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1

Phase two laboratory testing of Direct Freeze ice slurry district cooling. Project final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the laboratory development progress of a proprietary ice production technology (Direct Freeze) for ice-water slurry district cooling systems. The current work builds on a previous Phase 1 effort performed for the US Department of Ene...

P. J. Winters

1991-01-01

2

Phase two laboratory testing of Direct Freeze ice slurry district cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the laboratory development progress of a proprietary ice production technology (Direct Freeze) for ice-water slurry district cooling systems. The current work builds on a previous Phase 1 effort performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of the current Phase 2 effort was divided into two separate areas. The first, Ice Slurry Hydraulic Characterization Tests,

Winters

1991-01-01

3

Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. Final Report. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: ...

1980-01-01

4

Assessment of district heating and cooling project feasibility in the city of San Jose: Final report, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an investigation to identify and evaluate the feasibility of potential district cooling and heating projects in San Jose, California. Three such candidate projects have been identified with the focus on district cooling: the Thunderbird Golf Course Redevelopment site; an 8-block area of downtown San Jose east and north of the new convention center complex; and a block in the Rincon de Los Esteros District bounded by the Guadelupe River, Trimble Road, Component Drive, and North 1st Street. The downtown San Jose and Thunderbird potential projects consider a new central chiller plant in each case, while the Rincon district system considers the utilization of existing facilities' chilled water plants. The study assesses the potential cooling loads, develops in conceptual form the distribution system and central plant designs and implementation plans, and evaluates the system's economics in each case.

Not Available

1988-02-29

5

District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications  

SciTech Connect

A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

1992-02-01

6

Phase 1 feasibility study: district heating and cooling using wastewater effluent and sea water in Olympia, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of district heating and cooling (DHC) using low-temperature hydrothermal sources in conjunction with heat pumps has been assessed on a preliminary basis for downtown Olympia and the Capitol Campus. The conclusion is that DHC can provide thermal energy at approximately 75 to 85% of the lowest competing fuel cost in the community. Three potential hydrothermal sources for DHC were evaluated: treated wastewater effluent from the LOTT plant; surface water from Capitol Lake or Budd Inlet; and waste process water from the Olympia Brewery. LOTT effluent and Budd Inlet sea water were both found to be favorable sources, possessing heat pump output potentials far in excess of the service area's heating or cooling demands. Capitol Lake was found to be an unfavorable source because its maximum potential as a heat pump source falls below the service area's thermal demands. The Olympia Brewery was also eliminated because its waste heat was likewise insufficient to meet winter demands, and it requires a costly transmission pipeline to the service area. However, it should be noted that at some point in the future the Brewery could become a DHC customer if its large demand for conventionally-fueled process heat becomes too costly.

Not Available

1986-01-01

7

District heating and cooling system for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting thermal power plants in Minnesota to accommodate both heat and power generation for district heating was examined and is discussed. Three communities were identified as viable sites for co-generation district heating. (LCL)

Not Available

1979-06-01

8

District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

1992-02-01

9

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

The potential for district heating was examined in terms of a total (regional) system and two subsystems of overlapping scales. The basis of the economic analysis of district heating was that the utility's electric and gas customers would not be economically burdened by the implementation of district heating, and that any incremental costs due to district heating (e.g. district heating capital and operating costs, replacement electric power, abandonment of unamortized gas mains) would be charged to district heating customers.

Not Available

1984-01-01

10

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which

D. M. France; B. D. Knodel

1992-01-01

11

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-01-01

12

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-07-01

13

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01

14

District cooling engineering and design program  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

15

Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface ground temperature data and over the past 30 years have installed more than 15 miles (24 km) of directly buried uninsulated chilled water supply and return distribution piping. The utility engineers now estimate that during the summer cooling season, peak heat gains in the buried chilled water piping exceed 450 tons (1,583 kW) and cause $100,000 in energy losses each year. Ground heat gains due to elevated subsurface temperature have been suspected as production tonnage exceeds end-user sales by 10% during the peak cooling season. The utilities staff decided it was time to reassess method for installing chilled water piping on campus and determine if the university design standard of installing uninsulated buried chilled water piping remains valid for the campus environment.

McCabe, R.E.; Bender, J.J.; Potter, K.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

16

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution networks. Phase 1: identificatzon and assessment. Final report, Volume II. Detailed results  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I Identification and Assessment Study was aimed at surveying the State of Wisconsin to identify potential sites for a district heating system and evaluating these sites in terms of their technical, institutional and economic merits. Specific objectives of the study were to: identify candidate plants and service areas and to perform an energy market analysis for selected areas; identify and evaluate plant retrofit and distribution alternatives for the selected service areas; identify and evaluate institutional problems within the infrastructure; and perform an economic analysis for the candidate sites. The overall approach consisted of surveying the State of Wisconsin to identify all existing intermediate and base-loaded electric generating facilities. Once identified, screening criteria were developed to narrow the list to the three most promising sites. For each of the three sites, an extensive market analysis was performed to identify and characterize thermal loads and survey potential users on their views and concerns on the concept. Parallel to this effort, each of the three sites was evaluated on its technical and institutional merits. The technical evaluation centered on identifying and evaluating utility plant retrofit schemes and distribution system alternatives to service the identified thermal market. The institutional analysis evaluated potential barriers such as environmental, distribution system right-of-way and legal issues within the infrastructure of the state, city and community. Finally, all previous aspects of the analysis were combined to determine the economic viability of each site. The most promising site is Green Bay where process heat loads as well as building heat loads are located near the Pulliam Power Plant.

Not Available

1979-09-01

17

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

Not Available

1984-01-31

18

Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach  

SciTech Connect

On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

NONE

1995-12-01

19

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

Not Available

1984-01-31

20

District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment  

SciTech Connect

Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

Meshenberg, M.J.

1983-08-01

21

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9[degrees]C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

22

Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

Not Available

1991-09-30

23

Two phase cooling for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

Comments on the use of two phase helium in a closed circuit tubular cooling system and some results obtained with the TPC superconducting magnet are given. Theoretical arguments and experimental evidence are given against a previously suggested method to determine helium two phase flow regimes. Two methods to reduce pressure in the magnet cooling tubes during quenches are discussed; (1) lowering the density of helium in the magnet cooling tubes and (2) proper location of pressure relief valves. Some techniques used to protect the refrigerator from too much cold return gas are also mentioned. 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Watt, R.D.

1986-01-01

24

Aquifer thermal energy storage district cooling in downtown St. Paul: Feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it feasible to store winter-chilled groundwater in an aquifer for summer air conditioning via a district cooling system. This study examined building loads, hydrogeologic factors, cooling system design, distribution alternatives, legal factors and economic feasibility. Groundwater would be pumped to the surface, cooled to 2.5°C using ambient water air, and injected into a second well for storage. The original

Spurr

1986-01-01

25

District heating and cooling systems of the future: Strategies for global change  

SciTech Connect

The future of district heating and cooling, also known as district energy, will be a function of economic and regulatory forces in the US. Typically a district energy system provides thermal energy in the form of steam, hot water, or chilled water from a central plant, and distributes the energy through pipes to two or more buildings. At the present time, district energy is under-utilized and serves only 1.3 percent of US energy needs, providing a total of 1.1 quadrillion Btu of energy annually. A brief review of the historical development of district energy, the status of the technology in the US, and a few basics on world energy consumption lead in to the economic and environmental advantages of district energy. District energy systems have been retrofitted to comply wit h the regulations of the Clean Air Act (CAA); presently emissions of greenhouse gases, such as CO{sub 2}, are not regulated by the CAA. If the results of ongoing investigation on global climate change determine that regulation is warranted, several strategies exist for district energy systems to offer significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of district energy`s reaction to the ongoing forces are possible with the use of energy consumption forecasts through the year 2015, and a discussion of trend setting concepts being applied involving: gas turbines, cogeneration, fuel cells, chillers, advanced transmission fluids, renewable energies, and CO{sub 2} capture. District energy has potential to be an important part of the evolving strategies for global climate change. For this reason, combined with technology advancements and a supportive economic climate, a new era in district energy has begun. Growth and development of district energy into the foreseeable future is expected to be strong.

McCabe, R.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

26

Thermodynamic analysis of an existing coal-fired power plant for district heating\\/cooling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional coal-fired power plant, which is only designed for electricity generation, 2\\/3 of fuel energy is wasted through stack gases and cooling water of condensers. This waste energy could be recovered by trigeneration; modifying the plants in order to meet district heating\\/cooling demand of their locations. In this paper, thermodynamical analysis of trigeneration conversion of a public coal-fired

Hasan Huseyin Erdem; Ahmet Dagdas; Suleyman Hakan Sevilgen; Burhanettin Cetin; Ali Volkan Akkaya; Bahri Sahin; Ismail Teke; Cengiz Gungor; Selcuk Atas

2010-01-01

27

Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California  

SciTech Connect

Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

Frederick, J.

1982-01-01

28

District cooling engineering and design program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

29

Total-energy district heating and cooling in Reggio Emilia  

SciTech Connect

The experimental total energy plant which has been operating in the San Pellegrino district of Reggio Emilia, Italy, since February is powered by three diesel engines. Heat pumps are included to improve efficiency. In energy terms, the system is expected to achieve a total yearly efficiency of about 78% allowing a fuel saving (on a yearly basis) of about 32% in comparison with conventional boilers chillers, and the national grid. In economic terms, the system should have a payback period of about seven years at 1980 oil prices. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Campagnola, G.; Bracco, G.; Alia, P.

1981-09-01

30

Combustion Turbine Inlet Air Cooling (CTIAC): Benefits, Technology Options, and Applications for District Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion turbines (CTs) are increasingly used for electric power generation in combined heat & power (CHP) applications, including those in the district energy arena. CTs exhibit an inherent loss in power output as ambient air temperature rises, at precisely those times when power is most in demand and most highly valued.This article presents the concepts, and the benefits, of cooling

John S. Andrepont

2001-01-01

31

Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A bread board heat pump was designed and built to test the performance of a vapor compression heat pump with two stage ammonia-water solution circuits. The design was updated based on the experience gained with the single stage version of this heat pump. A major improvement was obtained by eliminating the rectifier. The new scheme was first investigated by computer simulation and then incorporated in the experimental setup. Water balance in the high and low temperature circuits is now maintained by bleeding up to 2.5% of the weak solution flow from one solution circuit to the other. The advantages of this scheme are reduced first cost, simplified design and control, 20--30% improvement in cooling coefficient of performance and 10--15% increase in cooling capacity as compared to the cycle with a rectifier. Coefficients of performance in the range of 0.84 to 1.03 were obtained experimentally for a temperature lift of 100-K. The pressure ratios encountered were in the range of 7.6 to 9.9, which are 35 to 50% of the pressure ratio expected for a conventional heat pump. Thus the results demonstrate that high temperature lifts can be achieved at pressure ratios which are less than half as large as for conventional systems. The cooling capacities were in the range of 2.79 to 4.21 kW. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Radermacher, R.

1991-07-01

32

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

33

The Department of Energy District Heating and Cooling program: A decade (1982--1992) of accomplishments  

SciTech Connect

District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems have evolved over an extended period of time within a complex economic, political, social and technical community. Developers and customers from the public and private sectors have worked together, often in fragmented and piecemeal efforts, to develop new or improve old district heating and cooling systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) works in partnership with industry and the utility sector to develop technological improvements for DHC systems. DOE also works with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), other federal agencies, state and local governments, universities, private industry, professional societies, trade as associations, and individuals to increase the market adoption rate of energy-efficient and cost-effective DHC systems. The current status report of activities includes on of projects such as the ice slurries field test effort to be completed in 1995/1996, planned by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in conjunction with Northern States Power and EPRI; and cost- studies in eight cities for detailed engineering and design of cooling systems scheduled to be completed in September, 1993. Several projects which are currently ongoing are: the DHC market potential estimation study that is being developed by ANL, the DHC/C study conducted by ORNL, and the DHC feasibility assessments to be performed in conjunction with the Georgia Tech University in connection with the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta.

Not Available

1992-12-01

34

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

35

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

36

An optimization method of district heating and cooling plant operation based on genetic algorithm  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an optimization method for electric-type district heating and cooling plants based on the genetic algorithm. First, in order to examine the characteristics of the genetic algorithm by simulation, a simulated plant is assumed to supply chilled and hot water simultaneously. Second, a pilot plant is actually constructed at a sewage treatment plant for an examination of using low-temperature energy, such as treated sewage, instead of an air heat source. In the pilot plant, the genetic algorithm described in this paper is applied to optimize the operation schedule for on-line processing. Also, the results of this examination are presented.

Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nagaiwa, Akihiro; Kobayasi, Syuichiro; Shinozaki, Tsutomu

1999-07-01

37

AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the capabilities and mechanics of the computer simulation model AQUASTOR. The model optimizes system design and calculates the lifecycle cost of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system coupled to a district heating (cooling) system. AQUASTOR has the flexibility to simulate a wide range of system configurations, with a large number of technical and economic parameters available for defining the energy storage and distribution systems. AQUASTOR consists of two principal parts: an ATES supply submodel and a district heating (cooling) distribution submodel. The model combines the technical characteristics of supply and distribution systems with financial and tax model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system.

Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-01-01

38

Phase transitions in nucleonic matter and neutron-star cooling.  

PubMed

A new scenario for neutron-star cooling is suggested by the correspondence between pion condensation, induced by critical spin-isospin fluctuations, and the metal-insulator phase transition in a 2D electron gas. Above the threshold density for pion condensation, the neutron single-particle spectrum acquires an insulating gap that quenches neutron contributions to neutrino production. In the liquid phase just below the transition, the fluctuations play dual roles by (i) creating a multisheeted neutron Fermi surface that extends to low momenta and activates the normally forbidden direct Urca cooling mechanism, and (ii) amplifying the nodeless P-wave neutron superfluid gap while suppressing S-wave pairing. Lighter stars without a pion-condensed core undergo slow cooling, whereas enhanced cooling occurs in heavier stars via direct Urca emission from a thin shell of the interior. PMID:15524862

Khodel, V A; Clark, J W; Takano, M; Zverev, M V

2004-10-05

39

AQUASTOR: A computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the capabilities and structure of the computer simulation model AQUASTOR. The model optimizes system design and calculates the life-cycle cost of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system coupled to a district heating (cooling) system. AQUASTOR has the flexibility to simulate a wide range of system configurations, with a large number of technical and economic parameters available for defining the energy storage and distribution systems. The model combines the technical characteristics of storage and distribution systems with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system.

Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-08-01

40

Enhanced cooling capacities of ferroelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrocaloric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) epitaxial films and 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (0.7PMN-0.3PT) single crystals are measured and demonstrated enhanced low temperature refrigeration at morphotropic phase boundary compositions. The results reveal large adiabatic cooling figures in ~260 nm PZT films (11 K in 15 V) and 200 ?m thick 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystals (2.7 K in 240 V) at Curie transition temperatures and secondary cooling peaks at lower temperatures, near critical points. This is a very useful aspect of ferroelectric cooling elements to attain effective cooling over wide range of working temperatures in solid-state devices.

Chukka, Rami; Cheah, Jun Wei; Chen, Zuhuang; Yang, P.; Shannigrahi, S.; Wang, Junling; Chen, Lang

2011-06-01

41

Cooling of Electronics with Phase Change Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with phase change materials (PCMs), used in conjunction with thermal conductivity enhancer (TCE), as means of thermal management of electronic systems. This work was motivated by the need for short term thermal management of high packing density equipments (such as in avionics). Eicosane is used as PCM, while aluminium pin or plate fins are used as TCE. The test section considered in all cases is 42×42 mm square base with TCE height of 25 mm. An electronic heater producing 4, 6 and 8 W was used to simulate the heat generation of electronic chips. Various volumetric percentages of TCE in the conglomerate of PCM and TCE were considered, namely, 0, 2, 8, 18 and 27%. The case with 8% volumetric percentage of TCE was found to have the best thermal performance. A numerical model was developed to enable interpretation of experimental results and to perform parametric studies.

Saha, S. K.; Dutta, P.

2010-10-01

42

Demonstration of a two-phase cooled power transformer  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, manufacture, test installation and operation of a 138/13.8 kV, 65 MVA two-phase cooled power transformer developed by Westinghouse. The transformer was installed on the Consolidated Edison system in the Seaport Substation in 1986 and is presently in service. The demonstration installation and operation experience is described.

Savio, L.J. (Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

43

High Heat Flux Two-Phase Cooling in Silicon Multimicrochannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents performances of two-phase cooling of a chip at very high heat flux with refrigerant R236fa in a silicon multimicrochannel heat sink. This heat sink was composed of 134 parallel channels, 67 mum wide, 680 mum high, and 20 mm long, with 92- mum -thick fins separating the channels. The base heat flux was varied from 3 to

Bruno Agostini; John Richard Thome; Matteo Fabbri; Bruno Michel

2008-01-01

44

Flexible two-phase thermosyphon for power electronic cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two phase thermosyphon system for power electronic cooling is presented. The designed evaporator can house multiple power electronics modules, it collects the generated vapor to a common flexible tube that drives the vapor to a plate heat exchanger condenser. The system was tested and simulated for a total power loss of 12.5 kW. The condenser was installed at a

Francesco Agostini; Bruno Agostini

2011-01-01

45

Two-phase flow instability analysis for transient electronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of increasing power densities, refrigeration systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power electronic components. This paper presents a framework for the transient analysis of pressure-drop refrigerant flow instabilities under both steady-state and transient imposed heat loads. Based on an analytical two-phase flow model, the system pressure and other effects on flow characteristics are quantitatively studied,

TieJun Zhang; Yoav Peles; John T. Wen; Michael K. Jensen

2010-01-01

46

Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

Not Available

1991-09-30

47

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01

48

Experimental investigation on phase change spray cooling with R22  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great quantities of experiments were performed to study the effects of two-phase spray cooling with high heat flux used R22 as refrigerant. A detailed research of the performance of spray cooling at different subcooling temperature was conducted. The experimental results show that the critical heat flux can reach 272.04W.cm-2 with R22 as the working medium, and the corresponding surface temperature is 21.11°C These figures prove that the spray cooling has the advantages of high heat flux as well as lower surface temperature. With increasing overcooling degree of refrigerant at the entrance of nozzle, CHF rises at first and goes to stable then. Which means the CHF can be developed by adding the overcooling of refrigerant. However, the development is limited to a certain degree according to the characteristics of the system; namely, the overmuch increment plays a little role to improve CHF value.

Li, Mengjing; Liu, Jionghui; Liu, Xiufang; Hou, Yu

2013-07-01

49

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

50

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

SciTech Connect

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01

51

Geothermal district heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

1982-06-01

52

Geothermal district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01

53

Geothermal district heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating\\/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

G. S. Budney; F. Childs

1982-01-01

54

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

55

Geothermal District Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling...

G. S. Budney F. Childs

1982-01-01

56

Optics for Phase Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams  

SciTech Connect

The realization of a muon collider requires a reduction of the 6D normalized emittance of an initially generated muon beam by a factor of more than 106. Analytical and simulation studies of 6D muon beam ionization cooling in a helical channel filled with pressurized gas or liquid hydrogen absorber indicate that a factor of 106 is possible. Further reduction of the normalized 4D transverse emittance by an additional two orders of magnitude is envisioned using Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC). To realize the phase shrinkage effect in the parametric resonance method, one needs to design a focusing channel free of chromatic and spherical aberrations. We report results of our study of a concept of an aberration-free wiggler transport line with an alternating dispersion function. Resonant beam focusing at thin beryllium wedge absorber plates positioned near zero dispersion points then provides the predicted PIC effect.

R.P. Johnson; S.A. Bogacz; Y.S. Derbenev

2006-06-26

57

THERMAL STRESS AND VOLUME CHANGE DURING A COOLING PROCESS INVOLVING PHASE TRANSFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of a phase diagram, a theoretical principle is developed to calculate the stress in the matrix phase and the overall volume change of dual-phase metals during a cooling process involving martensitic transformation. The cooling process may start from a pure austenite phase or from a mixture of austenite and ferrite, resulting in a two- or a three-phase

H. H. Pan; G. J. Weng

1992-01-01

58

Enhanced cooling capacities of ferroelectric materials at morphotropic phase boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrocaloric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) epitaxial films and 0.7Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (0.7PMN-0.3PT) single crystals are measured and demonstrated enhanced low temperature refrigeration at morphotropic phase boundary compositions. The results reveal large adiabatic cooling figures in ~260 nm PZT films (11 K in 15 V) and 200 mum thick 0.7PMN-0.3PT single crystals (2.7 K in 240 V) at Curie transition temperatures and

Rami Chukka; Jun Wei Cheah; Zuhuang Chen; P. Yang; S. Shannigrahi; Junling Wang; Lang Chen

2011-01-01

59

Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

Porter, R. W.

1982-03-01

60

Solidification Characteristics Modeling of Phase Change Material in Plate Capsule of Cool Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical solutions to solidification characteristics of a phase change material in the plate capsule of a cool storage system are presented. The influence of the Stefan number (the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat of a cool storage material) on phase change solidification thickness and temperature distribution in the solid region is analyzed. The phase change solidification thickness

Guiyin Fang; Zhi Chen

2011-01-01

61

Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K\\/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The

B Narayana; Michael J. Mills; Eliot D Specht; Michael L Santella; Sudarsanam Suresh Babu

2010-01-01

62

PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL AS A THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIAL FOR COOLING OF BUILDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the demand for refrigeration and Air conditioning has been increased during the last decade, the cool storage systems can be used to the economic advantage over conventional cooling plants. Cool storage system using phase change materials can be used for peak load shifting if they are installed in the building. In the case of sensible heat storage system, energy

M. RAVIKUMAR

63

Cooling of Sr to high phase-space density by laser and sympathetic cooling in isotopic mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Based on an experimental study of two-body and three-body collisions in ultracold strontium samples, a novel optical-sympathetic cooling method in isotopic mixtures is demonstrated. Without evaporative cooling, a phase-space density of 6x10{sup -2} is obtained with a high spatial density that should allow us to overcome the difficulties encountered so far to reach quantum degeneracy for Sr atoms.

Ferrari, G.; Drullinger, R. E.; Poli, N.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and LENS, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Polo Scientifico-Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2006-02-15

64

Cooling of Sr to high phase-space density by laser and sympathetic cooling in isotopic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an experimental study of two-body and three-body collisions in ultracold strontium samples, a novel optical-sympathetic cooling method in isotopic mixtures is demonstrated. Without evaporative cooling, a phase-space density of 6x10⁻² is obtained with a high spatial density that should allow us to overcome the difficulties encountered so far to reach quantum degeneracy for Sr atoms.

G. Ferrari; R. E. Drullinger; N. Poli; F. Sorrentino; G. M. Tino

2006-01-01

65

Cooling of Sr to high phase-space density by laser and sympathetic cooling in isotopic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an experimental study of two-body and three-body collisions in ultracold strontium samples, a novel optical-sympathetic cooling method in isotopic mixtures is demonstrated. Without evaporative cooling, a phase-space density of 6×10-2 is obtained with a high spatial density that should allow us to overcome the difficulties encountered so far to reach quantum degeneracy for Sr atoms.

G. Ferrari; R. E. Drullinger; N. Poli; F. Sorrentino; G. M. Tino

2006-01-01

66

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

1985-04-01

67

District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network. Volume 3. Final Report, September 1, 1978-May 31, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report of Phase I of the study presents Task 4, Technical Review and Assessment. The most-promising district-heating concept identified in the Phase I study for the Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Newark, New Jersey, is a hot-water sys...

1979-01-01

68

Open cycle heat pump development for local resource use. Phase 2: District heating case study analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

District heating (DH) systems provide thermal energy to their customers in the form of hot water or steam. These systems can use one or more types of heat sources to meet the thermal load, including boilers, cogeneration systems, or low-grade heat sources in conjunction with a heat pump. Most large-scale heat pumps operate using the closed-cycle concept and usually use a chlorinated fluorocarbon (CFC) as the working fluid. An alternative to this approach is the quasi open-cycle heat pump, which was first studied in a Phase 1 report entitled, Open-Cycle Heat Pump Development for Local Resource Use, DOE/CE/26563-5. The quasi open-cycle (QOC) heat pump actually uses the district heating transport medium as its working fluid. This document is the Final Report prepared as a part of Task 6 of Open-Cycle Heat Pump Development for Local Resource Use, Phase 2 District Heating Case Study Analysis. The objective of this study contract was to assess the application of the QOC heat pump in an actual case study.

Patch, K. D.; Dibella, F. A.; Glick, J. F.; Becker, F. E.

1990-04-01

69

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in Power Plant Cooling Systems: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four fac...

R. L. Tyndall S. W. Christensen J. A. Solomon

1985-01-01

70

Effect of Continuous Cooling on Secondary Phase Precipitation in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel ZERON-100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of secondary phases in super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a subject of great relevance owing to their dangerous effects on both mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. This paper examines the effect of continuous cooling after solution annealing treatment on secondary phase precipitation in the ZERON-100 SDSS. It considers the influence of cooling rate on volume fraction, morphology and chemical composition. It has been found that the formation of sigma and chi phases can be avoided only at cooling rates higher than 0.7 °C/s. In addition, at the lowest cooling rate the sigma phase amount approaches the equilibrium value, but the chi phase amount remains significantly low.

Calliari, Irene; Bassani, Paola; Brunelli, Katya; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio

2013-09-01

71

Sympathetic cooling rate of gas-phase ions in a radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We theoretically investigated the mass dependence of the sympathetic cooling rate of gas-phase ions trapped in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole\\u000a ion trap. Using an a priori molecular dynamical calculation, tracing numerically with Newtonian equations of motion, we found\\u000a that ions with a mass greater than 0.54±0.04 times that of the laser-cooled ions are sympathetically cooled; otherwise, they\\u000a are heated. To

T. Baba; I. Waki

2002-01-01

72

Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.  

PubMed

A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR. PMID:23210742

Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

2012-12-19

73

MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement  

SciTech Connect

MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

Hart, T. L. [University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

2010-03-30

74

A two-phase cooling system for the Jetfoil Visual Augmentation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-phase 'thermosiphon' principle is employed by a novel cooling system developed for temperature control of the IR-illumination and camera night Visual Augmentation System (VAS) used by a commercial hydrofoil craft. Performance comparisons are conducted between the two-phase and current, pumped loop VAS cooling systems, after the construction and testing of a full scale thermosiphon device. The new system is found to raise temperatures slightly, but eliminates a significant portion of the current system's operating noise and reduces cooling system weight by 67 percent.

Hamasaki, R. H.; Abe, J. L.; Franklin, J. L.

1983-07-01

75

Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

Bieli?ski, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jaros?aw

2010-10-01

76

Computational modeling of phase transformations and mechanical properties during the cooling of hot rolled rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, great emphasis has been placed on controlled the cooling of hot rolled steel rods to achieve the desired microstructure and final mechanical properties. The approach is to develop the desired microstructure and temperature in the hot rolled rod and then transform it from the austenite phase to different volume fractions of martensite, bainite, pearlite and ferrite phases. This paper

Sameer Phadke; Praveen Pauskar; Rajiv Shivpuri

2004-01-01

77

Two-Phase Fluid Cooled Induction Motor Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating electric motors at higher power densities than attainable in motors of conventional design. An investigative phase of this program covered a variety of electromagnetic/mechanical d...

B. W. Merchant J. C. Corman M. H. McLaughlin R. E. Tompkins R. F. Edgar

1971-01-01

78

Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium conditions. However, the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation path due to non-equilibrium partitioning of alloying elements cannot be predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams. Also, it is unclear if there is retention of delta ferrite to room temperature due to compositional or thermal effects. This would dramatically affect the austenite to ferrite transformation due to carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the austenite.

Narayana, B [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University, The, Columbus

2010-12-01

79

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing. (Project status).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows; and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without s...

P. J. Winters

1990-01-01

80

Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

2013-10-01

81

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15

82

SOLERAS Program: engineering field test of a solar cooling system. Phase I and II  

SciTech Connect

The rationale for selecting the engineering field test site and the building cooling requirements are described. Descriptions of the Phase I activities are presented and descriptions of the overall cooling system and its major subsystems and components are provided. The preliminary design analyses conducted to select collector/storage, chiller module and thermal distribution components; operating features and estimated system performance are included. Economic analyses and the results obtained are described including an assessment of the commercialization potential for the solar cooling system. Phase II activities are presented and detailed design, construction and installation features of the solar system at the test site are described. Testing documentation is provided by the checkout and acceptance tests and their results are described.

Not Available

1982-06-01

83

Variable-Gravity Effects on A Single-Phase Partially-Confined Spray Cooling System (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the testing of a single-phase spray cooling system that was flown on the NASA KC-135 Reduced-Gravity Research Aircraft. An experimental package, consisting of a spray chamber coupled to a fluid delivery loop system, was fabricated for...

K. L. Yerkes K. M. Baysinger R. L. Puterbaugh S. K. Thomas T. E. Michalak

2006-01-01

84

Loop analysis of a natural circulation two-phase flow under an external reactor vessel cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) conditions in a severe accident, a natural circulation two-phase flow is driven and a decay heat from the reactor vessel wall can be removed for an integrity of a reactor vessel wall. In this study, to estimate a natural circulation mass flow rate and to analyze the major factor determining the natural circulation mass

Jae Cheol Kim; Kwang Soon Ha; Rae Joon Park; Sang Baik Kim; Seong Wan Hong

2008-01-01

85

PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS WITH CEILING VENTILATION SYSTEM TO REDUCE SUMMER COOLING LOADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the evaluation of the performances of phase change materials (PCMs) coupled with a ventilated ceiling system in order to reduce summer cooling loads and improve the internal comfort in buildings, thus enhancing the positive effect of night ventilation. Object of the study is the numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of a typical open space office

S. P. Corgnati; A. Kindins; M. Perino

86

Pulserende fjernvarme. 2. fase. Forbrugeruniten. (Pulsating district heating. Second phase. Consumer unit).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype of a consumer unit for pulsating district heating was dimensioned and built. The properties of the unit were tested in a district heating testing rig during 38 different operating cases. The consumer unit is no larger than a normal boiler unit...

B. Kvisgaard H. Andersson

1990-01-01

87

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

88

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

89

Cooling of a newborn compact star with a QCD phase transition  

SciTech Connect

We study the cooling behavior of an isolated strange-quark star, using an equation of state derived from perturbative QCD up to second order in a strong coupling constant, and we compare it with that of a neutron star. After an initial rapid cooling, a quark star may undergo the QCD phase transition to become a neutron star. We propose several signatures for such a scenario: a large amount of energy can be released due to latent heat, a long duration {gamma}-ray source, and a second neutrino burst after a supernova explosion.

Wong, K.-W.; Chu, M.-C. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China) and Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 3818, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

2004-09-15

90

Ejector gas cooling. Phase 1. Final report, 1 April 1987-30 April 1988  

SciTech Connect

Closed-circuit ejector cooling systems have never in the past achieved acceptable operating efficiencies in their vapor-compression cycle using standard refrigerants. Despite their long history, relative simplicity, quietness, rugged design, low maintenance and low cost, they could not compete with electric-motor-driven compressors. Phase I is an assessment of two immiscible fluids in an ejector cooling system with different latent heat capacity and molecular weights intended to require less heat in the boiler producing the propellant and taking more heat out in the evaporator cooling fluid. Actual tests corrected to standard conditions and neglecting thermal losses showed 0.5 closed-cycle thermal COP (excluding stack losses), higher than ever previously achieved but below original expectations. Computer programs developed indicate higher COP values are attainable along with competitive first costs.

MacCracken, C.D.; Silvetti, B.M.; Hrbek, R.

1988-11-01

91

District energy growth  

SciTech Connect

Utility competition is heating up as utilities focus attention back to district energy after turning away from it for decades after World War II. Utilities are re-entering the district energy business by forming non-regulated district energy subsidiaries. Trigen Energy Corp., as the largest commercial owner and operator of community district energy systems in North America, defines the district heating and cooling (DHC) growth trend of systems being taken over, upgraded and expanded. These trends gather momentum with the economic attractions that have propelled DHC for the past decade and more. With DHC, a building owner worries less about maintenance and can operate with a smaller workforce for maintenance. Heating and cooling systems operate more reliably. Trigen`s Trenton plant, producing electricity, heating and cooling, recovers 66 percent of input energy - more than double the efficiency of conventional electric generation. Yet, it produces less than one-half the pollutants of conventional generation.

Seeley, R.S.

1995-11-01

92

Cooling rate effects on the phase transformation of ZrO 2 base thermal barrier coatings coated by APS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase transformation behaviors of plasma sprayed partially stabilized ZrO 2 (PSZ) coatings were studied under the different thermal cycles. Both ZrO2-8Y2O3 and ZrO2-25CeO2-2.5Y2O3 were isothermally heat treated at 1300oC and 1500oC for 100 hr and were cooled through four different cooling rate methods, such as water quenching, air-cooling, open furnace cooling (the furnace door was open during cooling stage)

Jaeyun Moon; Hanshin Choi; Changhee Lee

93

Assessment of feasibility of a district heating and cooling system for Ecorse, Michigan. Final report, 1981-1982  

SciTech Connect

The City of Ecorse is an older industrial suburb of Detroit with an economy much related to the automobile industry. Ecorse conducted an assessment of the feasibility of building a district heating system which would service an 80 acre redevelopment area in the heart of the community. The system would utilize waste heat in the form of hot water from either of two electric generating plants, or a steel mill, or a nearby chemical plant located within the city. The estimated price of cogenerated thermal energy from one of the power plants was quite competitive. However, the 1980-1985 economy of Ecorse was so weak that the study found no real customer base for the heat in the target redevelopment area.

Hock, M.J.; Cason, D. Jr

1982-10-01

94

Feasibility analysis of two-phase MHD energy conversion for liquid metal cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-phase MHD energy conversion unit is proposed to a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. Using supercritical CO2 as the working fluid in the gas cycle without considering friction and heat losses, the optimized cycles efficiency is obtained, which is about 5% higher than that of the gas turbine Brayton cycle with the same regenerator\\/compressor configurations. Based on a simple

Qiao Wu; DuWayne L. Schubring; James J. Sienicki

2007-01-01

95

Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an accurate experimental investigation of the Mpemba effect (that is, of the fact that initially hot water freezes before the colder one) is carried out, showing that, in the adiabatic cooling of water, relevant roles are played by supercooling, and by phase transitions which take place at 6±1 ?C,3.5±0.5 ?C and 1.3±0.6 ?C. The last transition, which occurs with the

S. Esposito; R. De Risi; L. Somma

2008-01-01

96

VIBRATION-INDUCED TWO-PHASE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH POWER THERMAL MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two technologies for cooling of high-heat flux microelectronics based on enhanced phase-change are described. The first technology is based on a submerged vibration-induced bubble ejection process in which small vapor bubbles that form on and are attached to a submerged heated solid surface are dislodged and propelled into the cooler bulk liquid. This ejection technique involves forced removal of the

S. Heffington; A. Glezer; S. Tillery; M. Smith

2004-01-01

97

Robie House. Phase II report. Recommendations for cooling and ventilation, restoration of doors and windows, refrigerated cooling retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort is to provide the building owner, the University of Chicago, with recommendations for cooling. Natural ventilation is the preferred method as long as it can meet the needs of a modern office. This is especially attractive given the natural cooling design features mentioned by Frank Lloyd Wright scholars and confirmed by this research.

Not Available

1986-04-30

98

Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the transient behaviour of a phase change material based cool thermal energy storage (CTES) system comprised of a cylindrical storage tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in spherical container integrated with an ethylene glycol chiller plant. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the phase

99

Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

1988-01-01

100

The impact of a phase-change cooling vest on heat strain and the effect of different cooling pack melting temperatures.  

PubMed

Cooling vests (CV) are often used to reduce heat strain. CVs have traditionally used ice as the coolant, although other phase-change materials (PCM) that melt at warmer temperatures have been used in an attempt to enhance cooling by avoiding vasoconstriction, which supposedly occurs when ice CVs are used. This study assessed the effectiveness of four CVs that melted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 °C (CV?, CV??, CV??, and CV??) when worn by 10 male volunteers exercising and then recovering in 40 °C air whilst wearing fire-fighting clothing. When compared with a non-cooling control condition (CON), only the CV? and CV?? vests provided cooling during exercise (40 and 29 W, respectively), whereas all CVs provided cooling during resting recovery (CV? 69 W, CV?? 66 W, CV?? 55 W and CV?? 29 W) (P < 0.05). In all conditions, skin blood flow increased when exercising and reduced during recovery, but was lower in the CV? and CV?? conditions compared with control during exercise (observed power 0.709) (P < 0.05), but not during resting recovery (observed power only 0.55). The participants preferred the CV?? to the CV?, which caused temporary erythema to underlying skin, although this resolved overnight after each occurrence. Consequently, a cooling vest melting at 10 °C would seem to be the most appropriate choice for cooling during combined work and rest periods, although possibly an ice-vest (CV?) may also be appropriate if more insulation was worn between the cooling packs and the skin than used in this study. PMID:23160652

House, James R; Lunt, Heather C; Taylor, Rowan; Milligan, Gemma; Lyons, Jason A; House, Carol M

2012-11-16

101

Fundamental study for a working mechanism of Phase Adjuster set on thermoacoustic cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoacoustic cooling systems are drawing attention as next-generation eco-systems that can reuse and transform unused energy such as exhaust energy and solar energy. For the practical use of such systems, improvement of heat-sound energy conversion efficiency remains as an important challenge. We proposed a Phase Adjuster as a device for improving energy conversion efficiency However, the mechanism for that improvement remains unclear. Herein, to ascertain the reason, a parameter prediction method for determining the acoustic field was investigated by dividing the system into two parts: a Prime Mover (PM) part and a Phase Adjuster (PA) part. Consequently, the acoustic impedance cross-point of the PM part and the PA part on a complex plane is expected to represent a resonance frequency and a steady-state temperature ratio of the self-excited oscillation system.

Sahashi, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

2012-05-01

102

Experimental study of the neutronics of the first gas cooled fast reactor benchmark assembly (GCFR phase I assembly)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic Company. The Phase I Assembly was the first complete mockup of a GCFR core ever built. A set

Bhattacharyya

1976-01-01

103

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Abdulaziz University. Solar cooling systems design report. Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the performance and adaptability of solar cooling systems to the Saudi Arabian environment was studied at King Abdulaziz University. Development of a solar research laboratory and the hardware and software available for installation are considered. The university's facilities for solar energy research are briefly described. A budget for the research project is proposed. (BCS)

Not Available

1986-01-01

104

Phase equilibria of some alternative refrigerants hydrates and their mixtures using for cool storage materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power demand for residential air-conditioning has been increasing in Japan. Development of cool storage systems which shifts this demand to off-peak period and contributes to the load leveling of power generation is necessary. The hydrate cool storage system is the suitable cool storage system because its cool storage density is large and chiller efficiency is high. In this study,

Takaji Akiya; Tomio Shimazaki; Masaru Oowa; Masaru Nakaiwa; Takashi Nakane; Toshikatsu Hakuta; Mitsuharu Matsuo; Yuji Yoshida

1997-01-01

105

Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu–Al alloy in cooling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu–Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as

Yuhui Wang; Bo Liao; Jianhua Liu; Shuqing Chen; Yu Feng; Yanyan Zhang; Ruijun Zhang

2012-01-01

106

Heat transfer and parametric studies of an encapsulated phase change material based cool thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the transient behaviour of a phase change material based cool thermal energy storage (CTES) system\\u000a comprised of a cylindrical storage tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in spherical container integrated\\u000a with an ethylene glycol chiller plant. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat\\u000a transfer fluid (HTF) and the phase

M. Cheralathan; R. Velraj; S. Renganarayanan

2006-01-01

107

Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

1983-06-01

108

The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

Learned, R. E.; Chao, T. T.; Sanzolone, R. F.

1981-01-01

109

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

110

Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern’s features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die’s properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

2006-04-01

111

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01

112

Experimental Study of the Neutronics of the First Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark Assembly (GCFR Phase I Assembly).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic C...

S. K. Bhattacharyya

1976-01-01

113

High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenyl radical (C_6H_5) is one of the most important reactive intermediates, as it is formed from the homolytic cleavage of a CH bond in benzene (C_6H_6), and hence it plays a central role in the combustion of fossil fuels that are typically rich in aromatics. We recently recorded the first high resolution infrared spectra of jet-cooled phenyl radical in the gas phase. This was obtained by direct absorption laser spectroscopy in a slit-jet discharge supersonic expansion of a phenyl halide precursor (C_6H_5X, i.e. C_6H_5I and C_6H_5Br) diluted in a Neon/Helium gas mixture. We observed an A-type band, which arises from a fundamental excitation of the out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch (?_{19}). The unambiguous assignment of the rotational structure in this band to C_6H_5 is facilitated by comparing 2-line combination differences with the Fourier transform microwave (FTM) and direct absorption millimeter-wave (mm-wave) measurements of the ground state by McMahon et al. A least-squares fit to an asymmetric top Hamiltonian of the rotationally-resolved vibrational band is done to determine upper-state rotational constants and a gas-phase band origin (?_0) of 3071.8904 (10) cm^{-1}. This is in very good agreement with the value of 3071 cm^{-1} for the out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch of phenyl reported by Friderichsen et al. from matrix isolation studies, which indicates a surprisingly small red shift due to the low-temperature argon environment. R. J. McMahon, M. C. McCarthy, C. A. Gottlieb, J. B. Dudek, J. F. Stanton and P. Thaddeus, Ap. J. 590, L61 (2003). A. V. Friderichsen, J. G. Radziszewski, M. R. Nimlos, P. R. Winter, D. C. Dayton, D. E. David and G. B. Ellison, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001).

Sharp-Williams, Erin N.; Roberts, Melanie A.; Nesbitt, David J.

2009-06-01

114

Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15/sup 0/F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80/sup 0/F with an outside ambient peak of 93/sup 0/F. Air flow rates within the envelope were less than 1 ft/sec even when the attic fan was operating. The earth cooling tubes provided noticeable sensible cooling to the house. Exit temperatures from the cooling tubes were between 72 to 76/sup 0/F, depending upon the air velocity through the tubes. The thermal chimney performed poorly as an air mover, especially when used to induce flow through the earth cooling tubes. The performance of the earth cooling tube could be improved by using the attic fan to increase the air flow through the cooling tubes and to insure it flowed in the cooling tube, through the envelope and out the thermal chimney. Being an exhaust fan, the attic fan created a negative pressure in the house. While this increased air flow through the cooling tubes, it also increased air infiltration through the building shell, thus increasing load. The humidity level within the living space remains relatively high year-round due to low rates of air infiltration and water vapor transmission through the building skin. The problem is aggravated during the summer by the introduction of cool moist air from the cooling tubes to the envelope and frequently to the inner space. While the cooling tubes are able to reduce the sensible load, and they are incapable of significantly reducing humidity or latent loads. This results in relatively comfortable air temperatures but uncomfortable humidities within the living space.

Akridge, J.M.; Benton, C.C.

1981-01-01

115

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

116

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

117

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 3. Tasks 4-6. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation is a member of the Demonstration Team to review and assess the technical aspects of cogeneration for district heating. Task 4 details the most practical retrofit schemes. Of the cogeneration schemes studied, a back-pressure turbine is considered the best source of steam for district heating. Battelle Columbus Laboratories is a member of the Demonstration Team employed to investigate several institutional issues affecting the success of district heating. The Toledo Edison legal staff reviewed the legal aspects of mandate to serve, easement and franchise requirements, and corporate charter requirements. The principal findings of both the Battelle investigations and the legal research are summarized in Task 5. A complete discussion of each issue is included in the two sections labeled Legal Issues and Institutional Issues. In Task 6, Battelle Columbus Laboratories completed a preliminary economic analysis, incorporating accurate input parameters applicable to utility ownership of the proposed district-heating system. The methodology used is summarized, the assumptions are listed, and the results are briefly reviewed.

Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

1979-08-01

118

Evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

We consider the evolution of the ground state in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling down of the Universe after the big bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); IFPA, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

2010-04-15

119

Parameter sensitivity analysis of a high-voltage, vaporization-cooled, three-phase, core-type transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This parameter sensitivity analysis considers which independent design parameters have the most influence upon the determination of the weight and volume of a high-voltage, vaporization-cooled, three-phase, core-type transformer. The analysis is conducted through the use of a computer program which given a set of independent design parameters calculates a consistent set of values for the transformer's dependent design parameters. Two

E. L. Dove

1976-01-01

120

On the use of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical investigation of the steady-state thermal-hydraulic operating characteristics of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon cooling actual power electronics are presented. Boiling heat transfer coefficients and circulation mass velocities were measured while varying heat load and pressure. Both a plain and augmented riser structure, utilizing micro-fins and reentrant cavities, were simultaneously tested. The boiling heat transfer coefficients increased with

D. S. Schrage

1990-01-01

121

Measurements of Peltier cooling at a Ga-GaAs interface using a liquid-phase epitaxy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peltier coefficient of n-type GaAs was measured by passing an electrical current through the GaAs-Ga solid-liquid interface in a vertical liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) system. Application of a steady-state heat-transfer analysis yielded values for the Peltier coefficient of 0.141 to 0.203 V in the 530-830 °C temperature range. From the study of measurements of Peltier cooling as a function of

E. K. Stefanakos; A. Abul-Fadl; M. D. Workman

1975-01-01

122

On cooling behavior of a vertical plate in a phase change material\\/water composite enclosure under pulsating heat load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical and experimental study concerning cooling characteristics of a pulsating heated vertical\\u000a plate sandwiched between a substrate of phase change material (PCM) and an enclosure of water, forming a composite vertical\\u000a rectangular enclosure. The vertical plate is assumed to have a uniform pulsating (on\\/off) volumetric heat source. The PCM\\u000a considered in the present study is n-Octadecane.

C. J. Ho; Y. T. Cheng

1999-01-01

123

HYDRAULIC MODELING OF LARGE DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR PLANNING PURPOSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

District Energy Systems (DES), e.g. District Cooling Systems (DCS) and District Heating Systems (DHS), have been widely applied in large institutions in the United States, such as universities, government facilities, commercial districts, airports etc. The hydraulic system of a large DES can be very complicated. They often stem from an original design that has had extensive additions and deletions over

Chen Xu; Qiang Chen; David E. Claridge; Dan Turner; Song Deng

124

Performance Study of a Thermal-Envelope House: Phase II. Cooling Performance. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house...

J. M. Akridge C. C. Benton

1981-01-01

125

Liquid-Phase Diffusion-Controlled Solute Escape from a Droplet Cooled by Vaporization and Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Only a fraction of a volatile solute initially present in a droplet can escape prior to ultimate droplet solidification caused by radiative and vaporization cooling. If the droplet size does not appreciably change during the escape process, the authors sh...

D. E. Rosner

1972-01-01

126

Effects of solution treatment and continuous cooling on ?-phase precipitation in a 2205 duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial 2205 duplex stainless steel with three different solution treatments (at 1020, 1080 and 1200°C for 3 min) followed by continuous cooling at four respective cooling rates (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1°C s?1) has been investigated by means of optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. It is found that the lower

T. H Chen; J. R Yang

2001-01-01

127

An evaluation of liquid and two-phase cooling techniques for use in electrical machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages that can be achieved through the use of advanced techniques for cooling of electric machinery are discussed. A brief literature survey is presented on liquid cooling of rotating machinery, where the liquid is in off-axis rotation. The lack of models to adequately predict pressure drop and heat-transfer performance in this situation has been noted. The use of heat-pipe

A. S. Wanniarachchi; P. J. Marto

1984-01-01

128

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France).  

PubMed

Arsenic-rich (~140-1520 mg x kg(-1)) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50 ?m). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and ?XRD) were used to directly characterize As-bearing phases. The most frequent ones were aggregates of fine clay particles. Their mineralogy varied with particle sources involved. These aggregates were formed by chlorite-phlogopite-kaolinite assemblages during the high flow and chlorite-illite-montmorillonite during the low flow. Among all the observed As-carriers in SPM, these clay assemblages were the least As-rich (0.10 up to 1.58 wt.% As) and their median As concentrations suggested that they were less concentrated during the high flow than during the low flow. Iron oxyhydroxides were evidenced by ?XRD in these clay aggregates, either as micro- to nano-sized particles and/or as coating. (Mn, Fe)oxyhydroxides were also present as discrete particles. Manganese oxides (0.14-1.26 wt.% As) transport significantly more arsenic during the low flow than during the high flow (0.16-0.79 wt.% As). The occurrence of Fe oxyhydroxide particles appeared more complex. During the low flow, observations on banks and in wetlands of freshly precipitated Fe hydroxides (ferrihydrite-type) presented the highest As concentrations (up to 6.5 wt.% As) but they were barely detected in SPM at a microscale. During the high flow, As-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides (0.10-2.80 wt.% As) were more frequent, reflecting mechanical erosion and transport when the surface water level increased. Arsenic transfers from SPM to corresponding aqueous fraction mostly depend on As-carrier stability. This study shows the temporal occurrence of each type of As-bearing phases in SPM, their As concentrations at a particle scale and abundance according to hydrological periods. PMID:21925708

Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Robin, E; Bril, H; Tamura, N; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G

2011-09-16

129

District heating and cooling. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, July 23, 1981, No. 39  

SciTech Connect

The energy-saving possibilities of district-heating-and-cooling systems as a way to reduce the 30% of US energy lost to waste heat suggests the need for more, not less, federal support. Experts in the domestic and international field testified on the appropriate federal role in providing financial and regulatory incentives. Witnesses from Minnesota described the state's legislation and pioneering efforts patterned on the Scandinavian experience. A representative of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) described joint DOE-HUD programs for small-scale systems and explained the institutional hurdles that discourage private-sector participation. A spokesman from the Office of Technology Assessment reviewed the capital-intensive aspects of cogeneration investments and the need for subsidies, but emphasized that cogeneration will be competitive in the 1990s regardless of subsidies. (DCK)

Not Available

1981-01-01

130

City of Kansas City, Missouri Public Works Department: Solid waste management plan, district heating and cooling plan, and waste-to-energy feasibility study: Appendix  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers the following topics: Garbage and Trash (Municipal Solid Waste Storage and Ordinance of Kansas City with Proposed Modifications; Contract (Draft Solid Waste Collection Contract); Solid Waste Disposal Services Contract; Electric Power Purchase Agreement; Steam Delivery Agreement; Results of Telecon Survey of Companies Paying for Recycled Materials; Regional Hazardous Waste Processing and Disposal Facilities; Summary of Downtown District Heating Survey; Steam Distribution System Information; Ruling by Missouri Public Service Commission: KCPandL Downtown Steam Heating System for Kansas City, Missouri; and Review of Kansas City Power and Light Waste-to-Energy Study.

Not Available

1988-01-01

131

Electron Microscope Studies of Minerals: Phase Boundaries in an Extremely Slowly Cooled Clinopyroxene (Augite)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution electron microscopy has been used to study the nature of exsolution lamellae that developed during extremely slow and prolonged cooling and depressurization of an aluminium rich augite (high Ca clinopyroxene) taken from a layer of garnet-augite rich gneiss that outcrops on the north side of Scourie Bay, Sutherland, northwest Scotland. The parent clinopyroxene structure evolved with an average

E. Sian Crawford; Janet A. Folkes; J. O. Williams; A. C. Barnicoat; M. J. O'Hara

1983-01-01

132

Investigation of the Atomization Cooling in Transportation Channel Based on Dispersed Phase Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbulent heat transferring model of the airflow in transportation was modeled, and the simulation result by it was compared with the measured data. The turbulent diffusion of droplets was simulated by stochastic model in Lagrangian coordinates, and PSIC method was used for simulating two direction coupling between air and droplets. The influence to the effect of atomization cooling by

Liu Guannan; Gao Feng; Zhang Zhizhen; Liu Xingguang

2010-01-01

133

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites.

Erkelens; Conrad

1994-01-01

134

A wide-band corrugated rectangular waveguide phase shifter for cryogenically cooled receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-band phase shifter rectangular in cross section with transverse corrugations on all four walls is presented. The loading for the two orthogonal modes is different and is achieved by choosing dissimilar corrugation parameters. This phase shifter measures a return loss of -25 dB or better and differential phase shift of 90°±3.3° between 18.9-26.5 GHz, This all-metal robust phase shifter

S. Srikanth

1997-01-01

135

Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15°F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80°F with an outside ambient

J. M. Akridge; C. C. Benton

1981-01-01

136

Two-phase pump performance program preliminary test plan. Key phase report. [Water cooled reactor coolant loss transients  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary test plan designed to provide basic data on the reactor coolant recirculation pump performance under two-phase flow LOCA conditions is described. The basic objectives of this program are to: (a) Obtain sufficient steady-state and transient two-phase empirical data to substantiate, and ultimately improve, the mathematical model of the reactor recirculation pump presently used for LOCA analysis; and (b) Obtain sufficient data on pump overspeed characteristics under transient two-phase blowdown conditions to verify the pump flywheel integrity to satisfy the requirements of the AEC Regulatory Guide No. 1.14. (GRA)

Dixson, D.L.; Kennedy, W.G.; Jacob, M.C.; Shuckrow, J.R.

1975-09-01

137

Tuning the phase transition dynamics by variation of cooling field and metastable phase fraction in Al doped Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effect of field, temperature and thermal history on the time dependence in resistivity and magnetization in the phase separated state of Al doped Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3. The rate of time dependence in resistivity is much higher than that of magnetization and it exhibits a different cooling field dependence due to percolation effects. Our analysis shows that the time dependence in physical properties depends on the phase transition dynamics, which can be effectively tuned by variation of temperature, cooling field and metastable phase fraction. The phase transition dynamics can be broadly divided into the arrested and unarrested regimes, and in the arrested regime this dynamics is mainly determined by time taken in the growth of critical nuclei. An increase in cooling field and/or temperature shifts this dynamics from the arrested to unarrested regime, and in this regime, this dynamics is determined by the thermodynamically allowed rate of formation of critical nuclei, which in turn depends on the cooling field and available metastable phase fraction. At a given temperature, a decrease in metastable phase fraction shifts the crossover from arrested to unarrested regimes towards lower cooling field. It is rather significant that in spite of the metastable phase fraction calculated from resistivity being somewhat off that of magnetization, their cooling field dependence exhibits a striking similarity, which indicates that the dynamics in arrested and unarrested regimes are so different that it comes out vividly provided that the measurements are performed around the percolation threshold.

Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Kranti; Banerjee, A.; Chaddah, P.

2012-09-01

138

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

1980-01-01

139

Screening of tropical fruit volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and internally cooled SPME fiber.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimization and comparison of an internally cooled fiber [cold fiber with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loading] and several commercial solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for the extraction of volatile compounds from tropical fruits were performed. Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using commercial fibers and an internally cooled SPME fiber device coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compounds of five tropical fruits. Pulps of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.), acerola (Malphigia glabra L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.) were sampled. The extraction conditions were optimized using two experimental designs (full factorial design and Doehlert matrix) to analyze the main and secondary effects. The volatile compounds tentatively identified included alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and terpernes. It was found that the cold fiber was the most appropriate fiber for the purpose of extracting volatile compounds from the five fruit pulps studied. PMID:17090108

Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2006-11-15

140

Molecules at High Redshift: The Evolution of the Cool Phase of Protogalactic Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the formation of molecular hydrogen, after the epoch of reionization, in the context of canonical galaxy formation theory due to hierarchical clustering. There is an initial epoch of H2 production in the gas phase through the H- route that ends at a redshift of order unity. We assume that the fundamental units in the gas phase of protogalaxies

Colin A. Norman; Marco Spaans

1997-01-01

141

Simulation and analysis of high efficiency absorption systems for solar cooling, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible modular computer code was developed for simulation of absorption systems. The code is capable to investigate, on a comparable basis, various cycles configurations with a variety of working fluids. In Phase 1 of the program, two open cycle absorption systems for solar energy were successfully simulated. Modifications which were applied to the code in Phase 2, allowed the

Arthur Shavit; Ilan Haim; I. Borde; M. Jelinek

1989-01-01

142

Numerical study of a low permeability microporous heat sink for cooling phased-array radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microporous media is being used to develop an improved forced convection cold plate device for removing waste heat from high frequency phased-array radar apertures. The waste heat, generated by transmit and receive microwave functions mounted in separate electronic modules, is conducted to the surfaces of a thin rectangular enclosure (cold plate) through which coolant flows. The performance of the phased-array

R. M. Weber

1996-01-01

143

Membrane phase behavior during cooling of stallion sperm and its correlation with freezability.  

PubMed

Stallion sperm exhibits great male-to-male variability in survival after cryopreservation. In this study, we have investigated if differences in sperm freezability can be attributed to membrane phase and permeability properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine supra and subzero membrane phase transitions and characteristic subzero membrane hydraulic permeability parameters. Sperm was obtained from stallions that show differences in sperm viability after cryopreservation. Stallion sperm undergoes a broad and gradual phase transition at suprazero temperatures, from 30-10°C, whereas freezing-induced dehydration of the cells causes a more severe phase transition to a highly ordered gel phase. Sperm from individual stallions showed significant differences in post-thaw progressive motility, percentages of sperm with abnormal cell morphology, and chromatin stability. The biophysical membrane properties evaluated in this study, however, did not show clear differences amongst stallions with differences in sperm freezability. Cyclodextrin treatment to remove cholesterol from the cellular membranes increased the cooperativity of the suprazero phase transition, but had little effects on the subzero membrane phase behavior. In contrast, freezing of sperm in the presence of protective agents decreased the rate of membrane dehydration and increased the total extent of dehydration. Cryoprotective agents such as glycerol decrease the amount of energy needed to transport water across cellular membranes during freezing. PMID:22480267

Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Friedel, Katharina; Akhoondi, Maryam; Gojowsky, Marina; Wolkers, Willem F; Sieme, Harald

2012-04-05

144

On the use of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and analytical investigation of the steady-state thermal-hydraulic operating characteristics of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon cooling actual power electronics are presented. Boiling heat transfer coefficients and circulation mass velocities were measured while varying heat load and pressure. Both a plain and augmented riser structure, utilizing micro-fins and reentrant cavities, were simultaneously tested. The boiling heat transfer coefficients increased with both increasing heat load and pressure. The mass velocity increased with increasing pressure while both increasing and then decreasing with increasing heat load. The reentrant cavity enhancement factor, a ratio of the augmented-to-plain riser nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients, ranged from 1 to 1.4. High-speed photography revealed bubbly, slug, churn, wispy-annular and annular flow patterns. The experimental mass velocity and heat transfer coefficient data were compared to an analytical model with average absolute deviations of 16.3 and 26.3 percent, respectively.

Schrage, D. S.

1990-01-01

145

Modeling phase transformations in ternary systems: Ferrite dissolution during continuous cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion-controlled phase dissolution (or growth) in a ternary system of finite length has been modeled numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The analysis has been applied to study the ferrite to austenite transformation in austenitic stainless steel weldments. The iron-chromium-nickel ternary system was taken as representative of this class of materials. The effect of system geometry was evaluated by

J. M. Vitek; S. A. Vitek

1995-01-01

146

Cooling of a rotating strange star in the colorsuperconducting phase with a crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims. We investigate the thermal evolution of strange stars in the 2-flavor color superconductivity and color-flavor locked phases under the influence of deconfinement heating. Methods. Due to the spin-down of strange stars, the nuclear matter at the base of the thin crusts dissolves into quarks, releasing energy to heating the stars. On the other hand, the neutrino emissivities and specific

Y. W. Yu; X. P. Zheng

2006-01-01

147

Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass,

Jong Woon Park

2009-01-01

148

Research on solar energy storage subsystems utilizing the latent heat of phase change of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental research program designed to assess the potential of a solar energy storage subsystem (thermal capacitor) using the latent heat of fusion of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings, is described. An idealized model of a flat plate thermal capacitor based on uniaxial heat conduction with a change of phase and an absence of

J. A. Bailey; J. C. Mulligan; C. K. Liao; S. I. Guceri

1975-01-01

149

A Non-Heating Experimental Study on the Two-Phase Natural Circulation through the Annular Gap between Reactor Vessel and Insulation under External Vessel Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the margin for IVR in high-power reactors, some design improvements of the vessel\\/insulation configuration to increase the heat removal rate by two-phase natural circulation have been proposed. To observe and evaluate the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation in the APR1400 under external reactor vessel cooling, the T-HERMES program has

K. S. Ha; R. J. Park; Y. R. Cho; S. B. Kim; H. D. Kim; H. M. Kim; K. Y. Kim

2004-01-01

150

Cooling apparatus and couplings therefor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cooling apparatus includes a container filled with a quantity of coolant fluid initially cooled to a solid phase, a cooling loop disposed between a heat load and the container. A pump for circulating a quantity of the same type of coolant fluid in a liquid phase through the cooling loop, a pair of couplings for communicating the liquid phase coolant fluid into the container in a direct interface with the solid phase coolant fluid.

Lomax, Curtis; Webbon, Bruce

1993-11-01

151

The influence of cooling conditions on grain size, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of biomedical alloy specimens produced by investment casting.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate and evaluate the effect of the cooling environment on the microstructure, secondary phase precipitates and mechanical properties of an as-cast cobalt alloy. The microstructure of castings has a large bearing on the mechanical properties, grain size, porosity and the morphology of carbide precipitates are thought to influence hardness, tensile strength and ductility. It is postulated that a greater understanding of microstructure and secondary phase precipitate response to casting parameters could lead to the optimisation of casting parameters and serve to reduce the requirement of thermo-mechanical treatments currently applied to refine as-cast structures and achieve adequate mechanical properties. Thermal analysis was performed to determine the critical stages of cooling. Ten millimetre diameter cylindrical specimens which could be machined into tension test specimens were cast and cooled under different conditions to impose different cooling rates. Analytical techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), tensile testing and micro-hardness testing were used to study the specimens. Parameters studied include grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing, secondary phase precipitates, porosity, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation. The microstructure of as-cast Co-28Cr-6Mo was found to consist of a dendritic matrix with secondary phases precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These secondary phase precipitates consist of carbides, rich in chromium and molybdenum. The size and area fraction of carbides was found to decrease significantly with increasing cooling rate while the micro-porosity was only marginally affected. The as-cast grains are illustrated for the first time showing a significant difference in size between insulated and naturally cooled specimens. The secondary dendrite arm spacing was determined to be significantly affected by the various cooling environments and the mechanical properties of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength all increased with increasing cooling rate while the ductility decreased. Correlations between microstructural features and mechanical properties are proposed. PMID:23683759

Kaiser, R; Williamson, K; O'Brien, C; Ramirez-Garcia, S; Browne, D J

2013-04-23

152

Evaluation of the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis after consumption of liver treated by freezing or cooling.  

PubMed

Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and offal from paratenic hosts of the Toxocara canis nematode can cause infection in humans, but there have been a lack of studies examining specific prophylactic measures to combat this mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of infection by T. canis larvae at the initial and chronic phases of visceral toxocariasis after the consumption of mouse liver subjected to cold treatment. This study was divided into two stages using groups (G) of five donor mice inoculated with 2,000 eggs of T. canis. Two days post-inoculation, the livers of donor mice in G1 and G2 were kept at -20 °C and between 0 and 4 °C, respectively, for 10 days. In the first stage of the study, the livers of mice from G1, G2, and G3 (control) were subjected to a tissue digestion technique and found to be positive for infection. In the second stage, which evaluated infection in mice that had consumed livers from donor mice, receiver mice of G4 and G7 were fed with livers of donor mice from G1 (freezing), receiver mice of G5 and G8 were fed with livers of donor mice from G2 (cooling), and receiver mice of G6 and G9 with livers from G3 (control). Then, the tissue digestion technique was performed for recovering larvae from organs and carcasses of mice, at 2 days (G4, G5, and G6) and 60 days after liver consumption (G7, G8, and G9). It was observed that freezing inhibited the viability of 100 % of the larvae, while cooling promoted 87.7 and 95.7 % reductions in the intensity of infection at 2 and 60 days after liver consumption, respectively. Under the studied conditions, cold treatment shows great potential to help control this parasitosis, both in the initial and chronic phases of toxocariasis. PMID:23494157

Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; da Costa de Avila, Luciana Farias; de Lima Telmo, Paula; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Scaini, Carlos James

2013-03-15

153

Cooling Rates in Splat Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations and experimental observations made on cooling rates during splat quenching are presented. Three possible types of cooling behavior are discussed: ideal cooling, intermediate cooling, and Newtonian cooling. The effects of splatting-process var...

R. C. Ruhl

1966-01-01

154

Sharpley's Bottom Historic Sites: Phase I Interdisciplinary Investigations, Tombigbee River Multi-Resource District, Alabama and Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses 1980-1981 Phase I interdisciplinary investigations of the Sharpley's Bottom historic sites on the Tombigbee Waterway in Monroe County, Mississippi. Sharpley's Bottom is so named because of its occupation from the 1860s to the 1880s b...

J. R. Kern C. S. Demeter E. S. Carter J. D. Tordoff C. J. Dotson

1982-01-01

155

Stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

1982-03-01

156

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site. Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

Erkelens, Conrad

1994-03-01

157

Monoclinic MB phase and phase instability in [110] field cooled Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals  

PubMed Central

We report the finding of a monoclinic MB phase in Pb(Zn1?3Nb2?3)O3–4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)?tetragonal(T)?orthorhombic(O)?monoclinic(MB), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)?MB?O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting MB and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to MB on cooling to room temperature.

Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2009-01-01

158

Monoclinic M(B) phase and phase instability in [110] field cooled Pb(Zn(13)Nb(23))O(3)-4.5%PbTiO(3) single crystals.  

PubMed

We report the finding of a monoclinic M(B) phase in Pb(Zn(13)Nb(23))O(3)-4.5%PbTiO(3) single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)-->tetragonal(T)-->orthorhombic(O)-->monoclinic(M(B)), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)-->M(B)-->O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting M(B) and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to M(B) on cooling to room temperature. PMID:19730707

Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D

2009-08-05

159

Monoclinic MB phase and phase instability in [110] field cooled Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the finding of a monoclinic MB phase in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 single crystals. High precision x-ray diffraction investigations of [110] field cooled crystals have shown a transformation sequence of cubic(C)-->tetragonal(T)-->orthorhombic(O)-->monoclinic(MB), which is different from that previously reported [A.-E. Renault et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 044105 (2005)]. Beginning in the zero-field-cooled condition at 383 K, a rhombohedral (R)-->MB-->O sequence was observed with increasing field. Coexisting MB and O phases were then found upon removal of field, which fully transformed to MB on cooling to room temperature.

Yao, Jianjun; Cao, Hu; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

2009-08-01

160

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of ˜700 by half (˜350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

Habte, Melaku

161

Crystallographic Texture and Volume Fraction of ? and ? Phases in Zr-2.5Nb Pressure Tube Material During Heating and Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase transformations in an as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material were characterized in detail by neutron diffraction. The texture and volume fraction of ? and ? phases were measured on heating at eight different temperatures 373 K to 1323 K (100 °C to 1050 °C) traversing across the ?/( ? + ?) and ( ? + ?)/ ? solvus lines, and also upon cooling at 1173 K and 823 K (900 °C and 550 °C). The results indicate that the ?-phase texture is quite stable, with little change in the {0002} and left\\{ {11bar{2}0} right\\} pole figures during heating to 1123 K (850 °C). The ?-phase volume fraction increased while a slight change in texture was observed until heating reached 973 K (700 °C). On further heating to 1173 K (900 °C), there appears a previously unobserved ?-phase texture component due to coarsening of the prior primary ? grains; meanwhile the transformed ?-phase texture evolved markedly. At 1323 K (1050 °C), the ? phase disappeared with only 100 pct ? phase remaining but with a different texture than that observed at lower temperatures. On cooling from the full ?-phase regime, a different cooldown transformed ?-phase texture was observed, with no resemblance of the original texture observed at 373 K (100 °C). The transformed ?-phase texture shows that the {0002} plane normals are within the radial-longitudinal plane of the pressure tube following the Burgers orientation relationship of (110)bcc//(0002)hcp and [bar{1}11]_{text{bcc}} //[11bar{2}0]_{text{hcp}} with a memory of the precursor texture of the primary ? grains observed on heating at 1173 K (900 °C).

Fong, R. W. L.; Miller, R.; Saari, H. J.; Vogel, S. C.

2012-03-01

162

District heating strategy model: community manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

Hrabak, R.A.; Kron, N.F. Jr.; Pferdehirt, W.P.

1981-10-01

163

High-Resolution Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical: The ?19 Out-of-Phase Symmetric CH Stretch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenyl radical has been studied via sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy in a slit supersonic discharge expansion source, with assignments for the highest frequency b2 out-of-phase C-H symmetric stretch vibration (-19) unambiguously confirmed by ?6 MHz (0.0002 cm-1) agreement with microwave ground state combination differences of McMahon et al. [Astrophys. J. 2003, 590, L61-64]. Least squares analysis of over 100 resolved rovibrational peaks in the sub-Doppler spectrum to a Watson Hamiltonian yields precision excited-state rotational constants and a vibrational band origin (-0 = 3071.8915(4) cm-1) consistent with a surprisingly small red-shift (0.9 cm-1) with respect to Ar matrix isolation studies of Ellison and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 1977]. Nuclear spin weights and inertial defects confirm the vibrationally averaged planarity and 2A1 rovibronic symmetry of phenyl radical, with analysis of the rotational constants consistent with a modest C2v distortion of the carbon backbone frame due to partial sp rehybridization of the ? C radical-center. Most importantly, despite the number of atoms (N = 11) and vibrational modes (3N - 6 = 27), phenyl radical exhibits a remarkably clean jet cooled high-resolution IR spectrum that shows no evidence of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) phenomena such as local or nonlocal perturbations due to strongly coupled nearby dark states. This provides strong support for the feasibility of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy in other aromatic hydrocarbon radical systems.

Buckingham, Grant T.; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J.

2013-10-01

164

Effect of oxygen on phase formation and thermal stability of slowly cooled Zr 65Al 7.5Cu 17.5Ni 10 metallic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of small amounts of oxygen (0.28–0.6at.%) on the phase formation and the thermal stability of bulk samples of the Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10 alloy prepared by die casting into a copper mould has been studied by X-ray diffraction, microstructural characterization and differential scanning calorimetry. In contrast to rapidly quenched ribbons, the crystalline volume fraction in slowly cooled bulk samples increases with

A. Gebert; J. Eckert; L. Schultz

1998-01-01

165

Hot-spot self-cooling effects on two-phase flow of R245fa in 85µm-wide multi-microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase refrigerant flow boiling was shown to be effective in handling hot-spots. The footprint heat transfer coefficients followed the local heat flux and formed a self-compensating cooling mechanism by increasing the local heat transfer coefficient at the hot-spot. Data reduction using one-dimensional heat conduction overestimated the heat transfer coefficient at the hot-spots and underestimated it around its location. Heat spreading

E. Costa-Patry; J. Olivier; S. Paredes; J. R. Thome

2010-01-01

166

Numerical simulation of natural convection of latent heat phase-change-material microcapsulate slurry packed in a horizontal rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from above  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from\\u000a above has been conducted with non-Newtonian phase-change-material (PCM) microcapsulate slurry with latent heat capacities.\\u000a The formulation of the mathematical model in dimensionless co-ordinates and discretization of the governing equations have\\u000a been done using the finite volume method. Both natural convection and heat transfer

Hideo Inaba; Yanlai Zhang; Akihiko Horibe; Naoto Haruki

2007-01-01

167

Chiral domains of the SmCPA phase formed by cooling the isotropic liquid or by field-induced nucleation above the clearing temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three homologues belonging to a new class of achiral and asymmetric bent-core mesogens have been synthesized. The mesophase behaviour was investigated using polarizing optical microscopy, and by X-ray and electro-optical measurements. On cooling the isotropic liquid, the SmCPA phase of the dodecyloxy homologue forms a non-birefringent texture which exhibits randomly distributed domains of opposite handedness. Surprisingly, such chiral domains could

Martin W. Schröder; Ulrike Dunemann; Wolfgang Weissflog

2004-01-01

168

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Phase O. Feasibility and Planning Study. Final Report. Volume II, Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study to assess the feasibility and practical merits of the use of solar energy to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water are reported. Included are descriptions of program methodology, development of requirements, systems definiti...

1974-01-01

169

Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Final report, Phases I-III  

SciTech Connect

The seismic monitoring work of the geothermal project was initiated for the purpose of determining more exactly the relationship between seismicity and the postulated geothermal and related activity in the Albany-Saratoga Springs area in upstate New York. The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

Not Available

1983-06-01

170

Laser cooling in storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The application of the laser cooling technique to longitudinal phase space cooling of stored ion beams is introduced. Results of recent experiments at the ASTRID storage ring are discussed. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics}.

Hangst, J.S. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

1995-06-01

171

Global cooling?  

PubMed

The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes. PMID:17841800

Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

1976-08-01

172

Cooling and heating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an energy transfer apparatus for transferring energy from and to a source liquid to heat and cool a facility, the apparatus comprising: means for providing a refrigerant cycle including means for evaporating refrigerant, means for condensing refrigerant and means for producing a phase change in the refrigerant; means for cooling air; means for providing a single continuous

Dittell

1987-01-01

173

Thermohydraulics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor primary loop during early phases of unrestricted core-heatup accidents  

SciTech Connect

In High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) siting considerations, the Unrestricted Core Heatup Accidents (UCHA) are considered as accidents of highest consequence, corresponding to core meltdown accidents in light water reactors. Initiation of such accidents can be, for instance, due to station blackout, resulting in scram and loss of all main loop forced circulation, with none of the core auxiliary cooling system loops being started. The result is a slow but continuing core heatup, extending over days. During the initial phases of such UCHA scenarios, the primary loop remains pressurized, with the system pressure slowly increasing until the relief valve setpoint is reached. The major objectives of the work described here were to determine times to depressurization as well as approximate loop component temperatures up to depressurization.

Kroeger, P.G.; Colman, J.; Hsu, C.J.

1983-01-01

174

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VII. Appendix C  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains: Hudson No. 2 Limited Retrofit Cost Estimates provided by Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (SWEC); backup data and basis of estimate for SWEC Heater Plant and Gas Turbine Plant (Kearny No. 12) cost estimates; and Appendices - Analysis of Relevant Tax Laws.

Not Available

1984-01-31

175

One-dimensional experiments of a natural circulation two-phase flow under an external reactor vessel cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, a decay heat from a molten corium should be removed to maintain an integrity of the reactor vessel. This feasible strategy can be achieved by a External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) which requires a coolant to be circulated sufficiently between the reactor vessel and its insulation. For this reason, one-dimensional experiments

Jae Cheol Kim; Kwang Soon Ha; Rae Joon Park; Sang Baik Kim; Seong Wan Hong

2008-01-01

176

Low-Temperature Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling for High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management of Defense Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a given heat sink thermal resistance and ambient temperature, the temperature of an electronic device rises fairly linearly with increasing device heat flux. This relationship is especially problematic for defense electronics, where heat dissipation is projected to exceed 1000 W\\/cm2 in the near future. Direct and indirect low-temperature refrigeration cooling facilitate appreciable reduction in the temperature of both coolant

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2009-01-01

177

Electron cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

2004-10-01

178

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

179

Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

Pitts, D.R.

1980-09-30

180

Silico-ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) Iron Ore Sinter Bonding Phases: New Insights into Their Formation During Heating and Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter phases during heating and cooling of synthetic iron ore sinter mixtures in the range 298 K to 1623 K (25 °C to 1350 °C) and at oxygen partial pressure of 5 × 10-3 atm has been characterized using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. SFCA and SFCA-I are the key bonding phases in iron ore sinter, and an improved understanding of their formation mechanisms may lead to improved efficiency of industrial sintering processes. During heating, SFCA-I formation at 1327 K to 1392 K (1054 °C to 1119 °C) (depending on composition) was associated with the reaction of Fe2O3, 2CaO·Fe2O3, and SiO2. SFCA formation (1380 K to 1437 K [1107 °C to 1164 °C]) was associated with the reaction of CaO·Fe2O3, SiO2, and a phase with average composition 49.60, 9.09, 0.14, 7.93, and 32.15 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. Increasing Al2O3 concentration in the starting sinter mixture increased the temperature range over which SFCA-I was stable before the formation of SFCA, and it stabilized SFCA to a higher temperature before it melted to form a Fe3O4 + melt phase assemblage (1486 K to 1581 K [1213 °C to 1308 °C]). During cooling, the first phase to crystallize from the melt (1452 K to 1561 K [1179 °C to 1288 °C]) was an Fe-rich phase, similar in composition to SFCA-I, and it had an average composition 58.88, 6.89, 0.82, 3.00, and 31.68 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. At lower temperatures (1418 K to 1543 K [1145 °C to 1270 °C]), this phase reacted with melt to form SFCA. Increasing Al2O3 increased the temperature at which crystallization of the Fe-rich phase occurred, increased the temperature at which crystallization of SFCA occurred, and suppressed the formation of Fe2O3 (1358 K to 1418 K [1085 °C to 1145 °C]) to lower temperatures.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2012-12-01

181

Numerical simulation of natural convection of latent heat phase-change-material microcapsulate slurry packed in a horizontal rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from above  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from above has been conducted with non-Newtonian phase-change-material (PCM) microcapsulate slurry with latent heat capacities. The formulation of the mathematical model in dimensionless co-ordinates and discretization of the governing equations have been done using the finite volume method. Both natural convection and heat transfer characteristics are discussed about natural convection with PCM microcapsulate slurry, which exhibits the pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior and a peak value in the specific heat capacity with latent heat. The viscosity of the present PCM microcapsulate slurry is assumed to follow the Ostwald-de Waele power law fluid model with the power-law index n and the consistency coefficient K. The effects of phase-change material, the mass concentration, and the aspect ratio Ar on the natural convection heat transfer are described, respectively. By comparing with the results of microcapsule slurry without phase change, the enhancement in heat transfer is found in microcapsule slurry with phase change during the phase change temperature range. Numerical simulations are performed in the following parametric ranges: the width height aspect ratio of the enclosure Ar from 2 to 20, the mass concentrations C m of the slurry from 10 to 40%, power law index n of the slurry from 0.89 to 1.0 and Rayleigh numbers Ra ranges from 103 to 107.

Inaba, Hideo; Zhang, Yanlai; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto

2007-03-01

182

High-Resolution Measurements of Electron Temperature, Density, and Width Profiles of 234 Coronal Loops in the Non-Equilibrium Cooling Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the profiles of the electron temperature Te(s), the electron density ne(s), and loop widths w(s) of 234 coronal loops from triple-filter TRACE data. We model also the loop geometry with a semi-circular model in order to measure the unprojected full loop length L and the inclination angle ? of the loop plane to the vertical, which are both required to apply loop scaling laws and hydrodynamic models. The statistics of the measured loop parameters are: electron temperatures Te=1.18±0.30 MK, electron densities ne=10(9.0± 0.2) cm-3, loop widths w=1.44±0.33 Mm, loop lengths L=56± 47 Mm, fraction of detected loop lengths Ldet/L =0.67±0.23, and loop inclination angles |?|=22° ± 18°. From these parameters we determine the average overpressure of these loops with respect to the equilibrium RTV law, q=p/pRTV and find that 86% of the loops exhibit an overpressure (up to q < 30), 9% an underpressure, and only about 5% are consistent with RTV. We interpret the observed overpressure as a natural consequence of the non-equilibrium cooling phase. Applying a non-equilibrium scaling law we predict that the loops were heated to soft X-ray temperatures up to Te < 15 MK prior to their cooling to EUV wavelengths. For the loop lifetimes we find an approximate scaling of ?life ? 10 (L/10 Mm)2 min, with a median lifetime of 7 hours for our sample of TRACE loops. This study postulates a paradigm shift from equilibrium models to non-equilibrium models in the loop cooling phase, which is dominantly observed in EUV wavelengths. This work was supported in part by NASA under the TRACE contract NAS5-38099.

Nightingale, R. W.; Aschwanden, M. J.

2008-05-01

183

Influence of a weak dc electric field on tricritical phase transition in TGSe: evidence of different specific heat behaviour on cooling and heating runs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The para-ferroelectric tricritical phase transition of a single crystal of triglycine selenate (TGSe) has been studied in the neighbourhood of the transition temperature, under weak electric fields, E, using a highly sensitive calorimetric technique. The specific heat, cE, under fields in the range between 5 and 175 V cm-1 and close to transition temperature (0.2 K), shows different behaviour on cooling and on heating at a temperature variation rate of ± 0.03 K h-1 for Tphase. The different relation between ? and E obtained on heating and on cooling runs is discussed and it is concluded that data on heating correspond to the thermal equilibrium.

Romero, F. J.; Gallardo, M. C.; Jiménez, J.; del Cerro, J.

2006-11-01

184

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15

185

Life Cycle Assessment of the District Heat Distribution System - Part 2: Network Construction (11 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preamble. This series of three papers is based on research performed for the Swedish District Heating Association with the purpose of mapping the environmental life cycle impacts from the different phases involved in district heat distribution. Part 1 concerns production of district heating pipes while Part 2 describes construction of the district heating pipe network. In Part 3, the use

Morgan Fröling; Magdalena Svanström

2005-01-01

186

A NEUTRON STAR STIFF EQUATION OF STATE DERIVED FROM COOLING PHASES OF THE X-RAY BURSTER 4U 1724-307  

SciTech Connect

Thermal emission during X-ray bursts is a powerful tool for determining neutron star (NS) masses and radii if the Eddington flux and the apparent radius in the cooling tail can be measured accurately and distances to the sources are known. We propose here an improved method of determining the basic stellar parameters using the data from the cooling phase of photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts covering a large range of luminosities. Because at that phase the blackbody apparent radius depends only on the spectral hardening factor (color correction), we suggest fitting the theoretical dependences of the color correction versus flux in Eddington units to the observed variations of the inverse square root of the apparent blackbody radius with the flux. For that we use a large set of atmosphere models for burst luminosities varying by three orders of magnitude and for various chemical compositions and surface gravities. We show that spectral variations observed during a long PRE burst from 4U 1724-307 are entirely consistent with the theoretical expectations for the passively cooling NS atmospheres. Our method allows us to more reliably determine both the Eddington flux (which is found to be smaller than the touchdown flux by 15%) and the ratio of the stellar apparent radius to the distance. We then find a lower limit on the NS radius of 14 km for masses below 2.3 M{sub Sun }, independently of the chemical composition. These results suggest that the matter inside NSs is characterized by a stiff equation of state. We also find evidence in favor of hydrogen-rich accreting matter and obtain an upper limit to the distance of 7 kpc. We finally show that the apparent blackbody emitting area in the cooling tails of the short bursts from 4U 1724-307 is two times smaller than that for the long burst and their evolution does not follow the theory. This makes their usage for determining the NS parameters questionable and casts serious doubt on the results of previous works that used similar bursts from other sources for analysis.

Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Poutanen, Juri [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Revnivtsev, Mikhail, E-mail: suleimanov@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: werner@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: juri.poutanen@oulu.fi [Space Research Institute (IKI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

2011-12-01

187

Natural cooling  

SciTech Connect

With natural cooling, a process or area is cooled by outdoor air when the weather permits, and dependency on mechanical equipment is reduced. It should be used whenever conditions permit, and mechanical equipment should be brought on-line only when natural cooling cannot be employed. The results are minimized costs without lowered comfort or production levels, reduced costs for maintenance associated with higher levels of mechanical chiller system operation, and decreased dependence on expensive, nonrenewable energy sources. This article reviews several methods of natural cooling and provides a detailed computer-based economic evaluation of each. It discusses the air-side economizer, water-side natural cooling, and combination systems.

Fenster, L.C.; Grantier, A.J.

1981-11-25

188

Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V?o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature ?=? 35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity ?=? 52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature ?=? 24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity ?=? 39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age ?=? 21.3 ± 1.1 years, height ?=? 182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass ?=? 76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds ?=? 50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area ?=? 1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V?o2max ?=? 49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg?1·min?1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket.

Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

2010-01-01

189

Single-Photon Atomic Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new method of laser cooling and phase space compression which does not rely on the momentum transfer between many photons and an atom. Whereas most laser cooling techniques (e.g. Doppler cooling, optical molasses, Raman cooling) require a cycling transition to allow for the scattering of many photons, our technique scatters on average only one photon from each atom. This is advantageous because the technique is not limited to the small subset of atoms in the periodic table which possess a cycling transition. The technique may potentially be extended to the cooling of polar molecules and atomic hydrogen.

Bannerman, Travis; Price, Gabriel; Viering, Kirsten; Narevicius, Ed; Raizen, Mark

2007-10-01

190

Single-phase and boiling cooling of small pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzle suction and impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of forced convection single-phase and boiling heat transfer from pin fin arrays were made using fluorocarbon liquid FC-72. Liquid flow was directed to and from the pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzles, alternately providing suction and impingement flow. Rectangular pin fin arrays having equal width and spacing of 0.1 and 0.2 mm and aspect ratios from 1

David Copeland

1995-01-01

191

Single-phase and boiling cooling of small pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzle suction and impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of forced convection single-phase and boiling heat transfer from pin fin arrays were made using fluorocarbon liquid FC-72. Liquid flow was directed to and from the pin fin arrays by multiple slot nozzles, alternately providing suction and impingement flow. Rectangular pin fin arrays having equal width and spacing of 0.1 and 0.2 mm and aspect ratios of 1,

David Copeland

1994-01-01

192

Use of Treated Gasification Wastewater in a Pilot Cooling Tower. Phase I. Final Report for the Period Ending January 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the UNDERC cooling tower tests, data were colleced and evaluated in five major areas: characterization of cooling tower streams, process performance, biofouling, corrosion, and inorganic/organic fouling. A summary of the results and conclusions for...

W. G. Willson J. G. Hendrikson M. D. Mann S. J. Galegher J. R. Gallagher

1984-01-01

193

Cooling wall  

SciTech Connect

Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

Nosenko, V.I. [Triangle Trading and Technology Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

194

Cooling of particle beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling wi...

A. M. Sessler

1994-01-01

195

A Non-Heating Experimental Study on the Two-Phase Natural Circulation through the Annular Gap between Reactor Vessel and Insulation under External Vessel Cooling  

SciTech Connect

To improve the margin for IVR in high-power reactors, some design improvements of the vessel/insulation configuration to increase the heat removal rate by two-phase natural circulation have been proposed. To observe and evaluate the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation in the APR1400 under external reactor vessel cooling, the T-HERMES program has been performed, that is, the THERMES- SCALE, T-HERMES-SMALL, HERMES-HALF, and T-HERMES-CFD studies. In this paper, the HERMES-HALF study, which is one of the T-HERMES programs, is introduced. The HERMES-HALF is a non-heating experimental study on the two-phase natural circulation through the annular gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation. The objectives of this HERMES-HALF study are to observe and evaluate the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation in the APR1400. For these purposes, a half-scaled experimental facility is prepared utilizing the results of a scaling analysis to simulate the APR1400 reactor and insulation system. The behaviors of the boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation flow in the insulation gap are observed, and the liquid mass flow rates driven by the natural circulation loop and void fraction distribution are measured. And numerical analyses of the HERMES-HALF experiments using CFX-5.6 code have also been performed by solving unsteady, three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for multiphase flows with the zero equation turbulence model. By the experimental flow observation and numerical predictions, weak recirculation flows in the near region of the shear key are observed. The void fraction monotonically increases from the water inlet to the shear key region. There exists a short decrease of the void fraction after passing through the shear key due to geometrical expansion and the recirculation flow caused by the shear key. The variation of the void fraction is small in the annular section. (authors)

Ha, K.S.; Park, R.J.; Cho, Y.R.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.M.; Kim, K.Y. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253, Yonghyun-Dong, Namgu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

196

Description and Analysis of School District Consultation Processes during Phase 1 of the British Columbia Year-Round School Study Project: A Study Conducted for the British Columbia Ministry of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1994, the British Columbia Ministry of Education invited proposals from school districts interested in studying the feasibility of year-round schools (YRS). This paper presents findings of a study of six partner school districts, each of which implemented its project independently of others while engaging in cross-district collaboration.…

LaRocque, Linda; Shields, Carolyn

197

St. Paul District heating system conceptual design study and report. Appendix C of market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a hot water, cogeneration district heating system serving the central business district of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four-five year time span. This

M. H. Barnes; S. Bishop; B. Abrahamsson

1982-01-01

198

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby

Charles W

1994-01-01

199

School District Energy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

200

Do School Districts Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school…

Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

2013-01-01

201

Specifications and performance experience of pool boiling cooled magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large superconducting magnets have three kinds of conductor-cooling methods; liquid helium pool boiling cooling, two-phase helium indirect cooling, or supercritical helium internal cooling. Practical superconducting magnets in their thirty years' history have had a lot of failure experiences. Electrical breakdown of insulation is the most fatal for pool boiling cooled magnets, because those magnets are unable to be utilized again,

T. Satow

1998-01-01

202

Thermal analysis of n-alkane phase change material mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to characterize the thermal behavior of it number of n-alkanes to be used as phase change materials (PCMs) in district cooling applications. Hexadecane and tetradecane were mixed in different fractions, and their thermal behavior was experimentally evaluated. Test results for melting temperature and fusion energy for laboratory grade hexadecane and tetradecane showed good agreement with datain the literature. However, values for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower. In the range of temperatures of interest for district cooling, mixtures of tetradecane and hexadecane can be treated as homogeneous substances. However, their heats of fusion are slightly lower than those of the pure substances. Their melting temperatures are also lower by an amount that can be predicted.

Chio, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-03-31

203

Rapid cooled lens cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

1991-12-01

204

Effect of the magnetic field applied during cooling on magnetic hysteresis in the low-temperature phase of magnetite: First-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of a magnetic field applied during cooling through the Verwey transition can control the low-temperature (LT) magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetite. This effect is investigated using the first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique. LT FORC distributions were measured at 20 K from four polycrystalline samples after cooling from 300 K in zero magnetic field or in the presence of

A. V. Smirnov

2007-01-01

205

Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system, phase 3, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supporting information is presented on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier three-tone chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system.

Reimann, R. C.; Biermann, W. J.

1984-10-01

206

Role of conformational isomerism in solvent-mediated charge transfer in chiral (S) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline methanol (THIQM): condensed-phase to jet-cooled spectroscopic studies.  

PubMed

Intramolecular charge-transfer reaction in chiral (S) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinoline methanol (THIQM) has been investigated in the condensed phase and in jet-cooled conditions by means of laser-induced fluorescence, dispersed emission, resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization, and IR-UV double resonance experiments, as well as quantum chemical calculations. In the condensed phase, THIQM only shows local emission in nonpolar and protic solvents and dual emission in aprotic polar solvents, where the solvent-polarity dependent Stokes shifted emission is ascribed to a state involving charge transfer from the nitrogen lone pair to the benzene ?-cloud. Ab initio calculations reveal two low-energy conformers, which are observed in jet-cooled conditions. In the most stable conformer, THIQM(I), the CH(2)OH substituent acts as a hydrogen bond donor to the nitrogen lone pair in the equatorial position, while the second most stable conformer, THIQM(II), corresponds to the opposite NH···O hydrogen bond, with the nitrogen lone pair in the axial position. The two low-energy jet-cooled conformers of THIQM evidenced from the laser-induced fluorescence and dispersed emission spectra only show structured local emission. Complexes with usual solvents reproduce the condensed phase properties. The jet-cooled complex with aprotic polar solvent acetonitrile shows both local emission and charge transfer emission as observed in solution. The jet-cooled hydrate mainly shows local emission due to the unavailability of the nitrogen lone pair through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:21344939

Chakraborty, Amrita; Guchhait, Nikhil; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Lepère, Valeria; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

2011-02-23

207

Cooling Off  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to challenges of maintaining temperatures while living in space. Thinking and acting like scientists and engineers, learners experiment to learn how to measure the specific heat capacity (or simply, specific heat) of water and then design an improved cooling system like those used in spacesuits. This lesson is developed using a 5E model of learning. In the ENGAGE section of the lesson, learners look at NASA technology and its relationship to improvements in athletic clothing and equipment. They learn about technology in spacesuit design and the use of this technology in everyday life. Working in teams, students conduct experiments relating to specific heat capacity on a cooling system they design in the EXPLORE and EXPLAIN sections. They are challenged to improve the cooling system in the EXTEND section of this lesson. Learners assess their understanding and abilities throughout the lesson and revisit the Essential Questions during the EVALUATE section.

Nasa

2012-08-06

208

District Office Code  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... GEORGIA 20000--20599, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 20600--21999, MARYLAND 22000--24699, VIRGINIA 24700--26899, WEST VIRGINIA, BLT. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

209

Geothermal district G1  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

Not Available

1988-12-01

210

Cool circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our culture has trained people to think that digital is the way of the future. Computers are digital. Cell phones are digital. Cameras are digital. Everything good one day will be digital. Students do not see where analog electronics fit into their lives, nor do they see any cool applications of analog electronics. This paper discusses several demonstrations and design

Marc E. Herniter

2005-01-01

211

On-Chip Two-Phase Cooling With Refrigerant 85 $\\\\mu{\\\\rm m}$Wide Multi-Microchannel Evaporator Under Hot-Spot Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-spots are present in micro-electronics and are challenging to cool effectively. This paper presents highly nonuniform heat flux measurements obtained for a pseudo-CPU with 35 local heaters and temperature sensors cooled by a silicon multi-microchannel evaporator with 85 $\\\\mu{\\\\rm m}$ wide and 560 $\\\\mu{\\\\rm m}$ high channels separated by 46 $\\\\mu{\\\\rm m}$ wide fins. A low pressure dielectric refrigerant, R245fa,

Etienne Costa-Patry; Stefano Nebuloni; Jonathan Olivier; John Richard Thome

2012-01-01

212

Laser Cooling to Quantum Degeneracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1?K on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for condensation is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 105 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a time scale of 100 ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-06-01

213

Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Volume 5. Phases I-III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

Not Available

1983-06-01

214

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...920.31: (a) District 1 shall include Butte, Sutter, and Yuba Counties. (b) District 2 shall include Tulare County. (c) District 3 shall include all counties within the production area not included in Districts 1 and...

2013-01-01

215

Competency: District Views from Southern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)|

Tyo, John

1979-01-01

216

REACTOR COOLING  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29

217

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

218

Rightsizing a School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

2012-01-01

219

District-Level Downsizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

220

Districts Shun Stimulus Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2010-01-01

221

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

222

School District Spending.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

223

The District of Columbia's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The District of Columbia's Firearms Control Regulations Act of 1975 went into effect on 24 September 1976. It was the outgrowth of three more restrictive legislative proposals that had been introduced in 1975 and had two legislative objectives: (1) to reduce the potential of firearms- related crimes and (2) to monitor more effectively firearms' trafficking. In July 1980, the U.S.

Edward D. Jones

1981-01-01

224

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Feasibility and Planning Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary. Document No. 74SD419. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings and to provide baseline information for the widespread application of solar energy. The initial step in this program was a study of the technical, economic, societal, legal, and environmental factors…

General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA. Space Div.

225

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Feasibility and Planning Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary. Document No. 74SD419. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings and to provide baseline information for the widespread application of solar energy. The initial step in this program was a study of the technical, economic, societal, legal, and environmental factors…

General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA. Space Div.

226

A District's Journey to Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

Keeling, Mary

2009-01-01

227

FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE,…

Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

228

A District's Journey to Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

Keeling, Mary

2009-01-01

229

Cooling our tomorrows economically  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that summer cooling poses unprecedented problems in the years ahead for architects, engineers, manufacturers, contractors and users. True, millions of tons of fine volcanic ash from the Philippines' Mt. Pinatubo and soot from Kuwait's burned oil wells now encircle the globe, creating temporary shade. The eruption also sent up related weights of sulfur dioxide (convertible to stratospheric sulfate aerosols) for further shading. Together, they may briefly counteract global warming, but rising greenhouse gases guarantee the latter will return with renewed force. Greenhouse gas production continues, making global warming certain, even if all CFCs are phased out, for they are minor greenhouse problems. Cooling loads will increase faster than rising temperatures as populations increase and move south, and as comfort and clean air standards rise. In addition, the fear of skin cancer, cataracts and related retinal and immune system damage may shortly keep more people indoors in summer, thereby raising internal loads.

Watt, J.R. (Energy Conservation Lab., Atlanta, GA (US))

1992-06-01

230

District cooling, a technology with great potential of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, it has been observed that the annual electricity consumption rose, es- pecially during the summer periods. It also has reached high levels, due to the increased de- mand of air conditioning and refrigeration, mainly with electric systems. These systems, despite of the utility that they offer for the re- duction of the thermal loads and the

K. P. Papageorgiou; D. Anastaselos; A. M. Papadopoulos

231

Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating  

SciTech Connect

The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

1980-06-01

232

Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN2 circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN2 gas–liquid separator.

Y. F. Fan; L. H. Gong; X. D. Xu; L. F. Li; L. Zhang; L. Y. Xiao

2005-01-01

233

Cogeneration/district heating in Trenton, New Jersey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Trenton District Energy Company (TDEC) is a cogenerated district heating system in Trenton, New Jersey which went into service in December 1983. A Trenton Integrated Community Energy System was originally conceived as a means of stimulating the revitalization of the central business district. The central plant uses two diesel engine driven generators and supplementally fired boilers which burn either natural gas or low sulphur oil (No. 2 oil for the engines and No. 6 for the boilers). The thermal distribution is via high pressure hot water (up to 400/sup 0/F, 205/sup 0/C). The district heating system presently serves 56 buildings including the State Capitol Complex. The entire net electric output of the central plant is wholesaled to the local electric utility. A total of nine miles of new insulated piping comprises the district heating distribution system. TDEC is now operating one of the first modern hot water district heating systems in the US. Nine miles of insulated pipeline distribute hot water to heat and cool public and private buildings in Trenton at a total project cost of just over $40 million. The district heating system is the culmination of over five years of planning efforts by the City and a private developer to accomplish what Mayor Arthur Holland enjoys calling his ''pipe dream''. Mayor Holland has long been an advocate for the development of such systems and has represented the US Conference of Mayors' support of district heating through his testimony before the House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications.

Brown, K.E.

1985-06-20

234

Savannah District Model Technical Library (Phase I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Model Technical Library Project is to develop, test, and evaluate a modern, highly effective, technical information facility that may be related to Army-wide use and to evaluate relevant techniques and concepts of modern information tec...

1968-01-01

235

Ground-coupled heat pumps projects Austin Independent School District  

SciTech Connect

Austin Independent School District was introduced to the closed loop concept in 1985 during or after the time that Goodnight Junior High School in San Marcos geothermal heat pump system was installed. The first project was a joint effort of an equipment manufacturer, a pipe extruder, a distributor, an HVAC contractor and the school district. This was a trial for this new system. The two leading factors which contributed to the decision to go geothermal, were that the tower on the building was already at capacity and a reduced price was offered on the first installation. The school district owns every type, make, model, configuration, style and paint color of heating and cooling equipment made. They were ready for anything that would give them relief.

Cadwallader, R.A. [Loop Tech International, Huntsville, TX (United States)

1994-03-01

236

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31

237

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper systems. In this work, we have studied magmatic Ap from Late Miocene dacitic porphyries spatially and temporally associated to the Cu-(Mo) La Huifa- La Negra prospect (4 km NE from the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, Chile). These felsic rocks formed from hydrous magmas as indicated by early crystallized Hb (before Bt). Al-Hb geobarometer indicates that phenocrysts formed at ˜2 Kb, while fine grained groundmass suggests a depressurization. Ap is present as small (˜10-50 microns) subhedral to euhedral prisms included in Fe-Ti oxides, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite phenocrysts (IAp), and as bigger (up to ˜300 microns) isolated microphenocrysts (MAp), indicating crystallization throughout magmatic evolution. About 300 EPM analyses of Cl, F and SO3 have been performed on Ap in different textural positions. Only Ap included in anhydrous phases (mostly Pl and oxides) and unaltered grains from the groundmass were used to evaluate volatile evolution. Calculated apatite saturation temperature following Piccoli and Candela (1994) indicates that they started to crystallize ˜900°C. The most outstanding chemical feature of the studied Ap is their high Cl (up to 4.52 wt%) and SO3 (up to 0.98 wt%) contents, being highest in IAp. Cl/F and Cl/OH strongly decrease from ApI to MAp within all studied samples varying in SiO2 content from 66.3 to 69.7 wt%. They display a continuous and well defined trend. This variation is controlled mainly by Cl decrease and F increase, meanwhile OH remains roughly constant. SO3 in Ap varies from 0.98wt% in IAp to below detection limit (0.02 wt% SO3) in MAp. S and Cl in Ap show a general positive correlation being their contents in IAp higher than those in MAp. The results are consistent with Ap starting to crystallize at ˜2Kb, in equilibrium with an early formed, high temperature, highly saline S-rich magmatic volatile phase that evolved toward less saline less S-rich compositions. The strong decrease of Cl/OH as F increases indicates that the exsolved volatile phase is a single phase (supercritical), in agreement with its P and T of formation. High sulfur contents in IAp suggest the host magma was sulfate-rich, and thus oxidized as it's also suggested by high Mg# (0.66-0.75) in primary ferromagnesian minerals. Sulfur presence, along with Cl, would enhance metal (Cu) partitioning from melt into magmatic volatile phase (Simon et al, 2006), while low crystal charge prevailing during early volatile exsolution would favour coalescence and upward migration processes, to finally accumulation in upper parts of the system. Thus, the aqueous Cl and S-rich fluids exsolved, at high pressure (˜2 Kb), upon magma differentiation at La Huifa-La Negra prospect, could have efficiently extracted metals from the magma and hence, it would have the potential to create a hydrothermal ore deposit provided that the magma was not erupted and that the necessary conditions for subsequent ore deposition prevailed. This is a contribution to DIUC 203-320-013-1 Piccoli, P. and Candela, P. 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Simon, A.C., Pettke, T., Candela, P., Piccoli, P. y Heinrich, C.A., 2006. GCA, 70, 5583-5600.

Hernandez, L. B.; Rabbia, O. M.

2009-05-01

238

Electron cooling of heavy ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An introduction to the concept of phase-space compression of heavy-ion beams by electron cooling is given. Emphasis is put on a simple rather than a rigorous theoretical treatment of the underlying ideas. Some practical aspects are discussed in connection with a presentation of the designed cooling device for the Experimental storage ring ESR project of the Gesell-schaft für Schwerionenforschung GSI, Darmstadt. The problems of cooling-electron capture are briefly addressed.

Liesen, D.

1987-10-01

239

SUMMARY OF BEAM COOLING AND INTRABEAM SCATTERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

For heavy-particle beams in storage rings where there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping, beam cooling is an essential tool in obtaining high phase-space density high brightness beams. Advances in various types of cooling such as electron, stochastic, laser and muon cooling are covered in dedicated Conferences. In this series of Workshops (HB2002-06), discussions are aimed only at a few

A. V. FEDOTOV; I. N. MESHKOV; J. WEI

2006-01-01

240

Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

1995-01-01

241

District heating\\/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul district heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are: (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a cogeneration, hot water district heating system servicing the commercial core area of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four- to five-year time span.

H. O. Nyman; J. O. Kolb; M. Krautbauer

1983-01-01

242

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current

S. A. Kahn; R. J. Abrams; C. Ankenbrandt; M. A. C. Cummings; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Robertsa; K. Yoneharab

2010-01-01

243

Summary of Beam Cooling and Intrabeam Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For heavy-particle beams in storage rings where there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping, beam cooling is an essential tool in obtaining high phase-space density high brightness beams. Advances in various types of cooling such as electron, st...

A. V. Fedotov I. N. Meshkov J. Wei

2006-01-01

244

Thermal analysis of n-alkane phase change material mixtures. Progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to characterize the thermal behavior of it number of n-alkanes to be used as phase change materials (PCMs) in district cooling applications. Hexadecane and tetradecane were mixed in different fractions, and their thermal behavior was experimentally evaluated. Test results for melting temperature and fusion energy for laboratory grade hexadecane and tetradecane showed good agreement with datain the literature. However, values for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower. In the range of temperatures of interest for district cooling, mixtures of tetradecane and hexadecane can be treated as homogeneous substances. However, their heats of fusion are slightly lower than those of the pure substances. Their melting temperatures are also lower by an amount that can be predicted.

Chio, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-03-31

245

PHASE TRANSITIONS AND He-SYNTHESIS-DRIVEN WINDS IN NEUTRINO COOLED ACCRETION DISKS: PROSPECTS FOR LATE FLARES IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

We consider the long-term evolution of debris following the tidal disruption of compact stars in the context of short gamma ray bursts. The initial encounter impulsively creates a hot, dense, neutrino-cooled disk capable of powering the prompt emission. After a long delay, we find that powerful winds are launched from the surface of the disk, driven by the recombination of free nucleons into {alpha}-particles. The associated energy release depletes the mass supply and eventually shuts off activity of the central engine. As a result, the luminosity and mass accretion rate deviate from the earlier self-similar behavior expected for an isolated ring with efficient cooling. This then enables a secondary episode of delayed activity to become prominent as an observable signature, when material in the tidal tails produced by the initial encounter returns to the vicinity of the central object. The timescale of the new accretion event can reach tens of seconds to minutes, depending on the details of the system. The associated energies and timescales are consistent with those occurring in X-ray flares.

Lee, William H.; Lopez-Camara, Diego [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2009-07-10

246

Pumps, valves and piping for cogeneration and district heating  

SciTech Connect

The two concepts of cogeneration (cogen) and district heating (DH) have certain points of similarity. They are both quite old, fell into disuse some decades ago, have had a renaissance of late, and often are plagued by economics that are only marginal. At present, however, both cogeneration and district heating ride a wave of popular fancy and regulatory whim, all of which has had as one result the inducing of swarms of lawyers and financial soldiers of fortune to flock to the standards, for at least the time being. Although the finances of the two technologies frequently call for innovation, at least the fluid-handling engineering problems are not extraordinary. Pressures, temperatures, flow rates, and corrosion dangers are nearly always within readily mastered limits. The major difficulties arise generally either from the indifference and parsimony of the owners or from the ignorance of the plant management and operations personnel. This report intends to be only a general perspective which the reader must enlarge upon by such other aids as POWER special reports on narrower sectors. Retain in mind the basic definitions for the two technologies: Cogeneration is a simultaneous production of both useful thermal energy (as steam, hot water, or hot gas) and electric power from a fuel source. District heating is the supplying of thermal energy in steam or water to remote and usually noncontiguous locations which are often under separate ownership. District cooling, the increasingly popular supplement to district heating, supplies chilled water under similar circumstances.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-01-01

247

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

248

Comments on optical stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.

K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang

2002-10-08

249

H T P21/ c- C2/ c phase transition and kinetics of Fe2+-Mg order-disorder of an Fe-poor pigeonite: implications for the cooling history of ureilites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural Ca-poor pigeonite (Wo6En76Fs18) from the ureilite meteorite sample PCA82506-3, free of exsolved augite, was studied by in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The sample, monoclinic P21/ c, was annealed up to 1,093°C to induce a phase transition from P21/ c to C2/ c symmetry. The variation with increasing temperature of the lattice parameters and of the intensity of the b-type reflections ( h + k = 2 n + 1, present only in the P21/ c phase) showed a displacive phase transition P21/ c to C2/ c at a transition temperature T Tr = 944°C, first order in character. The Fe-Mg exchange kinetics was studied by ex situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a range of temperatures between the closure temperature of the Fe-Mg exchange reaction and the transition temperature. Isothermal disordering annealing experiments, using the IW buffer, were performed on three crystals at 790, 840 and 865°C. Linear regression of ln k D versus 1/ T yielded the following equation: ln k_{{D}} = - 3717( ± 416)/T(K) + 1.290( ± 0.378);quad (R2 = 0.988) . The closure temperature ( T c) calculated using this equation was ˜740(±30)°C. Analysis of the kinetic data carried out taking into account the e.s.d.'s of the atomic fractions used to define the Fe-Mg degree of order, performed according to Mueller's model, allowed us to retrieve the disordering rate constants C 0 K {dis/+} for all three temperatures yielding the following Arrhenius relation: ln ( {C0 K_{{dis}}^{ + } } ) = ln K0 - Q/(RT) = 20.99( ± 3.74) - 26406( ± 4165)/T(K);quad (R2 = 0.988) . An activation energy of 52.5(±4) kcal/mol for the Fe-Mg exchange process was obtained. The above relation was used to calculate the following Arrhenius relation modified as a function of X Fe (in the range of X Fe = 0.20-0.50): ln ( {C0 K_{{dis}}^{ + } } ) = (21.185 - 1.47X_{{Fe}} ) - {{(27267 - 4170X_{{Fe}} )}/T(K)} . The cooling time constant, ? = 6 × 10-1 K-1 year-1 calculated on the PCA82506-3 sample, provided a cooling rate of the order of 1°C/min consistent with the extremely fast late cooling history of the ureilite parent body after impact excavation.

Alvaro, Matteo; Cámara, Fernando; Domeneghetti, M. Chiara; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tazzoli, Vittorio

2011-09-01

250

Cooling of Kilauea Iki lava lake  

SciTech Connect

In 1959 Kilauea Iki erupted leaving a 110 to 120 m lake of molten lava in its crater. The resulting lava lake has provided a unique opportunity to study the cooling dynamics of a molten body and its associated hydrothermal system. Field measurements taken at Kilauea Iki indicate that the hydrothermal system above the cooling magma body goes through several stages, some of which are well modeled analytically. Field measurements also indicate that during most of the solidification period of the lake, cooling from above is controlled by 2-phase convection while conduction dominates the cooling of the lake from below. A summary of the field work related to the study of the cooling dynamics of Kilauea Iki is presented. Quantitative and qualitative cooling models for the lake are discussed.

Hills, R.G.

1982-02-01

251

Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore phase change at a molecular level. They trace the path of an atom to view intermolecular interactions and investigate how temperature relates to phase change. Upon activity completion, students will be able to give examples of phase change, explain how the input of energy into a system affects the state of matter, and describe how both latent heat and evaporative cooling play a role in changes of phase.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

252

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2009-01-01

253

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2013-01-01

254

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2010-01-01

255

Minneapolis District-Heating Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish ...

T. K. Stovall R. J. Borkowski M. A. Karnitz S. Strom K. Linwick

1981-01-01

256

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

257

Presumptions against School District Secession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While political philosophers have paid a great deal of attention to providing a theory of secession for cases of nations breaking away from nation-states, little has been said about perhaps the most common type of secession--school district secession. I argue that while there is no principled prohibition against school district secession, there…

Murray, Dale

2009-01-01

258

New Soviet Military District Formed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifteen military districts into which the Soviet Union is divided have recently been increased by the addition of one more-a sixteenth. This is the Central Asian Military District, the territory of which was taken from the extremely expansive Turkesta...

1970-01-01

259

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

260

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

261

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

262

System for cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system particularly suitable for use in the air conditioning of buildings is described. The system includes: (A) a cooling zone containing a conduit for cooling fluid, the conduit encountering the heat load, means in the conduit for propelling the fluid through the conduit, and cooling fluid in the conduit; (B) a refrigeration zone containing a closed refrigeration circuit

Wildfeuer

1981-01-01

263

Application of CFD to closed-wet cooling towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to predicting the performance of closed-wet cooling towers (CWCTs) for chilled ceilings according to the cooling capacity and pressure loss. The prediction involves the two-phase flow of gas and water droplets. The predicted thermal performance is compared with experimental measurement for a large industrial CWCT and a small prototype cooling tower. CFD is then

G Gan; S. B Riffat; L Shao; P Doherty

2001-01-01

264

Directions for the '80s: Educational Master Plan. San Francisco Community College District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist staff in the San Francisco Community College District (SFCCD) in synthesizing the trends, events and issues that are likely to influence educational programs and services, this master plan assesses the district's internal and external environments and describes the SFCCD's two-phase planning process. Chapter 1 discusses the…

Duncan-Hall, Tyra L., Ed.

265

Two-phase flow in high-heat-flux micro-channel heat sink for refrigeration cooling applications: Part II—heat transfer characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second of a two-part study concerning two-phase flow and heat transfer characteristics of R134a in a micro-channel heat sink incorporated as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle. Boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured by controlling heat flux (q?=15.9?93.8W\\/cm2) and vapor quality (xe=0.26?0.87) over a broad range of mass velocity. While prior studies point to either nucleate

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2005-01-01

266

Sizing of nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves for initially sub-cooled gas\\/liquid two-phase flow – The HNE-DS method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current standards for sizing nozzles, venturis, orifices, control and safety valves are based on different\\u000a flow models, flow coefficients and nomenclature. They are generally valid only for single-phase gas and\\u000a liquid flow. Common to all is the concept of one-dimensional nozzle flow in combination with a correction\\u000a factor (e.g. the discharge coefficient) to correct for non-idealities of the three-dimensional flow. With

J. Schmidt

2007-01-01

267

Evolution of the Y-rich phase in a super-cooled liquid of Zr 33Y 27Al 15Ni 25  

Microsoft Academic Search

XAFS measurements of the Y and the Zr K-edges are carried out for Zr33Y27Al15Ni25 metallic glass which exhibits two steps of glass transition. XAFS spectra of Y show a drastic change after annealing at just above Tx1 while a very small change for the Zr. Phase separation of Y-rich region is confirmed by an appearance of the strong Y?Y correlation

M. Matsuura; M. Sakurai; K. Suzuki; S. Chen; A. Inoue

1995-01-01

268

Turbine modifications for district heating  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

1983-01-01

269

District-heating strategy model: computer programmer's manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. Such systems can reduce the amount and costs of fuels used to heat and cool buildings in a district. Twenty-eight communities have agreed to aid HUD in a national feasibility assessment of DHC systems. The HUD/DOE program entails technical assistance by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assistance includes a computer program, called the district heating strategy model (DHSM), that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential DHC systems. This report describes the general capabilities of the DHSM, provides historical background on its development, and explains the computer installation and operation of the model - including the data file structures and the options. Sample problems illustrate the structure of the various input data files, the interactive computer-output listings. The report is written primarily for computer programmers responsible for installing the model on their computer systems, entering data, running the model, and implementing local modifications to the code.

Kuzanek, J.F.

1982-05-01

270

New technologies for the use of alternative fuels in European district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

In Europe, district heating systems with cogeneration are used extensively. In the United States, old district heating systems, using primarily steam for heat transfer, are losing in the competition to cheaper fuels. However, in both Europe and the United States, a shift has taken place in recent years to reduce the use of fossil fuels and start using renewable sources such as wood paste, peat, municipal solid waste, agricultural biomass, geothermal energy and energy extraction from waste water, solar assistance and thermal storage, low peak hydroelectric power, and cooling water from nuclear plants. In the United States, renewed interest has arisen in district heating and cooling, including the use of hot water systems and research in the use of renewable sources of energy. Cogeneration for district heating and cooling is by itself a form of energy conservation as the fuel efficiency of a power plant is raised from a level of often less than 30% to 80% or more. Combined with retrofitting buildings with superinsulation on a community-wide basis, and with new technologies and efficiencies gained with the use of low temperature, low pressure hot water, and chilled water from seasonal storage systems, district heating provides a reliable and economical energy source for modern cities. Multifuel equipment offers a choice of energy production strategies and increases fuel efficiency in community-wide systems.

Kainlauri, E.O.

1985-01-01

271

Two-phase flow in high-heat-flux micro-channel heat sink for refrigeration cooling applications: Part I––pressure drop characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase pressure drop was measured across a micro-channel heat sink that served as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle. The micro-channels were formed by machining 231?m wide×713?m deep grooves into the surface of a copper block. Experiments were performed with refrigerant R134a that spanned the following conditions: inlet pressure of Pin=1.44–6.60bar, mass velocity of G=127–654kg\\/m2s, inlet quality of xe,in=0.001–0.25, outlet

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2005-01-01

272

COOLING FORCE MEASUREMENTS IN CELSIUS.  

SciTech Connect

The design of future high energy coolers relies heavily on extending the results of cooling force measurements into new regimes by using simulation codes. In order to carefully benchmark these codes we have accurately measured the longitudinal friction force in CELSIUS by recording the phase shift between the beam and the RF voltage while varying the RF frequency. Moreover, parameter dependencies on the electron current, solenoid magnetic field and magnetic field alignment were carried out.

GALNANDER, B.; FEDOTOV, A.V.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; ET AL.

2005-09-18

273

The influence of cooling rate on the formation of an amorphous phase in Si-based multicomponent alloys and its thermal stability  

SciTech Connect

By adding Ni, Cr, and Zr to the Si-Al-Fe system and using a higher surface velocity of the copper wheel of 63 m/s, the composition range of an amorphous single phase was extended to 60 at% Si. An amorphous Si{sub 60}Al{sub 18}Fe{sub 12}Ni{sub 4}Cr{sub 3}Zr{sub 3} alloy was produced. The amorphous phase in the Si-Al-TM (TM = transition metals) alloys shows higher thermal stability than in the Al-Si-TM alloys. By the shift of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) peaks with change of heating rate, the activation energy for the transformation was determined to be 343 kJ/mol for Si{sub 55}Al{sub 20}Fe{sub 10}Ni{sub 5}Cr{sub 5}Zr{sub 5} alloy and 374 kJ/mol for Si{sub 50}Al{sub 25}Fe{sub 10}Ni{sub 5}Cr{sub 5}Zr{sub 5} alloy.

Louzguine, D.V.; Inoue, Akihisa

1999-05-01

274

CFD simulation of wet cooling towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat and mass transfer inside a natural draft wet cooling tower (NDWCT) have been investigated numerically under different operating and crosswind conditions. The three-dimensional CFD model has utilized the standard k–? turbulence model as the turbulence closure. The current simulation has adopted both the Eulerian approach for the air phase and the Lagrangian approach for the water phase. The film

Rafat Al-Waked; Masud Behnia

2006-01-01

275

Liquid Cooled Garments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed. (Author)

1975-01-01

276

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

277

Impingement Cooled Turbine Blade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an impingement cooled turbine blade to be used with a hollow turbine shaft, using a female dovetail and having an easily removable insert for guiding and directing the cooling fluid through the hollow blade.

H. H. Ernst

1973-01-01

278

How do Pseudoenantiomers Structurally Differ in the Gas Phase? An IR/UV Spectroscopy Study of Jet-Cooled Hydroquinine and Hydroquinidine.  

PubMed

The gas-phase structures of the cinchona alkaloids, hydroquinine and its pseudoenantiomer hydroquinidine, are studied in a supersonic expansion by means of laser-induced fluorescence and IR/UV double-resonance spectroscopy. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with density functional calculations show that the conformational properties of the two pseudoenantiomers are identical. In both cases, they exist in two isoenergetic forms, with similar IR spectra. Both conformers are similar to the most stable cis-?-open form of quinine; they differ from each other by the position of the ethyl substituent attached to the quinuclidine ring. Further differences between the two conformers are observed in the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. The first electronic transition is characterized by time-dependent density functional theory and RI-cc2 calculations, and is of ??* nature. The results described here emphasize the role of the ethyl substituent in the structural differences between pseudoenantiomers of cinchona alkaloids. PMID:24106030

Sen, Ananya; Lepere, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker, Anne

2013-09-17

279

Cooling load estimation methods  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01

280

Controlled Rate Cooling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...

281

A Dogbone Cooling Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon cooling schemes typically involve placing RF cavities in intense magnetic fields. Ongoing work has shown that this may reduce the maximum RF gradient by a significant factor. A linear cooling channel scheme is presented whereby RF cavities sit in much smaller fields. In addition, a scheme is studied for recirculating muons through this linear cooling channel in order to re-use hardware.

Rogers, C. T.

2008-02-01

282

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

283

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01

284

Status of the MANX muon cooling experiment  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration experiment of six-dimensional (6D) phase space muon beam cooling is a key milestone on the roadmap toward to a real muon collider. In order to achieve this goal, they have designed the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory Experiment (MANX) channel, which consists of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC). They discuss the status of the simulation study of the MANX in this document.

Yonehara, K.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Hu, M.; Jansson, A.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Lopes, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Yarba, V.; Yu, M.; /Fermilab /Muons Inc., Batavia

2008-06-01

285

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24

286

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Yoneharab, K. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)

2010-03-30

287

Cascade multicomponent cooling method for liquefying natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A cooling arrangement to be used in liquefying natural gas and in similar applications and having an incorporated cascade circuit with a fractional condensation of a cooling medium and with separation of the phases of the cooling medium, has such a lay-out and is so operated that the warming-up of the expanded cooling medium in a countercurrent evaporative heat exchange and the warming-up of the expanded cooling medium in a countercurrent supercooling heat exchange are in parallel to one another. The separated gaseous phase of the cooling medium is cooled in the countercurrent evaporative heat exchange to be at least partially condensed. The countercurrent supercooling heat exchange and the countercurrent evaporative heat exchange are thermally segregated from one another.

Krieger, H.

1981-12-01

288

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

SciTech Connect

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01

289

Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system  

SciTech Connect

Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

Lienau, P.J.

1997-04-01

290

STOCHASTIC COOLING POWER REQUIREMENTS.  

SciTech Connect

A practical obstacle for stochastic cooling in high-energy colliders like RHIC is the large amount of power needed for the cooling system. Based on the coasting-beam Fokker-Planck (F-P) equation, we analytically derived the optimum cooling rate and cooling power for a beam of uniform distribution and a cooling system of linear gain function. The results indicate that the usual back-of-envelope formula over-estimated the cooling power by a factor of the mixing factor M. On the other hand, the scaling laws derived from the coasting-beam Fokker-Planck approach agree with those derived from the bunched-beam Fokker-Planck approach if the peak beam intensity is used as the effective coasting-beam intensity. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system of 4-8 GHz bandwidth in RHIC can effectively counteract intrabeam scattering, preventing the beam from escaping the RF bucket becoming debunched around the ring.

WEI,J.BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,M.

2004-07-05

291

RF Integration into Helical Magnet for Muon 6-Dimensional Beam Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The helical cooling channel is proposed to make a quick muon beam phase space cooling in a short channel length. The challenging part of the helical cooling channel magnet design is how to integrate the RF cavity into the compact helical cooling magnet. This report shows the possibility of the integration of the system.

Yonehara, K.; Kashikhin, V.; Lamm, M.; Lee, A.; Lopes, M.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, S.; Neubauer, M.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

2009-05-01

292

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20

293

Influence of cooling modes on purity of solid-state synthesized tetracalcium phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure tetracalcium phosphate powder (TTCP) was prepared by a solid-state phase reaction at 1500°C. Effects of cooling modes on the synthesizing process of TTCP powder and its thermal behavior at different heating temperatures were investigated by XRD and FTIR. The results show that cooling in dry air tends to promote formation of single phase TTCP, while in situ cooling in

Dagang Guo; Kewei Xu; Yong Han

2005-01-01

294

Southwest Florida Water Management District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

295

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

296

The cooling of particle beams  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

Sessler, A.M.

1994-10-01

297

S'COOL Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This flyer is a two-page overview of the Student Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) education project. It covers the project's educational contributions, societal benefits, educational outgrowths, and scientific findings. The flyer shows the numbers and locations of S'COOL participation and regional observation coverage. It also contains URLs for online resources (e.g., GLOBE contrail education and S-COOL Website).

2005-01-01

298

Micro film cooling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel idea for micro film cooling experiment is proposed and conducted. Both fabrication of a micro film-cooled device and evaluation of its performance are presented. The film cooling device is placed in a wind tunnel system for evaluation with the blowing parameter (M) ranging from 1 to 12.5 and the film jet slot heights of 25?m, 45?m and 50?m,

P. L. Li; H. S. Ko; D. Z. Jeng; C. W. Liu; C. Gau

2009-01-01

299

Laser cooling of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cooling in optical solids can lead to the realization of all-solid state cryocoolers. We present new results on Yb- and Tm-doped glasses and crystals and describe progress toward achieving net cooling in GaAs heterostructures. Solid-state laser cooling (optical refrigeration) is based on the principle of anti-Stokes fluorescence where laser photons with energy less than the mean fluorescence energy are

M. Sheik-Bahae; R. I. Epstein

2009-01-01

300

Algorithmic Quantum Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient methods of cooling are essential for exploring the fundamental properties of low temperature physics. A remarkable cooling method is known as the evaporative cooling (or ``coffee'' cooling), where energetic particles are filtered away so as to lower the mean energy of the rest of the system. Inspired by the idea of evaporative cooling, we developed a method called algorithmic quantum cooling (AQC) for achieving the goal of cooling for any physical system which is simulable by a quantum computer. The novel feature of AQC is that the evolution of the state of the system is modeled as the movement of a one-dimensional classical random walk; the walker plays the role of the motion of the gas particles in an ordinary evaporative cooling. The implementation of this method is analogous to the setting of Maxwell's demon, where the experimentalist can monitor the heat-up or cool-down of the system, and apply feedback control to the resulting states. Here we cover the results of the connection of AQC with quantum non-demolition measurement, a scaling analysis of AQC, and the application of amplitude amplification to achieve quantum speedup. Experimental realization of AQC can be accomplished with currently available technologies.

Yung, Man Hong; Boixo, Sergio; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2012-02-01

301

Heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heating and cooling homes and businesses require a major energy commitment. This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the energy needed to heat and cool homes and workplaces. Students explore energy requirements in the home and at work and discuss current technologies to improve heating and cooling efficiencies. Articles on heat pumps and solar heating and cooling techniques are accessible from a sidebar. A link to a PBS NewsHour article on air conditioning efficiency and a link to material discussing alternatives to air conditioning are also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

302

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01

303

Body cooling after death.  

PubMed

In the analyses of cases of death in cold air environments, it is often of interest to determine the time required for the body of the individual to cool to ambient temperature. Usually such determinations have been based on Newton's law of cooling. This paper describes a case history in which this technique was experimentally tested and consequently abandoned in favour of a more complex biophysical model which more accurately described the thermo-physical events inherent in body cooling. This model is recommended for determination of the times required for various body parts to cool to ambient environmental temperatures. PMID:7417187

Kuehn, L A; Tikuisis, P; Livingstone, S; Limmer, R

1980-09-01

304

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2013-01-01

305

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County, and Colusa County. (b) Central Sacramento Valley District includes and consists of Sutter County, Butte County, Yuba County, and Sierra County. (c) Sacramento River District includes and consists of Sacramento County,...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false District conventions. 1210.401 Section 1210.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Nominating Procedures Producer and Handler Members § 1210.401 District conventions. (a) Except...

2012-01-01

307

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2013-01-01

308

Emergency Flood Relief Response in Satkhira District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2000, floodwater from West Bengal in India severely affected nine southwestern (Bangladesh-Indian border areas) districts in Bangladesh. The worst affected district was Satkhira, which was inundated by up to 8 feet of water. The flash floodin...

2000-01-01

309

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

Not Available

2011-08-01

310

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

Not Available

2011-08-01

311

Cool core remnants in galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. X ray clusters are conventionally divided into two classes: “cool core” (CC) and “non-cool core” (NCC) objects, on the basis of the observational properties of their central regions. Recent results have shown that the cluster population is bimodal. Aims: We want to understand whether the observed distribution of clusters is due to a primordial division into two distinct classes or rather to differences in the way these systems evolve across cosmic time. Methods: We systematically search the ICM of NCC clusters in a subsample of the B55 flux limited sample of clusters for regions which have some characteristics typical of cool cores, namely low entropy gas and high metal abundance. Results: We find that most NCC clusters in our sample host regions reminiscent of CC, i.e. characterized by relative low entropy gas (albeit not as low as in CC systems) and a metal abundance excess. We have dubbed these structures “cool core remnants”, since we interpret them as the remains of a cool core after a heating event (AGN giant outbursts in a few cases and more commonly mergers). We infer that most NCC clusters have undergone a cool core phase during their life. The fact that most cool core remnants are found in dynamically active objects provides strong support to scenarios where cluster core properties are not fixed “ab initio” but evolve across cosmic time. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Rossetti, M.; Molendi, S.

2010-02-01

312

Sharpening a District's Leadership Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create an integrated board self-assessment and superintendent evaluation process, district leaders must develop a school leadership model by adopting a coherent governance model. At the same time, they must also develop goals at the appropriate level that ensure quality governance of a school system. In the second of a two-part series, the…

Namit, Chuck

2008-01-01

313

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

314

Marketing Techniques for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

Lane, John J., Ed.

315

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

316

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

317

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

318

Nuclear power for district heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. The evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply, the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations, is described. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of

R. B. Lyon; R. O. Sochaski

1975-01-01

319

Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium  

SciTech Connect

One of the most precisely determined upper limits for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is set by the thallium (Tl) atomic beam experiment. One way to enhance the sensitivity of the atomic beam setup is to laser cool the Tl atoms to reduce the EDM-like phase caused by the Exv effect. In this report, a cooling scheme based on the 6P{sub 3/2}(F=2){r_reversible}6D{sub 5/2}(F{sup '}=3) transition in Tl is proposed. The absolute frequency measurement of this nearly closed-cycle transition was performed in an atomic beam apparatus. Two Ti:sapphire lasers were frequency-doubled using enhancement cavities in X-type configurations to provide the needed 377- and 352-nm light sources for the optical pumping and cooling transitions, respectively. The absolute frequency of this cooling transition is determined to be 851 634 646(56) MHz.

Fan, Isaac; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Lien, Yu-Hung; Liu, Yi-Wei [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shy, Jow-Tsong [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-15

320

Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01

321

Stacking with stochastic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles `seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly `protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently `shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the `old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the `radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the `azimuthal' schemes.

Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

2004-10-01

322

Survey of Burglary and Vandalism Occurrence and Preventative Measures in Twenty-Five Large California School Districts. Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-three California school districts responded to a burglary and vandalism survey conducted by the Fresno Unified School District Burglary and Vandalism Prevention Project, which represents the first phase of a developing program to reduce vandalism occurrences and improve recovery of losses. This summary compiles survey data on 18,000…

Fresno City Unified School District, CA. Office of Planning and Research Services.

323

Trajectories in Physical Space out of Communications in Acquaintance Space: An Agent-Based Model of a Textile Industrial District  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an agent-based model of an Italian textile district where thousands of small firms specialize in particular phases of fabrics production. It is an empirical and methodological model that reconstructs the communications between firms when they arrange production chains. In their turn, production chains reflect into road traffic in the geographical areas where the district extends. The reconstructed

Guido Fioretti

2010-01-01

324

How Can We Fund Charter Districts? The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to explore funding issues related to charter districts. It begins with definitions of charter school and charter district. It continues with a brief discussion of public-school finance and some of the policy issues associated with distributing state funds to school districts, allowing school districts to generate…

Augenblick, John; Sharp, Jennifer

325

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

326

Womens pay in English rural districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines hourly wage payments for women who live in the rural districts of England, both in terms of variability within such districts and in terms of comparisons with non-rural districts. Drawing on the Labour Force Surveys Local Annual Database, the paper argues that, once education, industry and occupation are taken into account, there is little to distinguish wage

Keith Hoggart; Shen Cheng

2006-01-01

327

Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

1982-01-01

328

Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

Cline, David S.

2011-01-01

329

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

330

Improving Student Learning Requires District Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can districts create systemic improvement--improvement that affects every classroom? A handful of Connecticut districts tried to find out and were supported by the Connecticut Center for School Change to do so. As part of the Systemic Instructional Improvement Program (SIIP), the districts have pursued strategies designed to yield large-scale…

Rothman, Robert

2009-01-01

331

Phase III Data Recovery at the Persimmon Site (11-C-152), Swan Lake Habitat Rehabilitation Enhancement Project (HREP), Environmental Management Program (EMP), Pool 26, Illinois River, Calhoun County, Illinois. St. Louis District Historic Properties Management Report No. 48.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of Phase III mitigation (geomorphological study and archaeological excavation) at the multicomponent pre-historic Woodland Persimmon archaeological site (11-C-152), located partially within the proposed Pump Station Numbe...

G. Howe J. D. Anderson M. J. McNerney S. Titus W. Neal

1996-01-01

332

Coherent electron cooling  

SciTech Connect

Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

Litvinenko,V.

2009-05-04

333

S'COOL Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

Bryson, Linda

2004-01-01

334

VLHC Beam Screen Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) R&D studies, vacuum and beam screen issues are being investigated at Fermilab. This report focuses on the cooling system for the VLHC beam screen and its integration into the VLHC cryo-system. Beam screen cooling is a key issue in the VLHC, due to the large synchrotron radiation (SR) power generated

C. Darve; P. Bauer; P. Limon; T. Peterson

335

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01

336

S'COOL Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2009-04-01

337

Laser cooling in solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cooling in optical solids can lead to the realization of all-solid state cryocoolers. We present new results on Yb- and Tm-doped glasses and crystals and describe progress toward achieving net cooling in GaAs heterostructures.

M. Sheik-Bahae

2007-01-01

338

Laser cooling molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cooling is a simple technique routinely used to cool atoms down to temperatures in the mK range. As the presence of a closed transition is essential for the cooling to work, laser cooling is usually not tractable in molecules due to their complex structure. Molecules can rotate and vibrate and usually only scatter a few photons before they end up in a dark state. In particular, the molecule often changes a vibrational state in the absorption-emission cycle. Recently, a whole class of polar molecules (e.g. CaF, SrF, BaF and TiO) has been shown to possess a highly diagonal Franck-Condon matrix, which makes them viable candidates to be laser cooled. We demonstrate a scheme for laser cooling of a supersonic beam of CaF and SrF radicals. The Franck-Condon factor for the relevant transition makes it possible for the molecules to scatter 10^4 photons with only one or two vibrational repump lasers. We show evidence of longitudinal slowing and cooling in CaF and beam brightening and cooling in SrF.

Zhelyazkova, Valentina; Matsushima, Aki

2013-03-01

339

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28

340

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOEpatents

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29

341

Turbine blade cooling  

DOEpatents

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20

342

Disorder in flash cooled protein crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer from protein crystals and temperature distribution during flash cooling were analyzed analytically. For flash cooling in gas streams heat transfer is limited by the boundary layer, so that strains during cooling are small. Characteristic cooling times vary with crystal size L as L3/2. Plunge into liquids increases cooling rates by more than an order of magnitude. However, plunge cooling produces much larger internal temperature gradients and strains that may damage crystals, especially in the case of large crystals. Based on this analysis, factors affecting the success of flash cooling experiments can be ordered from most to least important as follows: crystal solvent content and solvent composition; crystal size and shape; amount of residual liquid around the crystal; cooling method (liquid or gas); choice of gas/liquid; relative speed between cooling fluid and crystal. Two problems related to flash cooling are investigated using X-ray imaging, diffraction peak shape measurements and conventional diffraction on tetragonal lysozyme. Step preceding flash cooling---post-growth treatment---is modelled by dehydration. The results indicate that near 88% relative humidity c lattice parameter decreases abruptly, mosaicity and diffraction resolution degrade sharply, topographs develop extensive contrast. This transformation exhibits metastability and hysteresis; original order can be restored by rehydration. These are features of the first order phase transition involving abrupt loss of crystal water. Consequently, post-growth treatment should either avoid lattice transitions or maintain the lattice in an ordered metastable state. Flash cooling of large (˜1 mm) crystals degrades diffraction resolution, broadens mosaicity and lattice spacings distribution. Lattice strain decreases and diffraction resolution improves with decreasing crystal size and with the usage of glycerol. Annealing reduces lattice constant spread and improves the resolution. X-ray topographs show that this improvement is due to formation of well-ordered domains. Protein crystals are materials consisting of interpenetrating water and protein lattice. Damage during flash cooling is caused by the different thermal contractions of protein lattice and solvent. Based on that an alternative role for cryoprotectors---thermal expansion matching---is suggested. Water cryoprotectant mixtures can match protein lattice contraction and reduce disordering stresses.

Kriminski, Sergey Alekseevich

343

Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE possibility that an object might cool through its interaction with radiation was suggested as early as 1929 by Pringsheim1. After Landau2 established the basic thermodynamic consistency of such a process, certain aspects of fluorescent cooling were vigorously pursued3á¤-11. In particular, laser 'Doppler' cooling of gas-phase atoms and ions has today grown into a robust research area12á¤-15. In contrast, attempts

Richard I. Epstein; Melvin I. Buchwald; Bradley C. Edwards; Timothy R. Gosnell; Carl E. Mungan

1995-01-01

344

Sisyphus cooling of electrically trapped polyatomic molecules.  

PubMed

Polar molecules have a rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions, making them useful for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where various effects are predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry and physics beyond the standard model. Whereas a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles have been developed, the cooling of polyatomic molecules (that is, with three or more atoms) to ultracold temperatures has seemed intractable. Here we report the experimental realization of optoelectrical cooling, a recently proposed cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each cycle of the cooling sequence via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only a few repetitions of the dissipative decay process. We demonstrate the potential of optoelectrical cooling by reducing the temperature of about one million CH(3)F molecules by a factor of 13.5, with the phase-space density increased by a factor of 29 (or a factor of 70 discounting trap losses). In contrast to other cooling mechanisms, our scheme proceeds in a trap, cools in all three dimensions and should work for a large variety of polar molecules. With no fundamental temperature limit anticipated down to the photon-recoil temperature in the nanokelvin range, we expect our method to be able to produce ultracold polyatomic molecules. The low temperatures, large molecule numbers and long trapping times of up to 27 seconds should allow an interaction-dominated regime to be attained, enabling collision studies and investigation of evaporative cooling towards a Bose-Einstein condensate of polyatomic molecules. PMID:23151480

Zeppenfeld, Martin; Englert, Barbara G U; Glöckner, Rosa; Prehn, Alexander; Mielenz, Manuel; Sommer, Christian; van Buuren, Laurens D; Motsch, Michael; Rempe, Gerhard

2012-11-14

345

Variability in the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in Wisconsin school districts and science departments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States of America, the public education system is comprised of over 14,000 school districts. Each of these unique districts is being affected by the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In turn, this diverse population of school districts is determining the impact on education of this sweeping federal education policy. This study examines eight of those school districts to determine their actions related to the early phase of the implementation of one portion of NCLB, the accountability provisions prescribing standardized assessment for the determination of Adequate Yearly Progress. Specifically, this study examines what these eight Wisconsin school districts, serving from 1,000 to over 5,000 students, did with the student achievement data resulting from their state assessment, the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examinations (WKCE). A wide variety of responses were found in how school districts used the WKCE data. The eight school districts were examined to determine what features of their organizations were responsible for how they responded to the enactment of the AYP provisions, specifically how they used the WCKE data. District responses were found to be determined by district size, governance structures, personnel, and dispositions. The interactions of these characteristics were considered in light of organizational studies using conceptualizations borrowed from ecology and the theory of evolution and by studies of school districts.

Miller, Christopher L.

346

Ultracold gases: Shock cooling a universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid cooling across a phase transition leaves behind defects; from domain walls in magnets to cosmic strings. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism that describes this formation of defects is seen at work in the spontaneous creation of solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.

Zwierlein, Martin W.

2013-10-01

347

Single nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into single nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms with varying amounts of dissolved gas was performed using two powerful techniques. Time and space resolved heat transfer distributions produced by a single nozzle were measured using an array of individually controlled microheaters, while visualization and measurements of the liquid–solid contact area and the three-phase contact line length were made

Bohumil Horacek; Kenneth T. Kiger; Jungho Kim

2005-01-01

348

Design challenges for sodium cooled fast reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of vital importance for commercialized fast reactor to achieve component design with excellent integrity and economics. In the phase II of feasibility study till 2005, a system design for commercialized fast reactor for sodium cooling was achieved. For economical improvement, the system design was undertaken along the guideline including innovative technology for system simplification and new material development.

Mamoru Konomura; Masakazu Ichimiya

2007-01-01

349

Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark Critical Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The GCFR Phase I assembly is the initial Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark assembly on the ZPR-9 reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. It represents the first full scale mockup of a GCFR ever assembled. It is a clean, simple geometry benchmark reference...

S. K. Bhattacharyya R. D. McKnight W. R. Robinson E. M. Bohn G. K. Rusch

1975-01-01

350

Gas cooled fast reactor benchmark critical assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GCFR Phase I assembly is the initial Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor ; Benchmark assembly on the ZPR-9 reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. It ; represents the first full scale mockup of a GCFR ever assembled. It is a clean, ; simple geometry benchmark reference for the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant ; designed by General Atomic Company. A description and

S. K. Bhattacharyya; R. D. McKnight; W. R. Robinson; E. M. Bohn; G. K. Rusch; F. H. Martens; L. G. LeSage

1975-01-01

351

Molecule formation in cool, dense interstellar clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is given of the general processes and considerations that arise in attempting to understand molecular reactions in cool, dense interstellar clouds. Basic elements of the gas phase, 'ion-molecule' scheme are given explicitly before surveying topics in which there is considerable current activity. These topics include: (1) refined comparisons of prediction and observation for species of 'intermediate' complexity, (2)

W. D. Watson

1980-01-01

352

The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor design has been evolving over the last few years to the point where the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will soon issue a safety evaluation report based on their review of the preliminary safety information document submitted during the conceptual design phase. Key features of this design are the use of ceramic fuel particles surrounded

1988-01-01

353

Implementation of Stochastic Cooling Hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider  

SciTech Connect

The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab

2011-08-01

354

Ionization cooling and muon dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. We discuss methods used including moments methods, Focker-Plank Equation, and Multi Particle Codes. In addition we show how a simple analysis permits us to estimate the most part of the optimal system parameters, such as optimal damping rates, length of the system and energy. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, 901A, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

1998-09-01

355

Ionization cooling and muon dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. The authors note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. They discuss methods used including moments methods, Focker Plank Equation, and Multi Particle Codes. In addition they show how a simple analysis permits us to estimate the most part of the optimal system parameters, such as optimal damping rates, length of the system and energy.

Parsa, Z.

1998-01-01

356

Ionization cooling and muon dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. We discuss methods used including moments methods, Focker-Plank Equation, and Multi Particle Codes. In addition we show how a simple analysis permits us to estimate the most part of the optimal system parameters, such as optimal damping rates, length of the system and energy.

Parsa, Zohreh [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, 901A, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

1998-09-08

357

Standardized Calculation of Cooling Towers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a standardized calculation and assessment of the basic cooling tower types, methods are given for calculating the evaporation characteristics as a characteristic cooling tower value for counterflow and crossflow systems. For the crossflow cooling towe...

P. E. Harting

1977-01-01

358

Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Ketterle, W.; Van Druten, N.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

359

Evaporative Cooling of Trapped Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Wolfgang Ketterle; N. J. Van Druten

1996-01-01

360

ElectronicsCooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An important concern facing electronics designers is heat dissipation. Especially in laptop computers and server farms, overheating can be a major problem. ElectronicsCooling is a free, quarterly publication that provides "practical information to the reader that relates to cooling of today's electronics." Every article since the magazine's debut in 1995 can be viewed from this site. Common topics are packaging, thermal design, and technical data related to many types of electronics. Contributions to ElectronicsCooling are generally from industry and academia.

2002-01-01

361

Central Utah Water Conservancy District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

2008-02-07

362

SUMMARY OF BEAM COOLING AND INTRABEAM SCATTERING.  

SciTech Connect

For heavy-particle beams in storage rings where there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping, beam cooling is an essential tool in obtaining high phase-space density high brightness beams. Advances in various types of cooling such as electron, stochastic, laser and muon cooling are covered in dedicated Conferences. In this series of Workshops (HB2002-06), discussions are aimed only at a few specific subjects which are crucial for future projects. The discussion topics in our session closely followed those discussed during the HB2004 workshop [1]. Specifically, we concentrated on the topics of electron cooling and intrabeam scattering, motivated by the design of the future high-energy coolers [2,3,4]. These cooling projects at high-energy require accurate numerical modeling and experimental verification. A variety of tasks were put together at HB2004 [1]. In our working group we discussed a progress in addressing these tasks. We had 10 presentations [5]-[14] (with additional presentations in the joint sessions) which followed by dedicated discussions. Our main topics of discussions: intrabeam scattering (IBS), electron cooling, and beam stability are summarized.

FEDOTOV, A.V.; MESHKOV, I.N.; WEI, J.

2006-05-26

363

Cooling Tower Plume Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators....

L. D. Winiarski W. E. Frick

1976-01-01

364

Emergency Cooling System Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations of emergency cooling system (ECS) flows are required to complete the Flood Code documentation and validation. Only minimum ECS flows are required input to the FLOOD code for system safety analysis. ECS flows have not been documented since the...

J. H. Hinton

1985-01-01

365

Cool Jobs for Girls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a site produced by Work4Women and Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW). WOW defines a cool job as "as high-wage non-traditional occupations, jobs in which women represent less than 25% of the workforce."

366

Limits on electron cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple discussion of electron cooling theory, with emphasis on relativistic scaling relations, is given. This discusion is used to predict the behaviovr of electron cooled beams, subjected also to an internal target and to intrabeam scattering. Technical considerations relating to the alignment and the confinement of electron beams for cooling indicate that the longitudinal magnetic field will be abandoned in favour of focusing by discrete lenses at electron energies above about 1 MeV. The experiments on acceleration, transport, and collection of prototype electron beams made at Novosibirsk and Wisconsin are discussed. It is concluded that intermediate energy electron cooling is within the capability of present technology, and although its most important application may be for improving the luminosity of colliders, nuclear and particle physics applications requiring high energy, spatial, or time resolution also may benefit.

Reistad, D.; Ellison, T. J. P.

1991-04-01

367

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01

368

Emergency cooling system flows  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of emergency cooling system (ECS) flows are required to complete the Flood Code documentation and validation. Only minimum ECS flows are required input to the FLOOD code for system safety analysis. ECS flows have not been documented since the installation of improvements under Project S-1830 were completed. Calculated ECS flows from the booster pump and cooling water header are given for the loss of coolant (LOCA) and loss of pumping (LOPA) accidents. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Hinton, J.H.

1985-03-13

369

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11

370

CoolTweak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you work with images on a regular basis? And are you interested in adding watermarks to these images? This process just got much easier with CoolTweak. It's quite simple to add watermarks and to share photographs. The neat thing here is that visitors can add their own distinctive watermark by adding their own custom text or logo. This version of CoolTweak is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer.

Kerangueven, Yann

2013-02-01

371

Laser cooling of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and

Richard I Epstein; Mansoor Sheik-bahae

2008-01-01

372

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01

373

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable

M. BRENNAN; J. M. CAMERON; P. WEI

2003-01-01

374

CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

2011-01-01

375

Raman studies on ferroelectric phase (phase III) of KNO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the nature, stability, and existence temperature width of phase I, phase II, and phase III (ferroelectric phase) of KNO3, a detailed Raman investigation was carried out with various heating\\/cooling rates, repeated thermal cycles, and different preheating temperatures. The increase in the existence temperature width of the phase III of KNO3 was observed with the increase of

Ramaswamy Murugan; Anil Ghule; Hua Chang

1999-01-01

376

Tectonothermal history of the Schwarzwald Ore District (Germany): An apatite triple dating approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exceptionally large, U-rich apatite from the Schwarzwald ore district (Germany) was triple dated using ID-TIMS U–Pb, fission track (FT) and (U–Th)\\/He dating methods. The aim of adopting the multi-dating approach on a single sample was to (i) further constrain thermo-tectonic evolution of the Schwarzwald from the formation of crystalline basement through to cooling and exhumation, and (ii) test potential and

Martin Danišík; Katharina Pfaff; Noreen J. Evans; Christos Manoloukos; Sebastian Staude; Brad J. McDonald; Gregor Markl

2010-01-01

377

Combustor liner cooling arrangement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gas turbine engine combustor aft of the gas turbine compressor section. It comprises: liner disposed inwardly of a combustor outer wall and in the compressor discharge airflow, wherein the compressor discharge airflow is used for combustor cooling air and the liner is positioned for flow of cooling air past the exterior of the liner; a plurality of small firm cooling holes in the liner, the film cooling holes being inclined toward the aft end of the combustor to direct cooling air along the interior surface of the liner; first means of the liner for blocking direct flow of air to the small film cooling holes and providing a path for reverse flow of air between the first means and the exterior surface of the liner; second means disposed aft of the first means for diverting a portion of the air and providing reverse flow of the diverted air into the path; and a first plurality of larger holes in the liner at the point of reversal of flow of the air for passing dirt particles therethrough.

Foltz, H.L.

1990-01-30

378

Climbing the cool wall: exploring teenage preferences of cool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool is an essential characteristic when designing technologies that appeal to teenagers, but is very challenging to understand and design for. This paper describes a study that investigated cool with teenagers using a specially constructed 'Cool Wall' that allows items to be rated using a simple scale. We present the design of the Cool Wall prototype then the findings from

Daniel Fitton; Matthew Horton; Janet C Read; Linda Little; Nicola Toth

2012-01-01

379

A helium thermosiphon cooling loop for the APS superconducting undulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermosiphon cooling system is being pursued as part of the superconducting undulator magnet development at Argonne National Laboratory. Analyses carried out at the University of Wisconsin-Madison address several unique features for the helium-filled cooling loop including sub-cooling associated with the hydrostatic head, the impact of a heat load deposited primarily along the horizontal channel, and two-phase flow characterization at extremely low quality conditions. Results of the analyses are compared with experimental measurements for a full-scale cooling loop. Both the analyses and measurements address the design objective of maintaining the superconducting windings well below their current sharing temperature by exploring the flow induced heat transfer to the single and two-phase regions of the helium cooling loop.

Potratz, Daniel; Pfotenhauer, John; Hasse, Quentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Moog, Elizabeth; Kustom, Robert

2012-06-01

380

Safe motherhood and district health systems.  

PubMed

Although WHO and many countries are intensifying their efforts to improve the performance of district health systems, a lot remains to be done. The district is the most peripheral fully-organized unit of local government. As it is small enough for health staff to observe and understand major problems and developments, the district offers great opportunities for action on maternal mortality. A number of these potentials are elaborated. They include the availability of intersectoral mechanisms, a network of health facilities with at least a district hospital, the presence of non-governmental organizations, and other informal mechanisms that will enable "counting and accounting' of maternal deaths to be made. Reduction in maternal mortality is a good indication of improved performance of district health systems. It will be argued that the "district focus' is the way forward in the fight against maternal mortality. PMID:8909950

Tarimo, E

1996-10-01

381

Radiation cooling with. pi. pulses  

SciTech Connect

The concept of radiation cooling with ..pi.. pulses is presented and quantified with a theoretical analysis. Numerical analysis of ..pi.. pulse cooling on the hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. transition is presented as an example. The cooling rate and limiting temperature are discussed and compared with steady-state radiation cooling.

Palmer, A.J.; Lam, J.F.

1986-05-01

382

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

383

HOW DOES THE DISTRICT LOOK FROM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to explore image-building strategies developed by industrial district firms and collective agents operating within local systems. As globalisation increases, the ability to project a positive, identity-congruent industrial district image may be a crucial competitive factor at an international level. Through in-depth interviews with Sassuolo district senior managers, together with secondary source information, we explore the ceramic tile

Gianluca Marchi; Elisa Martinelli

384

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

385

IONIZATION COOLING SCENARIO FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.  

SciTech Connect

The neutrino factory program aims to produce well-characterized neutrino fluxes, orders of magnitude larger than those available from conventional beams. An important feature of the machine design is a cooling section for reducing the muon transverse emittance to a level that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators and be contained in the storage ring. We describe simulations of a high-performance ionization cooling channel for the front end of a neutrino factory. The design considered here consists of a solenoidal lattice with alternating polarity and 2.75 m and 1.65 m cell lengths. Simulations show that the cooling increases the phase space density into the acceptance of the following linac by a factor of 3.

FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; PALMER, R.B.; LEBRUN, P.L.

2001-06-18

386

Electoral Systems and District Magnitude: beyond the Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to the electoral formula, district magnitude is perhaps the most important component defining an electoral system. Since within most electoral systems districts vary in their magnitude, a central tendency is often used to characterize the district magnitude in a country: either the magnitude of the median district or the magnitude of the district electing the median legislator. In this

Orit Kedar

387

Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics  

SciTech Connect

Beam physicists use the word 'cooling' differently than it is used by the general public or even by other physicists. It is recommended that we no longer use this term, but replace it with some other term such as: 'Phase Density Cooling' (PDF) or 'damping', or alternatively 'Liouville Cooling', which would make our field more easily understood by outsiders.

Sessler, Andrew M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, BLDG: 71R0259, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2006-03-20

388

The thermal evolution of IVA iron meteorites: evidence from metallographic cooling rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallographic cooling rates of group IVA iron meteorites have been recalculated based on the most recent Ni diffusion coefficients and phase diagram. The cooling rates are revised upwards by a factor of ca. 15 relative to previous estimates. A large range in cooling rate is found in the low-Ni part of group IVA (Ni

Kaare L. Rasmussen; Finn Ulff-Møller; Henning Haack

1995-01-01

389

Experimental investigation of a solar adsorption chiller used for grain depot cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar cooling technology is attractive since cooling load of building is roughly in phase with solar energy availability. In this study, a solar adsorption chiller was built and tested with aim of developing an alternative refrigeration system used for grain cooling storage. This solar adsorption chiller consists of four subsystems, namely, a solar water heating unit with 49.4m2 solar

H. L. Luo; Y. J. Dai; R. Z. Wang; J. Y. Wu; Y. X. Xu; J. M. Shen

2006-01-01

390

Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

Espinosa, Ruben W.

2010-01-01

391

Non-equilibrium cooling rate for a collisionally cooled metal-enriched gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present self-consistent calculations of non-equilibrium (time-dependent) cooling rates for a dust-free collisionally controlled gas in wide ranges of temperature (10 ? T ? 108 K) and metallicity (10-4 ? Z ? 2 Z?). We confirm that molecular hydrogen dominates cooling at 102 ? T ? 104 K and Z ? 10- 3 Z?. We find that the contribution from H2 into the cooling rate around T ˜ (4-5) × 103 K stimulates thermal instability in the metallicity range Z ? 10- 2 Z?. Isobaric cooling rates are generally lower than isochoric cooling rates, because the associated increase of gas density leads to both more efficient hydrogen recombination and equilibration of the fine-structure level populations. Isochoric cooling means that the ionization fraction remains quite high at T ? 104 K - up to ˜0.01 at T ? 103 K and Z ? 0.1 Z?, and even higher at higher metallicity - unlike isobaric cooling, where it is at least an order of magnitude lower. Despite this increase in ionization fraction, the gas-phase formation rate of molecular hydrogen (via H-) decreases with metallicity, because higher metallicity shortens the evolution time. We implement our self-consistent cooling rates into the multidimensional parallel code ZEUS-MP in order to simulate the evolution of a supernova remnant. We compare it to an analogous model with tabulated cooling rates published in previous studies. We find significant differences between the two descriptions, which might appear, for example, in the mixing of the ejected metals in the circumstellar medium.

Vasiliev, Evgenii O.

2013-05-01

392

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

2003-05-12

393

ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

BEN-ZVI,I.; AHRENS,L.; BRENNAN,M.; HARRISON,M.; KEWISCH,J.; MACKAY,W.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; YAKIMENKO,V.

2001-06-18

394

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

395

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

396

Research on solar energy storage subsystems utilizing the latent heat of phase change of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings. Semi-annual report, September 1, 1974March 31, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental research program designed to assess the potential of a solar energy storage subsystem (thermal capacitor) utilizing the latent heat of fusion of paraffin hydrocarbons for the heating and cooling of buildings, and supported with grant funds from the National Science Foundation, is described. An idealized model of a flat plate thermal capacitor based on uniaxial heat

J. A. Bailey; J. C. Mulligan; C. K. Liao; S. I. Guceri

1975-01-01

397

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

398

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a three-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force-the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultralow temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, José P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-11-01

399

How giant planets cool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how giant planets cool is key to the study of their interior structure, composition and hence formation. I will review how the observed luminosities of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune may be accounted for, mostly by convective transport of heat limited by the atmospheric lip, but with several complications (sedimentation of helium droplets, gradients of composition...). Conversely, I will show that the the cooling of strongly irradiated giant planets ("Pegasids") is limited by heat transport in a thick external radiative zone with a possibility of a significant dissipation of heat due to tides. In all cases, both radiative transport and atmospheric/interior dynamics play crucial roles and require further studies.

Guillot, T.

2006-12-01

400

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

401

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended investigation students determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when itâs cold and how they cool the brood when itâs hot. In the process, students will discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible. Required materials and step-by-step instructional guidelines are included in a pdf guide. Teachers and students may extend upon this activity by using their âhoneybeeâ investigations to design open-ended experiments to determine ways to heat and cool things through direct contact (conduction), through the movement of air or water (convection), and by evaporation.

Bob Madsen, Dull K.

402

Narrow linewidth cooling of ^6Li  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present progress toward the realization of narrow linewidth laser cooling on the 2S1/2->3P3/2 transition of ^6Li at 323 nm. Laser cooling on the D2 transition of ^6Li at 671 nm is limited to 140 ?K due to the 5.9 MHz transition linewidth. The 323 nm UV transition has a linewidth of 150 kHz, reducing the Doppler limit of laser cooling to 20 ?K, still above but comparable to the recoil limit of 15 ?K. We expect that implementing a stage of UV laser cooling after our 671 nm magneto-optical trap will enhance the phase-space density of the gas by a factor of 20. This will allow efficient loading to a moderately deep (700 ?K) optical trap/lattice directly after laser cooling without the need of an additional deeper optical trap between the MOT and lattice stages, in contrast with other all-optical ^6Li experiments.

Duarte, P. M.; Corcovilos, T. A.; Hitchcock, J. M.; Hulet, R. G.

2010-03-01

403

Comparison of the Quality of Cooked Beef Products Cooled by Vacuum Cooling and by Conventional Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of vacuum cooling on the quality of large cooked beef joints injected with brine was studied as compared with conventional cooling methods including air-blast, slow-air and water-immersion cooling. Samples were cooked in an oven at 80 °C until core temperatures reached 70 °C and then cooled to core temperatures of 4 °C. Mean results showed that vacuum cooling

Karl McDonald; Da-Wen Sun; Tony Kenny

2000-01-01

404

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

405

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26

406

Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

1982-04-26

407

24 CFR 3800.30 - Subpoena enforcement in district court.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Subpoena enforcement in district court. 3800.30 Section 3800.30...Subpoena enforcement in district court. In the case of contumacy of a witness or a...Secretary, the United States district court for the jurisdiction in which...

2013-04-01

408

75 FR 64368 - SBA North Florida District Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SBA North Florida District Advisory Council AGENCY: U...for the next meeting of the SBA North Florida District Advisory Council. The meeting...announces the meeting of the SBA North Florida District Advisory Council. The SBA...

2010-10-19

409

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5...THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...retain the present land management districts within the...

2011-04-01

410

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and…

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

411

School District Cash Management. Program Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school…

New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

412

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

413

District heating for the state of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Energy Agency is actively involved in implementing new hot water cogeneration district heating systems in Moorhead (POP 34,000), Red Wing (POP 13000), and St. Paul (POP 310,000). These projects have been funded by the Department of Energy, the State and the cities. The district heating systems designed will use coal and cogenerated thermal energy from existing electric generation

Sundberg

1981-01-01

414

Stress amongst district nurses: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating stress among district nurses in the north-west of England. Nurses completed questionnaires covering job satisfaction, mental health, stress, Type A behaviour, health behaviour, coping skills and demographic details. • A specific measure of stress was developed following in-depth interviews with primary care professionals, including district nurses. A total

USHA USHA; RANI ROUT; M Sc

415

Supporting Solo at the District Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years…

Woodard, Mary

2011-01-01

416

School District Drug and Alcohol Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marijuana and alcohol use by high school students has continued to increase through the latter part of the 1970's. To gain information on the extent of this problem in their area, a school district in rural western Pennsylvania approved a study of drug and alcohol usage by the school district's 2,200 students. For reasons of confidentiality, all…

Crabtree, Michael

417

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2013-01-01

418

Embedded agents for district heating management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the applicability of multi-agent systems as a control approach for district heating systems. The consumers, i.e., the heat exchange systems, in current district heating systems are purely reactive devices without communication capabilities. In this work, the possibilities of a new type of heat exchanger system that has an open software environment and communication capabilities are explored. Operators of

Paul Davidsson; Fredrik Wernstedt

2004-01-01

419

Embedded Agents for District Heating Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the applicability of multi-agent systems as a control approach for district heating systems. The consumers, i.e., the heat exchange systems, in current district heating systems are purely reactive devices without communication capabilities. In this work, the possibilities of a new type of heat exchanger system that has an open software environment and communication capabilities are explored. Operators of

Paul Davidsson; Fredrik Wernstedt

2004-01-01

420

School Turnarounds: The Essential Role of Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The inspiration for this book was a crucial observation: that if the school turnaround movement is to have widespread and lasting consequences, it will need to incorporate meaningful district involvement in its efforts. The result is a volume that considers school turnaround efforts at the district level, examining the evidence thus far and…

Zavadsky, Heather

2012-01-01

421

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

422

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

423

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

424

Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

Cokeley, Sandra

1996-01-01

425

Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

Nair, Prakash

426

District Office Leadership: Hero or Villain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For decades, school district offices, superintendents and school boards have been cast as "villains" in the drama of school reform and raising student achievement. This article presents research encompassing a different view of district leadership as the possible "hero" in these efforts. Recent studies by Harvard University (2007), Springboard…

Leon, Ronald

2008-01-01

427

National School District Partnership Survey. Statistical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a national survey that gathered information about the status of volunteer and partnership programs are presented in this report. Data were derived from a survey that was mailed to 1,532 school districts during March to August 1991. Out of 1,337 usable responses, 738 districts indicated the existence of partnerships during the 1989-90…

National Association of Partners in Education, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

428

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

429

Industrial Districts: Old Wine in New Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARRISON B. (1992) Industrial districts: old wine in new bottles?, Reg. Studies26, 469–483. According to the theory of industrial districts, a new wave of economic growth is being led in a number of regions in Europe, North America and East Asia by spatially concentrated networks of mostly small and medium sized enterprises, often using flexible production technology and characterized by

Bennett Harrison

1992-01-01

430

Transportation in the Millard School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to increasing costs for bus service, the Millard School District in Nebraska has instituted a successful plan whereby students pay partially for bus service by purchasing coupon books. While elementary students more than one mile away are still bused at district expense, junior high students more than two miles away must pay the partial cost…

Bosse, Jerry

431

The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

432

Examining School District Efficiency in Georgia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relative production efficiency of school districts in Georgia using the modified quadriform method. Overall, we find that the modified quadriform allows state-level policymakers to access a basic tool for analysis that makes relative comparison of school district productivity for use in policy analysis and policy…

Houck, Eric A.; Rolle, R. Anthony; He, Jiang

2010-01-01

433

School Districts Try a New Tack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Politicians are increasingly pressuring school districts to improve instruction while holding down costs. To achieve this aim, western New York school districts are experimenting with mutual gains bargaining, an alternative negotiation process based on Roger Fisher and William Ury's 1991 book "Getting to Yes." Instead of bargaining from stated…

Spitz, James A., Jr., Battaglia, Michael

1997-01-01

434

SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION FOR THE 1970'S.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|FROM 1932 TO 1965, THE NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE UNITED STATES DECREASED FROM 127,649 TO 26,802. IN NEW ENGLAND, HOWEVER, THERE WAS A DECREASE OF LESS THAN 100 DISTRICTS. NEW ENGLAND IS IN THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING FROM AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY TO AN ELECTRICAL AND TECHNICAL ECONOMY. SCHOOL REDISTRICTING MUST OCCUR ALONG WITH THIS…

CRONIN, JOSEPH M.

435

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

436

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

437

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

438

City Districts Embracing K-8 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with school districts' K-8 configurations. Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York, and Philadelphia are among the districts making the change, driven by a small body of research and a rising pile of anecdotes suggesting that K-8 configurations help academic performance, decrease discipline problems, enhance parent…

Gewertz, Catherine

2004-01-01

439

Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

440

Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

441

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

442

Educational Specifications, New Caney Independent School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A year-long study of the communities encompassed by the New Caney Independent School District in Montgomery County, Texas, was conducted by the College of Education at the University of Houston. Educational facilities and program were surveyed. Planning data included--description of district, land usage, pupil residence, population density and…

Houston Univ., TX. Bureau of Educational Research and Services.

443

District Policy and Teachers’ Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers’ professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores how district policies influence teachers’ social networks in eight elementary schools in two districts

Cynthia E. Coburn; Jennifer Lin Russell

2008-01-01

444

District Initiatives: Reforming Teacher and Principal Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study conducted by a midwestern university research center surveyed 47 school districts who were members of a university-school district collaborative. Respondents indicated that the changing roles of teachers and principals were an important issue. This paper presents findings of a subsequent study based on indepth interviews with the…

Alexander, Gary C.

445

District heating and market economy in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Soviet time Latvia inherited a number of district-heating systems fuelled with Russian natural gas or imported heavy fuel oil. From a fuel efficiency point of view there is no reason to preserve the district heating systems unless the boilers are replaced by CHP. However, 50% of the electricity consumption is imported, and the import prices are low because

Henrik Lund; Frede Hvelplund; Ilmars Kass; Edgars Dukalskis; Dagnija Blumberga

1999-01-01

446

ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

BEN-ZVI,I.

2001-05-13

447

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

448

COOLING OUT THE MARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the financial crisis not led to more radical public contestation and political reforms? In investigating the muted response to the crisis so far, the paper highlights the significance of ideological fantasy for appreciating the interpenetration of economy and society. We interpret this muted response to the crisis in terms of a ‘cooling out’ process (Goffman) underpinned by a

Jason Glynos; Robin Klimecki; Hugh Willmott

2012-01-01

449

Evaporative cooling in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects commonly use behavior to avoid the heat stress and consequent water loss of hot environments. It has been assumed by many to be impossible or impractical for insects to employ evaporative cooling. Despite this assumption, there have been many instances, historically and recently where insects are reported to survive otherwise lethal temperatures by evaporating water. The site of evaporation

Henry D. Prange

1996-01-01

450

Turbulent Bed Cooling Tower.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to determine whether the turbulent bed contactor (TBC), a relatively new and efficient device commonly used for gas scrubbing, can be proven as a competitive cooling system in electric power generation. The turbulent bed employ...

R. G. Barile

1975-01-01

451

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

452

Five solar cooling projects  

SciTech Connect

The jointly funded $100 million five-year international agreement (SOLERAS) between Saudi Arabia and the United States was undertaken to promote the development of solar energy technologies of interest to both nations. Five engineering field tests of active solar cooling systems funded under the SOLERAS agreement for installation and operation in the U.S. southwest are described.

Davis, R.E.; Williamson, J.S.

1980-01-01

453

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an open-ended investigation to determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when itÃÂs cold and how they cool the brood when itÃÂs hot. Students will also discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible.

Mr. Bob Madsen (Dull Knife Memorial College)

1999-07-01

454

Photonic and electronic cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal management, which is usually regarded as the domain of mechanical engineering, actually offers exciting opportunities for photonics and electronics. This talk will describe research at Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the University of New Mexico on optical refrigeration and on thin-film electrocaloric heat engines. In optical refrigeration, the goal is to cool solids, typically rare-earth doped glasses and

Richard I. Epstein

2009-01-01

455

Electron Cooling of RHIC  

SciTech Connect

We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eCool/.

I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; Yu.I. Eidelman; A.V. Fedotov; W. Fischer; D.M. Gassner; H. Hahn; M. Harrison; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; A.K. Jain; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; W.W. MacKay; G.J. Mahler; N. Malitsky; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; K.A.M. Mirabella; C. Montag; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; G. Parzen; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; D. Trbojevic; G. Wang; J. Wei; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; D.T. Abell; D.L. Bruhwiler; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; A.V. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; J.R. Delayen; Y.S. Derbenev; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; L. Merminga; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; J.S. Sekutowicz

2005-05-16

456

Composite Cooled Rotor Blade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a composite cooled blade, for example for a gas or steam turbine rotor, consisting of a detachable root with a coolant chamber and a blade section with profiled ducts. To increase static and vibration strength and operational rel...

N. Y. Litvinov V. S. Lyubinetskii

1970-01-01

457

Laser cooling of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser cooling of solids, sometimes also known as optical refrigeration, is a fast developing area of optical science, investigating the interaction of light with condensed matter. Apart from being of fundamental scientific interest, this topic addresses a very important practical issue: design and construction of laser pumped solid-state cryocoolers, which are compact, free from mechanical vibrations, moving parts, fluids and

Galina Nemova; Raman Kashyap

2010-01-01

458

Cooling the Mummy's Tomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct an experiment to help Pharaoh design a better insulated tomb. Learners compare how well single, double, and triple insulated cups keep water cold over a period of 20 minutes. Learners collect and analyze the data to conclude which set-up kept the water cool the longest.

Little, Carlyn; Lahart, David; Meyers, Ted; Weisblat, Brooks

1997-01-01

459

Newton's law of cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks on heat transfer generally refer to Newton's law of cooling but they give no details of Newton's experiment. The purpose of the first part of this paper is to give details of Newton's work. His explanation of why he thought the law was correct, and the experiment that he did to confirm it, are still of interest. It is

R. H. S. Winterton

1999-01-01

460

Externally cooled absorption engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An externally cooled, absorption engine apparatus and method are described, the apparatus including a closed cycle system having a first fluid and a second fluid, the first fluid constituting a working fluid and having a relatively lower boiling point while the second fluid constitutes a solvent for the first fluid and has a relatively higher boiling point and a relatively

Brinkerhoff

1981-01-01

461

Energy efficient liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of this paper is an investigation of the hydrodynamic performance of liquid pumps for electronics cooling applications, considered in conjunction with a range of primary heat exchangers. Pressure-flow characteristics of a set of geometrically- similar, miniature-scale centrifugal pumps are measured, and reductions in hydrodynamic efficiency are seen to occur below a critical Reynolds number. Six primary heat exchangers

Jeff Punch

2008-01-01

462

Electronic Component Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooling of electronic components on a circuit board is accomplished by a thermally conductive element such as a heat pipe that is in spaced parallel relation to the board and in contact with the upper surfaces of the components. The ends of the conductive...

K. H. Token

1980-01-01

463

Supersonic film cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The currently available supersonic film cooling effectiveness data can not be reduced to a common correlation even for the same coolant gas. No single parameter or group of parameters has been identified as being responsible for this disparity. In this study, two coolant gases, hydrogen and nitrogen, two nozzle shapes, two coolant Mach numbers, three slot heights, three lip thicknesses,

Robert W. Bass; Larry W. Hardin; Richard J. Rodgers; Richard C. Ernst

1990-01-01

464

Helium Cooled Flibe Blanket.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blanket design uses a pressure vessel to contain the 50 atmosphere helium gas. Helium cools the first wall and blanket internals. The internals consist of a bed of beryllium balls nominally 1 cm diameter in which neutrons are multiplied and later capt...

R. Moir

1984-01-01

465

Helium cooled Flibe blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blanket design uses a pressure vessel to contain the 50 atmosphere helium gas. Helium cools the first wall and blanket internals. The internals consist of a bed of beryllium balls nominally 1 cm diameter in which neutrons are multiplied and later captured, breeding adequate (even excess) amounts of tritium and releasing energy in exothermic nuclear reactions. Tritium is bred

Moir

1984-01-01

466

Spin systems and Political Districting Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.

Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping

2007-03-01

467

Sympathetic cooling of {sup 6}Li atoms  

SciTech Connect

We use recently measured cold photoassociation and two-photon data to extract the singlet and triplet accumulated radial phases of interacting ground-state lithium atoms. Using the resulting values we predict scattering lengths, Feshbach resonances, and exchange decay rates for cold collisions between {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li atoms that are of interest for the possibility of sympathetic cooling of {sup 6}Li and for the coexistence of the bosonic and fermionic quantum-degenerate phases of {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li. In addition, we calculate scattering lengths and exchange decay rates for cold collisions between identical lithium isotopes in different hyperfine states. These quantities are used to examine the possibilities of coexisting {sup 7}Li Bose condensates and of evaporatively cooling coexisting {sup 6}Li subsystems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

van Abeelen, F.A.; Verhaar, B.J.; Moerdijk, A.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (The Netherlands)

1997-06-01

468

Observation of laser-induced fluorescent cooling of a solid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE possibility that an object might cool through its interaction with radiation was suggested as early as 1929 by Pringsheim1. After Landau2 established the basic thermodynamic consistency of such a process, certain aspects of fluorescent cooling were vigorously pursued3á¤-11. In particular, laser 'Doppler' cooling of gas-phase atoms and ions has today grown into a robust research area12á¤-15. In contrast, attempts to cool solids with light have met with limited success; non-radiative heating effects tend to dominate, and fluorescent cooling has at best resulted in a reduction in overall heating rates6. Here we report the experimental realization of net cooling of a solid with radiation. The cooling efficiencies achieved (up to 2%) are more than 104 times those observed in Doppler cooling of gases. By pumping a fluorescent cooling element with a high-efficiency diode laser, it may be possible to construct a compact, solid-state optical cryocooler, thereby allowing widespread deployment of cryogenic electronics and detectors in space and elsewhere16.

Epstein, Richard I.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Gosnell, Timothy R.; Mungan, Carl E.

1995-10-01

469

Sympathetic cooling of ⁶Li atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use recently measured cold photoassociation and two-photon data to extract the singlet and triplet accumulated radial phases of interacting ground-state lithium atoms. Using the resulting values we predict scattering lengths, Feshbach resonances, and exchange decay rates for cold collisions between ⁷Li and ⁶Li atoms that are of interest for the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ⁶Li and for the

F. A. van Abeelen; B. J. Verhaar; A. J. Moerdijk

1997-01-01

470

Theoretical limits on brain cooling by external head cooling devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that mild hypothermia is a rather promising therapy for acute brain injury\\u000a in neonates. Because measurement of the resultant cooling of human brain in vivo is beyond current technology, an understanding\\u000a of physical factors limiting the possible brain cooling would be a substantial achievement. Herein brain cooling by external\\u000a head cooling devices is studied within

A. L. Sukstanskii; D. A. Yablonskiy

2007-01-01

471

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16

472

Cooling Water Recycle by Softening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a preliminary design methodology for integrating a sidestream softening unit into a cooling water system to achieve zero pollutant discharge is presented. Cooling water discharge is a major environmental problem which the U.S. Environmental...

J. V. Matson

1979-01-01

473

Crystal Size and Cooling Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity relates to the process of igneous rock formation by the cooling of magma. It can be used to illustrate how the rate at which molten rock cools affects the size of the crystals that form within the solid rock - rapid cooling producing small crystals, slower cooling producing larger ones. Hot, saturated solutions of lead iodide are cooled at different rates. The solution that cools faster produces smaller crystals. Students relate this to samples of rhyolite and granite and discover that the intrusive igneous rock (the granite) has cooled slowly from magma, and the rhyolite lava (extrusive igneous rock) has cooled very quickly. This leads to a fuller explanation of the terms intrusive and extrusive. The site also has an alternative demonstration in which melted Salol is placed on hot and cold glass slides with similar results.

474

A study of the operating conditions and power performance characteristics of power units upon increasing the cooling capacity of their chimney-type cooling towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating conditions and power performance characteristics of the Armenian nuclear power station’s Unit 2 equipped with a K-220-4.3 turbine and of the Razdan district power station’s units equipped with K-200-12.8 and K-300-23.5 turbines are studied. The effect from increasing the cooling capacity of chimney-type cooling towers obtained by installing built-in rotary vertical panels instead of the existing louver-type devices is evaluated.

Muradyan, A. K.; Arshakyan, D. T.

2007-11-01

475

Thermal structure of cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

Technical report:The thermal stratification of cooling ponds used for power plant operation is analyzed. Stratification mechanisms in cooling ponds are identified. Differences in thermal structure between shallow and deep cooling ponds are discussed. Well-stratified cooling ponds are characterized by a uniform thin surface layer. A mathematical model that describes the degree of vertical stratification in shallow ponds is presented. (2 diagrams, 7 graphs, 22 references)

Jirka, G.H.; Watanabe, M.

1980-05-01

476

Evaluation of thermal-storage concepts for solar cooling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various configuration concepts for utilizing thermal energy storage to improve the thermal and economic performance of solar cooling systems for buildings were analyzed. The storge concepts evaluated provide short-term thermal storge via the bulk containment of water or salt hydrates. The evaluations were made for both residential-size cooling systems (3-ton) and small commercial-size cooling systems (25-ton). The residential analysis considers energy requirements for space heating, space cooling and water heating, while the commercial building analysis is based only on energy requirements for space cooling. The commercial building analysis considered a total of 10 different thermal storage/solar systems, 5 each for absorption and Rankine chiller concepts. The residential analysis considered 4 thermal storage/solar systems, all utilizing an absorption chiller. The trade-offs considered include: cold-side versus hot-side storage, single vs multiple stage storage, and phase-change vs sensible heat storage.

Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.; Choi, M. K.; White, N. M.; Scholten, W. B.

1981-10-01

477

Sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures.  

PubMed

Gas-phase singly protonated organic molecules of mass 410 Da (Alexa Fluor 350) have been cooled from ambient temperature to the hundred millikelvin range by Coulomb interaction with laser-cooled barium ions. The molecules were generated by an electrospray ionization source, transferred to and stored in a radio-frequency trap together with the atomic ions. Observations are well described by molecular dynamics simulations, which are used to determine the spatial distribution and thermal energy of the molecules. In one example, an ensemble of 830 laser-cooled 138Ba+ ions cooled 200 molecular ions to less than 115 mK. The demonstrated technique should allow a large variety of protonated molecules to be sympathetically cooled, including molecules of much higher mass, such as proteins. PMID:17280279

Ostendorf, A; Zhang, C B; Wilson, M A; Offenberg, D; Roth, B; Schiller, S

2006-12-15

478

Cooling Floor AC Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

479

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27

480

Sympathetic Cooling of Trapped Cd^+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trapped ions are among the most attractive candidates for quantum computing, featuring very long internal state qubit coherence times. However, decoherence of motional states can limit quantum gate fidelity. Sympathetic cooling of ions offers a method for quenching motional decoherence while preserving internal state coherence. We sympathetically cool a trapped ^112Cd^+ ion by Doppler-cooling a ^114Cd^+ ion in a Paul

Louis Deslauriers; Boris Blinov; Kathy-Anne Brickman; Patricia Lee; Martin Madsen; Russell Miller; Christopher Monroe

2002-01-01

481

XFLOW. Crossflow Cooling Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

Crossflow cooling analysis program to predict pressure drops and temperature rises in the annular and main cooling channels of collider dipole magnets (The upper channels are orificied at the inlet, the lower channels at the exits). Used in the analysis, design, and optimization of crossflow cooling for superconducting magnets.

Yucel, Adnan [Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Waxahachie, TX (United States)

1992-05-01

482

Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

G. S. Ball

1989-01-01

483

Cool Site of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need a daily web fix of something new? Try The Cool Site of the Day. Every night at midnite the Cool Site of the Day gets set to point at a new Cool Site. You'll never know what's there until you take the link so expect to be surprised.

484

Solar heating and cooling.  

PubMed

Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included. PMID:1010737

Duffie, J A

1976-01-01

485

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01

486

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Surface-induced evaporative cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 ?m. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

Ke, Min; Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yu-Zhu

2009-10-01

487

Effective team management by district nurses.  

PubMed

This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working. PMID:15655486

Bliss, Julie

2004-12-01

488

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

489

75 FR 43038 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Changes to District Boundaries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...three grower districts: District 1, to include Butte, Sutter, and Yuba Counties; District 2, to include Tulare County; and District 3, to include all other California counties not included in Districts 1 and 2. At that time, Sec....

2010-07-23

490

Paleomagnetism of the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene intrusive suite of the Mezcala district, southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic data from three plutons of the latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary Mezcala intrusive suite, of the Mezcala mining district in northern Guerrero State, in southern Mexico, are characterized by well-defined near univectorial magnetizations of both normal and reverse polarities. The magnetizations reside primarily in a ferromagnetic cubic phase (magnetite or maghemite) and partly in hematite. Within-site dispersion is relatively

R. S. Molina Garza; L. Alva Valdivia

2006-01-01

491

District heating: air-quality considerations and the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant advantages of a district heating facility arise from increases in overall energy utilization efficiency and the ability to use coal or nuclear fuels as energy sources and thus reduce dependence on more limited energy resources such as oil or natural gas. Commercialization efforts for this technology are likely to encounter some environmental obstacles during implementation phases. Analyses

P. D. Moskowitz; T. Carney; F. W. Lipfert

1981-01-01

492

Solar cooling technologies in Greece. An economic viability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Greece, during the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country’s electricity supply and contributes to an increase of the CO2 emissions. The use of solar energy (SE) to drive cooling cycles is attractive since the cooling load is roughly in phase

Theocharis Tsoutsos; Joanna Anagnostou; Colin Pritchard; Michalis Karagiorgas; Dimosthenis Agoris

2003-01-01

493

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

494