient state. The developed model, of the nodal type, includes around 20 nodes. The simulations showed that hot spots are localized on the winding heads and led to the choice of a solid-liquid phase change cooling system. The comparison between simulation and experiment permitted the identification of

  20. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building

    E-print Network

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01

    source heat pump; phase change cooling storage: optimal design; storage ratio 1 Introduction Geothermal energy is increasingly used through the ground source heat pump (GSHP) in many countries. GSHP provides an efficient and environment friendly way... design of the combined system, are listed below: (a) Wuhan is a cooling-dominated area with abundant geothermal energy. Ground source heat pump technology could use renewable energy and the phase change cooling storage technology could shifted peak...

  1. Two-phase cooling system with a jet pump for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairuzov, Yuri V.; Bredikhin, Victor V.

    1995-04-01

    A two-phase cooling system with a jet pump is proposed for the thermal control of spacecraft. The system does not require an external source of energy, the pumping of the working fluid is performed by the work that is produced in a thermodynamic cycle being carried out in the heat transport loop. The cooling system has no moving parts or control devices, with the exception of a mechanical pump and an actuated valve, that are used only for the startup sequence. This article reports on the results of the theoretical and experimental studies of the two-phase thermal control system with a jet pump for spacecraft application. A mathematical model for the steady-state analysis of the proposed system was developed. The model was applied to predict overall performance characteristics and operating range for a specific spacecraft two-phase cooling system. The possible reasons for the fluid loop operation failures were identified. The influence of the accumulator volume on the system characteristics was also investigated. Three jet pumps of various configurations were tested and stable operational regimes of the cooling system were obtained under different heat-load and heat-rejection conditions on a ground experimental facility.

  2. Optoacoustic detection of a kinetic-cooling effect in the liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Shin, K B

    1995-11-20

    A kinetic-cooling effect in the liquid phase has been observed by the use of pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy. The magnitude of the optoacoustic signal in an aqueous Eu(3+) solution, as measured from the absorption of pulsed light, was found to decrease when the excitation-laser wavelength was tuned to the transition from the thermally excited (7)F(1) state to the upper electronic (5)D(0) state of Eu(3+) ion. This anomalous optoacoustic phenomenon is attributed to the kinetic-cooling effect. PMID:21060642

  3. Transformation behavior of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under continuous cooling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar Varela, C. L.; Gribaudo, L. M.; González, R. O.; Aricó, S. F.

    2014-10-01

    The selected alloy for designing a high-density monolithic-type nuclear fuel with U-Zr-Nb alloy as meat and Zry-4 as cladding, has to remain in the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase during the whole fabrication process. Therefore, it is necessary to define a range of concentrations in which the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase does not decompose under the process conditions. In this work, several U alloys with concentrations between 28.2-66.9 at.% Zr and 0-13.3 at.% Nb were fabricated to study the possible transformations of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under different continuous cooling conditions. The results of the electrical resistivity vs temperature experiments are presented. For a cooling rate of 4 °C/min a linear regression was determined by fitting the starting decomposition temperature as a function of Nb concentration. Under these conditions, a concentration of 45.3 at.% Nb would be enough to avoid any transformation of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase. In experiments that involve higher cooling conditions, it has been determined that this concentration can be halved.

  4. Assessment of district heating/cooling system potential in Provo City, Utah. Final report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Limburg, G.; Kelly, P.; Hoskins, R.; Corlett, R.

    1983-08-01

    Provo, Utah owns and operates its electric utility system. The plant is lacking in modern emission controls and is therefore operated at a level of much less than full capacity. Power is purchased from the Utah P and L at wholesale and distributed throughout the city system. The city plant is valuable for peak shaving and standby purposes. Provo's climate experiences extremes of both heat and cold. There are many large heat users as: Brigham Young University, Utah Valley Hospital, the high school, city, county, and federal buildings as well as commercial and industrial users. An elderly housing project recently completed is furnished hot water heat from the city plant. Provo has several alternative heat source possibilities. Better emission controls could be added to the existing boilers to deliver more electricity and heat, a new fluidized bed coal fired boiler and generator could be built, cogenerating district heating by steam or hot water, a waste to energy incinerator has possibilities.

  5. VIBRATION-INDUCED TWO-PHASE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH POWER THERMAL MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Heffington; A. Glezer; S. Tillery; M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Two technologies for cooling of high-heat flux microelectronics based on enhanced phase-change are described. The first technology is based on a submerged vibration-induced bubble ejection process in which small vapor bubbles that form on and are attached to a submerged heated solid surface are dislodged and propelled into the cooler bulk liquid. This ejection technique involves forced removal of the

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of the District Heat Distribution System. Part 3: Use Phase and Overall Discussion (10 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Persson; Morgan Fröling; Magdalena Svanström

    2006-01-01

    -  Part 1: Pipe Production [Int J LCA 9 (2) 130-136 (2004)]\\u000a Part 2: Network Construction [Int J LCA 10 (6) 425-435 (2005)]\\u000a Part 3: Use Phase and Overall Discussion [DOI: http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/10.1065\\/lca2005.08.225]\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a -  Preamble. This series of three papers is based on research performed for the Swedish District Heating Association with the\\u000a purpose of mapping the environmental life cycle impacts from the

  7. Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This work investigates the transient behaviour of a phase change material based cool thermal energy storage (CTES) system comprised of a cylindrical storage tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in spherical container integrated with an ethylene glycol chiller plant. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the phase

  8. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  9. Vapor phase strengthening of nickel-based alloys for actively-cooled thermostructural panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Sara Jane

    Actively cooled thermostructural panels for use in emerging hypersonic flight systems require the use of advanced materials able to support substantial loads at elevated temperatures. A major challenge in this advancing technology is identifying formable structural materials that are strong, tough and oxidation resistant. For thermostructural panels to be optimized for low mass with an appropriate combination of mechanical strength and cooling capacity, the panel is required to have a thin-walled geometry. Advanced, high strength cast Ni-based alloys have attractive properties, but the fabrication of sub-millimeter walls with conventional casting processes would be extremely challenging. The purpose of this study is to develop a new processing path that would result in a rectangular channeled panel made of a nickel-based precipitation strengthened alloy in a previously unobtainable thin-walled geometry suitable for active cooling. Beginning with thin sheets of Ni-based solid-solution alloys and subsequently strengthening the material by vapor phase aluminization combined with an annealing treatment, this objective is accomplished. This study includes selecting a wrought nickel-based alloy as the base substrate for panel fabrication, determining a goal gamma + gamma' microstructure, fabricating rectangular channeled panels, and testing the actively cooled panels at high temperature. Thermodynamic, yield strength, and panel geometry modeling was integrated to determine an optimized geometry and microstructure for the strengthened panel. Panels were fabricated with the optimized geometry and tested at high temperature with active cooling in both the as-fabricated and strengthened states. The strengthened panel was able to withstand a temperature 478°C higher than the as-fabricated panel indicating the increase in strengthening and temperature capability possible with this process.

  10. Influence of Strain History and Cooling Rate on the Austenite Decomposition Behavior and Phase Transformation Products in a Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muszka, K.; Wynne, B. P.; Palmiere, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of simple strain path changes as well as post-deformation continuous cooling rate during thermomechanical-controlled processing of microalloyed steel was studied using laboratory physical simulation. The phase transformation characteristics were directly analyzed by dilatometry under various cooling rates. The microstructures of the transformation products were characterized quantitatively using EBSD. The results have shown that while strain path changes impose a considerable influence on the hot flow behavior of the austenite, the cooling rate following hot deformation is the determining factor of the phase transformation mechanism and behavior which establishes the final transformation products and subsequent mechanical properties.

  11. Carbon-based nanostructured surfaces for enhanced phase-change cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj Kousalya, Arun

    To maintain acceptable device temperatures in the new generation of electronic devices under development for high-power applications, conventional liquid cooling schemes will likely be superseded by multi-phase cooling solutions to provide substantial enhancement to the cooling capability. The central theme of the current work is to investigate the two-phase thermal performance of carbon-based nanostructured coatings in passive and pumped liquid-vapor phase-change cooling schemes. Quantification of the critical parameters that influence thermal performance of the carbon nanostructured boiling surfaces presented herein will lead to improved understanding of the underlying evaporative and boiling mechanisms in such surfaces. A flow boiling experimental facility is developed to generate consistent and accurate heat transfer performance curves with degassed and deionized water as the working fluid. New means of boiling heat transfer enhancement by altering surface characteristics such as surface energy and wettability through light-surface interactions is explored in this work. In this regard, carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings are exposed to low-intensity irradiation emitted from a light emitting diode and the subcooled flow boiling performance is compared against a non-irradiated CNT-coated copper surface. A considerable reduction in surface superheat and enhancement in average heat transfer coefficient is observed. In another work involving CNTs, the thermal performance of CNT-integrated sintered wick structures is evaluated in a passively cooled vapor chamber. A physical vapor deposition process is used to coat the CNTs with varying thicknesses of copper to promote surface wetting with the working fluid, water. Thermal performance of the bare sintered copper powder sample and the copper-functionalized CNT-coated sintered copper powder wick samples is compared using an experimental facility that simulates the capillary fluid feeding conditions of a vapor chamber. Nanostructured samples having a thicker copper coating provided a considerable increase in dryout heat flux while maintaining lower surface superheat temperatures compared to a bare sintered powder sample; this enhancement is attributed primarily to the improved surface wettability. Dynamic contact angle measurements are conducted to quantitatively compare the surface wetting trends for varying copper coating thicknesses and confirm the increase in hydrophilicity with increasing coating thickness. The second and relatively new carbon nanostructured coating, carbon nanotubes decorated with graphitic nanopetals, are used as a template to manufacture boiling surfaces with heterogeneous wettability. Heat transfer surfaces with parallel alternating superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic stripes are fabricated by a combination of oxygen plasma treatment, Teflon coating and shadow masking. Such composite wetting surfaces exhibit enhanced flow-boiling performance compared to homogeneous wetting surfaces. Flow visualization studies elucidate the physical differences in nucleate boiling mechanisms between the different heterogeneous wetting surfaces. The third and the final carbon nanomaterial, graphene, is examined as an oxidation barrier coating for liquid and liquid-vapor phase-change cooling systems. Forced convection heat transfer experiments on bare and graphene-coated copper surfaces reveal nearly identical liquid-phase and two-phase thermal performance for the two surfaces. Surface analysis after thermal testing indicates significant oxide formation on the entire surface of the bare copper substrate; however, oxidation is observed only along the grain boundaries of the graphene-coated substrate. Results suggest that few-layer graphene can act as a protective layer even under vigorous flow boiling conditions, indicating a broad application space of few-layer graphene as an ultra-thin oxidation barrier coating.

  12. Influence of cooling rate on the liquid-phase epitaxial growth of Zn 3P 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, S.; Baskar, K.

    2008-05-01

    We report the liquid-phase epitaxial growth of Zn 3P 2 on InP (1 0 0) substrates by conventional horizontal sliding boat system using 100% In solvent. Different cooling rates of 0.2-1.0 °C/min have been adopted and the influence of supercooling on the properties of the grown epilayers is analyzed. The crystal structure and quality of the grown epilayers have been studied by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution X-ray rocking measurements, which revealed a good lattice matching between the epilayers and the substrate. The supercooling-induced morphologies and composition of the epilayers were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The growth rate has been calculated and found that there exists a linear dependence between the growth rate and the cooling rate. Hall measurements showed that the grown layers are unintentionally doped p-type with a carrier mobility as high as 450 cm 2/V s and a carrier concentration of 2.81×10 18 cm -3 for the layers grown from 6 °C supercooled melt from the cooling rate of 0.4 °C/min.

  13. Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

    This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

  14. Phase noise measurement of external cavity diode lasers and implications for optomechanical sideband cooling of GHz mechanical modes

    E-print Network

    Tobias J. Kippenberg; Albert Schliesser; Michael Gorodetsky

    2011-12-29

    Cavity opto-mechanical cooling via radiation pressure dynamical backaction enables ground state cooling of mechanical oscillators, provided the laser exhibits sufficiently low phase noise. Here, we investigate and measure the excess phase noise of widely tunable external cavity diode lasers, which have been used in a range of recent nano-optomechanical experiments, including ground-state cooling. We report significant excess frequency noise, with peak values on the order of 10^7 rad^2 Hz near 3.5 GHz, attributed to the diode lasers' relaxation oscillations. The measurements reveal that even at GHz frequencies diode lasers do not exhibit quantum limited performance. The associated excess backaction can preclude ground-state cooling even in state-of-the-art nano-optomechanical systems.

  15. Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cheralathan; R. Velraj; S. Renganarayanan

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the transient behaviour of a phase change material based cool thermal energy storage (CTES) system\\u000a comprised of a cylindrical storage tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in spherical container integrated\\u000a with an ethylene glycol chiller plant. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat\\u000a transfer fluid (HTF) and the phase

  16. Acoustic leak detection for district heating systems: Results of Phase 1: Laboratory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Recent advances in commercially available acoustic sensors and signal processing have made acoustic detection of gas and fluid leaks cost-effective and efficient. As a result, a variety of industries are beginning to use acoustic leak detection systems. This report describes an effort to obtain laboratory-generated data to establish the effectiveness of an advanced acoustic leak detection system for finding, locating, and sizing leaks in district heating (DH) piping systems. Results of experiments carried out with DH insulated piping suggest that acoustic leak detection technology can be applied effectively to monitor, locate, and detect leaks in underground piping. Leak monitoring can be carried out with appropriately spaced acoustic sensors placed either on the pipe or on the ends of acoustic waveguides in contact with the pipe. Acoustic detection of leaks with flow rates of less than 10 gpm is possible in underground DH pipes. With advanced signal processing and sensors and under optimal conditions, the range of detection for steam leaks could be greater than 500 m and the location accuracy a few meters. Acoustic background noise and attenuation data from field pipes are required to accurately establish leak detection sensitivity and leak location.

  17. Three-flavor spectral splits of supernova neutrinos during the cooling phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Three-flavor effects could peculiarly modify the development of spectral splits induced by collective oscillations, for supernova neutrinos emitted during the cooling phase of a protoneutron star. We show how the impact of these three-flavor effects depends on the ordering of the neutrino masses. In inverted mass hierarchy, the solar mass splitting gives rise to instabilities in regions of the (anti)neutrino energy spectra that were otherwise stable under the leading two-flavor evolution governed by the atmospheric mass splitting and by the 1-3 mixing angle. As a consequence, the high-energy spectral splits found in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra disappear, and are transferred to other flavors. In normal mass hierarchy, the three-flavor and the two-flavor instabilities act in the same region of the neutrino energy spectrum, leading to only minor departures from the two-flavor treatment.

  18. Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

    2006-04-01

    Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern’s features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die’s properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

  19. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01

    heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office... heat pump system integrated with solar ESL-IC-14-09-18 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 heating storage technology, and it is concluded that the system save energy...

  20. Two-phase flow boiling of R134a in a multi-microchannel heat sink for microprocessor cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yassir Madhour; Jonathan Olivier; Etienne Costa-Patry; Stephan Paredes; Bruno Michel; J. R. Thome

    2010-01-01

    The following study concentrates on two-phase flow boiling of refrigerant R134a inside two similar copper multi-microchannel heat sinks, one of which was designed for singlephase water cooling of microprocessors. The two-phase heat sink was composed of 100 parallel microchannels, 100 ?m wide, 680 ?m high, 15 mm long with 72 ?m-thick fins, and 63 parallel microchannels. Base heat fluxes and

  1. Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

  2. Air-cycle cooling of electric power cables: Phase I. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Limberg

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using an air cycle system for cooling underground electrical power transmission cables. The air cycle system features an expansion turbine where ambient air is expanded to subatmospheric pressure; this air is circulated in a plate fin heat exchanger and cools the cable dielectric oil. The cooling capacity of the low pressure

  3. Experimental Study on Closed-Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon Devices for Cooling MCMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    Thermosyphon cooling modules, to cool multichip modules (MCMs), were designed and tested. The cooling module consists of a cold plate with microfinned channels and a plate-type integrated condenser. A separate flow model was employed to predict the mass flux and the pressure drop in the channel of the cold plate. The local and average convective boiling heat transfer coefficients and

  4. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Offenhartz, P O'D; Rye, T V; Malsberger, R E; Schwartz, D

    1981-03-01

    The reaction of CH/sub 3/OH vapor with solid (pellet) CaCl/sub 2/ to form the solid phase compound CaCll/sub 2/ . 2CH/sub 3/OH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning with forced air (dry) heat rejection. It combines all features required of a residential or commercial space conditioning system except for solar collection. A detailed thermal analysis shows that the coefficient of performance for heating is greater than 1.5, and for cooling, greater than 0.5. This has been confirmed by direct experimental measurement on an engineering development test unit (EDTU). The experimental rate of CH/sub 3/OH absorption is a strong function of the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. The minimum practical hourly rate, 0.10 moles CH/sub 3/OH per mole CaCl/sub 2/, was observed with the salt-bed heat transfer fluid at 40/sup 0/C and the CH/sub 3/OH evaporator at -15/sup 0/C. a detailed performance and economic analysis was carried out for a system operated in Washington, DC. With 25 square meters of evacuated tube solar collectors, the CaCl/sub 2/-CH/sub 3/OH chemical heat pump should be capable of meeting over 90% of the cooling load, 80% of the heating load, and 70% of the domestic hot water load with nonpurchased energy in a typical well-insulated single family residence, thus saving about $600 per year. In small-scale production, the installed cost of the system, including solar collectors and backup, is estimated to be about $10,000 greater than a conventional heating and cooling system, and a much lower cost should be possible in the longer term.

  5. A TWO-PHASE HEAT SPREADER FOR COOLING HIGH HEAT FLUX SOURCES Mitsuo Hashimoto, Hiroto Kasai, Yuichi Ishida, Hiroyuki Ryoson, a

    E-print Network

    temperatures. For sintered copper powder with a 50 Pm particle diameter, a heat load of 8.5 W/mm2 was supportedA TWO-PHASE HEAT SPREADER FOR COOLING HIGH HEAT FLUX SOURCES Mitsuo Hashimoto, Hiroto Kasai, Yuichi ABSTRACT A two-phase heat spreader has been developed for cooling high heat flux sources in high

  6. The study of a reactor cooling pump under two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the steady pressure field has been investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a nuclear reactor cooling pump. As a multiphase approach the Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid model has been applied to calculated five computational models with different kinds of blades. The analysis of inner flow field of the five model pumps shows that the pressure in the impeller increases with the increase of the gas contents and the pressure distributions are irregular at the inlet of different blades when the gas contents less than 20%. With the increase of the number of blades, the vortexes at the outlet of impeller decrease whereas the vortexes in the deep of the volute markedly increases and high velocity of the fluid huddle is generated gradually at the outlet pipes. Under the action of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, gas phase mainly concentrated at the lower velocity and lower pressure area. The radial force on the impeller gradually increases with the increase of the gas contents.

  7. "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Kenneth

    of steam, such as the Con Edison Steam DH system in New York City and the Citizens Thermal Energy district U.S. WTE plants sell steam as an energy product. Twenty one of these WTEs co-generate approximately WTE plants that generate 273 MW of heat (929,000 lbs of steam per hour) exclusively. Hot water

  8. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  9. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

  10. The collisional cooling technique: Gas-phase spectroscopy below 5 K

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique has been developed which enables the spectroscopic study of gas phase molecules at liquid helium temperatures. Sample gas molecules are cooled by collisions with helium atoms in a cell which is immersed in a bath of liquid helium. A quasi-equilibrium environment is thereby established in the cell with temperature and pressure both easily measured and varied. There are significant spectroscopic advantages to working at low temperature. These include narrow linewidths, large absorption coefficients and the simplification of complex spectra. Additionally, the implementation of this technique allows the investigation of molecular processes in a new regime where typical rotational energies are greater than available thermal energies. Since at liquid helium temperatures only the lowest lying rotational states have significant population, exact theoretical calculations are greatly simplified and a more direct link between experiment and theory is made possible. In this thesis the authors describe the application of this technique to produce low temperature pressure broadening results for six different molecules: CO, CH{sub 3}F, H{sub 2}S, NO, DCI, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, and HDO, all broadened by helium. Data were taken for each molecule at temperatures between 4.2 and 1.8 K. The pressure broadening cross sections ranged from 79.2 {angstrom}{sup 2} for the K = 0 component of the J = 2-3 transition of CH{sub 3}F at 4.2 K, to 8.1 {angstrom}{sup 2} for the J = 0-1 transition of DCl at 1.9 K. Although the cross sections for CO and CH{sub 3}F showed an initial rise below 4 K, at the lowest temperatures all of the cross sections appeared to be declining. Of the molecules the author has investigated, exact theoretical calculations have only been done for the CO - He system. These calculations show low energy resonant structure in the cross sections.

  11. Evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); IFPA, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    We consider the evolution of the ground state in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling down of the Universe after the big bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

  12. Measurements of Peltier cooling at a Ga-GaAs interface using a liquid-phase epitaxy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Stefanakos; A. Abul-Fadl; M. D. Workman

    1975-01-01

    The Peltier coefficient of n-type GaAs was measured by passing an electrical current through the GaAs-Ga solid-liquid interface in a vertical liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) system. Application of a steady-state heat-transfer analysis yielded values for the Peltier coefficient of 0.141 to 0.203 V in the 530–830 °C temperature range. From the study of measurements of Peltier cooling as a function of

  13. Measurements of Peltier cooling at a Ga-GaAs interface using a liquid-phase epitaxy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Stefanakos; A. Abul-Fadl; M. D. Workman

    1975-01-01

    The Peltier coefficient of n-type GaAs was measured by passing an electrical current through the GaAs-Ga solid-liquid interface in a vertical liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) system. Application of a steady-state heat-transfer analysis yielded values for the Peltier coefficient of 0.141 to 0.203 V in the 530-830 °C temperature range. From the study of measurements of Peltier cooling as a function of

  14. Flow boiling and two-phase flow instabilities in silicon microchannel heat sinks for microsystems cooling 

    E-print Network

    Bogojevi?, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Flow boiling in microchannels, while very promising as a cooling technology in electronics thermal management, is still a subject being explored that requires further investigation. Before applying this technology for ...

  15. Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow data from 35 stations in and near Alaska were analyzed for changes between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Winter, spring, and summer flow changes and maximum annual flow changes were different for glaciated basins (more than 10% glacier-covered area) than for nonglaciated basins, showing the influence of glaciers on historical streamflowchanges. Mean February flows, for example, increased for the median of available stations by 45% for glaciated basins and by 17% for nonglaciated ones.

  16. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  17. Three phases of cooling and unroofing in the Appalachian Basin, Pennsylvania: Implications for flexural control

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmer, G.C.; Gold, D.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Omar, G.I. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Apatite fission-track ages of 111--184 Ma and mean lengths of 10.7--13.1 [mu]m with unimodal, negatively skewed length distributions indicate slow cooling of Ordovician through Permian rocks in an area extending from the Anthracite Basin to the western Appalachian Plateau. Cooling histories modeled from fission-track data show that cooling began immediately following the Alleghanian Orogeny at 250--240 Ma. Ordovician rocks in the Juniata Culmination began to cool slightly earlier at 265 Ma, probably reflecting synorogenic unroofing of this area during formation of the Valley and Ridge duplex. Unroofing histories were modeled from cooling histories using the one-dimensional heat flow equation. Cooling and unroofing histories can be divided into three periods. The initial period of relatively rapid cooling and unroofing extended from the end of the Alleghanian Orogeny into the Jurassic and represents post-orogenic unroofing due to flexural rebound as orogenic load was removed through erosion. Initial unroofing rates are higher in eater Pennsylvania than in the west, consistent with a flexural model. A period of little to no unroofing from the Jurassic into the Miocene began contemporaneously with the inception of drift at the Atlantic continental margin. As the new continental margin subsided, the remaining load dropped below sea level and was no longer subject to removal, resulting in the cessation of flexural rebound and suppression of unroofing in the foreland. The most rapid unroofing occurred from the Miocene to the present. The nature of this event is unknown; however, it is also observed in increased sedimentation rates in the middle Atlantic offshore basins.

  18. User manual for GEOCITY: A computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume 1: Main text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H. D.; Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    1982-09-01

    The cost of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir was calculated. The GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, and fan-coil units. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. The life cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end users are calculated by discounted cash flow analysis.

  19. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkelens; Conrad

    1994-01-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites.

  20. A Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Wellborn Special Utility District Number 2001 Project in Central Brazos County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-15

    of the proposed pump station is on land owned by the Wellborn Special Utility District. The project area is located on an upland ridge (between 300 and 310 feet elevation) between Spring Creek to the north and Alum Creek to the south...

  1. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  2. Symbiotic halo star LT Del: Phase variations of the emission spectrum and parameters of the cool component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Komissarova, G. V.; Noskova, R. I.

    2011-05-01

    Long-term photometric and spectroscopic observations of the yellow symbiotic star LT Del are analyzed. UBV light curves are presented. Based on the observations of 20 cycles, we have refined the orbital period of the star, P = 476{·/d}0 ± 1{·/d}0. The brightness has been found to be unstable at some orbital phases with an amplitude up to 0{·/ m } 3. We have measured the fluxes in hydrogen and helium emission lines and in continuum and investigated their relationship to the orbital period. The fluxes in hydrogen and HeI lines follow the UBV light curves in phase; the He II 4686 Å flux does not depend on the phase and is constant within the accuracy of our measurements. The intensity ratio of the 4686 Å andH ? lines changes from 0.2 to 0.9 over the period. We interpret the spectroscopic observations based on the hypothesis of heating and ionization of the stellar wind from a cool component by high-frequency radiation from a hot star with a temperature of 105 K. We have estimated the spectral type of the cool star from our photometry and its continuum energy distribution as a bright K2-4 red giant branch halo star. The bolometric luminosity and mass loss rate have been estimated for the K component to be L bol ˜ 700 L ? and dot{M} ˜ 10-8 M ? yr-1, respectively.

  3. Enhancement of a two-phase thermosyphon for cooling high heat flux power devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikichi Kuwahara; Kenji Takahashi; Tadakatsu Nakajima; Toshio Takasaki; S. O. Suzuki

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the enhancement of cooling of high heat flux power devices such as a thyristor by a thermosyphon system. The thermosyphon uses boiling and condensation of an inert dielectric fluorocarbon (FC-72). Boiling occurs from a multiple chimney heat transfer structure. A boiling chamber is connected to the condenser by a double tube, with the inner

  4. Enhancement of two-phase thermosyphon for cooling high heat flux power devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikichi Kuwahara; Kenji Takahashi; Tadakatsu Nakajima; Osamu Suzuki; Toshio Takasaki

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the enhancement of cooling of high heat flux power devices such as a thyristor by a thermosyphon system. The thermosyphon used boiling and condensation of inert dielectric fluorocarbon (FC-72). Boiling occurred from a multiple chimney heat transfer structure. A boiling chamber is connected to the condenser by a double tube, with the inner tube

  5. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  6. Measurement of the lattice plane strain and phase fraction evolution during heating and cooling in shape memory NiTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; Krishnan, V. B.; Padula, S. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Brown, D. W.; Clausen, B.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2009-10-01

    We report on in situ neutron diffraction measurements during heating and cooling through the phase transformation in shape memory NiTi. The lattice plane specific strain evolution remains linear with temperature and is not influenced by intergranular stresses, enabling the determination of the thermal expansion tensor of B19' NiTi. The neutron measurements are consistent with macroscopic dilatometric measurements and a 30 000 grain polycrystalline self-consistent model. The accommodative nature of B19' NiTi results in macroscopic shape changes being offset (with temperature) from the start and finish of the transformation. The texture does not evolve in the absence of biasing stresses.

  7. Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem - Phase I. [astronaut liquid cooling garment design and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test at one-g of a functional laboratory model (non-flight) Ice Pack Heat Sink Subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick connect/disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

  8. Ice pack heat sink subsystem, phase 2. [astronaut life support cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The report describes the design, development, fabrication, and test at one gravity of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions; the investigation of thermal storage material with the objective of uncovering materials with heats of fusion and/or solution in the range of 300 Btu/lb (700 kilojoules/kilogram); and the planned procedure for implementing an ice pack heat sink subsystem flight experiment. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

  9. Use of treated gasification wastewater in a pilot cooling tower. Phase II final report for the period ending December 31, 1984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Mann; S. J. Galegher; J. G. Hendrikson; G. G. Mayer; W. G. Willson

    1985-01-01

    Phase I and II cooling tower reuse tests have been completed using wastewater produced in the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG). In the UNDERC Phase I test, using solvent extracted and steam stripped wastewater, problems such as high carbon steel corrosion rates, severe biological fouling, and substantial phenol and ammonia emissions, were

  10. Innovation District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

  11. Phase transformations in a welded near-? titanium alloy as a function of weld cooling rate and post-weld heat treatment conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Keshava Murthy; S. Sundaresan

    1998-01-01

    In a-ß titanium alloys, the high-temperature ß phase can decompose in several ways, depending on alloy composition and cooling rate. In the case of welded joints, cooling rates can vary widely as a function of heat input. In the current work, a dilute a-ß Ti-Al–Mn alloy was welded over a range of heat inputs using electron beam and gas tungsten-arc

  12. Membrane phase behavior during cooling of stallion sperm and its correlation with freezability.

    PubMed

    Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Friedel, Katharina; Akhoondi, Maryam; Gojowsky, Marina; Wolkers, Willem F; Sieme, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Stallion sperm exhibits great male-to-male variability in survival after cryopreservation. In this study, we have investigated if differences in sperm freezability can be attributed to membrane phase and permeability properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine supra and subzero membrane phase transitions and characteristic subzero membrane hydraulic permeability parameters. Sperm was obtained from stallions that show differences in sperm viability after cryopreservation. Stallion sperm undergoes a broad and gradual phase transition at suprazero temperatures, from 30-10°C, whereas freezing-induced dehydration of the cells causes a more severe phase transition to a highly ordered gel phase. Sperm from individual stallions showed significant differences in post-thaw progressive motility, percentages of sperm with abnormal cell morphology, and chromatin stability. The biophysical membrane properties evaluated in this study, however, did not show clear differences amongst stallions with differences in sperm freezability. Cyclodextrin treatment to remove cholesterol from the cellular membranes increased the cooperativity of the suprazero phase transition, but had little effects on the subzero membrane phase behavior. In contrast, freezing of sperm in the presence of protective agents decreased the rate of membrane dehydration and increased the total extent of dehydration. Cryoprotective agents such as glycerol decrease the amount of energy needed to transport water across cellular membranes during freezing. PMID:22480267

  13. Effective cooling of electronic components by boiling phase transition in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J.; Picker, G.; Winter, J.; Zell, M.

    1997-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer on a miniature heater has been studied under microgravity conditions during the IML 2 Space Shuttle Mission in 1994. These experiments are simulations for the application of the direct cooling of small electronic devices by boiling heat transfer in space. This becomes very important due to high thermal loads of modern electronic components. The results of this investigations are: Even at microgravity the heat transfer coefficients are very high and are even higher compared with other heater geometry. A remarkable influence of the gravity on the nucleate boiling heat transfer could not be observed, only in the transition and film boiling region a reduction up to 50 % was found. Several boiling modes have been observed during the experimental runs depending on the subcooling of the liquid, the liquid state, and the overall heat flux. Surface tension, wetting behavior, coalescence processes, the momentum of bubble formation, and thermocapillary convection play the most important role in boiling. The general statement can be made: boiling can be applied for cooling processes in microgravity.

  14. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan Zhou; Jun-wei Yan; Dong-sheng Zhu; Lie-quan Liang; Fei-long Liu; Jun-xi Lei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate\\/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has

  15. Gas-phase saturation and evaporative cooling effects during wet compression of a fuel aerosol under RCM conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsborough, S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Johnson, M.V. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Zhu, G.S. [HDEP Performance and Emissions, DTNA - Detroit Diesel Corporation, Detroit, MI (United States); Aggarwal, S.K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1030 Engineering Research Facility, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Wet compression of a fuel aerosol has been proposed as a means of creating gas-phase mixtures of involatile diesel-representative fuels and oxidizer + diluent gases for rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments. The use of high concentration aerosols (e.g., {proportional_to}0.1 mL{sub fuel}/L{sub gas}, {proportional_to}1 x 10{sup 9} droplets/L{sub gas} for stoichiometric fuel loading at ambient conditions) can result in droplet-droplet interactions which lead to significant gas-phase fuel saturation and evaporative cooling during the volumetric compression process. In addition, localized stratification (i.e., on the droplet scale) of the fuel vapor and of temperature can lead to non-homogeneous reaction and heat release processes - features which could prevent adequate segregation of the underlying chemical kinetic rates from rates of physical transport. These characteristics are dependent on many factors including physical parameters such as overall fuel loading and initial droplet size relative to the compression rate, as well as fuel and diluent properties such as the boiling curve, vaporization enthalpy, heat capacity, and mass and thermal diffusivities. This study investigates the physical issues, especially fuel saturation and evaporative cooling effects, using a spherically-symmetric, single-droplet wet compression model. n-Dodecane is used as the fuel with the gas containing 21% O{sub 2} and 79% N{sub 2}. An overall compression time and compression ratio of 15.3 ms and 13.4 are used, respectively. It is found that smaller droplets (d{sub 0}{proportional_to} 2-3 {mu}m) are more affected by 'far-field' saturation and cooling effects, while larger droplets (d{sub 0}{proportional_to} 14 {mu}m) result in greater localized stratification of the gas-phase due to the larger diffusion distances for heat and mass transport. Vaporization of larger droplets is more affected by the volumetric compression process since evaporation requires more time to be completed even at the same overall fuel loading. All of the cases explored here yield greater compositional stratification than thermal stratification due to the high Lewis numbers of the fuel-air mixtures (Le{sub g} {proportional_to} 3.8). (author)

  16. Gas-phase measurements of combustion interaction with materials for radiation-cooled chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, R. S.; Lucht, R. P.; Jassowski, D. M.; Rosenberg, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Foil samples of Ir and Pt are exposed to combustion products in a controlled premixed environment at atmospheric pressure. Electrical heating of the foil samples is used to control the surface temperature and to elevate it above the radiative equilibrium temperature within the test apparatus. Profiles of temperature and OH concentration in the boundary layer adjacent to the specimen surface are measured by laser-induced fluorescence. Measured OH concentrations are significantly higher than equilibrium concentrations calculated for the known mixture ratio and the measured temperature profiles. This result indicates that superequilibrium concentrations of H-atoms and O-atoms are also present in the boundary layer, due to partial equilibrium of the rapid binary reactions of the H2/O2 chemical kinetic system. These experiments are conducted as part of a research program to investigate fundamental aspects of the interaction of combustion gases with advanced high-temperature materials for radiation-cooled thrusters.

  17. Phase change materials for use in passive and hybrid solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, D.S.; Salyer, I.O.

    1983-11-01

    Six different types of phase change materials (PCM) were evaluated for their suitability for use in passive thermal storage applications in residential buildings. The PCM's under investigation include: straight chain hydrocarbons poly(ethylene glycols) polymers having long alkyl side chains semiclathrates of quaternary ammonium halides semiclathrates of amines, diamines, and triamines quaternized with aklyl halides and semiclathrates of polymers of quaternized amine containing monomers. Desirable features of candidate PCM's include: congruent phase change, little or no supercooling, not flammable, good thermal conductivity, noncorrosive, nontoxic, and, finally, a proper melting point along with a high heat of fusion.

  18. Phase modulation for reduced vibration sensitivity in laser-cooled clocks in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W.; Dick, G.; Jefferts, S.; Walls, F.

    2001-01-01

    The standard interrogation technique in atomic beam clocks is square-wave frequency modulation (SWFM), which suffers a first order sensitivity to vibrations as changes in the transit time of the atoms translates to perceived frequency errors. Square-wave phase modulation (SWPM) interrogation eliminates sensitivity to this noise.

  19. Phase change materials for use in passive and hybrid solar heating and cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Duvall; I. O. Salyer

    1983-01-01

    Six different types of phase change materials (PCM) were evaluated for their suitability for use in passive thermal storage applications in residential buildings. The PCM's under investigation include: straight chain hydrocarbons; poly(ethylene glycols); polymers having long alkyl side chains; semiclathrates of quaternary ammonium halides; semiclathrates of amines, diamines, and triamines quaternized with aklyl halides; and semiclathrates of polymers of quaternized

  20. Stability and phase noise tests of two cryo-cooled sapphire oscillators.

    PubMed

    Dick, G J; Wang, N T

    2000-01-01

    A cryocooled compensated sapphire oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 7 K-10 K temperature range, was demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(y)=2.5x10(-15) for measuring times 200 seconds phase noise and Allan deviation measurements that show more than 10 times stability improvement over the hydrogen maser for measuring times 1 second Phase noise is reduced by 20 to 28 dB over the design offset frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 Hz. Receiver design is also discussed. PMID:18238646

  1. Methanol-based heat pump for solar heating, cooling, and storage. Phase III. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. OD Offenhartz; T. V. Rye; R. E. Malsberger; D. Schwartz

    1981-01-01

    The reaction of CHâOH vapor with solid (pellet) CaClâ to form the solid phase compound CaCllâ . 2CHâOH can be used as the basis of a combined solar heat pump\\/thermal energy storage system. Such a system is capable of storing heat indefinitely at ambient temperature, and can be used for space and domestic hot water heating, and for air conditioning

  2. Phase Transitions in Dense Baryonic Matter and Cooling of Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Fridolin Weber; Rodrigo Negreiros

    2009-11-26

    New astrophysical instruments such as skA (square kilometer Array) and IXO (formerly Constellation X) promise the discovery of tens of thousands of new isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars), neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs). Many of these neutron stars will experience dramatic density changes over their active lifetimes, driven by either stellar spin-up or spin-down, which may trigger phase transitions in their dense baryonic cores. More than that, accretion of matter onto neutron stars in LMXBs is believed to cause pycno-nuclear fusion reactions in the inner crusts of neutron stars. The associated reaction rates may be drastically altered if strange quark matter would be absolutely stable. This paper outlines the investigative steps that need to be performed in order to explore the thermal response of neutron stars to rotationally-driven phase transitions in their cores as well as to nuclear burning scenarios in their crusts. Such research complements the exploration of the phase diagram of dense baryonic matter through particle collider experiments, as performed at RHIC in the USA and as planned at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany.

  3. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)] [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  4. The influence of cooling conditions on grain size, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of biomedical alloy specimens produced by investment casting.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R; Williamson, K; O'Brien, C; Ramirez-Garcia, S; Browne, D J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate and evaluate the effect of the cooling environment on the microstructure, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of an as-cast cobalt alloy. The microstructure of castings has a large bearing on the mechanical properties, grain size, porosity and the morphology of carbide precipitates are thought to influence hardness, tensile strength and ductility. It is postulated that a greater understanding of microstructure and secondary phase precipitate response to casting parameters could lead to the optimisation of casting parameters and serve to reduce the requirement of thermo-mechanical treatments currently applied to refine as-cast structures and achieve adequate mechanical properties. Thermal analysis was performed to determine the critical stages of cooling. Ten millimetre diameter cylindrical specimens which could be machined into tension test specimens were cast and cooled under different conditions to impose different cooling rates. Analytical techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), tensile testing and micro-hardness testing were used to study the specimens. Parameters studied include grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing, secondary phase precipitates, porosity, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation. The microstructure of as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo was found to consist of a dendritic matrix with secondary phases precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These secondary phase precipitates consist of carbides, rich in chromium and molybdenum. The size and area fraction of carbides was found to decrease significantly with increasing cooling rate while the micro-porosity was only marginally affected. The as-cast grains are illustrated for the first time showing a significant difference in size between insulated and naturally cooled specimens. The secondary dendrite arm spacing was determined to be significantly affected by the various cooling environments and the mechanical properties of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength all increased with increasing cooling rate while the ductility decreased. Correlations between microstructural features and mechanical properties are proposed. PMID:23683759

  5. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  6. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site. Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  7. Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habte, Melaku

    A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of ˜700 by half (˜350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

  8. Scaling of the linear response function from zero-field-cooled and thermoremanent magnetization in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio; Zannetti, Marco

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the relation between the scaling properties of the linear response function R(t,s), of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization in the context of phase-ordering kinetics. We explain why the retrieval of the scaling properties of R(t,s) from those of TRM and ZFC magnetization is not trivial. Preasymptotic contributions generate a long crossover in TRM, while ZFC magnetization is affected by a dangerous irrelevant variable. Lack of understanding of both these points has generated some confusion in the literature. The full picture relating the exponents of all the quantities involved is explicitly illustrated in the framework of the large-N model. Following this scheme, an assessment of the present status of numerical simulations for the Ising model can be made. We reach the conclusion that on the basis of the data available up to now, statements on the scaling properties of R(t,s) can be made from ZFC magnetization but not from TRM. From ZFC data for the Ising model with d=2,3,4 we confirm the previously found linear dependence on dimensionality of the exponent a entering R(t,s)˜s-(1+a)f(t/s). We also find evidence that a recently derived form of the scaling function f(x), using local scale invariance arguments [M. Henkel, M. Pleimling, C. Godrèche, and J. M. Luck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 265701 (2001)], does not hold for the Ising model.

  9. High-Resolution Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical: The ?19 Out-of-Phase Symmetric CH Stretch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Grant T.; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-10-01

    Phenyl radical has been studied via sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy in a slit supersonic discharge expansion source, with assignments for the highest frequency b2 out-of-phase C-H symmetric stretch vibration (-19) unambiguously confirmed by ?6 MHz (0.0002 cm-1) agreement with microwave ground state combination differences of McMahon et al. [Astrophys. J. 2003, 590, L61-64]. Least squares analysis of over 100 resolved rovibrational peaks in the sub-Doppler spectrum to a Watson Hamiltonian yields precision excited-state rotational constants and a vibrational band origin (-0 = 3071.8915(4) cm-1) consistent with a surprisingly small red-shift (0.9 cm-1) with respect to Ar matrix isolation studies of Ellison and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 1977]. Nuclear spin weights and inertial defects confirm the vibrationally averaged planarity and 2A1 rovibronic symmetry of phenyl radical, with analysis of the rotational constants consistent with a modest C2v distortion of the carbon backbone frame due to partial sp rehybridization of the ? C radical-center. Most importantly, despite the number of atoms (N = 11) and vibrational modes (3N - 6 = 27), phenyl radical exhibits a remarkably clean jet cooled high-resolution IR spectrum that shows no evidence of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) phenomena such as local or nonlocal perturbations due to strongly coupled nearby dark states. This provides strong support for the feasibility of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy in other aromatic hydrocarbon radical systems.

  10. Numerical simulation of natural convection of latent heat phase-change-material microcapsulate slurry packed in a horizontal rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from above

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Inaba; Yanlai Zhang; Akihiko Horibe; Naoto Haruki

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from\\u000a above has been conducted with non-Newtonian phase-change-material (PCM) microcapsulate slurry with latent heat capacities.\\u000a The formulation of the mathematical model in dimensionless co-ordinates and discretization of the governing equations have\\u000a been done using the finite volume method. Both natural convection and heat transfer

  11. Development of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams of Zirconium-Niobium Alloy Phase Transformations within the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautz, Elizabeth J.

    Microstructure and chemistry of zirconium alloys have a major influence on material performance, including mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly understand processing required to obtain desired microstructures for application in commercial nuclear reactors. Zirconium-niobium alloys are of particular interest for commercial nuclear applications (e.g., in boiling water reactors, pressurized water reactors, Canadian deuterium uranium reactors) due to increased corrosion resistance in aqueous environments over other zirconium alloys. Heat treatments of zirconium-niobium alloys affect overall microstructure, precipitate distributions and size, and ultimately determine material performance. Phase transformations in zirconium-niobium alloys were modeled for a range of niobium concentrations and heat treatment conditions, by conducting controlled experiments. Heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry was performed and data was collected and analyzed for zirconium-niobium alloys with niobium content ranging from 0.6-3.0 weight percent. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams were constructed for slow cooling rate conditions (9-34°C/minute) based on calorimetry test results. A standard operating procedure for performing these calorimetry tests and corresponding data analysis technique was developed specifically to study the zirconium-niobium material system. A mathematical model was developed utilizing the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory that accurately describes phase transformations upon continuous cooling in zirconium-niobium binary alloys. This model relates fraction of phase transformed to kinetic parameters that were calculated from experimental test results in order to model the phase transformation for various cooling rates from 10-40°C/minute.

  12. Fragile phase stability in (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)-xPbTiO3 crystals: A comparison of [001] and [110] field-cooled phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Xu, Guangyong

    2006-05-01

    Phase diagrams of [001] and [110] field-cooled (FC) (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)-xPbTiO3 or PMN- xPT (0.15?x?0.38) crystals have been constructed, based on high-resolution x-ray diffraction data. Comparisons reveal several interesting findings. First, a region of abnormal thermal expansion (c?a) above the dielectric maximum was found, whose stability range extended to higher temperatures on application of electric field (E) . Second, the rhombohedral (R) phase of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state was replaced by monoclinic MA in the [001] FC diagram, but with monoclinic MB in the [110] FC. Third, the monoclinic MC phase in the ZFC and [001] FC diagram was replaced by an orthorhombic (O) phase in the [110] FC diagram. Finally, in the [001] FC diagram, the phase boundary between tetragonal (T) and MA phases was extended to lower PT content (x=0.25) ; whereas in the [110] FC diagram, this extended region was entirely replaced by the O phase. These results clearly demonstrate that the phase stability of PMN- xPT crystals is quite fragile—depending not only on modest changes in E , but also on the direction along which E is applied.

  13. Loschmidt's Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramareddy, Vijayashankar; Talukdar, Ishan; Summy, Gil

    2008-05-01

    A quantum ?-kicked rotor can be understood theoretically using a kick to kick Floquet operator which has both kicking and free evolution terms. If time reversal is performed after t kicks, (by changing the pulse period and phase of the potential) the evolution of the system returns to the initial distribution in the next t kicks and results in a narrowing of the distribution which is equivalent to cooling [1]. The temperature has been predicted to go down by several orders of magnitude. We explore the experimental implementation of this cooling with a Bose-Einstein condensate kicked by a standing light wave. [1] J. Martin et. al. arXiv:0710.4860 (2007).

  14. Abundances of volatile-bearing phases in carbonaceous chondrites and cooling rates of meteorites based on cation ordering of orthopyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1989-01-01

    Results of preliminary calculations of volatile abundances in carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The method (Ganguly 1982) was refined for the calculation of cooling rate on the basis of cation ordering in orthopyroxenes, and it was applied to the derivation of cooling rates of some stony meteorites. Evaluation of cooling rate is important to the analysis of condensation, accretion, and post-accretionary metamorphic histories of meteorites. The method of orthopyroxene speedometry is widely applicable to meteorites and would be very useful in the understanding of the evolutionary histories of carbonaceous chondrites, especially since the conventional metallographic and fission track methods yield widely different results in many cases. Abstracts are given which summarize the major conclusions of the volatile abundance and cooling rate calculations.

  15. Laser cooling in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The application of the laser cooling technique to longitudinal phase space cooling of stored ion beams is introduced. Results of recent experiments at the ASTRID storage ring are discussed. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics}.

  16. Thermohydraulics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor primary loop during early phases of unrestricted core-heatup accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Colman, J.; Hsu, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) siting considerations, the Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) are considered as accidents of highest consequence, corresponding to core meltdown accidents in light water reactors. Initiation of such accidents can be, for instance, due to station blackout, resulting in scram and loss of all main loop forced circulation, with none of the core auxiliary cooling system loops being started. The result is a slow but continuing core heatup, extending over days. During the initial phases of such UCHA scenarios, the primary loop remains pressurized, with the system pressure slowly increasing until the relief valve setpoint is reached. The major objectives of the work described here were to determine times to depressurization as well as approximate loop component temperatures up to depressurization.

  17. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  18. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VII. Appendix C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains: Hudson No. 2 Limited Retrofit Cost Estimates provided by Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (SWEC); backup data and basis of estimate for SWEC Heater Plant and Gas Turbine Plant (Kearny No. 12) cost estimates; and Appendices - Analysis of Relevant Tax Laws.

  19. Low-temperature two-phase micro-channel cooling for high-heat-flux thermal management of defense electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

    2008-01-01

    For a given heat sink thermal resistance and ambient temperature, the temperature of an electronic device rises fairly linearly with increasing device heat flux. This relationship is especially problematic for defense electronics, where heat dissipation is projected to exceed 1000 W\\/cm2 in the near future. Direct and indirect low temperature refrigeration cooling facilitate appreciable reduction in the temperature of both

  20. Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Research Project 1093, Phase III Draft Report, Compilation of Diversity Factors and Load Shapes 

    E-print Network

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Sreshthaputra, A.

    2000-01-01

    the descriptions available for the building considered, together with the derived diversity factors in a table format, and the typical load shapes. Also, a sample input file for the DOE-2 and BLAST simulation programs are included. These input files are ready...ESL-TR-00/06-01 COMPILATION OF DIVERSITY FACTORS AND SCHEDULES FOR ENERGY AND COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ASHRAE Research Project 1093 Phase III Draft Report COMPILATION OF DIVERSITY FACTORS AND LOAD SHAPES Bass Abushakra Jeff. S. Haberl, Ph.D., P...

  1. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

  2. Cooling concept integration. Phase I final technical report, October 1, 1979-July 31, 1981. [For pre-engineered metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fraker, H.; Glennie, W.; Snyder, M.K.

    1981-08-19

    Before specific test prototypes were developed, six potential evaporative roof cooling configurations with alternative storage and heat transfer mechanisms were examined, and preliminary cost estimates were made. Each system uses a wet roof system which sprays or floods the roof, allowing evaporative heat transfer to the environment. Finite difference thermal network methods were used for the evaluation of the systems. Detailed results including charts of the hourly heat flows during particular days are presented, and the performance is summarized for Las Vegas. (LEW)

  3. Memory of the magnetic field applied during cooling in the low-temperature phase of magnetite: Grain size dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Smirnov

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature magnetic hysteresis properties of polycrystalline magnetite samples were studied as a function of the magnetic field (HFC) applied during cooling from 300 K to 10 K. The samples ranged in mean grain size from 0.04 to 100 ?m, representing mostly single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetic states. The low-temperature field memory effect, a striking ability of magnetite

  4. Low-Temperature Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling for High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management of Defense Electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

    2009-01-01

    For a given heat sink thermal resistance and ambient temperature, the temperature of an electronic device rises fairly linearly with increasing device heat flux. This relationship is especially problematic for defense electronics, where heat dissipation is projected to exceed 1000 W\\/cm2 in the near future. Direct and indirect low-temperature refrigeration cooling facilitate appreciable reduction in the temperature of both coolant

  5. Cooling wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nosenko

    1995-01-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the

  6. Phase equilibria and the pressure-temperature path of the highest-grade Ryoke metamorphic rocks in the Yanai district, SW Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Ikeda

    1998-01-01

    The garnet-cordierite zone, the highest-grade zone of the Ryoke metamorphic rocks in the Yanai district, SW Japan, is defined\\u000a by the coexistence of garnet and cordierite in pelitic rocks. Three assemblages in this zone are studied in detail, i.e. spinel\\u000a + cordierite + biotite, garnet + cordierite + biotite and garnet + biotite, all of which contain quartz, K-feldspar and

  7. Is cooling still cool?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ashwin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Botha, John

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), where patients are cooled to between 32°C and 36°C for a period of 12-24 hours and then gradually rewarmed, may reduce the risk of ischemic injury to cerebral tissue following a period of insufficient blood flow. This strategy of TH could improve mortality and neurological function in patients who have experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). The necessity of TH in OOHCA was challenged in late 2013 by a fascinating and potentially practice changing publication, which found that targeting a temperature of 36°C had similar outcomes to cooling patients to 33°C. This article reviews the current literature and summarizes the uncertainties and questions raised when considering cooling of patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury. Irrespective of whether TH or targeted temperature management is deployed in patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury, it would seem that avoiding hyperpyrexia is important and that a more rigorous approach to neurological evaluation is mandated. PMID:25423577

  8. Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOEpatents

    Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

    2008-02-12

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  9. Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOEpatents

    Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  10. St. Paul District heating system conceptual design study and report. Appendix C of market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Barnes; S. Bishop; B. Abrahamsson

    1982-01-01

    The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a hot water, cogeneration district heating system serving the central business district of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four-five year time span. This

  11. Natural cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Fenster; A. J. Grantier

    1981-01-01

    With natural cooling, a process or area is cooled by outdoor air when the weather permits, and dependency on mechanical equipment is reduced. It should be used whenever conditions permit, and mechanical equipment should be brought on-line only when natural cooling cannot be employed. The results are minimized costs without lowered comfort or production levels, reduced costs for maintenance associated

  12. Single-Photon Atomic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannerman, Travis; Price, Gabriel; Viering, Kirsten; Narevicius, Ed; Raizen, Mark

    2007-10-01

    We report on a new method of laser cooling and phase space compression which does not rely on the momentum transfer between many photons and an atom. Whereas most laser cooling techniques (e.g. Doppler cooling, optical molasses, Raman cooling) require a cycling transition to allow for the scattering of many photons, our technique scatters on average only one photon from each atom. This is advantageous because the technique is not limited to the small subset of atoms in the periodic table which possess a cycling transition. The technique may potentially be extended to the cooling of polar molecules and atomic hydrogen.

  13. Natural cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, L.C.; Grantier, A.J.

    1981-11-25

    With natural cooling, a process or area is cooled by outdoor air when the weather permits, and dependency on mechanical equipment is reduced. It should be used whenever conditions permit, and mechanical equipment should be brought on-line only when natural cooling cannot be employed. The results are minimized costs without lowered comfort or production levels, reduced costs for maintenance associated with higher levels of mechanical chiller system operation, and decreased dependence on expensive, nonrenewable energy sources. This article reviews several methods of natural cooling and provides a detailed computer-based economic evaluation of each. It discusses the air-side economizer, water-side natural cooling, and combination systems.

  14. Superfast Cooling

    E-print Network

    S. Machnes; M. B. Plenio; B. Reznik; A. M. Steane; A. Retzker

    2010-01-15

    Currently laser cooling schemes are fundamentally based on the weak coupling regime. This requirement sets the trap frequency as an upper bound to the cooling rate. In this work we present a numerical study that shows the feasibility of cooling in the strong coupling regime which then allows cooling rates that are faster than the trap frequency with state of the art experimental parameters. The scheme we present can work for trapped atoms or ions as well as mechanical oscillators. It can also cool medium size ions chains close to the ground state.

  15. Single-phase and boiling cooling of small pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzle suction and impingement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Copeland

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements of forced convection single-phase and boiling heat transfer from pin fin arrays were made using fluorocarbon liquid FC-72. Liquid flow was directed to and from the pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzles, alternately providing suction and impingement flow. Rectangular pin fin arrays having equal width and spacing of 0.1 and 0.2 mm and aspect ratios of 1,

  16. Thermomechanical modelling of residual stresses induced by martensitic phase transformation and cooling during quenching of railway wheels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siva N. Lingamanaik; Bernard K. Chen

    2011-01-01

    A finite element (FE) method was used to study the formation of residual stresses in low carbon bainitic–martensitic rail wheels. The FE model combines a commercially available heat treatment software DANTE to the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Material data which include thermo-mechanical properties and kinetics of phase transformations for low carbon bainitic–martensitic (LCBM) steels were obtained from dilatometry experiments

  17. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  18. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  19. Chicago Park District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

  20. Search for cool giant exoplanets around young and nearby stars. VLT/NaCo near-infrared phase-coronagraphic and differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Sylvestre, M.; Baudoz, P.; Galicher, R.; Mouillet, D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and future high-contrast imaging instruments. It aims to reduce the stellar speckles that prevent the detection of cool planets by using in/out methane-band images. It attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, such as angular differential imaging (ADI). However, this attenuation depends on the spectral properties of the low-mass companions we are searching for. The implications of this particularity on estimating the detection limits have been poorly explored so far. Aims: We perform an imaging survey to search for cool (Teff< 1000-1300 K) giant planets at separations as close as 5-10 AU. We also aim to assess the sensitivity limits in SDI data taking the photometric bias into account. This will lead to a better view of the SDI performance. Methods: We observed a selected sample of 16 stars (age <200 Myr, distance <25 pc) with the phase-mask coronagraph, SDI, and ADI modes of VLT/NaCo. Results: We do not detect any companions. As for the estimation of the sensitivity limits, we argue that the SDI residual noise cannot be converted into mass limits because it represents a differential flux, unlike what is done for single-band images, in which fluxes are measured. This results in degeneracies for the mass limits, which may be removed with the use of single-band constraints. We instead employ a method of directly determining the mass limits and compare the results from a combined processing SDI-ADI (ASDI) and ADI. The SDI flux ratio of a planet is the critical parameter for the ASDI performance at close-in separations (?1''). The survey is sensitive to cool giant planets beyond 10 AU for 65% and 30 AU for 100% of the sample. Conclusions: For close-in separations, the optimal regime for SDI corresponds to SDI flux ratios higher than ~2. According to the BT-Settl model, this translates into Teff ? 800 K, which is significantly lower than the methane condensation temperature (~1300 K). The methods described here can be applied to the data interpretation of SPHERE. In particular, we expect better performance with the dual-band imager IRDIS, thanks to more suitable filter characteristics and better image quality. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO programs 085.C-0257A, 086.C-0164A, and 088.C-0893A.

  1. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yzombard, Pauline; Hamamda, Mehdi; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarize the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C2 - , the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photodetachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C2 - , are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources, and antimatter physics.

  2. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions.

    PubMed

    Yzombard, Pauline; Hamamda, Mehdi; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarize the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C_{2}^{-}, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photodetachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C_{2}^{-}, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources, and antimatter physics. PMID:26066432

  3. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    E-print Network

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  4. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I. [Triangle Trading and Technology Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  5. Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

  6. Cool Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Acurex developed a heat stress alleviating, liquid cooled helmet liner for military pilots after a series of accidents in Vietnam suggested heat exhaustion as the cause. System pumped a cooled liquid through channels in the helmet liner proved effective in eliminating 40-60% of stored body heat.

  7. Cooling water system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kuk Kim; Robin Smith

    2001-01-01

    Research on cooling systems to date has focussed on the individual components of cooling systems, not the system as a whole. Cooling water systems should be designed and operated with consideration of all the cooling system components because of the interactions between cooling water networks and the cooling tower performance. In re-circulating cooling water systems, cooling water from the cooling

  8. It Takes a District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Karolee

    2003-01-01

    Describes Fontana (California) Unified School District's No Child Left Behind Act implementation plan, focusing on the use of project charts. Illustrates the project chart function with examples from Title I and Title X. (PKP)

  9. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  10. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  11. Cooling of MCTs incorporating miniature heat pipes as thermal spreaders

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Beam, J.E.; Donovan, B. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aerospace Power Division

    1995-12-31

    Potential cooling schemes and their advantages and disadvantages for MCT cooling are briefly discussed. Following this discussion, an air cooling system employing miniature heat pipes as thermal spreaders is proposed. A preliminary analysis shows that the proposed air cooling system has the potential to outperform many single-phase liquid cooling systems. A cooling scheme involving installation of miniature heat pipes in the mounting surface of MCTs for single-phase liquid cooling is also proposed. Finally, an EDM wire-cutting method for miniature heat pipe manufacture is introduced, which can be used to directly manufacture miniature heat pipes into the heat sink as an integral part of the cooling system.

  12. Ventilative cooling

    E-print Network

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melaku Habte

    2008-01-01

    A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of

  14. Magnet system for helical muon cooling channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Kahn; M. Alsharo'a; R. P. Johnson; Vladimir Kashikhin; K. Yonehara; A. V. Zlobin

    2007-01-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) consisting of a pressurized gas absorber imbedded in a magnetic channel that provides superimposed solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields has shown considerable promise in providing six-dimensional cooling of muon beams. The analysis of this muon cooling technique with both analytic and simulation studies has shown significant reduction of muon phase space emittance. A

  15. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District conventions. 1210.401 Section 1210.401...Handler Members § 1210.401 District conventions. (a) Except for the initial district convention in each district, which will be...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District conventions. 1210.401 Section 1210.401...Handler Members § 1210.401 District conventions. (a) Except for the initial district convention in each district, which will be...

  17. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  18. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  19. Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    programs (DOE-2, BLAST) for energy and cooling calculation. In our analysis, we are proposing a method that combines the work that was previously performed by Abbas (1993), Thamilseran and Haberl (1994), and Dhar (1995) to best serve the purposes...

  20. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  1. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  2. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  3. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  4. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  5. Districts Delivering Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The idea is not new: Offer courses remotely, build in variety and the students will come. This article discusses how public schools are investing in offering online courses, catering to students' specific learning needs and to remote locations. Several surveys conducted in recent years show that school districts nationwide are embracing this…

  6. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  7. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  8. Cooling pancakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, J. R.; Centrella, J.; Szalay, A. S.; Wilson, J. R.

    1984-10-01

    One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. The pressure is found to be relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based on this result is developed which accurately describes the numerical calculations. The fraction of baryons which cool below a given temperature depends sensitively upon the total mass of the collapsing system and the baryon density parameter, and somewhat upon the inclusion of conduction at high mass. Anisotropic expansion factors are used to simulate transverse flow toward string-like structures. In some cases, the increased baryon density can overcome the effects of adiabatic compression to enhance cooling.

  9. Cool Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science is quite cool, but you don't need to tell this to the dedicated team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Their website, Cool Science, entertains questions of all kinds, encourages young scientists to "get their hands dirty", and also provides educators with a range of resources, including interactive media features, lesson plans, and lab exercises. These materials are contained with six primary sections: "For Educators", "Biointeractive", "For Curious Kids", and "Ask A Scientist". Educators of all stripes can use the "For Educators" area to focus in on resources organized by type, topic, grade level, and also to sign up for the resources RSS feed. Moving on, the "Biointeractive" area features archived video lectures, virtual labs, and another series of animations on stem cells, cancer, and immunology. There's a great deal to explore here, and it's a site that anyone with an interest in science will want to share with others.

  10. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  11. Calculation and visual displaying of the water chemistry conditions in return cooling systems at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Ivanov, E. N.; Makushin, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Matters concerned with treatment of cooling water at thermal power stations are addressed. Problems arising during operation of return cooling systems equipped with cooling towers are analyzed. The software used for monitoring, control, and indication of the hydraulic and water chemistry operating conditions of the circulation system at the Yaivinsk district power station is considered.

  12. HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

  13. MUON COOLING - EMITTANCE EXCHANGE.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    Muon Cooling is the key factor in building of a Muon collider, (to a less degree) Muon storage ring, and a Neutrino Factory. Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting, but may take a considerable time to realize, as much more work and study is needed. Utilizing high intensity Muon sources - Neutrino Factories, and other intermediate steps are very important and will greatly expand our abilities and confidence in the credibility of high energy muon colliders. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. The use of alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed, where the emittance are large. We present an overview of the cooling and discuss formalism, solenoid magnets and some beam dynamics.

  14. Energy storage using phase-change materials for active solar heating and cooling: An evaluation of future research and development direction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Borkowski; T. K. Stovall; R. J. Kedl; J. J. Tomlinson

    1982-01-01

    The current state of the art and commercial potential of active solar heating and cooling systems for buildings, and the use of thermal energy storage with these systems are assessed. The need for advanced latent heat storage subsystems in these applications and priorities for their development are determined. Latent storage subsystems are advantageous in applications where their compactness may be

  15. Advanced phase change materials for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings: Annual topical report, May 29, 1986May 29, 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Salyer; A. K. Sircar

    1987-01-01

    This report describes research conducted in testing hydrocarbons for use as heat storage compounds in solar heated and cooled buildings. Materials tested are crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons and butyl stearate\\/butyl palmitate. Experimental results are briefly summarized and a discussion of fire retardance is provided. (JDH)

  16. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  17. Cooling our tomorrows economically

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, J.R. (Energy Conservation Lab., Atlanta, GA (US))

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that summer cooling poses unprecedented problems in the years ahead for architects, engineers, manufacturers, contractors and users. True, millions of tons of fine volcanic ash from the Philippines' Mt. Pinatubo and soot from Kuwait's burned oil wells now encircle the globe, creating temporary shade. The eruption also sent up related weights of sulfur dioxide (convertible to stratospheric sulfate aerosols) for further shading. Together, they may briefly counteract global warming, but rising greenhouse gases guarantee the latter will return with renewed force. Greenhouse gas production continues, making global warming certain, even if all CFCs are phased out, for they are minor greenhouse problems. Cooling loads will increase faster than rising temperatures as populations increase and move south, and as comfort and clean air standards rise. In addition, the fear of skin cancer, cataracts and related retinal and immune system damage may shortly keep more people indoors in summer, thereby raising internal loads.

  18. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

  19. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant...

  20. District cooling, a technology with great potential of application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Papageorgiou; D. Anastaselos; A. M. Papadopoulos

    During the last decades, it has been observed that the annual electricity consumption rose, es- pecially during the summer periods. It also has reached high levels, due to the increased de- mand of air conditioning and refrigeration, mainly with electric systems. These systems, despite of the utility that they offer for the re- duction of the thermal loads and the

  1. "Strategic Review of FY06 District & School-Level Resources". In Fulfillment of a Memorandum of Understanding between: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and The Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA). Phase II- Final ERS Report. An Executive Summary and Management Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stephen; Travers, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and the Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that called for a third-party research firm to analyze resource use across the Los Angeles school system. Education Resource Strategies (ERS) was chosen to conduct this analysis. The study was…

  2. Challenges of Computer-Based Instruction in the Los Angeles Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Joel A.

    This paper discusses the systematic approach to the integration of microcomputers into all phases of instruction that was implemented in the Los Angeles Unified School District in 1984 under the Computer Education Foundation Program (CEFP). It begins with a brief description of the school district to provide a context for the reader. The current…

  3. District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

  4. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    , contracting, and university admission decisions, violates the United States Constitution. On December 11, 2006UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND 8, 2006 by several plaintiffs who claim that a recently-approved state constitutional amendment

  5. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating... § 953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each district...establish and organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers within each...

  6. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating... § 953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each district...establish and organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers within each...

  7. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...districts of the production area are hereby established: (a) District No. 1—The counties of Ferry, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Whitman, and Lincoln, plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant...

  8. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...districts of the production area are hereby established: (a) District No. 1—The counties of Ferry, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Whitman, and Lincoln, plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant...

  9. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...districts of the production area are hereby established: (a) District No. 1—The counties of Ferry, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Whitman, and Lincoln, plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant...

  10. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...districts of the production area are hereby established: (a) District No. 1—The counties of Ferry, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Whitman, and Lincoln, plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant...

  11. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...districts of the production area are hereby established: (a) District No. 1—The counties of Ferry, Stevens, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Whitman, and Lincoln, plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant...

  12. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  13. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  14. Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

    1995-01-01

    We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

  15. Transfer Education: San Mateo County Community College District. Board Report Numbers 85-4-1C and 85-12-2C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank

    In 1984, a study was conducted in the San Mateo County Community College District (SMCCCD) to examine the state of transfer education in the district. During the first phase of the study, available data were gathered and examined with respect to: (1) flow of district transfers to the University of California (UC) and California State University…

  16. Phase Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    In this activity, students explore phase change at a molecular level. They trace the path of an atom to view intermolecular interactions and investigate how temperature relates to phase change. Upon activity completion, students will be able to give examples of phase change, explain how the input of energy into a system affects the state of matter, and describe how both latent heat and evaporative cooling play a role in changes of phase.

  17. National Association of Conservation Districts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

  18. Phase transitions and He-synthesis driven winds in neutrino cooled accretion disks: prospects for late flares in short gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Lee, William H; Diego-Lopez-Camara,

    2009-01-01

    We consider the long term evolution of debris following the tidal disruption of compact stars in the context of short gamma ray bursts (SGRBs). The initial encounter impulsively creates a hot, dense, neutrino-cooled disk capable of powering the prompt emission. After a long delay, we find that powerful winds are launched from the surface of the disk, driven by the recombination of free nucleons into alpha-particles. The associated energy release depletes the mass supply and eventually shuts off activity of the central engine. As a result, the luminosity and mass accretion rate deviate from the earlier self-similar behavior expected for an isolated ring with efficient cooling. This then enables a secondary episode of delayed activity to become prominent as an observable signature, when material in the tidal tails produced by the initial encounter returns to the vicinity of the central object. The time scale of the new accretion event can reach tens of seconds to minutes, depending on the details of the system....

  19. South East Kelowna Irrigation District: Agricultural Water Conservation Program Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Pike

    In 1994 the South East Kelowna Irrigation District (SEKID) implemented a progressive and often controversial demand management program directed at the agricultural community it serves. This paper looks at the evolution of that program over the past ten years and provides insight to the challenges inherent in managing agricultural water use. Phase 1 of the program used an educational approach

  20. Dilemmas Presented by State Agency Takeovers of Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    During the 1988-89 school year, two local school districts were placed into "Phase III" of the Kentucky Educational Improvement Act (1978), a category of state receivership in which much local decision-making power was transferred to Kentucky Department of Education officials. When state education department intervention occurs, major issues arise…

  1. District Computer Concerns: Checklist for Monitoring Instructional Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Merilyn

    Designed to assist those involved with planning, organizing, and implementing computer use in schools, this checklist can be applied to: (1) assess the present state of instructional computer use in the district; (2) assist with the development of plans or guidelines for computer use; (3) support a start-up phase; and (4) monitor the…

  2. Comments on optical stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang

    2002-10-08

    An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.

  3. Districts That School Year-Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes four school districts that operate year-round schools: Socorro Independent School District, Texas; Valley View School District, Romeoville, Illinois; Murrieta Valley Unified School near San Diego, California; and Rock Island-Milan School District in northwestern Illinois. Briefly describes three tracks of year-round education:…

  4. Impact of Cooling Rate on the Durability of PHA Glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect, if any, on the PCT responses of glasses cooled at different rates. Two bounding cooling profiles were used in this study: rapidly quenched and a canister centerline cooling curve. Glasses were selected based on a number of criteria, but mainly to challenge the regions where amorphous phase separation is expected based upon

  5. Application of CFD to closed-wet cooling towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Gan; S. B Riffat; L Shao; P Doherty

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to predicting the performance of closed-wet cooling towers (CWCTs) for chilled ceilings according to the cooling capacity and pressure loss. The prediction involves the two-phase flow of gas and water droplets. The predicted thermal performance is compared with experimental measurement for a large industrial CWCT and a small prototype cooling tower. CFD is then

  6. ICOOL: a simulation code for ionization cooling of muon beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Fernow

    1999-01-01

    Current ideas for designing a high luminosity muon collider require significant cooling of the phase space of the muon beams. The only known method that can cool the beams in a time comparable to the muon lifetime is ionization cooling. This method requires directing the particles in the beam at a large angle through a low Z absorber material in

  7. The Effect of the Rate of Cooling from High-Temperature Single-Phase Region on the Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of AlNi Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menushenkov, Vladimir P.; Gorshenkov, Mikhail V.; Savchenko, Elena S.; Zhukov, Dmitry G.

    2015-02-01

    The microstructure of as-cast and melt spun AlNi alloys was studied by transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The magnetic properties of the alloys were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The water quenched and melt spun AlNi samples were characterized by zone microstructure formed as a result of solid solution decomposition into ?- and ?2 phases within the miscibility gap. Therefore, the subsequent aging of as-quenched alloy leads to the development of the zone microstructure instead of the decomposition of single-phase solid solution. The absence of preferential precipitations and discontinuous precipitation (DP) reaction was observed at grain boundaries (GB) of as-cast AlNi alloy after aging. The antiphase domains (APD) have been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons prepared by melt spinning. The effects of GB and APD boundaries on the decomposition of a solid solution in the AlNi ribbons were investigated. At first, a thin ?-phase layer is formed along GB and APD boundaries. Then the decomposition leads to the formation of ?2-phase layers on the both sides of ?-phase layer. The GB and APD boundaries, which are decorated by precipitates of ?- and ?2 layers, become visible in the TEM and AFM micrographs. A DP reaction at GBs has been observed for the first time in the AlNi ribbons after supplementary aging. The cellular microstructure at GBs consisting of alternating lamellas of ?'- and ?'2 phases was formed after aging the ribbons at 773 K (500 °C) for 10 minutes.

  8. From High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors to Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Simon; G. J. Schlueter

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of gas-cooled reactors is described and the advantages of helium as a reactor coolant stemming from its inertness and the fact that it is a single-phase coolant are discussed. The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) forms the basis for the current design of a Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR). The extensive use of existing HTGR technology and the similarities

  9. Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    D IC, review, single-phase cooling, electronics cooling, flow boiling, microchannels 1 Introduction single-phase flow, and two-phase flow (flow boiling). The interrelations between the heat transfer rateReview and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

  10. Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis

    E-print Network

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    This is the second report of the ASHRAE 1093-RP project that reports on the progress during the scheduled Phase II effort. In this report, we present: (1) the data sets identified and acquired required for the analysis; (2) the method adopted...

  11. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  12. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Piston cooling nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.R.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes an assembly for cooling a piston in an internal combustion engine. It works by directing a spray of cooling fluid from the engine cooling fluid supply to a portion of the piston selected to achieve the optimum cooling of the entire piston.

  14. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

  15. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

  16. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  17. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  18. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  19. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District...Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or...

  20. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District...Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or...

  1. ASTROMAG coil cooling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

  2. Sizing of nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves for initially sub-cooled gas\\/liquid two-phase flow – The HNE-DS method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Current standards for sizing nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves are based on different\\u000a flow models, flow coefficients and nomenclature. They are generally valid only for single-phase gas and\\u000a liquid flow. Common to all is the concept of one-dimensional nozzle flow in combination with a correction\\u000a factor (e.g. the discharge coefficient) to correct for non-idealities of the three-dimensional flow. With

  3. Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leão, Juscelino B.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    The average density of D2O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ˜210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D2O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called "low-density liquid" and "high-density liquid" phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

  4. Development test on 2 K cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Okudaira; Genshirou Fujii

    1993-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the detail of proposal; configuration of the laboratory dilution refrigerator; the adiabatic vacuum section of the dilution refrigerator; the relationship between refrigerating capability and cooling temperature; phase diagram and vapor pressure curves of the He-3 and He-4; the fractionation chamber and dilution chamber; separation control by electric field of He-3 rich and He-4 rich phases; mixer utilizing

  5. CFD simulation of wet cooling towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafat Al-Waked; Masud Behnia

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer inside a natural draft wet cooling tower (NDWCT) have been investigated numerically under different operating and crosswind conditions. The three-dimensional CFD model has utilized the standard k–? turbulence model as the turbulence closure. The current simulation has adopted both the Eulerian approach for the air phase and the Lagrangian approach for the water phase. The film

  6. Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

  7. Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

  8. RF Integration into Helical Magnet for Muon 6-Dimensional Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Kashikhin, V.; Lamm, M.; Lee, A.; Lopes, M.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, S.; Neubauer, M.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The helical cooling channel is proposed to make a quick muon beam phase space cooling in a short channel length. The challenging part of the helical cooling channel magnet design is how to integrate the RF cavity into the compact helical cooling magnet. This report shows the possibility of the integration of the system.

  9. Cooling Water System Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  10. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  11. Evaporative cooling of the dipolar radical OH

    E-print Network

    Benjamin K. Stuhl; Matthew T. Hummon; Mark Yeo; Goulven Quéméner; John L. Bohn; Jun Ye

    2012-09-27

    Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling: it led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed matter phenomena. More recently, great progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases, whose permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate rich, novel, and controllable phases, dynamics, and chemistry in these ultracold systems. However, while many strides have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not yet been achieved due to unfavorable elastic-to-inelastic ratios and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. We now report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of hydroxyl (OH) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least an order of magnitude in temperature and three orders in phase-space density, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and sufficiently large initial populations, much colder temperatures are possible, and even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical -- or anything else it can sympathetically cool -- may now be in reach.

  12. Cooling tower reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sukhov; A. G. Venzhega; V. N. Beizer; A. V. Kovalenko

    1983-01-01

    At the majority of coking plants the primary gas cooler water cooling cycle uses cooling towers with natural tower draft. The Yasinovka Coke Works installed three such cooling towers with capacity of 1000 m³\\/hr of water each with irrigation surface of 1000 m². The water distribution is gravity-flow, unpressurized. The construction of one cooling tower consumes 610 m³ of lumber.

  13. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of Kings, Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are...

  14. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...pursuant to § 923.31(m): (a) District 1 shall include the Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Spokane, Pend Oreille, Stevens, and Ferry. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kittitas, Yakima,...

  15. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...pursuant to § 923.31(m): (a) District 1 shall include the Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Spokane, Pend Oreille, Stevens, and Ferry. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kittitas, Yakima,...

  16. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...pursuant to § 923.31(m): (a) District 1 shall include the Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Spokane, Pend Oreille, Stevens, and Ferry. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kittitas, Yakima,...

  17. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...pursuant to § 923.31(m): (a) District 1 shall include the Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Spokane, Pend Oreille, Stevens, and Ferry. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kittitas, Yakima,...

  18. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...pursuant to § 923.31(m): (a) District 1 shall include the Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Spokane, Pend Oreille, Stevens, and Ferry. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kittitas, Yakima,...

  19. 7 CFR 924.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PRUNES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.14 District. District means the...

  20. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...described subdivisions of the production area: (a) District 1 shall include Miami-Dade County. (b) District 2 shall include all of the production area except Miami-Dade County. [19 FR 3439, June 11, 1954, unless otherwise...

  1. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...described subdivisions of the production area: (a) District 1 shall include Miami-Dade County. (b) District 2 shall include all of the production area except Miami-Dade County. [19 FR 3439, June 11, 1954, unless otherwise...

  2. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...described subdivisions of the production area: (a) District 1 shall include Miami-Dade County. (b) District 2 shall include all of the production area except Miami-Dade County. [19 FR 3439, June 11, 1954, unless otherwise...

  3. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...described subdivisions of the production area: (a) District 1 shall include Miami-Dade County. (b) District 2 shall include all of the production area except Miami-Dade County. [19 FR 3439, June 11, 1954. Redesignated at 26 FR...

  4. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...described subdivisions of the production area: (a) District 1 shall include Miami-Dade County. (b) District 2 shall include all of the production area except Miami-Dade County. [19 FR 3439, June 11, 1954, unless otherwise...

  5. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Jefferson in the State of Oregon; District...counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District...Yamhill, Tillamook, Washington, Clatsop, Columbia...Hood River in the State of Oregon;...

  6. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Jefferson in the State of Oregon; District...counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District...Yamhill, Tillamook, Washington, Clatsop, Columbia...Hood River in the State of Oregon;...

  7. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Jefferson in the State of Oregon; District...counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District...Yamhill, Tillamook, Washington, Clatsop, Columbia...Hood River in the State of Oregon;...

  8. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Jefferson in the State of Oregon; District...counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District...Yamhill, Tillamook, Washington, Clatsop, Columbia...Hood River in the State of Oregon;...

  9. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...following districts of the production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim Wells, Nueces, Kleberg, Brooks,...

  10. Southwest Florida Water Management District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

  11. Subcontracted activities related to TES for building heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.

    1980-03-01

    The subcontract program elements related to thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling systems are outlined. The following factors are included: subcontracts in the utility load management application area; life and stability testing of packaged low cost energy storage materials; and development of thermal energy storage systems for residential space cooling. Resistance storage heater component development, demonstration of storage heater systems for residential applications, and simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage (heat pump systems) are also discussed. Application of thermal energy storage for solar application and twin cities district heating are covered including an application analysis and technology assessment of thermal energy storage.

  12. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  13. Controlled Rate Cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

  14. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) cooled laptop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Jewell-Larsen; H. Ran; Y. Zhang; M. K. Schwiebert; K. A. H. Tessera; A. V. Mamishev

    2009-01-01

    Forced air cooling with rotary fans is the most popular cooling solution for electronic products. However, increasing heat generation in microelectronics, and the demand for ever smaller portable devices, has resulted in heat fluxes and form-factors that push the limits of conventional rotary fan-based air cooling technology. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ionic wind pumps offer an attractive alternative to fans. In this

  15. Performance of the dark energy camera liquid nitrogen cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Alvarez, R.; Bonati, M.; Derylo, G.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A.; Munoz, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schultz, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Zhao, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera, the Imager and its cooling system was installed onto the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile in September 2012. The imager cooling system is a LN2 two-phase closed loop cryogenic cooling system. The cryogenic circulation processing is located off the telescope. Liquid nitrogen vacuum jacketed transfer lines are run up the outside of the telescope truss tubes to the imager inside the prime focus cage. The design of the cooling system along with commissioning experiences and initial cooling system performance is described. The LN2 cooling system with the DES imager was initially operated at Fermilab for testing, then shipped and tested in the Blanco Coudé room. Now the imager is operating inside the prime focus cage. It is shown that the cooling performance sufficiently cools the imager in a closed loop mode, which can operate for extended time periods without maintenance or LN2 fills.

  16. 7 CFR 916.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...area or such other subdivision as may be prescribed pursuant to § 916.31: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Madera and Fresno. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include...

  17. District Learning Tied to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

  18. Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

  19. Impact of Cooling Rate on the Durability of PHA Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.

    2001-06-04

    This study was conducted to determine the effect, if any, on the PCT responses of glasses cooled at different rates. Two bounding cooling profiles were used in this study: rapidly quenched and a canister centerline cooling curve. Glasses were selected based on a number of criteria, but mainly to challenge the regions where amorphous phase separation is expected based upon current model predictions. The current DWPF homogeneity constraint, imposed to preclude regions of phase separation, predicted that most of the glasses selected would be phase separated. It was, therefore, important to ensure that deleterious phase separation does not occur at either cooling profile. In this case, deleterious phase separation is defined as the formation of an amorphous phase in the glass that significantly decreases the glass durability as measured by the PCT response.

  20. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  1. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  2. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  3. Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

  4. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  5. North Residential District University Stakeholders

    E-print Network

    Towers (Drackett, Jones and Taylor) · 1.12 M gross square feet · Major new campus green spaces forming a pedestrian district Design Build #12;#12;#12;LANE AND HIGH #12;OAK WALK #12;"TOWN" SQUARE #12;COLLEGE GREEN #12;Where we are today... #12;Today · Completed the Criteria Design · Program Verification · Schedule/logistics

  6. Asthma, airways responsiveness and air pollution in two contrasting districts of northern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Devereux; T. Ayatollahi; R. Ward; C. Bromly; S. J. Bourke; S. C. Stenton; D. J. Hendrick

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the possible magnitude of differences between normal populations an epidemiological investigation of asthma was conducted in two strongly contrasting districts of northern England--rural West Cumbria on the west coast and urban Newcastle upon Tyne on the east coast. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of randomly identified men aged 20-44 years was conducted in two phases: phase 1,

  7. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  8. The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part III GIS Coverage for the Valle de Juárez Irrigation District 009 (ID-009) (Distrito de Riego 009) Chihuahua, México

    E-print Network

    Granados, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Sheng, Zhuping; King, J. Phillip; Creel, Bobby; Brown, Christopher; Michelsen, Ari

    2009-01-01

    COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-359, Part III 2009 The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part III GIS Coverage for the Valle... November 2009 November 2009 NMWRRI Report No. 348, Part III TWRI TR 359, Part III The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) New Mexico Water...

  9. Thermal properties of cooling multi-stranded coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, S.; Alexander, C. E.; Walsh, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Solar coronal loops are subject to different thermal processes such as heating, cooling, plasma condensation or plasma evaporation. Based on a multi-stranded model of coronal loops satisfying the one-dimensional hydrodynamics equations, we study the cooling of coronal loops from a steady state. We perform the analysis of the cooling phases by comparing the evolution of the loops in different SDO/AIA EUV channels. The appearance and timing of the cooling in a SDO/AIA channel depend on the initial thermodynamics parameters of the loop: hotter is the loop, faster the loop will cool. Therefore, based the temperature response function of individual filters, we deduce the temperature of the steady-state loop from the ordering of the observed light curves. The time evolution of the temperature during the cooling phase can also be approximated from the light curves. This method providing a temperature diagnostic of coronal loops is successfully applied to published data of flaring loops.

  10. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  11. Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

  12. S'COOL Flyer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This flyer is a two-page overview of the Student Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) education project. It covers the project's educational contributions, societal benefits, educational outgrowths, and scientific findings. The flyer shows the numbers and locations of S'COOL participation and regional observation coverage. It also contains URLs for online resources (e.g., GLOBE contrail education and S-COOL Website).

  13. Coherent Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

  14. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  15. Updated January 2014 District Coordinators

    E-print Network

    -3464 x25437 johns290@msu.edu E9526 Prospect St., Ste. 1, Munising MI 49862 Toll Free: (877) 643-9881 Doug@msu.edu Mary Ellen Pond: (888) 678-3464 x25437 johns290@msu.edu E9526 Prospect St., Ste. 1, Munising MI 49862 not currently covered). Kelley Hiemstra MSU Extension District 4, Ogemaw County Bldg, 205 S. Eighth St, West

  16. Central Utah Water Conservancy District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

  17. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  18. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  19. Sisyphus cooling of electrically trapped polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Zeppenfeld, Martin; Englert, Barbara G U; Glöckner, Rosa; Prehn, Alexander; Mielenz, Manuel; Sommer, Christian; van Buuren, Laurens D; Motsch, Michael; Rempe, Gerhard

    2012-11-22

    Polar molecules have a rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions, making them useful for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where various effects are predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry and physics beyond the standard model. Whereas a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles have been developed, the cooling of polyatomic molecules (that is, with three or more atoms) to ultracold temperatures has seemed intractable. Here we report the experimental realization of optoelectrical cooling, a recently proposed cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each cycle of the cooling sequence via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only a few repetitions of the dissipative decay process. We demonstrate the potential of optoelectrical cooling by reducing the temperature of about one million CH(3)F molecules by a factor of 13.5, with the phase-space density increased by a factor of 29 (or a factor of 70 discounting trap losses). In contrast to other cooling mechanisms, our scheme proceeds in a trap, cools in all three dimensions and should work for a large variety of polar molecules. With no fundamental temperature limit anticipated down to the photon-recoil temperature in the nanokelvin range, we expect our method to be able to produce ultracold polyatomic molecules. The low temperatures, large molecule numbers and long trapping times of up to 27 seconds should allow an interaction-dominated regime to be attained, enabling collision studies and investigation of evaporative cooling towards a Bose-Einstein condensate of polyatomic molecules. PMID:23151480

  20. Relationship between plagioclase crystallization and cooling rate in basaltic melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine V. Cashman

    1993-01-01

    Rock textures commonly preserve a record of the near-surface crystallization history of volcanic rocks. Under conditions of simple cooling without convection or mixing, textures will reflect sample cooling rate, the temperature at which crystallization was initiated, and the distribution of mineral phase precipitation across the crystallization interval. Compilation of plagioclase size and number density data on natural (dike, sill and

  1. Simulation of low energy muon frictional cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Galea; A. Caldwell; S. Schlenstedt; H. Abramowicz

    2006-01-01

    Frictional cooling is a proposed method of phase space reduction for a potential muon beam intended for collisions. The basic principle involves compensating for the muon energy loss in media by a constant electric field. The muons are in an energy regime below the ionization peak which for muons in helium is less than 10keV. Electronic energy loss is treated

  2. Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  3. S'COOL Brochure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

  4. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  5. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  6. Evolving Cooling Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Binney; G. Tabor

    1995-01-01

    Time-dependent models of cooling flows in elliptical galaxies are presented. In these models distributed mass drop-out is not permitted and we follow Ciotti et al. in assuming that the rate of supernova heating declines faster than the rate at which dying stars inject mass into the ISM. Consequently, the models move from outflow to inflow and ultimately a central cooling

  7. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  8. Rotary engine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1988-07-26

    A rotary internal combustion engine is described comprising: a rotor housing forming a trochoidal cavity therein; an insert of refractory material received in the recess, an element of a fuel injection and ignition system extending through the housing and insert bores, and the housing having cooling passages extending therethrough. The cooling passages are comprised of drilled holes.

  9. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  10. Electronic Cooling in Graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bistritzer; A. H. MacDonald

    2009-01-01

    Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal.For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustical modes relative to the heat capacity of the system leads to a power law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature

  11. VLHC Beam Screen Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Darve; P. Bauer; P. Limon; T. Peterson

    In the framework of the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) R&D studies, vacuum and beam screen issues are being investigated at Fermilab. This report focuses on the cooling system for the VLHC beam screen and its integration into the VLHC cryo-system. Beam screen cooling is a key issue in the VLHC, due to the large synchrotron radiation (SR) power generated

  12. VLHC Thermal Shield Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Darve; P. Bauer; T. Nicol; T. Peterson

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) - stage 2 cooling system has been optimized regarding the ability to minimize the total refrigeration power. The stage 2 VLHC synchrotron radiation dictates a high optimal beam screen temperature. LHC dipole cryostat thermal model results provide data to characterize the behavior of the stage 2 VLHC cooling system. In the cryogenic concept pursued

  13. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

  14. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  16. Got Web? Investing in a District Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

  17. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.14 District....

  18. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.14 District....

  19. The experimental study of a novel cooling system of a power transformer in an urban underground substation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhao Niu; Guoqiang Zhang; Yimin Jiang; Ru Lu; Xin Wang; Jianzhong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Decades of experience in underground substations indicated that the traditional cooling technologies have their own shortcomings. Therefore, a novel Oil-Evaporative liquid cooling technology is presented. This new cooling technology could be considered as a two-step cooling system, which could effectively transport heat energy from thermal sources underground to radiators on the ground by phase changing of evaporative liquid in an

  20. Headline: Portland District partner named best in nation Author: Scott Clemans, Portland District Public Affairs

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Headline: Portland District partner named best in nation Author: Scott Clemans, Portland District Public Affairs A key Portland District recreation partner has been named best in the nation by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Senior members of the Corps' National Resources Management community

  1. Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem

    E-print Network

    Ferland, Jacques A.

    Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem: applicationsTrois--RiviRivièèresres #12;Vietnam, March 2010 2 IntroductionIntroduction The districting problem consists in partitioning a considering different criteria or constraints.criteria or constraints. #12;Vietnam, March 2010 3 Main criteria

  2. How Subjects Matter in District Office Practice: Instructionally Relevant Policy in Urban School District Redesign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Burch; James P. Spillane

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a virtual explosion of research interest in the role of school districts in instructional change (Hightower, Knapp, Marsh & McLaughlin, 2002). The consensus building within the research is that district action is pivotal to whether and how reforms reach classrooms. While drawing attention to how districts mediate instructional practice, most of the research to

  3. A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Missouri District Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri district is a small rural school district with 450 students and 51 staff with a total of 210 client computers. The district consists of two schools (K-6 and 7-12) housed in a single building. This document contains the results of the four 2004 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) case studies: (1) Software costs; (2) Hardware costs; (3)…

  4. Cultural Districts, A New Strategy for Regional Development? The South-East Cultural District in Sicily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Le Blanc

    2010-01-01

    Le Blanc A. Cultural districts, a new strategy for regional development? The South-East Cultural District in Sicily, Regional Studies. The industrialization of cultural production and a strong trend for the development of regional networks have recently led to the creation of new spatial and economic forms called ‘cultural districts’. However, these new economic systems rely on very different geographical bases,

  5. Absorption heat pump in heating and cooling systems of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, I.

    This report focuses on the operation and applicability of absorption heat pumps (AHP) in building heating and cooling systems. Examples are presented on heating systems of residential buildings and a heating/cooling system of an office building. Despite the limitations of present AHP technology the examples assume AHPs which produce heat at an appropriate temperature level for each application. According to the calculations the primary energy saving potential of AHPs in building specific heat production is 20 to 40 percent. For AHPs coupled with district heating systems the primary energy saving potential can not be unambiguously defined because it is influenced by the production form of district heat, the influence of district heat demand on power generation etc. For the time being economical aspects limit the application potential of AHPs. The profitability of AHP investments is quite poor because of present energy prices, the price ratio of different energy forms and the high investment cost of AHP-systems. The environmental impact of AHPs depend on the fuel used in the generator. Using fuel oil or gas will decrease sulphur and particle emissions but might increase the emissions of NO(x) and hydrocarbons because of the smaller size of combustion units. CFC-emissions will be decreased because AHPs apply alternative refrigerants.

  6. Evaporative Cooling of Trapped Atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Ketterle; N. J. Van Druten

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Electronic cooling in graphene.

    PubMed

    Bistritzer, R; MacDonald, A H

    2009-05-22

    Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n;{3/2} with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density. PMID:19519053

  8. ElectronicsCooling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An important concern facing electronics designers is heat dissipation. Especially in laptop computers and server farms, overheating can be a major problem. ElectronicsCooling is a free, quarterly publication that provides "practical information to the reader that relates to cooling of today's electronics." Every article since the magazine's debut in 1995 can be viewed from this site. Common topics are packaging, thermal design, and technical data related to many types of electronics. Contributions to ElectronicsCooling are generally from industry and academia.

  9. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers 

    E-print Network

    Burger, R.

    1998-01-01

    COOLING TOWERS, THE DEBOITLENECKERS by Robert Burger, Consultant The Burger Cooling Tower Company Dallas, Texas 75234 INTRODUCTION Power generating pl:mts :md petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify..., George, Munters Corp. "Cellular Tower Fill" CTI paper TP-67-0 I, 1967 Annual Meeting. [4] Phelps Patent 4,007,241 February 8, 1977. [5] MarJey Bulletin SB-9 5.92. [6] Burger, Robert, "Cooling Tower Technology" Textbook. Jrd edition, 1994 Chapter 6...

  10. Sisyphus Cooling of Electrically Trapped Polyatomic Molecules

    E-print Network

    M. Zeppenfeld; B. G. U. Englert; R. Glöckner; A. Prehn; M. Mielenz; C. Sommer; L. D. van Buuren; M. Motsch; G. Rempe

    2012-07-31

    The rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions establish polar molecules as unique instruments for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where a plethora of effects is predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry, and physics beyond the standard model. These objectives have inspired the development of a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles. However, cooling polyatomic molecules to ultracold temperatures has until now seemed intractable. Here we report on the experimental realization of opto-electrical cooling, a paradigm-changing cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each step of the cooling cycle via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only few dissipative decay processes. We demonstrate its potential by reducing the temperature of about 10^6 trapped CH_3F molecules by a factor of 13.5, with the phase-space density increased by a factor of 29 or a factor of 70 discounting trap losses. In contrast to other cooling mechanisms, our scheme proceeds in a trap, cools in all three dimensions, and works for a large variety of polar molecules. With no fundamental temperature limit anticipated down to the photon-recoil temperature in the nanokelvin range, our method eliminates the primary hurdle in producing ultracold polyatomic molecules. The low temperatures, large molecule numbers and long trapping times up to 27 s will allow an interaction-dominated regime to be attained, enabling collision studies and investigation of evaporative cooling toward a BEC of polyatomic molecules.

  11. Metallographic cooling rates of the IIIAB iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jijin; Goldstein, Joseph I.

    2006-06-01

    An improved computer simulation program has been developed and used to re-measure the metallographic cooling rates of the IIIAB irons, the largest iron meteorite chemical group. The formation of this chemical group is attributed to fractional crystallization of a single molten metallic core during solidification. Group IIIAB irons cooling rates vary by a factor of 6 from 56 to 338 °C/My. The cooling rate variation for each meteorite is much smaller than in previous studies and the uncertainty in the measured cooling rate for each meteorite is greatly reduced. The lack of correction for the orientation of the kamacite-taenite interface in the cooling rate measurement of a given meteorite in previous studies not only leads to large cooling rate variations but also to inaccurate and low cooling rates. The cooling rate variation with Ni content in the IIIAB chemical group measured in this study is attributable, in part, to the variation in nucleation temperature of the Widmanstatten pattern with Ni content and nucleation mechanism. However, the factor of 6 variation in cooling rate of the IIIAB irons is hard to explain unless the IIIAB asteroidal core was exposed or partially exposed in the temperature range in which the Widmanstatten pattern formed. Measurements of the size of the island phase in the cloudy zone of the taenite phase and Re-Os data from the IIIAB irons and the pallasites make it hard to reconcile the idea that pallasites are located at the boundary of the IIIAB asteroid core.

  12. Experimental determination of heat transfer coefficient with spray cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bigzadeh, E.; Mignano, F. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Spray water cooling is used to cool the hot surface of metal cast in the continuous casting process. When the strand leaves the first cooling zone, i.e., the mold, further cooling takes place in a so-called secondary cooling zone, which consists of a system of support rollers and nozzles arranged in different positions. The strand surface temperature is close to its solidification temperature and the impinging water spray removes the heat from the surface due to its phase change. Heat transfer conditions in spray water cooling are similar to those of pool boiling. An experimental investigation is being conducted to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the impinging jet in the stable film boiling and partial stable film boiling ranges. It was found that the major parameters effecting the effective heat transfer coefficient are spray water mass flux and spray water temperature.

  13. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  14. School Districts Try a New Tack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, James A., Jr., Battaglia, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Politicians are increasingly pressuring school districts to improve instruction while holding down costs. To achieve this aim, western New York school districts are experimenting with mutual gains bargaining, an alternative negotiation process based on Roger Fisher and William Ury's 1991 book "Getting to Yes." Instead of bargaining from stated set…

  15. School Attendance and District and School Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John T.; Toma, Eugenia F.; Zimmer, Ron W.

    2008-01-01

    The size of schools and districts in which they are located has become a salient policy issue in recent years. While consolidation of school districts and expanding high school size were in vogue from the 1960s until recently, funding agencies are now sponsoring projects to reduce school size under the assumption that smaller schools will lead to…

  16. Procedures for Projecting School District Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.

    The cohort survival model for projecting school district enrollments is presented for use in local district short-term planning. The basic model, modifications, and sample worksheets are presented. To assist in the calculations of local enrollment projections, step-by-step procedures frequently refer to the sample worksheets. Local administrators…

  17. District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

  18. Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

  19. School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

  20. Corps of Engineers St. Louis District

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    US Army Corps of Engineers St. Louis District Gateway to ExcellenceFUSRAP 1 St. Louis Oversight Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) · Corps "inherited" equipment, documents, and data from Army Corps of Engineers St. Louis District Gateway to Excellence Brief History 4 Oct 1997 ­ FUSRAP

  1. Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2012-01-01

    More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

  2. Making Use of District and School Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how districts can better use their extensive student databases and other existing data to explore questions of interest. School districts are required to maintain a wealth of student information in electronic data systems and other formats. The meaningfulness of the data depends to a large degree on whether they can understand…

  3. The New American Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The Education Commission of the States has found that urban school districts face enormous problems. This document looks at a variety of ideas about how to re-engineer the urban school district. These essays encourage educators and the public to think about the nation's urban school systems and how they might better meet the needs of children. The…

  4. Re-regulating district heating in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Westin; Fredrik Lagergren

    2002-01-01

    The electricity market reform in Sweden has had great, but little discussed, consequences for the district heating industry. Formerly regulated municipal district heating companies are now obliged to operate in a commercial manner and pricing, previously regulated by the Local Authority Act, is now free. The Swedish Competition Authority has on several occasions mentioned to the Government that a price

  5. Mapping the District: An Accreditation Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Institutional Research.

    This document is a survey designed to assess the opinions of campus and district office employees in the Los Rios Community College District, California, about where the responsibility for different functions lies and how well the functions are being performed. Respondents are asked to identify the area performing each function, and then rate how…

  6. River Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser

    E-print Network

    development Historic preservation Tourism, Park and Recreational Facilities Economic Dislocation AdjustmentRiver Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser 300 Spring Street, Suite 2A Jeffersonville://www.riverhills.cc/ The River Hills Economic Development District (RHEDD) serves a five-county region in southeast Indiana which

  7. > BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    > BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS IMPROVEMENTS FOR QUEENSLAND across Australia From October 2013, new and improved district forecasts will be introduced in Queensland Protection times FURTHER INFORMATION : www.bom.gov.au/NexGenFWS © Commonwealth of Australia, 2013 PTO> Wind

  8. A Handbook for School District Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    Designed for school business officials, this handbook provides research information and guidelines on school district banking and cash management systems. Section 1 gives an overview of district financial management operations, discussing the administrative framework, cash budgeting, information and control systems, collection and disbursement…

  9. 1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

    2010-01-01

    In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

  10. Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

  11. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  12. AASA Cites Five Districts for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The AASA Instructional Leadership and Technology Committee this year honored five school districts with Outstanding Achievement in Professional Development awards. Honored were Deer Valley Unified School District (Arizona), South Windsor Public Schools (Connecticut), Fort Knox Community Schools (Kentucky), West Orange Public Schools (New Jersey),…

  13. District of Columbia v. Heller and Originalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence B. Solum

    2009-01-01

    On June 26, 2008, the United States Supreme Court handed down its 5-4 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, striking a District of Columbia statute that prohibits the possession of useable handguns in the home on the ground that it violated the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Justice Scalia's majority opinion drew dissents from Justice Stevens and

  14. School District Size and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Donna; Halcoussis, Dennis; Svorny, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    Examines impact of school district size on academic achievement of California students. After controlling for certain student characteristics and environmental factors, including class and school size, finds that district size appears to retard academic achievement, especially the performance of middle-school students. (Contains 25 references.)…

  15. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  16. SOME ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORAPUT DISTRICT ORISSA

    PubMed Central

    Das, P.K.; Misra, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the ethnomedicinal use of 35 plants by the tribals of Koraput district to cure 25 diseases they suffer from. Apart from this, a note on the vegetation pattern, tribal population and geography of the district is given here. PMID:22557632

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  18. Cool Jobs for Girls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a site produced by Work4Women and Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW). WOW defines a cool job as "as high-wage non-traditional occupations, jobs in which women represent less than 25% of the workforce."

  19. Optimization of Cooling Water

    E-print Network

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

  20. Marketing Cool Storage Technology 

    E-print Network

    McCannon, L.

    1987-01-01

    construction costs, more stringent regulations, and increasing environmental constraints regarding development of new generating facilities. As the viability of cool storage has been substantiated by research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute...

  1. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Keeping Fit ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  2. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  3. Optimization of Cooling Water 

    E-print Network

    Matson, J.

    1985-01-01

    COOLING TOWER ENERGY CONSERVATION OPTIMIZATION Robert Burger Burger Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Energy conservation strategies involve more than examination of fan horsepower. Colder water and pumping head provide vast savings potentials...

  4. Cooling of dense stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuruta, S.

    1972-01-01

    Cooling rates were calculated for neutron stars of about one solar mass and 10 km radius, with magnetic fields from zero to about 10 to the 14th power gauss, for extreme cases of maximum and zero superfluidity. The results show that most pulsars are so cold that thermal ionization of surface atoms would be negligible. Nucleon superfluidity and crystallization of heavy nuclei were treated quantitatively, and more realistic hadron star models were chosen. Cooling rates were calculated for a stable hyperon star near the maximum mass limit, a medium weight neutron star, and a light neutron star with neutron-rich heavy nuclei near the minimum mass limit. Results show that cooling rates are a sensitive function of density. The Crab and Vela pulsars are considered, as well as cooling of a massive white dwarf star.

  5. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  6. Ground Water Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    GROUND WATER COOLING SYSTEM Keith Greaves/George H. Chave Westinghouse Canada Inc. Hamilton, Ontario ABSTRACT Based on a thorough study of products and anticipated growth, the Turbine and Generator Division of Westinghouse Canada Inc...

  7. ccsd-00005011,version1-30May2005 Evaporative Cooling of a Guided Rubidium Atomic Beam

    E-print Network

    ccsd-00005011,version1-30May2005 Evaporative Cooling of a Guided Rubidium Atomic Beam T. Lahaye, Z an upward slope. The relatively high collision rate (5 s-1 ) allows us to start forced evaporative cooling of the on-axis phase-space density. PACS numbers: 32.80.Pj,03.75.Pp I. INTRODUCTION Evaporative cooling

  8. Optimization of evaporative cooling C. A. Sackett, C. C. Bradley, and R. G. Hulet

    E-print Network

    Sackett, Cass

    Optimization of evaporative cooling C. A. Sackett, C. C. Bradley, and R. G. Hulet Physics Recent experiments have used forced evaporative cooling to produce Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases. The evaporative cooling process can be optimized to provide the maximum phase-space density

  9. Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1 quantum mechanically, and raising doubts as to whether this weak signal even contains sufficient phase are treated quantum mechanically, indicates that fast cooling is in principle possible, with cooling rates

  10. Controlled Rate Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M. Reed; Esther Uchendu

    Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell contents and freeze-induced dehydration. The samples are pretreated\\u000a in cryoprotectant solutions and cooled at a standard rate to an intermediate temperature such as –35°C or –40°C, with ice\\u000a nucleation initiated at about –9°C. At the freezing point of the cryoprotectant solution, ice nucleation is initiated, and\\u000a ice forms in the

  11. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  12. Direct cooling crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. S.

    1984-06-05

    A crystallization process is improved by employing direct contact cooling whereby a volatile liquid is vaporized to provide the cooling necessary to effect the crystallization. The effluent vapors of the volatile liquid may be liquified and recycled for reuse by manipulation of temperature and/or pressure. In one embodiment, durene is crystallized from a C/sub 10//sup +/ aromatics fraction using liquified n-butane as the coolant.

  13. Solar heating and cooling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  15. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  16. District heating feasibility for Port Jefferson, NY: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-29

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the feasibility of implementing a centralized district heating system serving the Incorporated Village of Port Jefferson, New York. The study assesses the potential heating loads, develops in conceptual form the distribution system and central heating plant design and implementation plans, and evaluates the system and customer economics for both conventional boiler and cogeneration district heat sources. The placement of the heat source near the largest heat user will keep the largest pipe size to a minimum length of run. The capital costs for all phases were prepared based on previous experience and vendor's budget estimates. The costs were based on 1987 dollars and escalated to the implementation dates using a general inflation rate of 5%. Since piping is costly, the routing must be planned carefully. The disturbance that is a result of excavation can be minimized by laying the pipe under sidewalks or the shoulder. This will show a savings since replacement of concrete is simpler and less costly than road surface. A sidewalk installation requires less excavation and backfill and usually involves less interference. The recommended plan is to install an 110 KW gas turbine cogeneration plant at St. Charles Hospital. It will supply electricity to the hospital and the excess generation will be sold to LILCO. Steam from the plant would be supplied to the hospital and would also be used to generate hot water for a district heating hot water loop that would service both hospitals, the public schools, office and apartment buildings, and the downtown business district. 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...generally located on flat land and gentle slopes with less than eight degrees incline, which exposes them to day-long direct sunlight, cooling breezes from mountain-valley winds, and occasional sea breezes. Soils Soil textures of the proposed San...

  18. Cool Flame Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism, following the work on diffusion-controlled cool flames by Fairlie et,al., 2000.

  19. Design and development of LH2 cooled rolling element radial bearings for the NERVA engine turbopump. Volume 3: Phase 2: Tests on build-ups 16, 17, and 18 at NRDS, Jackass Flats, Nevada, December 1971 - March 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accinelli, J. B.; Koch, D. A.; Reuter, F.

    1972-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrogen to cool the rolling element radial bearings in the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles is discussed. The fifteen hour service life goal was obtained during the tests. The increase in bearing life was also considered to be produced by: (1) improvements in bearing material, (2) bearing retainer configuration and manufacturing changes, and (3) better control of operating parameters.

  20. Research Proposal for the Design and Engineering Phase of a Solar Heating and Cooling System Experiment at the Warner Robins Public Library, Warner Robins, Georgia. Submitted to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Warren H.; And Others

    A number of reasons are advanced to include a solar heating and cooling experiment in a library building. The unique aspects of the experiment are to be a seasonally adjustable collector tilt and testing of a new generation of absorption air conditioners. After a brief description of the proposed experiment, the proposal contains forms filed by…

  1. High-temperature turbine-technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Topical report. Development of an analytical method to describe and predict particulate deposition on transpiration-air-cooled turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This report presents an introduction to the subject of deposition in gas turbines operating on coal-derived fuels. Included are a literature review, examination of the role of electrophoresis on deposition and experimental results of deposition studies conducted in the gas turbine environment. The experimental studies are related to the charge on hot gases (contaminated and non-contaminated) passing through a turbine and deposition measurements on charged, uncharged, transpiration-air-cooled, water-cooled, and uncooled test samples. It is shown that the electrical charge on hot turbine gases is proportional to the quadratic of fluid-particle velocity and directly proportional to particle concentration. The ionic concentration of the gas turbine medium increases with the increase in temperature in the range of 1000/sup 0/F to 2000/sup 0/F. The deposition was found to be less for the transpiration-air-cooled test sample (approx. 1300/sup 0/F) and the excessively water-cooled test sample (approx. 350/sup 0/F) than for the uncooled and uncharged test samples. It was also found that, by using the electrostatic means, a potential exists for a reduction in deposition on gas turbine blades operating in a particulate-laden medium.

  2. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  3. Mechano-caloric cooling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Luna, Jack; Abbassi, P.; Carandang, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechano-caloric effect is potentially useful in the He II temperature range. Aside from demonstration work, little quantification effort appears to have been known since other refrigeration possibilities have been available for some time. Successful He II use-related system examples are as follows: in space, the utilization of the latent heat of vaporization has been quite successful in vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) in conjunction with thermomechanical force application in plugs. In magnet cooling systems, the possibility of using the mechano-caloric cooling effect in conjunction with thermo-mechanical circulation pump schemes, has been assessed (but not quantified yet to the extent desirable). A third example is quoted in conjunction with superfluid wind tunnel studies and liquid helium tow tank for surface vessels respectively. In all of these (partially future) R and D areas, the question of refrigerator effectiveness using the mechano-caloric effect appears to be relevant, possibly in conjunction with questions of reliability and simplicity. The present work is concerned with quantification of phenomena including simplified thermodynamic cycle calculations.

  4. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  5. Reconstructing late Holocene palaeoenvironments in Bangladesh: phytolith analysis of archaeological soils from Somapura Mahavihara site in the Paharpur area, Badalgacchi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. M. Masud Alam; Shucheng Xie; Lynley A. Wallis

    2009-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on phytolith analysis of late Holocene-aged soils in and around the Somapura Mahavihara archaeological monastery site in the Paharpur area, Badalgacchi Upazila of Naogaon District in northwestern Bangladesh was undertaken. Results indicate five climate zones marked by alternatively cool and temperate events. The phytolith assemblages of Zones 1, 3 and 5 are clearly characterized by a higher

  6. Impingement/effusion cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, G. E.; Aldabagh, A. M.; Asere, A. A.; Bazdidi-Tehrani, F.; Mkpadi, M. C.; Nazari, A.

    1993-02-01

    Impingement/effusion cooling offers one of the most effective ways of cooling gas turbine combustor walls and turbine blades. The design principles are reviewed and cooling effectiveness data presented for a range of typical geometries with holes at 90 degrees to the surface. The main variable studied was the number of impingement/effusion holes. Comparison was made with the effusion cooling effectiveness. Optimum configurations were demonstrated with a 0.7 overall cooling effectiveness at a mass flow per unit surface area of 0.2 kg/sm(exp 2)bar. This was equivalent to 10 percent of the combustor air flow for a typical gas turbine combustor. Data is also presented for the overall wall heat transfer coefficient. The mechanism of the enhanced heat transfer within the impingement/effusion double skin wall was investigated using a CFD code. This predicted the complex aerodynamics in the impingement gap and also gave good agreement with the measured overall heat transfer data.

  7. School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

  8. An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

  9. NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524

    E-print Network

    NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PO BOX 131 CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524 208-843-2931 PHONE AVENUE, SUITE 1100 PORTLAND, OREGON 97204-1348 FROM: NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PROJECTS DATE: 10/4/06 Dear Council Members: The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District

  10. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW YORK DISTRICT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NEW YORK DISTRICT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS JACOB K. JAVITS FEDERAL BUILDING NEW.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District (District) announces the availability of the Draft contact: Jenifer Thalhauser Project Manager New York District Corps of Engineers (917) 790-8632 jenifer

  11. S'COOL Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

  12. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  13. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

    2003-05-12

    Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

  14. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  15. ELECTRON COOLING OF RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.; BARTON, D.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV.

  16. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  17. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  18. Cooling with Sunshades

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about passive cooling methods. Learners will construct a simple device to measure how effective different materials are for protecting against sunlight, explain how heat relates to the motion of atoms and molecules, describe how heat can be transmitted from one place to another, explain how sunlight arriving on Earth interacts with matter, and describe how MESSENGER is protected by a simple sunshade in the hot Mercurian environment. Materials required to do this activity include several commonly-found items (e.g., coffee cans, ice cubes, tape, ruler, calculators, stopwatch, and scale). This is lesson 3 of 4 at the Grade 9-12 range of "Staying Cool."

  19. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  20. S'COOL Poster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-21

    Images, charts and text aligned to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project are presented on this PDF version of a two-sided classroom poster. S'COOL engages students in making and reporting ground truth observations of clouds then comparing those observations with data from the CERES satellite instrument. The poster includes background information on the CERES instrument, images of clouds by both type and altitude, and charts and text explaining related topics such as surface cover, air pressure, temperature, time, latitude and longitude, and relative humidity.

  1. Thermal design space prediction in direct liquid cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Tom Lee; Mali Mahalingam

    1991-01-01

    A software for predicting the optimum operating conditions for a two-phase liquid cooling environment is presented. This software consists of a data bank which includes a variety of physical and thermodynamic properties of fluorocarbons and includes heat transfer correlations which cover single-phase, boiling incipience, nucleate boiling, and critical heat flux. The heat flux of the integrated circuit is compared to

  2. Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented.

  3. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  4. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  5. A Research Report of Small/Rural School Districts in New Mexico Compared to School Districts of Similiar Size Nationwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Muse, Ivan D.

    A 1982-83 survey produced data used to compare 17 small/rural K-12 New Mexico school districts (900 students or fewer) with 642 similar districts nationwide. Of New Mexico's 88 school districts, 43 were identified as qualifying (48.9%, enrolling 16,648 students), for comparison to 4,125 similar districts nationwide. A questionnaire mailed to…

  6. About East Bay Regional Park District The East Bay Regional Park District spans Alameda and Contra Costa

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    and conducts nightly backups directly in District facilities. IT management needed to assure that certain dataAbout East Bay Regional Park District The East Bay Regional Park District spans Alameda and Contra,200 miles of trails for hiking, biking, horseback riding and nature study. The Park District is responsible

  7. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

  8. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

  9. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

  10. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

  11. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

  12. Rochester City School District Peer Assistance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierichella, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author evaluates the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) program in the Rochester City School District, Rochester, NY. The author evaluates the system's strengths and weaknesses and discusses the program's alignment with New York State requirements.

  13. Elementary stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  14. Energy efficient liquid cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Punch

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this paper is an investigation of the hydrodynamic performance of liquid pumps for electronics cooling applications, considered in conjunction with a range of primary heat exchangers. Pressure-flow characteristics of a set of geometrically- similar, miniature-scale centrifugal pumps are measured, and reductions in hydrodynamic efficiency are seen to occur below a critical Reynolds number. Six primary heat exchangers

  15. Cooling the Mummy's Tomb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carlyn Little

    1997-01-01

    In this activity, learners conduct an experiment to help Pharaoh design a better insulated tomb. Learners compare how well single, double, and triple insulated cups keep water cold over a period of 20 minutes. Learners collect and analyze the data to conclude which set-up kept the water cool the longest.

  16. COOLING TOWER PLUME MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators. In order to better under...

  17. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers

    E-print Network

    Burger, R.

    Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units...

  18. Cooling scen require bunch

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    scen require bunch this paper w recombination helical transpo bunching and reversed) to system adapte recombination For a + - production sy bunches for m produced with compressed a parameters. Re and cooling initially captu within those bu transversely. A bunches, reca longitudinal a receive further Figure 1 sh

  19. Rotary engine cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Jones; E. J. Blum; R. M. Gigon

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions.

  20. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  1. Secondary condenser Cooling water

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Super-heater Compressor FC Expansion valve Decanter #12; m y q n y x n R Q v ` RvQ Ia w G ` Y q Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water X V (P e if fj #12;k ly my n o n xp q yr r my s xp s tvu n w w x ly z {}| ~ ~ Column

  2. The nominal cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.

  3. Evaporative cooling in insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry D. Prange

    1996-01-01

    Insects commonly use behavior to avoid the heat stress and consequent water loss of hot environments. It has been assumed by many to be impossible or impractical for insects to employ evaporative cooling. Despite this assumption, there have been many instances, historically and recently where insects are reported to survive otherwise lethal temperatures by evaporating water. The site of evaporation

  4. Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling 

    E-print Network

    Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

    2010-10-12

    by increasing the turbine inlet temperatures. Since modern turbine inlet temperatures exceed the melting point of the constituent superalloys, it is necessary to provide an aggressive cooling system. Relatively cool air, ducted from the compressor of the engine...

  5. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers

    E-print Network

    Smith, M.

    gets hotter and hotter due to inadequate cooling water. Engineers finally recognize that the limiting factor in production is the quality of the cold water temperature that is returning from the cooling tower. Basic technology will be discussed...

  6. Development test on 2 K cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okudaira, Toshiaki; Fujii, Genshirou

    1993-03-01

    Topics discussed include: the detail of proposal; configuration of the laboratory dilution refrigerator; the adiabatic vacuum section of the dilution refrigerator; the relationship between refrigerating capability and cooling temperature; phase diagram and vapor pressure curves of the He-3 and He-4; the fractionation chamber and dilution chamber; separation control by electric field of He-3 rich and He-4 rich phases; mixer utilizing electric field; restriction of liquid; the mixture cell; and continuous operation type dilution type refrigerator. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  7. Sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ostendorf, A; Zhang, C B; Wilson, M A; Offenberg, D; Roth, B; Schiller, S

    2006-12-15

    Gas-phase singly protonated organic molecules of mass 410 Da (Alexa Fluor 350) have been cooled from ambient temperature to the hundred millikelvin range by Coulomb interaction with laser-cooled barium ions. The molecules were generated by an electrospray ionization source, transferred to and stored in a radio-frequency trap together with the atomic ions. Observations are well described by molecular dynamics simulations, which are used to determine the spatial distribution and thermal energy of the molecules. In one example, an ensemble of 830 laser-cooled 138Ba+ ions cooled 200 molecular ions to less than 115 mK. The demonstrated technique should allow a large variety of protonated molecules to be sympathetically cooled, including molecules of much higher mass, such as proteins. PMID:17280279

  8. Optimization of collisional Feshbach cooling of an ultracold nondegenerate gas

    E-print Network

    Marlon Nuske; Eite Tiesinga; L. Mathey

    2014-12-29

    We optimize a collision-induced cooling process for ultracold atoms in the nondegenerate regime. It makes use of a Feshbach resonance, instead of rf radiation in evaporative cooling, to selectively expel hot atoms from a trap. Using functional minimization we analytically show that for the optimal cooling process the resonance energy must be tuned such that it linearly follows the temperature. Here, optimal cooling is defined as maximizing the phase-space density after a fixed cooling duration. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical Monte-Carlo simulations. In order to simulate more realistic experimental conditions, we show that background losses do not change our conclusions, while additional non-resonant two-body losses make a lower initial resonance energy with non-linear dependence on temperature preferable.

  9. New Energy-Saving Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fukuchi; K. Kobayashi; H. Yamamoto

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an energy-saving cooling system for the cooling of computer rooms that does not require the operation of existing cooling systems but carries out cooling utilizing the cold outdoor air of the winter season. Instead of using conventional refrigerants as the cooling medium, the new cooling system utilizes cold water. Water cooled by the low temperature outdoor air

  10. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  11. Evaporative cooling of water in a natural draft cooling tower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Fisenko; A. I. Petruchik; A. D. Solodukhin

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model of the performance of a cooling tower is presented. The model consists of two interdependent boundary-value problems, a total of 9 ODE, and the algorithm of self-consistent solution. The first boundary-value problem describes evaporative cooling of water drops in the spray zone of a cooling tower; the second boundary-value problem describes film cooling in the pack. Simulation

  12. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Min; Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-10-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 ?m. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  13. Peltier cooling at a In-InP interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abul-Fadl; E. K. Stefanakos

    1976-01-01

    The cooling due to the Peltier effect was measured by passing electrical current across the liquid-solid interface in a vertical liquid-phase epitaxy system. Application of a steady-state heat-transfer analysis yielded values for the Peltier coefficient of InP (ND -NA?3×1016 cm-3) between 0.21 and 0.50 V in the 300-600 °C temperature range. The cooling temperatures observed could be effectively used for

  14. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOEpatents

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  15. RF system concepts for a muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Corlett, J.N.; Li, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Moretti, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Zhao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of muon colliders for high energy physics experiments has been under intensive study for the past few years and recent activity has focused on defining an R and D program that would answer the critical issues. An especially critical issue is developing practical means of cooling the phase space of the muons once they have been produced and captured in a solenoidal magnetic transport channel. Concepts for the rf accelerating cavities of a muon cooling experiment are discussed.

  16. Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling

    E-print Network

    Wenger, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a computer room fresh air cooling system with evaporative humidification. The system offers significantly lower energy consumption than conventional cooling units, with 24% reduction for Dallas and 56% reduction...

  17. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines 

    E-print Network

    Burger, R.

    1980-01-01

    ------------~'l:~' COOLING TOWERS, ENERGY CONSERVATION MACHINES 1980 CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGY Robert Burger B~rger Associates Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often...

  18. The cooling and condensation of flare coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A model is investigated for the decay of flare heated coronal loops in which rapid radiative cooling at the loop base creates strong pressure gradients which, in turn, generate large (supersonic) downward flows. The coronal material cools and 'condenses' onto the flare chromosphere. The features which distinguish this model from previous models of flare cooling are: (1) most of the thermal energy of the coronal plasma may be lost by mass motion rather than by conduction or coronal radiation; (2) flare loops are not isobaric during their decay phase, and large downward velocities are present near the footpoints; (3) the differential emission measure q has a strong temperature dependence.

  19. Asthma, airways responsiveness and air pollution in two contrasting districts of northern England.

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, G.; Ayatollahi, T.; Ward, R.; Bromly, C.; Bourke, S. J.; Stenton, S. C.; Hendrick, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the possible magnitude of differences between normal populations an epidemiological investigation of asthma was conducted in two strongly contrasting districts of northern England--rural West Cumbria on the west coast and urban Newcastle upon Tyne on the east coast. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of randomly identified men aged 20-44 years was conducted in two phases: phase 1, a postal survey of respiratory symptoms and asthma medication in 3000 men from each district; and phase 2, a clinical assessment of 300 men from each district comprising investigator administered questionnaires, skin prick tests, spirometry, and methacholine challenge tests. RESULTS: The phase 1 (but not phase 2) study showed a small excess of "ever wheezed" in Newcastle (44% versus 40%), but neither phase showed differences between the two districts for recent wheeze or for other symptoms characteristic of asthma. There were also no differences with regard to diagnosed asthma, current asthma medication, spirometric parameters, or airways responsiveness. The prevalence of quantifiable airways responsiveness (PD20 < or = 6400 micrograms) was 27.7% in West Cumbria and 28.2% in Newcastle. Regression analyses showed that PD20 was negatively associated with atopy and positively with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); that an association between PD20 and current smoking could be explained by diminished FEV1; and that PD20 was not related to geographical site of residence. CONCLUSIONS: Neither airways responsiveness nor the other parameters of diagnostic relevance to asthma varied much between the two study populations, despite the apparent environmental differences. The most obvious of these were the levels of outdoor air pollution attributable to vehicle exhaust emissions, the ambient levels of which were 2-10 fold greater in Newcastle. Our findings consequently shed some doubt over the role of such pollution in perceived recent increases in asthma prevalence. It is possible, however, that an air pollution effect in Newcastle has been balanced by asthmagenic effects of other agents in West Cumbria. PMID:8711650

  20. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  1. IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    an establishment of religion prohibited by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which is made1 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA TAMMY KITZMILLER, et applicable to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment, as well as the Constitution of the Commonwealth

  2. Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    Requested School 8.1 7 West Ashley Middle Sangaree Middle #12;Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board AGENDA Special: Thursday, April 26, 2012 Page 2 of 2 VII. DISCIPLINE: Expulsion Hearing Student Infraction School 7.1 Non

  3. Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    : Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 5 Burke Middle St. Andrews Middle 8.2 PreK Minnie HughesCharleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board AGENDA Meeting, 2012 Page 2 of 2 EXECUTIVE SESSION VII. DISCIPLINE: Expulsion Hearing Student Infraction School 7

  4. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    /INTER STUDENT TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 6 West Ashley Middle St. AndrewsCharleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES Middle (D) 8.2 1 Goodwin Elem Springfield Elem (A) 8.3 4K Mt. Zion Elem Oakland Elem (A) 8.4 4K Mt. Zion

  5. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    Home School Requested School 8.1 K4 E.B. Ellington Oakland Elem (A) 8.2 5 St. Andrews Middle CCharleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES.E. Williams (tabled) 8.3 6 West Ashley Middle St. Andrews Middle (D) 8.4 8 Baptist Hill High West Ashley High

  6. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    Morningside Middle West Ashley Middle (A) 8.11 5 Oakland Elem Moultrie Middle (A) 8.12 K -not in school- StonoCharleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES/INTER STUDENT TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 8 Stall High School West Ashley

  7. Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    School 7.1 Bomb Threat West Ashley Middle 7.2 Habitual Infractions CCSMS VIII. INTRA/INTER STUDENTCharleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board AGENDA Meeting TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 10 St. Johns High West Ashley High (EMP) 8

  8. Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 7 West Ashley Middle St. Andrews Middle #12;Charleston County School District St. Andrew's Constituent District #10 School Board AGENDA Meeting 4, 2012 Page 2 of 2 EXECUTIVE SESSION VII. DISCIPLINE: Expulsion Hearing Student Infraction School 7

  9. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    Home School Requested School 8.1 7 West Ashley Middle Sangaree Middle (A) #12;Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES on long-term removal from WAHS/CCSD for the remainder of the school year. The student will return before

  10. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    /INTER STUDENT TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 5 C.E. Williams Fort Johnson MiddleCharleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES (A) 8.2 5 C.E. Williams Fort Johnson Middle (A) 8.3 6 Baptist Hill Middle St. Andrews Middle (A) 8

  11. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    Home School Requested School 8.1 5 Baptist Hill Middle St. Andrews Middle (A) 8.2 8 Baptist Hill HighCharleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES West Ashley High (A) 8.3 8 St. John's High West Ashley High (A) 8.4 5 C.E. Williams Fort Johnson Middle

  12. Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Robert T.

    TRANSFER REQUESTS: Student Gr Home School Requested School 8.1 5 Burke Middle St. Andrews Middle (A) 8Charleston County School District St. Andrews Constituent District # 10 School Board MINUTES.1 be expelled from CCSD/Daniel Jenkins Creative Learning Center for the remainder of the 2011-2012 school year

  13. How Does District Principal Evaluation Affect Learning-Centered Principal Leadership? Evidence From Michigan School Districts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Sun; Peter Youngs

    2009-01-01

    This study used Hierarchical Multivariate Linear models to investigate relationships between principals' behaviors and district principal evaluation purpose, focus, and assessed leadership activities in 13 school districts in Michigan. The study found that principals were more likely to engage in learning-centered leadership behaviors when the purposes of evaluation included principal professional development, school restructuring, and accountability; when the focus of

  14. Managing School Districts with Declining Enrollment. Case Study Number 2: School District B. A Small City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Bureau of Field Studies and Surveys.

    This case study of the effects of declining enrollment on the school district in one small Minnesota city is published in conjuction with a planning assistance manual. In its attempt to balance the budget, the district was forced to make many staff reductions, including cuts in administrative staff. In addition to the problems in force and…

  15. Exploring Superintendent Leadership in Smaller Urban Districts: Does District Size Influence Superintendent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on urban school reform focuses on how the relatively small number of our nation's largest urban districts are approaching school reform with these objectives in mind. However, does smaller district size have any bearing, direct or indirect, on the nature of superintendent leadership? The authors' exploratory…

  16. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Syafruddin; P. B. Asih; F. N. Coutrier; L. Trianty; R. Noviyanti; Y. Luase; W. Sumarto; M. Caley; A. J. A. M. van der Ven; R. W. Sauerwein

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three

  17. IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF ALASKA

    E-print Network

    Plaintiff is The Boat Company, which is a non-profit corporation which operates multi-day tours in southeastIN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF ALASKA THE BOAT COMPANY, ) ) Plaintiff. ) __________________________________________) O R D E R Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment re The Boat Company's Claims Plaintiff moves

  18. Cool Science: Using Children's Art to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Cool Science is a K-12 Climate Change Science Art Competition. Working with teachers, parents, and students, the project aims to identify outstanding works of art by students about climate change and display the art throughout public mass transit. Cool Science has three distinct goals: 1) provide a convenient means for art and science teachers to incorporate climate change into their curriculum, 2) support teacher/student learning about climate change science, and 3) foster informal learning about climate change among people riding mass transit. By efficiently connecting formal and informal learning with one project, Cool Science is an innovative project that expands the way we engage and evaluate students. Using children's artwork to communicate complex scientific issues such as climate change is a powerful learning experience for the artist, teacher, and audience. Last year, Cool Science received nearly 600 entries from students representing 36 teachers from 32 school districts. Six winning entries went on public display with one highlighted each month from January through June. In addition, there were 6 Runner Ups and 12 Honorable Mentions. For the winning students, it is an unforgettable experience to see a nine-foot version of their artwork traveling around the streets on the side of a bus!

  19. Stirling cycle solar cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Pedroso

    1978-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is considered for application to solar powered cooling systems. Two approaches are possible. First, the use of a Stirling engine transmitting mechanical power to any type of cooling unit, and the integral design of a Stirling engine and cooling system. The first approach offers more flexibility in the design of the engine and allows for a

  20. New developments in cooling towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartz

    1994-01-01

    This article examines developments in power plant cooling systems which include advanced evaporative and dry cooling technologies. Potentials are seen for fabric structures. Developments in cooling tower technology have quietly gained momentum in recent years. Now more choices stand ready to answer just about every need in the power generation industry. As an example, one of the most active areas

  1. Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Ball

    1989-01-01

    Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

  2. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  3. Ultraefficient Cooling of Resonators: Beating Sideband Cooling with Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick; Jacobs, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    There is presently a great deal of interest in cooling high-frequency micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators to their ground states. The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling, which was originally developed in the context of cooling trapped ions. Here we present a method based on quantum control that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling--coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator--but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by applying optimal control and varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators.

  4. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  5. Hot Potato, Cool Foil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students explore material properties by applying some basic principles of heat transfer. They use calorimeters to determine the specific heat of three substances: aluminum, copper and another of their choice. Each substance is cooled in a freezer and then placed in the calorimeter. The temperature change of the water and the substance are used in heat transfer equations to determine the specific heat of each substance. The students compare their calculated values with tabulated data.

  6. Lamination cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  7. Characterization of the microstructure evolution in a nickel base superalloy during continuous cooling conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Babu; M. K. Miller; J. M. Vitek; S. A. David

    2001-01-01

    The solidification characteristics of the ? phase from the liquid and the subsequent decomposition of the ? phase control the evolution of the microstructure in nickel–base superalloy welds. The precipitation of the ?? phase from the ? phase during continuous cooling conditions (0.17–75 K s?1) from the solutionizing temperature was characterized in a directionally solidified CM247DS alloy with thermomechanical simulator,

  8. Passive Cooling of a Micromechanical Oscillator with a Resonant Electric Circuit

    E-print Network

    K. R. Brown; J. Britton; R. J. Epstein; J. Chiaverini; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland

    2007-09-26

    We cool the fundamental mode of a miniature cantilever by capacitively coupling it to a driven rf resonant circuit. Cooling results from the rf capacitive force, which is phase shifted relative to the cantilever motion. We demonstrate the technique by cooling a 7 kHz cantilever from room temperature to 45 K, obtaining reasonable agreement with a model for the cooling, damping, and frequency shift. Extending the method to higher frequencies in a cryogenic system could enable ground state cooling and may prove simpler than related optical experiments in a low temperature apparatus.

  9. Excess vibrational modes and high thermoelectric performance of the quenched and slow-cooled two-phase alloy Cu0.2Ag2.8SbSeTe2.

    PubMed

    Drymiotis, F R; Lindsey, S; Capps, J; Lashley, J C; Rhodes, D; Zhang, Q R; Nucklos, C; Drye, T B

    2011-04-01

    In this article we examine the low-temperature specific heat of slow-cooled Cu(0.2)Ag(2.8)SbSeTe(2) and the thermoelectric performance of quenched samples. We find that the low-temperature specific heat is dominated by two Einstein terms of approximate energies of 2.5 and 5 meV. The specific-heat behavior is consistent with the amorphous low-temperature thermal conductivity behavior and validates the glassy nature of the structure. We performed the synthesis of quenched samples in an attempt to eliminate the presence of micro-cracks, whose existence presumably enhances electronic scattering. We find that quenching eliminates the presence of micro-cracks but does not result in an improvement of the figure of merit. Specifically, the highest ZT obtained in the quenched samples (ZT = 1.5), though very competitive, is still significantly less that the ZT obtained in the slow-cooled samples (ZT = 1.75). PMID:21415478

  10. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  11. Modeling a Transient Pressurization with Active Cooling Sizing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Elchert, Justin P.

    2011-01-01

    As interest in the area of in-space zero boil-off cryogenic propellant storage develops, the need to visualize and quantify cryogen behavior during ventless tank self-pressurization and subsequent cool-down with active thermal control has become apparent. During the course of a mission, such as the launch ascent phase, there are periods that power to the active cooling system will be unavailable. In addition, because it is not feasible to install vacuum jackets on large propellant tanks, as is typically done for in-space cryogenic applications for science payloads, instances like the launch ascent heating phase are important to study. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize cryogenic tank pressurization during ventless cryogen storage without active cooling, but few tools exist to model this behavior in a user-friendly environment for general use, and none exist that quantify the marginal active cooling system size needed for power down periods to manage tank pressure response once active cooling is resumed. This paper describes the Transient pressurization with Active Cooling Tool (TACT), which is based on a ventless three-lump homogeneous thermodynamic self-pressurization model1 coupled with an active cooling system estimator. TACT has been designed to estimate the pressurization of a heated but unvented cryogenic tank, assuming an unavailable power period followed by a given cryocooler heat removal rate. By receiving input data on the tank material and geometry, propellant initial conditions, and passive and transient heating rates, a pressurization and recovery profile can be found, which establishes the time needed to return to a designated pressure. This provides the ability to understand the effect that launch ascent and unpowered mission segments have on the size of an active cooling system. A sample of the trends found show that an active cooling system sized for twice the steady state heating rate would results in a reasonable time for tank pressure recovery with ZBO of a liquid oxygen propellant tank.

  12. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  13. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

  14. Quantitative cooling histories from stranded diffusion profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Stranded elemental or isotopic diffusion profiles in geological materials have the potential to reveal information on the thermal history of the host sample. In the specific case of a concentration step that is established at high temperature, the extent of diffusive relaxation during cooling depends on the details of the cooling path and the Arrhenius diffusion law of the species of interest: In principle, a measured profile in a sample can provide quantitative information on the nature of the cooling path if the diffusion law is known. Using a combination of mathematics and numerical simulations, we derive a simple relationship describing the extent of profile relaxation (as gauged by the slope S 0 of a diffusion profile) as a function of the initial temperature ( T i) and cooling rate () of the system and the activation energy ( E a) and pre-exponential factor ( D 0) for diffusion: The initial temperature T i is expressed in K, is in °/s, D 0 is in m2/s, and E a is in kJ/mol. The slope of the profile of interest can be estimated either at the midpoint of an interdiffusion profile or at a crystal margin. In the former case, concentrations are normalized to a difference of 100 between the upper (=100) and lower (=0) initial concentration plateaus. For profiles at crystal margins, the normalization range is 0 to 50. The equation above applies equally well to linear and exponential cooling paths because the extent of relaxation indicated by S 0 is essentially the same for a given linear cooling path and an exponential one characterized by the same initial cooling rate. Cooling from the top of parabolic T- t "dome" results in more extensive profile relaxation; this is also well described by the above equation if the leading constant 2.504 is changed to 2.165. If S 0 of a stranded profile has been characterized in the laboratory, and if the Arrhenius law of the diffusant is known, the above equation can be solved uniquely for one of the cooling path parameters ( T i or ) if the other—which will usually be T i—is constrained by phase equilibria or the geological context of the sample. Alternatively, if a sample exhibits stranded profiles for two diffusants having different E a and D 0 values, two versions of the above equation can be solved simultaneously for both the initial temperature and the cooling rate. The equation above can be implemented for purposes other than estimating T- t histories: e.g., assessing whether an observed concentration profile is truly the result of diffusion or a consequence of changing phase composition during growth. Our approach also raises the possibility not only of cross-checking multiple laboratory-based diffusion laws but also of estimating Arrhenius parameters for uncharacterized diffusants.

  15. Chondrule formation by impact? The cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluger, F.; Weinke, H. H.; Kiesl, W.

    Different sets of initial conditions for impacts of stray objects on solid surfaces of planetary bodies or asteroids have been computed for cooling times of chondrules. The results of the calculations indicate cooling times shorter than 60 seconds for condensed matter from 10 to the 4th to 10 to the 15th g generated by impact and initial temperatures of the gas phase formed up to presumed degeneracy limit of 150,000 K. To retain solid impact products originated that way on meteorite parent bodies by gravitational forces, a target diameter of at least 800 km is required. It is shown that chondrule formation by impact seems to be an unlikely event.

  16. Neutron star cooling constraints for color superconductivity in hybrid stars

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, S. B. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetski pr. 13, RU-119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grigorian, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 375049 Yerevan (Armenia); Blaschke, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR Dubna, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    We apply the recently developed logN-logS test of compact star cooling theories for the first time to hybrid stars with a color superconducting quark matter core. Although there is not yet a microscopically founded superconducting quark matter phase that would fulfill constraints from cooling phenomenology, we explore the hypothetical 2SC+X phase and show that the magnitude and density dependence of the X-gap can be chosen to satisfy a set of tests: temperature-age (T-t), the brightness constraint, logN-logS, and the mass spectrum constraint. The latter test appears as a new conjecture from the present investigation.

  17. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 11. Photocopy of blueprint (on file at La Grande District ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of blueprint (on file at La Grande District Office, La Grande, Oregon) USDA Forest Service, 1939 - Union Ranger District Compound, Guard Residence, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  19. 69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT SHEET, SHEET 5; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSION SHEET, SECTION THROUGH CROWN, SHEET 6, APRIL, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA