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1

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02

2

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01

3

District-Heating-and-Cooling System for Communities Through Power-Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. Phase 2. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents the completion of the second phase of the district heating and cooling project in Detroit. Although it was based upon the analysis and conclusions of the first phase, a number of changes in Detroit's economy and the future of severa...

1983-01-01

4

District-heating-and-cooling system for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the completion of the second phase of the district heating and cooling project in Detroit. Although it was based upon the analysis and conclusions of the first phase, a number of changes in Detroit's economy and the future of several key potential users caused some divergence from the original Phase II proposal. The intent at the beginning of Phase II was to develop a new district heating system based upon the Conners Creek power plant and to interconnect this system with the existing district heating system as the beginning of a city-wide district heating system. The main component of the interconnection was to be a new plant located approximately midway between the Conners Creek plant and the existing system. In addition to serving the two district heating systems, this plant was to supply process steam to two industrial plants. Shortly after Phase II began, both of the industrial plants were closed. This removed the primary support for the new district heating plant and caused the analysis of the Conners Creek system to be independent of the existing district heating system.

Not Available

1983-02-01

5

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network: Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VI. Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of phase 2 of the district heating and cooling project in Detroit. This volume contains the following sections: retrofitting utility power plants for cogeneration and district heating; a discussion of specific tax laws and regulations affecting organizational/financing options; public service electric and gas turbine district heating study; steam turbine studies on Hudson 1 and Hudson 2 for district heating applications; transport capacity of DH pipes; and recent development of preinsulated pipes in Denmark. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-01-31

6

Heat pumps in district heating and district cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and...

M. Havskjold

1993-01-01

7

District-heating-and-cooling system for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 2 report centers on Detroit Edison's Conners Creek power plant and refinements in the analysis of a combined steam and hot water district heating system supplied from that plant. Because of the changes in the economic climate in the Detroit area and the closing of a number of businesses, the Phase 2 analysis could not be carried on directly from the results of Phase 1.

Not Available

1983-02-01

8

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume III  

SciTech Connect

The technical information in the report, includes staged development of district heating systems, central power station retrofit, intermediate and peaking/backup thermal plants, transmission and distribution, user connections, and alternatives to district heating. Discussion of heat pumps, cooling, waste heat recovery, small cogeneration and/or solid fuel-burning plants, solar alternatives to district heating and nuclear district heating are included.

Not Available

1984-01-31

9

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2, Volume I. Detailed summary. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

The history of the District Heating Study, the project team and the basic scope of the study are described. The load and Service Area Assessment are then described and a summary given of the technical highlights of the proposed district heating system. The three types of heat sources (peaking and back-up plants, intermediate plants and retrofitted central power plant) are described, and the concept of staged development on the European model is introduced. A brief description is given of hot water transmission and distribution and of the use of recovered landfill gas as a low-cost fuel for the initial phase of district heating system development. Operation of various combinations of the three heat sources, at different stages of system development is then described, and month-by-month fuel use for the fully developed system is given. Descriptions are given of user connections (customer interface packages) to convert the district heating system hot water to serve the customer's thermal needs. Both hot water and steam in-house systems are considered. System development is then described in detail including thermal load growth, thermal source construction and transmission and distribution line construction schedules. Next, capital and operating cost estimates are presented, including review of transmission and distribution piping capital costs by Swedish and Danish district heating experts with US construction experience. A financial analysis is then presented for a number of ownership/financing options, and year-by-year cost of heat from district heating is compared with conventional heating (gas furnace in each building) for a number of district heating scenarios. An economic analysis is given showing the 28-year Levelized Annual Minimum Revenue Requirement (LAMRR) for each alternative.

Not Available

1984-01-31

10

The testing of an in-situ district heating and cooling pipe inspection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of the this project is to develop a fully robotic, in-situ method of inspecting and repairing underground District Heating and Cooling pipes and insulation. This project has been divided into three phases: Phase One is considered with development of a simple in-situ defect detection method; Phase Two adds additional sensors for a more complex robotic defect detection

Greb

1989-01-01

11

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984  

SciTech Connect

The potential for district heating was examined in terms of a total (regional) system and two subsystems of overlapping scales. The basis of the economic analysis of district heating was that the utility's electric and gas customers would not be economically burdened by the implementation of district heating, and that any incremental costs due to district heating (e.g. district heating capital and operating costs, replacement electric power, abandonment of unamortized gas mains) would be charged to district heating customers.

Not Available

1984-01-01

12

District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

NONE

1994-12-01

13

Solid oxide fuel cell application in district cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents analysis of the performance of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for district cooling. The cogeneration system is designed to provide cooling for a low-rise residential district of 27,300 RT (96 MWc). A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generates electric power to operate chillers, and the exhaust fuel and heat from the SOFC run gas turbines and absorption chillers. Thermal energy storage is utilized to reduce system capacity. Part-load operation strategies target maximizing energy efficiency. The operation of the system is compared through an hourly simulation to that of packaged air-conditioning units typically used to cool homes. The CCP system with the district cooling arrangement improves the cooling-to-fuel efficiency by 346%. The peak power requirement is reduced by 57% (24 MW) and the total fuel energy is reduced by 54% (750 TJ y-1). The system cuts annual carbon dioxide emissions to less than half and reduces other harmful emissions. A cost analysis of the system components and operation resulted in a 53% reduction in the cost per ton-hour of cooling over traditional systems.

Al-Qattan, Ayman; ElSherbini, Abdelrahman; Al-Ajmi, Kholoud

2014-07-01

14

Operation planning of district heating and cooling plants using genetic algorithms for mixed integer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, an operation planning of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant has been arousing interest as a result of development of cooling load or heat demand prediction methods for district heating and cooling systems. In this paper, we formulate an operation planning of a district heating and cooling plant as a mixed integer linear programming problem. Since

Masatoshi Sakawa; Kosuke Kato; Satoshi Ushiro; Mare Inaoka

2001-01-01

15

Operational planning of district heating and cooling plants through genetic algorithms for mixed 0-1 linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A district heating and cooling system supplies cold water and\\/or steam produced in the corresponding district heating and cooling plant to each of facilities in a certain district. In recent years, the operational planning of district heating and cooling plants has been arousing interest as a result of development of cooling load prediction methods for district heating and cooling systems.

Masatoshi Sakawa; Kosuke Kato; Satoshi Ushiro

2002-01-01

16

District cooling engineering and design program  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

17

Application of solar ponds to district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation is reported of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into new subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas and Washington, DC. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth vs surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs and distribution system costs). Finally, solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat-plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1981-04-01

18

Solar ponds applied to district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation is presented of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into new subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas, and Washington, DC. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth versus surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs, distribution system costs). Finally solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat-plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

Leboeuf, C.M.

1981-01-01

19

District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York  

SciTech Connect

The results of the District Heating/Cooling Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY are presented. The heat source for the system is a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant are developed and heat balances are presented. The options are based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed and the primary potential district heat district is described. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The methodology is presented in detail followed by the block-by-block results which include the heated floor space, the annual total fuel consumed, the annual fuel consumed for comfort use, and the peak heat rate demands. The heating fuel demand and consumption for most of the major industries in the city is presented. A transmission and distribution system is developed to deliver heat from the power plant to the district heating customers. The piping design is described and the proposed pipe routing for the primary district is presented. Cost estimates are presented for the different district heating options developed. The cost of heat from the Jamestown district heating system has been determined using the required revenue approach to determine the minimum rate the utility must charge for district heat in order to break even. An analysis has also been performed to determine the maximum allowable charge for district heat that would allow consumers to recover their retrofit expenses in a five year period.

Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

1982-12-01

20

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

Not Available

1984-01-31

21

District heating and cooling feasibility study, Dunkirk, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to perform a preliminary investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating and cooling (DHC) system in the City of Dunkirk, New York. The study was conducted by first defining a heating and cooling (HC) load service area. Then, questionnaires were sent to prospective DHC customers. After reviewing the owners responses, large consumers of energy were interviewed for more detail of their HC systems, including site visits, to determine possibilities of retrofitting their systems to district heating and cooling. Peak HC loads for the buildings were estimated by Burns and Roe's in-house computer programs. Based on the peak loads, certain customers were determined for suitability as anchor customers. Various options using cogeneration were investigated for possible HC sources. Equipment for HC sources and HC loads were sized and their associated costs estimated. Finally, economic analyses were performed. The conclusion is that it is technically and economically feasible to implement a district heating and cooling system in the City of Dunkirk. 14 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

22

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

Not Available

1984-01-31

23

Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

NONE

1990-04-01

24

Moorhead district heating. Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Moorhead district heating project is to develop a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system that would be owned and operated by the City of Moorhead. The district heating system planned for Moorhead would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers for their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. Phase II provides the information required for the City of Moorhead to make the decision to obtain financial commitment and build the district heating system. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the district heating system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment, development of business plans for construction and operation of the system assumption and rationale documented, and an analysis of the financial impact of alternative economic assumptions. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed. Appendices present information on building conversions (Moorhead State University and Concordia College); heating alternatives for Moorhead State University; an environmental assessment; some district heating communications; and a comparison of alternative technologies to district heating in Moorhead. (MCW)

Sundberg, R.E.

1981-01-01

25

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

Not Available

1984-01-31

26

Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach  

SciTech Connect

On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

NONE

1995-12-01

27

Hydraulic Modeling of Large District Cooling Systems for Master Planning Purposes  

E-print Network

, District Cooling System, Central Chilled Water System, Master Planning, Hydraulic Simulation ABSTRACT District Cooling Systems (DCS) have been widely applied in large institutions such as universities, government facilities, commercial districts... are to be built on campus, chilled water piping will be added to connect them with the existing DCS. The existing DCS hydraulic system may need to be modified to accommodate the new buildings. Accordingly, the total cooling capacity may need to be enlarged...

Xu, C.; Chen, Q.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.

2006-01-01

28

Geothermal district heating and cooling in Vicenza, Italy  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a large low-enthalpy geothermal water reservoir under the city of Vicenza (110,000 people) in northern Italy, through an oil prospecting venture, opened up the opportunity to install a district heating system with low energy consumption. Although the geothermal water is at 67{degrees}C, this is insufficient for heating the city`s commercial and residential buildings using their existing high-temperature heat distribution systems. Heat pumps are, therefore, used to obtain optimum useful heat energy from the geothermal source. Experience so far suggests that the system can reduce energy consumption by up to 60%, or 3885 MWh/year. The 2000 m deep well was completed in 1983 and is the first such well in Italy to be located within an urban area, making it ideal as a heat source for a district heating system. It produces 100 m{sup 3}/h of low salt-content water. The {open_quotes}Vicenza{close_quotes} geothermal heating and cooling project was developed by {open_quotes}Aziende Industriali Muncipalizzate{close_quotes} from 1988 to 1991, a utility company owned by the city of Vicenza, with the purpose of distributing approximately 40,000 MWh year to residential and commercial buildings. The project includes the installation of a power plant, and a district heating and cooling network. A reduction in the consumption of conventional fuels both for heating and domestic water has been achieved through a highly-efficient thermodynamic system based on reversible heat pumps. The system provides heating in the winter and air conditioning in summer.

Leoni, P. [AIM, Vicenza (Italy)

1995-06-01

29

Operation planning of district heating and cooling plants through genetic algorithms for nonlinear 0–1 programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the operation planning of district heating and cooling plants has been arousing interest as a result of development of cooling load prediction methods for district heating and cooling systems. In this paper, we formulate an operation planning problem of a district heating and cooling plant as a nonlinear 0–1 programming problem. Realizing that there does not exist

S. Ushiro

2001-01-01

30

Proceedings of the seventy-seventh annual conference of the International District Heating and Cooling Association  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on district heating and cooling. Topics considered at the conference included efficient heat distribution systems, district heating piping, construction, expansion joints, satellites, engineering feasibility studies, financing, fuel flexibility, a wood waste-fired cogeneration plant, economics, reliability improvement programs, legal aspects, and district heating maintenance.

Not Available

1986-01-01

31

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9[degrees]C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

32

St. Paul -West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.  

E-print Network

St. Paul - West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building) 960 N/A N/A N/A N/A Peters Hall 372 4/24/2013 N/A N/A Plant Growth Facility - East (MAES/MDA High Clearance Greenhouse)485 5/6/2013 N/A N/A Plant Growth Facility - West (Phase II) 369 N/A N/A Pomeroy Center

Webb, Peter

33

Two phase cooling for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

Comments on the use of two phase helium in a closed circuit tubular cooling system and some results obtained with the TPC superconducting magnet are given. Theoretical arguments and experimental evidence are given against a previously suggested method to determine helium two phase flow regimes. Two methods to reduce pressure in the magnet cooling tubes during quenches are discussed; (1) lowering the density of helium in the magnet cooling tubes and (2) proper location of pressure relief valves. Some techniques used to protect the refrigerator from too much cold return gas are also mentioned. 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Watt, R.D.

1986-01-01

34

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-print Network

for the operation management. It can be concluded that the district cooling system not only can save energy and protect the environment, but also is economically feasible. It should be developed and popularized in China because of its significant advantages....

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01

35

Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01

36

Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

Not Available

1991-09-30

37

The testing of an in-situ district heating and cooling pipe inspection method  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the this project is to develop a fully robotic, in-situ method of inspecting and repairing underground District Heating and Cooling pipes and insulation. This project has been divided into three phases: Phase One is considered with development of a simple in-situ defect detection method; Phase Two adds additional sensors for a more complex robotic defect detection system; and Phase Three adds tools to effect the in-situ repair of both pipes and insulation. This paper is concerned with Phase One of the project, and describes an infrared camera-based defect detection system. A skid is pulled through the pipeline by a calibrated cable drive while an infrared camera scans the pipe with a rotating mirror. Results are logged with a stripchart recorder. The probe was capable of mapping lost insulation, holes, pipe laterals, and insulation gaps. The maximum speed for the probe was 10 feet/min, though more accurate sensors should improve this.

Greb, W.J.

1989-11-16

38

District Heating and Cooling feasibility study, Salt Lake City, Utah: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following is a general description of the Burns and Roe study of District Heating and Cooling Feasibility for Salt Lake City, Utah. The study assesses District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and develops a conceptual district system for Salt Lake City. In assessing District Heating and Cooling in Salt Lake City, the system conceived is evaluated to determine whether it is technically and economically viable. To determine technical viability, aspects such as implementation, pipe routing, and environmental restrictions are reviewed to foresee any technical problems that would arise as a result of DHC. To determine economic feasibility, the conceived system is priced to determine the capital cost to construct, and modeled in an economic analysis using anticipated operating and fuel costs to produce the required revenue necessary to run the system. Technical and Economic feasibility are predicated on many variables, including heating and cooling load, pipe routing, system implementation, and fuel costs. These variables have been investigated and demonstrate a substantial potential for DHC in Salt Lake City. Areas of consideration include the Downtown Area, Metropolitan Hall of Justice and surrounding area, and the Hotel District.

Not Available

1988-09-09

39

District Heating and Cooling Feasiblity Study, Salt Lake City, Utah: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following is a general description of the Burns and Roe study of District Heating and Cooling Feasibility for Salt Lake City, Utah. The study assesses District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and develops a conceptual district system for Salt Lake city. In assessing District Heating and Cooling in Salt Lake City, the system conceived is evaluated to determine whether it is technically and economically viable. To determine technical viability, aspects such as implementation, pipe routing, and environmental restrictions are reviewed to foresee any technical problems that would arise as a result of DHC. To determine economic feasibility, the conceived system is priced to determine the capital cost to construct, and modeled in an economic analysis using anticipated operating and fuel costs to produce the required revenue necessary to run the system. Technical and Economic feasibility are predicated on many variables, including heating and cooling load, pipe routing, system implementation, and fuel costs. These variables have been investigated and demonstrate a substantial potential for DHC in Salt Lake City. Areas of consideration include the Downtown Area, Metropolitan Hall of Justice and surrounding area, and the Hotel District.

Not Available

1988-09-09

40

Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California  

SciTech Connect

Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

Frederick, J.

1982-01-01

41

District cooling engineering and design program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The operation and performance of a system using large commercial heat pumps to heat and cool two public buildings are reported. One of the buildings houses local government offices and the other the jail. The system uses the underground salt water at the site as the energy exchange medium. Included are: the operations summary, system performance, operating procedures, and operating modes. (MHR)

Not Available

1992-09-01

42

Two phase cooling for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

A closed circuit tubular cooling system for superconducting magnets offers advantages of limiting boiloff and containing high pressures during quenches. Proper location of automatic valves to lower pressures and protect the refrigerator in the event of quenches is described. Theoretical arguments and exprimental evidence are given against a previously suggested method to determine He two phase flow regimes. If loss of flow occurs due to some types of refrigeration failure and transfer lines have enough heat leak to warm up, quenches are induced when the flow is restored. Examples are taken from experience with the TPC magnet.

Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Watt, R.D.

1985-08-01

43

A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-01-04

44

District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.

Not Available

1994-03-01

45

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-7-4 Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research Wencheng Zhang Wenji Guan Yungang Pan Gao Ding... Xiaochun Song Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer Senior Engineer China Architecture design & research Group Beijing, China mep-h@263.net Yali Zhang Ying Li Hang Wei Yuping He Engineer Engineer Engineer Senior...

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01

46

The Department of Energy District Heating and Cooling program: A decade (1982--1992) of accomplishments  

SciTech Connect

District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems have evolved over an extended period of time within a complex economic, political, social and technical community. Developers and customers from the public and private sectors have worked together, often in fragmented and piecemeal efforts, to develop new or improve old district heating and cooling systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) works in partnership with industry and the utility sector to develop technological improvements for DHC systems. DOE also works with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), other federal agencies, state and local governments, universities, private industry, professional societies, trade as associations, and individuals to increase the market adoption rate of energy-efficient and cost-effective DHC systems. The current status report of activities includes on of projects such as the ice slurries field test effort to be completed in 1995/1996, planned by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in conjunction with Northern States Power and EPRI; and cost- studies in eight cities for detailed engineering and design of cooling systems scheduled to be completed in September, 1993. Several projects which are currently ongoing are: the DHC market potential estimation study that is being developed by ANL, the DHC/C study conducted by ORNL, and the DHC feasibility assessments to be performed in conjunction with the Georgia Tech University in connection with the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta.

Not Available

1992-12-01

47

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

48

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

Zakin, J.L.

1991-12-01

49

District heating and cooling assessment for the city of Ogden, Utah: Final report  

SciTech Connect

District heating and cooling (DHC) is the process of supplying thermal energy in the form of hot water, steam, or chilled water from one or more central plants through a pipe distribution network to multiple customers. The thermal energy is used by the customers for space and water heating, space cooling, or industrial process requirements. During the past several decades the technologies and development of district heating systems have been relegated to providing steam to industries, university campuses, and military installations. There are also aging steam systems supplying energy to central business districts in some of the larger urban centers, primarily in the Northeast and Midwest. Meanwhile, European cities have developed modern and efficient systems using hot water serving entire cities. Since the 1972--1974 oil embargo, a better understanding of the role energy plays in urban areas has emerged. Ogden City has recognized this role and begun to identify methodologies and technologies that will allow the city to better manage its energy future. As part of the city's strategy, an Energy Task Force was established in 1981 by the Ogden City Council to study energy use in the community. A comprehensive energy plan developed by the Task Force was formally adopted by the Council in 1982 and made a part of the city's comprehensive plan. A twelve member Energy Commission was also established at this time to meet periodically and work toward implementing the goals of the plan on a community wide basis. A copy of the Energy Plan can be found as Appendix 1. 53 figs.

Not Available

1986-10-01

50

Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the research on a novel floating refrigerant loop that cools high-power electronic devices and the motor/generator with very low cooling energy. The loop can be operated independently or attached to the air conditioning system of the vehicle to share the condenser and other mutually needed components. The ability to achieve low cooling energy in the floating loop is attributable to the liquid refrigerant operating at its hot saturated temperature (around 50 C+). In an air conditioning system, the liquid refrigerant is sub-cooled for producing cool air to the passenger compartment. The ORNL floating loop avoids the sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant and saves significant cooling energy. It can raise the coefficient of performance (COP) more than 10 fold from that of the existing air-conditioning system, where the COP is the ratio of the cooled power and the input power for dissipating the cooled power. In order to thoroughly investigate emerging two-phase cooling technologies, ORNL subcontracted three university/companies to look into three leading two-phase cooling technologies. ORNL's assessments on these technologies are summarized in Section I. Detailed descriptions of the reports by the three university/companies (subcontractors) are in Section II.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-08-17

51

An Interactive Fuzzy Satisficing Method for Multiobjective Operation Planning in District Heating and Cooling Plants through Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the operation planning of district heating and cooling (DHC) plants has drawn considerable attention as a result of development of heat load prediction methods for DHC systems. In the present paper, we formulate an operation planning problem of an actual DHC plant as a multiobjective nonlinear programming problem. For the formulated multiobjective nonlinear programming problem, we attempt

Takeshi Matsui; Kosuke Kato; Masatoshi Sakawa; Satoshi Ushiro; Toshihiro Shibano

52

Operation planning of district heating and cooling plants using genetic algorithms for mined 0-1 linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors formulate the operational planning of a district heating and cooling plant as a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem. Since the formulated problem involves hundreds of variables, they anticipate that it is difficult to obtain a strict optimal solution to the problem. Thereby, they propose an approximate solution method based on genetic algorithms. Furthermore, they investigate

M. Sakawa; K. Kato; S. Ushiro

2000-01-01

53

Static characteristics of equilibrium two-phase transpiration cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem is formulated on steady two-phase cooling of a homogeneous porous plate. A close relationship is shown to exist between thermal and hydrodynamic components of the process governed by a nonlinear closed system of differential equations. The laws of filtration movement of a coolant with its phase conversions inside a porous wall are analysed. On the basis of the

A. V. Luikov; L. L. Vasiliev; V. A. Maiorov

1975-01-01

54

Two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to cool power electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight

Jeremy B. Campbell; Leon M. Tolbert; Curt W. Ayers; Burak Ozpineci

2005-01-01

55

Optimization of the engineering design for the Lansing District Cooling System by comparative analysis of the impact of advanced technologies on a conventional design approach. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Lansing Board of Water and Light (LBWL) began investigating development of a cooling district in the Lansing Downtown in 1989 in order to retain and build summer load for its steam utility. A feasibility study was conducted in conjunction with SFT, Inc. and ZBA, Inc. which addressed many factors such as marketability of the product, impact on the summer steam load, distribution system development, system design, probable capital and operating costs, reliability and environmental and other regulatory impacts on a preliminary feasibility basis. The Phase I study completed in September of 1989 provided highly promising results for establishing a District Cooling System (DCS). An existing chilled water production facility owned by the State of Michigan was identified as a potential location for a DCS plant. With these changes a review of the feasibility with a new set of alternatives and sensitivities was evaluated. This enhancement to the Phase I Study was nearing completion when the LBWL in conjunction with Energy, Mines and Resources Canada proposed to conduct the Phase II project in conjunction with DOE. The project was structured to proceed along a dual track to demonstrate the impact of the application of various innovative technologies.

Not Available

1994-02-01

56

District heating in Columbus Riverfront Development: A project report for District Heating and Cooling Assessment Program: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

In 1984, the City of Columbus, building on the results of previous district heating assessments funded by both the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Danish Ministry of Energy, began a survey of the potential for district heating systems in its downtown and riverfront areas. Of particular interest was the potential for refurbishing an old municipal electric plant on the northwest fringe of the downtown as a heat source for a riverfront area targeted for redevelopment. This report describes the background, assumptions, methodology, and conclusions of that assessment. It must be said at the outset that some questions remain unanswered.

Davis, R.C.

1986-01-01

57

Cooling of Compact Stars with Color Superconducting Phase in Quark-hadron Mixed Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M >= 1.5 M ?, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki

2013-03-01

58

High Heat Flux Two-Phase Cooling in Silicon Multimicrochannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents performances of two-phase cooling of a chip at very high heat flux with refrigerant R236fa in a silicon multimicrochannel heat sink. This heat sink was composed of 134 parallel channels, 67 mum wide, 680 mum high, and 20 mm long, with 92- mum -thick fins separating the channels. The base heat flux was varied from 3 to

Bruno Agostini; John Richard Thome; Matteo Fabbri; Bruno Michel

2008-01-01

59

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01

60

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

SciTech Connect

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01

61

Phase Transitions in Nucleonic Matter and Neutron-Star Cooling  

E-print Network

A new scenario for neutron-star cooling is proposed, based on the correspondence between pion condensation, occurring in neutron matter due to critical spin-isospin fluctuations, and the metal-insulator phase transition in a two-dimensional electron gas. Beyond the threshold density for pion condensation, where neutron-star matter loses its spatial homogeneity, the neutron single-particle spectrum acquires an insulating gap that quenches neutron contributions to neutrino-production reactions and to the star's specific heat. In the liquid phase at densities below the transition point, spin-isospin fluctuations are found to play dual roles. On the one hand, they lead to a multi-sheeted neutron Fermi surface that extends to low momenta, thereby activating the normally forbidden direct-Urca cooling mechanism; on the other, they amplify the nodeless $P$-wave neutron superfluid gap while suppressing $S$-wave pairing. In this picture, lighter stars without a pion-condensed core experience slow cooling, while enhanced cooling occurs in heavier stars through direct-Urca emission from a narrow shell of the interior.

V. A. Khodel; J. W. Clark; M. Takano; M. V. Zverev

2004-02-22

62

Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

Not Available

1991-09-30

63

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

64

The CERES S'COOL Project: Development and Operational Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, the first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft from the Tanegashima launch site in Japan in November 1997. The instrument will measure the radiation budget incoming and outgoing radiant energy - of the Earth. The major feature of interest is clouds, which play a very strong role in regulating our climate. CERES will identify clear and cloudy regions and determine cloud physical and microphysical properties using imager data from a companion instrument. Validation efforts for the remote sensing algorithms will be intensive. As one component of the validation, the S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) project will involve school children around the globe in making ground truth measurements at the time of a CERES overpass. They will report cloud type, height, fraction, and opacity, as well as the local surface conditions. Their observations will be collected at the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and made available over the Internet for educational purposes as well as for use by the CERES Science Team in validation efforts. Pilot testing of the S'COOL project began in January 1997 with two local schools in Southeastern Virginia and one remote site in Montana. National testing in April 1997 involved 8 schools (grades 3 to high school) across the United States. Global testing will be carried out in October 1997. Details of the S'COOL project, which is mainly Internet-based, are being developed in each of these phases according to feedback received from participants. In 1998, when the CERES instrument is operational, a global observer network should be in place providing useful information to the scientists and learning opportunities to the students. Broad participation in the S'COOL project is planned, both to obtain data from a wide range of geographic areas, and to involve as many students as possible in learning about clouds and atmospheric science. This paper reports on the development phase of the S'COOL project, including the reaction of the teachers and students who have been involved. It describes the operational state of the S'COOL network, and identifies opportunities for additional participants.

Chambers, Lin H.; Young, David F.; Racel, Anne M.

1998-01-01

65

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

66

The University of Minnesota saves approximately $3 million annually as a result of district cooling,  

E-print Network

eco-friendly products. The district unit's efficiency means they use less energy. Cost Savings Annual them, versus servicing stand-alone units scattered throughout campus. The larger units run more and discard it outside. Aging Infrastructure By 2007, more than 40% of campus chillers had been in operation

Webb, Peter

67

The effect of moisture content on the performance of polyurethane insulation used on a district heating and cooling pipe  

SciTech Connect

The performance of polyurethane pipe insulation used in district heating and cooling subjected to underground water attack has been investigated. The objectives of the experiment were to measure the effective thermal conductivity and the moisture absorption rate of polyurethane pipe insulation under conditions similar to those found in operating systems that have failed and to determine the drying rate and the extent to which the insulation can be dried out once the source of moisture is removed. The insulation was tested at pipe fluid temperatures from 35 F to 260 F (1.6 C to 126.6 C). The surrounding water was maintained at temperatures from 46 F to 100 F (7.7 C to 37.7 C) to simulate the possible conduit water temperatures. Under heated conditions, water absorption continued for 70 days before a steady state was reached. The effective thermal conductivity of the wet polyurethane is 14 to 19 times higher compared with the dry insulation values. Under cooled conditions, water absorption was completed in seven days. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated polyurethane was 50% to 200% higher than that of the dry polyurethane and was typically only about 10% of the value under heated conditions. For both heated and cooled conditions, the increased effective thermal conductivity during submersion demonstrated the tendency to return to the value before submersion after drying.

Chyu, M.C. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zeng, X.; Ye, L. [Nartron Corp., Reed City, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

68

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01

69

Proposed renovation of a district cooling plant to optimize the existing distribution system and increase production capacity  

SciTech Connect

The phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) production in January 1996 is making district cooling (DC) an increasingly popular alternative to chiller retrofits and replacements. By connecting to a DC system, building owners and managers can focus on issues other than chilled-water production, thus liberating personnel, space, and financial resources for other important functions. A San Diego company has been serving the downtown business district of San Diego with reliable DC service since 1971. The existing system presently serves nine customers and, based on the current system plant pumping configuration, requires modifications in order to handle additional capacity. They are interested in signing on additional customers in the near future but cannot due to the limitations of the existing distribution system. This paper addresses modifications recommended to the company based on a hydraulic analysis and conceptual design completed in June 1995. The results of the analysis increased system distribution capacity from 5,245 tons (19.9 MW{sub th}) to almost 18,000 tons (62.9 MW{sub th}), while maintaining the present pipe system sizes. Investigations to increase plant capacity was not part of the scope of this paper since the focus was on the distribution system.

Tredinnick, S.M. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1998-12-31

70

Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling

2005-01-01

71

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

1985-04-01

72

Operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a large superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a two meter diameter superconducting solenoid. The magnet is a thin high current density superconducting solenoid which is cooled by forced two phase helium in tubes around the coil. The magnet, which is 2.18 meters in diameter and 3.4 meters long, has a cold mass of 1700 kg. The two phase cooling system contains less than 300 liters of liquid helium, most of which is contained in a control dewar. This paper describes the operating characteristics of the LBL two phase forced cooling system during cooldown and warm up. The paper presents experimental data on operations of the magnet using either a helium pump or the refrigerator compressor to circulate two phase helium through the superconducting coil cooling tubes.

Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.H.; Pripstein, M.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.

1980-05-01

73

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS  

E-print Network

cooling circuit consists of a cool plate for the power components, a heat exchanger to reject the heat and fabrication of micro-channels have been Power Components on µ-Channel - Structure Reservoir Heat Exchanger noise. Pump designs have been proposed to meet these requirements, being modu- lar though [11]. Pumps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

District heating/cooling assessment for the city of Richmond, Indiana. Final report, 1981-82  

SciTech Connect

The city of Richmond owns and operates the Richmond Power and Light Company-its electric utility. This is a coal fired plant with diesel generators for peaking service. Several heat islands have been identified, the most likely one for an early start of a district heating system consists of two large commercial greenhouses 7-10 acres of glass; these are located about 1,000 feet west of the Richmond State Hospital, which has considerable excess boiler capacity. Both facilities operate on about 150 pounds of steam pressure, and are completely compatible. The path of a connecting steam line is through public land which is nearly level and without any serious obstructions. The hospital boilers are coal fired, the greenhouses use oil. Calculations have established that the coal produced steam costs about 27% of that produced by oil. There is every incentive for both parties to cooperate. Problems still to be solved are emission controls for the coal fired plant, and some legal matters to authorize the state hospital to become a steam supplier for commercial interests. Both are considered to be attainable but require further consideration.

Hanselman, W.; Wade, D.

1982-09-01

75

Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics  

SciTech Connect

Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

2005-12-01

76

The district heating renaissance  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the expanding market for district heating and cooling systems as part of independent cogeneration systems. The topics of the article include expanding systems, future potential, government help, cogeneration, district cooling expanding, absorption chilling, indoor air quality, and institutional barriers to the expanding market. The article also includes a sidebar on Denmark's district heating systems.

Seeley, R.S.

1992-09-01

77

Effect of Continuous Cooling on Secondary Phase Precipitation in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel ZERON-100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of secondary phases in super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a subject of great relevance owing to their dangerous effects on both mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. This paper examines the effect of continuous cooling after solution annealing treatment on secondary phase precipitation in the ZERON-100 SDSS. It considers the influence of cooling rate on volume fraction, morphology and chemical composition. It has been found that the formation of sigma and chi phases can be avoided only at cooling rates higher than 0.7 °C/s. In addition, at the lowest cooling rate the sigma phase amount approaches the equilibrium value, but the chi phase amount remains significantly low.

Calliari, Irene; Bassani, Paola; Brunelli, Katya; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio

2013-12-01

78

Effect of cooling baths on EVOH microporous membrane structures in thermally induced phase separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of cooling bath on the membrane preparation of crystalline polymer\\/diluent system via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS), when the cooling bath is compatible with the diluent. In this work, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)\\/PEG300 system with water and methanol as the cooling baths was proposed. Results showed that when water was used

Jing Zhou; Heng Zhang; Haitao Wang; Qiangguo Du

2009-01-01

79

MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Phase Space Cooling Measurement  

SciTech Connect

MICE is an experimental demonstration of muon ionization cooling using a section of an ionization cooling channel and a muon beam. The muons are produced by the decay of pions from a target dipping into the ISIS proton beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The channel includes liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing transverse and longitudinal momentum loss and high-gradient radiofrequency (RF) cavities for longitudinal reacceleration, all packed into a solenoidal magnetic channel. MICE will reduce the beam transverse emittance by about 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. Time-of-flight (TOF) counters, threshold Cherenkov counters, and a calorimeter will identify background electrons and pions. Spectrometers before and after the cooling section will measure the beam transmission and input and output emittances with an absolute precision of 0.1%.

Hart, T. L. [University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

2010-03-30

80

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01

81

Improved avionics reliability through phase change conductive cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that, in the case of aircraft type weapons systems, two major limitations to system reliability and availability are related to avionics thermal management and electrical interconnects. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for improving avionics reliability. Attention is given to the impact of thermal management, direct refrigerant cooling (DRC), aspects of modular standardization, the

R. A. Morrison

1982-01-01

82

Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.  

PubMed

A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR. PMID:23210742

Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

2013-01-01

83

Asymmetric oscillations during phase separation under continuous cooling: A simple model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the phase separation of binary mixtures under continuous cooling using the Cahn-Hilliard equation including the effect of gravity. In our simple model, sedimentation is accounted for by instantaneously ``removing'' droplets from the supersaturated mixture into the coexisting phase once the droplets have reached a defined maximum size. Our model predicts an oscillatory variation of turbidity. Depending on the composition, either both phases oscillate (symmetric oscillations) or only one of the phases oscillates (asymmetric oscillations). In the asymmetric case, droplet sedimentation from the majority phase into the minority phase reduces supersaturation in the minority phase. This inhibits droplet formation in the minority phase. The cooling rate dependence of the period agrees with experimental results.

Hayase, Yumino; Kobayashi, Mika; Vollmer, Doris; Pleiner, Harald; Auernhammer, Günter K.

2008-11-01

84

CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

2008-06-19

85

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15

86

Planning for Quality Schools: Meeting the Needs of District Families. Phase One: Understanding Current School Supply and Student Enrollment Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first phase of a three-part Quality Schools Project to help the District of Columbia create a firm analytical basis for planning for quality schools to meet the needs of the city's families. The Quality School Project is a joint effort of the DC Office of the State Superintendent of Education, the 21st Century School Fund, the…

Garrison, David; Allen, Marni; Turner, Margery; Comey, Jennifer; Williams, Barika; Guernsey, Elizabeth; Filardo, Mary; Huvendick, Nancy; Sung, Ping

2008-01-01

87

Decay Phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares  

E-print Network

In this paper, the cooling of 72 M- and X-class flares is examined using GOES/XRS and SDO/EVE. The observed cooling rates are quantified and the observed total cooling times are compared to the predictions of an analytical 0-D hydrodynamic model. It is found that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy as calculated with GOES. This decay phase heating is found to scale with the observed peak thermal energy. It is predicted that approximating the total thermal energy from the peak is minimally affected by the decay phase heating in small flares. However, in the most energetic flares the decay phase heating inferred from the model can be several times greater than the peak the...

Ryan, Daniel F; Milligan, Ryan O; Gallgher, Peter T

2014-01-01

88

Jets and rotary flows for single-phase liquid cooling: An overview of some recent experimental findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-phase liquid cooling is increasingly being deployed to cool high power, high heat flux electronic components such as microprocessors. In a conventional liquid cooling loop, the primary heat exchanger represents a key design challenge as this is typically subject to stringent constraints on footprint area and profile. This paper presents some experimental findings for two classes of flows of relevance

R. Grimes; N. Jeffers; D. Kearney

2010-01-01

89

Thermal protection of vehicle payloads using phase change materials and liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground combat vehicles may contain sensitive computational and communication equipment which produce heat that must be dissipated from the interior compartment. A need exists to introduce a cooling system to remove payload heat that offers acceptable performance and design packaging for harsh operating environments. This paper introduces a coolant rail augmented with phase change material heat sinks to isolate the

Joshua Finn; David J. Ewing; Lin Ma; John Wagner

2010-01-01

90

Transition from radiatively inefficient to cooling dominated phase in two temperature accretion disks around black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the transition of a radiatively inefficient phase of a viscous two temperature accreting flow to a cooling dominated phase and vice versa around black holes. Based on a global sub-Keplerian accretion disk model in steady state, including explicit cooling processes self-consistently, we show that general advective accretion flow passes through various phases during its infall towards a black hole. Bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and inverse Comptonization of soft photons are considered as possible cooling mechanisms. Hence the flow governs a much lower electron temperature ~ 108 - 109.5 K compared to the hot protons of temperature ~ 1010 2 - 1011.8 K in the range of the accretion rate in Eddington units 0.01 lesssim dot M lesssim 100. Therefore, the solutions may potentially explain the hard X-rays and the ?-rays emitted from AGNs and X-ray binaries. We finally compare the solutions for two different regimes of viscosity and conclude that a weakly viscous flow is expected to be cooling dominated compared to its highly viscous counterpart which is radiatively inefficient. The flow is successfully able to reproduce the observed luminosities of the under-fed AGNs and quasars (e.g. Sgr A*), ultra-luminous X-ray sources (e.g. SS433), as well as the highly luminous AGNs and ultra-luminous quasars (e.g. PKS 0743-67) at different combinations of the mass accretion rate and ratio of specific heats.

Sinha, Monika; Rajesh, S. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

2009-12-01

91

Contrasting patterns of hydrological changes in Europe in response to Holocene climate cooling phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative reconstruction of climatic parameters from pollen and lake-level data obtained at Saint-Jorioz, Lake Annecy (eastern France), gives evidence for cooler and wetter conditions during the 8.2 ka cold event. A comparison of these regional data with other hydrological records reconstructed in Europe for the same period suggests, as a working hypothesis, that mid-latitudes between ca 50° and 43° underwent wetter conditions in response to the cooling, whereas northern and southern Europe were marked by drier climate, in the latter case leading to an interruption of the sapropel 1 formation in the Mediterranean. A similar hydrological tri-partition of Europe can be observed during other Holocene cooling phases associated with North Atlantic IRD events. Data indicate, that the middle zone characterised by wetter climate conditions could have had a more extended latitudinal amplitude during phases of climate cooling weaker than the 8.2 ka event. The differences in expansion of the wet mid-European zone depending on Holocene climate cooling phases could reflect variations in the strength of the Atlantic Westerly Jet in relation with the thermal gradient between high and low latitudes.

Magny, Michel; Bégeot, Carole; Guiot, Joël; Peyron, Odile

2003-07-01

92

Two-phase cooling system with a jet pump for spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-phase cooling system with a jet pump is proposed for the thermal control of spacecraft. The system does not require an external source of energy, the pumping of the working fluid is performed by the work that is produced in a thermodynamic cycle being carried out in the heat transport loop. The cooling system has no moving parts or control devices, with the exception of a mechanical pump and an actuated valve, that are used only for the startup sequence. This article reports on the results of the theoretical and experimental studies of the two-phase thermal control system with a jet pump for spacecraft application. A mathematical model for the steady-state analysis of the proposed system was developed. The model was applied to predict overall performance characteristics and operating range for a specific spacecraft two-phase cooling system. The possible reasons for the fluid loop operation failures were identified. The influence of the accumulator volume on the system characteristics was also investigated. Three jet pumps of various configurations were tested and stable operational regimes of the cooling system were obtained under different heat-load and heat-rejection conditions on a ground experimental facility.

Fairuzov, Yuri V.; Bredikhin, Victor V.

1995-04-01

93

Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

2013-12-01

94

Transformation behavior of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under continuous cooling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selected alloy for designing a high-density monolithic-type nuclear fuel with U-Zr-Nb alloy as meat and Zry-4 as cladding, has to remain in the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase during the whole fabrication process. Therefore, it is necessary to define a range of concentrations in which the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase does not decompose under the process conditions. In this work, several U alloys with concentrations between 28.2-66.9 at.% Zr and 0-13.3 at.% Nb were fabricated to study the possible transformations of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase under different continuous cooling conditions. The results of the electrical resistivity vs temperature experiments are presented. For a cooling rate of 4 °C/min a linear regression was determined by fitting the starting decomposition temperature as a function of Nb concentration. Under these conditions, a concentration of 45.3 at.% Nb would be enough to avoid any transformation of the ?U(Zr,Nb) phase. In experiments that involve higher cooling conditions, it has been determined that this concentration can be halved.

Komar Varela, C. L.; Gribaudo, L. M.; González, R. O.; Aricó, S. F.

2014-10-01

95

Cool Shelter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

Praeger, Charles E.

2005-01-01

96

Free cooling phase-diagram of hard-spheres with short- and long-range interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability, the clustering and the phase-diagram of free cooling granular gases. The systems consist of mono-disperse particles with additional non-contact (long-range) interactions, and are simulated here by the event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm with discrete (short-range shoulders or wells) potentials (in both 2D and 3D). Astonishingly good agreement is found with a mean field theory, where only the energy dissipation term is modified to account for both repulsive or attractive non-contact interactions. Attractive potentials enhance cooling and structure formation (clustering), whereas repulsive potentials reduce it, as intuition suggests. The system evolution is controlled by a single parameter: the non-contact potential strength scaled by the fluctuation kinetic energy (granular temperature). When this is small, as expected, the classical homogeneous cooling state is found. However, if the effective dissipation is strong enough, structure formation proceeds, before (in the repulsive case) non-contact forces get strong enough to undo the clustering (due to the ongoing dissipation of granular temperature). For both repulsive and attractive potentials, in the homogeneous regime, the cooling shows a universal behaviour when the (inverse) control parameter is used as evolution variable instead of time. The transition to a non-homogeneous regime, as predicted by stability analysis, is affected by both dissipation and potential strength. This can be cast into a phase diagram where the system changes with time, which leaves open many challenges for future research.

Gonzalez, S.; Thornton, A. R.; Luding, S.

2014-10-01

97

The evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in 2HDM during cooling of Universe  

E-print Network

We consider the evolution of the ground state in the Two Higgs Doublet Model during cooling down of the Universe after the Big Bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

I. F. Ginzburg; I. P. Ivanov; K. A. Kanishev

2009-11-12

98

VIBRATION-INDUCED TWO-PHASE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH POWER THERMAL MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two technologies for cooling of high-heat flux microelectronics based on enhanced phase-change are described. The first technology is based on a submerged vibration-induced bubble ejection process in which small vapor bubbles that form on and are attached to a submerged heated solid surface are dislodged and propelled into the cooler bulk liquid. This ejection technique involves forced removal of the

S. Heffington; A. Glezer; S. Tillery; M. Smith

2004-01-01

99

Decay-phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic modelling is a well established and important field in understanding the evolution of solar flares. However, in order to be of greatest use the results of such models must be compared to statistically significant samples of flare observations. In this talk we observationally investigate the hydrodynamic decay phase evolution of 72 M- and X-class flares using GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE and Hinode/XRT and quantify their cooling rates. The results are then compared to the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES/XRS. This suggests that the energy released during the decay phase may be as significant as that released during the rise phase.

Ryan, Daniel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Gallagher, Peter T

2014-06-01

100

Robie House. Phase II report. Recommendations for cooling and ventilation, restoration of doors and windows, refrigerated cooling retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort is to provide the building owner, the University of Chicago, with recommendations for cooling. Natural ventilation is the preferred method as long as it can meet the needs of a modern office. This is especially attractive given the natural cooling design features mentioned by Frank Lloyd Wright scholars and confirmed by this research.

Not Available

1986-04-30

101

The Late Jurassic Tithonian, a greenhouse phase in the Middle JurassicEarly Cretaceous `cool' mode: evidence from the cyclic  

E-print Network

The Late Jurassic Tithonian, a greenhouse phase in the Middle Jurassic­Early Cretaceous `cool' mode of cyclic facies within the rapidly subsiding Late Jurassic (Tithonian) shallow platform-interior (over 750), supporting a global, hot greenhouse climate for the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) within the overall `cool' mode

Husinec, Antun

102

Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode gold district, Tuolumne County, California  

SciTech Connect

Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain approx. 20-1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the Clio mine and nearby outcrops which contain goethite or jarosite. As is concentrated up to 2150 ppm in the fine-grained (<63 mu-m) fraction of these Fe-rich weathering products. Individual pyrite grains in albite-chlorite schists of the Clio mine tailings contain an average of 1.2 wt. percent As. Pyrite grains are coarsely zoned, with local As concentrations ranging from approx. 0 to 5 wt. percent. Electron microprobe, transmission electron microscope, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) analyses indicate that As substitutes for S in pyrite and is not p resent as inclusions of arsenopyrite or other As-bearing phases. Comparison with simulated EXAFS spectra demonstrates that As atoms are locally clustered in the pyrite lattice and that the unit cell of arsenian pyrite is expanded by approx. 2.6 percent relative to pure pyrite. During weathering, clustered substitution of As into pyrite may be responsible for accelerating oxidation, hydrolysis, and dissolution of arsenian pyrite relative to pure pyrite in weathered tailings. Arsenic K-edge EXAFS analysis of the fine-grained Fe-rich weathering products are consistent with corner-sharing between As(V) tetrahedra and Fe(III)-octahedra. Determinations of nearest-neighbor distances and atomic identities, generated from least-squares fitting algorithms to spectral data, indicate that arsenate tetrahedra are sorbed on goethite mineral surfaces but substitute for SO4 in jarosite. Erosional transport of As-bearing goethite and jarosite to Don Pedro Reservoir increases the potential for As mobility and bioavailability by desorption or dissolution. Both the substrate minerals and dissolved As species are expected to respond to seasonal changes in lake chemistry caused by thermal stratification and turnover within the monomictic Don Pedro Reservoir. Arsenic is predicted to be most bioavailable and toxic in the reservoir's summer hypolimnion.

Savage, K.S.; Tingle, Tracy N.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Bird, Dennis K.

2004-10-27

103

Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode gold district, Tuolumne County, California  

SciTech Connect

Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain approx. 20-1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the Clio mine and nearby outcrops which contain goethite or jarosite. As is concentrated up to 2150 ppm in the fine-grained (<63 mu-m) fraction of these Fe-rich weathering products. Individual pyrite grains in albite-chlorite schists of the Clio mine tailings contain an average of 1.2 wt. percent As. Pyrite grains are coarsely zoned, with local As concentrations ranging from approx. 0 to 5 wt. percent. Electron microprobe, transmission electron microscope, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) analyses indicate that As substitutes for S in pyrite and is not present as inclusions of arsenopyrite or other As-bearing phases. Comparison with simulated EXAFS spectra demonstrates that As atoms are locally clustered in the pyrite lattice and that the unit cell of arsenian pyrite is expanded by approx. 2.6 percent relative to pure pyrite. During weathering, clustered substitution of As into pyrite may be responsible for accelerating oxidation, hydrolysis, and dissolution of arsenian pyrite relative to pure pyrite in weathered tailings. Arsenic K-edge EXAFS analysis of the fine-grained Fe-rich weathering products are consistent with corner-sharing between As(V) tetrahedra and Fe(III)-octahedra. Determinations of nearest-neighbor distances and atomic identities, generated from least-squares fitting algorithms to spectral data, indicate that arsenate tetrahedra are sorbed on goethite mineral surfaces but substitute for SO4 in jarosite. Erosional transport of As-bearing goethite and jarosite to Don Pedro Reservoir increases the potential for As mobility and bioavailability by desorption or dissolution. Both the substrate minerals and dissolved As species are expected to respond to seasonal changes in lake chemistry caused by thermal stratification and turnover within the monomictic Don Pedro Reservoir. Arsenic is predicted to be most bioavailable and toxic in the reservoir's summer hypolimnion.

Savage, K.S.; Tingle, Tracy N.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Bird, Dennis K.

2004-10-27

104

Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode Gold District, Tuolumne County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain ?20–1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the

Kaye S Savage; Tracy N Tingle; Peggy A O’Day; Glenn A Waychunas; Dennis K Bird

2000-01-01

105

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-print Network

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

106

Life Cycle Assessment of the District Heat Distribution System. Part 3: Use Phase and Overall Discussion (10 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

-  Part 1: Pipe Production [Int J LCA 9 (2) 130-136 (2004)]\\u000a Part 2: Network Construction [Int J LCA 10 (6) 425-435 (2005)]\\u000a Part 3: Use Phase and Overall Discussion [DOI: http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/10.1065\\/lca2005.08.225]\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a -  Preamble. This series of three papers is based on research performed for the Swedish District Heating Association with the\\u000a purpose of mapping the environmental life cycle impacts from the

Camilla Persson; Morgan Fröling; Magdalena Svanström

2006-01-01

107

Influence of Strain History and Cooling Rate on the Austenite Decomposition Behavior and Phase Transformation Products in a Microalloyed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of simple strain path changes as well as post-deformation continuous cooling rate during thermomechanical-controlled processing of microalloyed steel was studied using laboratory physical simulation. The phase transformation characteristics were directly analyzed by dilatometry under various cooling rates. The microstructures of the transformation products were characterized quantitatively using EBSD. The results have shown that while strain path changes impose a considerable influence on the hot flow behavior of the austenite, the cooling rate following hot deformation is the determining factor of the phase transformation mechanism and behavior which establishes the final transformation products and subsequent mechanical properties.

Sun, L.; Muszka, K.; Wynne, B. P.; Palmiere, E. J.

2014-07-01

108

Research on Cool Storage Time of a Phase Change Wallboard Room in the Summer  

E-print Network

Transactions 99 (2) (1993) 339?346. [3] A. Sary, K. Kaygusuz, Thermal energy storage system using somefatty acids as latent heat storage materials, Energy Sources 23 (2)(2001) 75?85. [4] D. Feldman, D. Banu, D. Hawes, E. Ghanbari, Obtaining an energy... for low-temperature thermal energy storage, Energy 23 (1998) 421?427. [6] H.E. Feustel, C. Stetiu, Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Applications. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-38320, UC1600, 1997. [7] J...

Feng, G.; Liang, R.; Li, G.

2006-01-01

109

Numerical Study of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer Using One Phase Liquid Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study in 3-D is performed using water as a cooling fluid to investigate the one phase natural convection heat transfer within enclosure. A heat source representing a computer CPU mounted on one vertical wall of a rectangular enclosure is simulated while a heat sink is installed on the opposite vertical wall of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer compartment is created by using an exhaust fan, and the flow is assumed to be turbulent. The applied power considered ranges from 15 - 40 W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the dimension of the enclosure are investigated. The results illustrate that as the size of the enclosure increase the chip temperature declined. However the drop in the temperature is very small when the width increased more than 50 mm. When the enclosure was filled with water the temperature was reduced by 38%. Also the cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 71.5 °C when the heat input of 40 W was assumed and this is within the current recommended computer electronic chips temperature of no more than 85°C.

Gdhaidh, F. A.; Hussain, K.; Qi, H. S.

2014-07-01

110

The impact of a phase-change cooling vest on heat strain and the effect of different cooling pack melting temperatures.  

PubMed

Cooling vests (CV) are often used to reduce heat strain. CVs have traditionally used ice as the coolant, although other phase-change materials (PCM) that melt at warmer temperatures have been used in an attempt to enhance cooling by avoiding vasoconstriction, which supposedly occurs when ice CVs are used. This study assessed the effectiveness of four CVs that melted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 °C (CV?, CV??, CV??, and CV??) when worn by 10 male volunteers exercising and then recovering in 40 °C air whilst wearing fire-fighting clothing. When compared with a non-cooling control condition (CON), only the CV? and CV?? vests provided cooling during exercise (40 and 29 W, respectively), whereas all CVs provided cooling during resting recovery (CV? 69 W, CV?? 66 W, CV?? 55 W and CV?? 29 W) (P < 0.05). In all conditions, skin blood flow increased when exercising and reduced during recovery, but was lower in the CV? and CV?? conditions compared with control during exercise (observed power 0.709) (P < 0.05), but not during resting recovery (observed power only 0.55). The participants preferred the CV?? to the CV?, which caused temporary erythema to underlying skin, although this resolved overnight after each occurrence. Consequently, a cooling vest melting at 10 °C would seem to be the most appropriate choice for cooling during combined work and rest periods, although possibly an ice-vest (CV?) may also be appropriate if more insulation was worn between the cooling packs and the skin than used in this study. PMID:23160652

House, James R; Lunt, Heather C; Taylor, Rowan; Milligan, Gemma; Lyons, Jason A; House, Carol M

2013-05-01

111

Experimental study of the neutronics of the first gas cooled fast reactor benchmark assembly (GCFR phase I assembly)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic Company. The Phase I Assembly was the first complete mockup of a GCFR core ever built. A set

Bhattacharyya

1976-01-01

112

Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu–Al alloy in cooling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu–Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as

Yuhui Wang; Bo Liao; Jianhua Liu; Shuqing Chen; Yu Feng; Yanyan Zhang; Ruijun Zhang

2012-01-01

113

Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

1983-06-01

114

Confinement Induced Quantum Phase Transition and Polarization Cooling in a Dipolar Crystal of Polar Molecules  

E-print Network

It is well-known that the liquid properties in a strongly confined system can be very different from their ordinary behaviors in an extended system, due to the competition between the thermal energy and the interaction energy. Here we show that, in a low-dimensional self-assembled dipolar crystal, the parabolic optical confinement potential can also strongly affect the quantum many-body properties in the low temperature regime. For example, by changing the confinement aspect ratio, the bulk of the system can undergo a quantum phase transition between a liquid state and a solid state via a nonmonotonic pattern formation of the domain wall. Furthermore, the entropy of a trapped dipolar crystal can be much larger than the liquid state in the weak dipole limit, indicating an intrinsic polarization cooling mechanism via increasing the external field. These highly correlated confinement effects are very important to the experimental preparation of a self-assembled dipolar crystal using ultracold polar molecules.

Yi-Ya Tian; Daw-Wei Wang

2008-08-09

115

Collaborating To Serve Arizona Students & Families More Effectively: Phase 1 Report. Evaluation of Murphy School District-Department of Economic Security Collaborative Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of Phase I of an evaluation of the Murphy School District (MSD)-Department of Economic Security (DES) collaborative effort, one of the first interagency partnerships in the state of Arizona that attempts to address the needs of students and their families more effectively. The primary purposes of the evaluation are…

Izu, Jo Ann; Carreon, Tori

116

Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of passive cooling by phase change materials (PCM) is compared with that of active (forced air) cooling. Numerical simulations were performed at different discharge rates, operating temperatures and ambient temperatures of a compact Li-ion battery pack suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion. The results were also compared with experimental results. The PCM cooling mode uses a

Rami Sabbah; R. Kizilel; J. R. Selman; S. Al-Hallaj

2008-01-01

117

Gas-phase saturation and evaporative cooling effects during wet compression of a fuel aerosol under RCM conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet compression of a fuel aerosol has been proposed as a means of creating gas-phase mixtures of involatile diesel-representative fuels and oxidizer+diluent gases for rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments. The use of high concentration aerosols (e.g., ?0.1mLfuel\\/Lgas, ?1×109droplets\\/Lgas for stoichiometric fuel loading at ambient conditions) can result in droplet–droplet interactions which lead to significant gas-phase fuel saturation and evaporative cooling

S. S. Goldsborough; M. V. Johnson; G. S. Zhu; S. K. Aggarwal

2011-01-01

118

Effect of the rate of cooling on the phase composition of rare-earth titanates  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different regimes of quenching with cooling rates of approx. 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 5/ K/sec on the phase composition of rare-earth mono- and dititanates, as well as the possibility of formation of glasses at the nonvariant points (eutectic and peritectic) of the binary systems TiO/sub 2/-Ln/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (Ln-La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, and Sc). For compounds of the types Ln/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/ and Ln/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (Ln-La...Lu, Y, Sc) there is a tendency for a structure with a higher symmetry to form as the ionic radius of the lanthanide decreases and the rate of quenching increases. The use of ultrarapid quenching expanded the region of existence of the cubic structure of the fluorite type to Tb/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/ and the structure of the pyrochlore type up to Sm/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/. Ultrarapid quenching of compounds with the composition Ln/sub 4/Ti/sub 9/O/sub 24/ led to a transition into the amorphous state.

Azimov, S.A.; Gulamova, D.D.; Suleimanov, S.Kh.

1988-04-01

119

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report of the City of Piqua, Ohio. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

This summary of the City of Piqua's District Heating efforts presents the salient points detailed in the city's 528 page final report and the accompanying appendices submitted to the Department of Energy. The final report consists of the following: introduction, thermal and electrical load analysis, alternative service areas, power plant analysis and thermal supply options, technical district heating development approach, air quality impact analysis, institutional considerations and evaluations, energy market evaluation, energy and economic development, economic and financial analysis, and district heating system business plan. This report presents the major findings and results of Piqua's ongoing efforts to provide thermal energy to end-users from its municipally owned power plant. That the initial district heating system is currently in operation, providing thermal energy to a new commercial firm, testifies to the City's determination and commitment future efforts to implement and expand its thermal energy supply potential for the benefit of the total community.

Not Available

1983-11-01

120

Demonstration of Super Cooled Ice as a Phase Change Material Heat Sink for Portable Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a nontoxic, nonflammable PCM is being developed. The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented along with recommendations for further development of this technology.

Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Bue, Grant C.

2009-01-01

121

SIMULATIONS OF MULTI-PHASE PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON A SHOWERHEAD WITH STAGGERED FILM-COOLING HOLES  

E-print Network

turbines. Increasing the combustion temperature is one way to get the best possible performance from a gas affects turbine cooling in the leading edge region of the nozzle guide vane where intricate showerhead challenge of gas turbine design is developing methods to cool turbine components so that higher combustion

Thole, Karen A.

122

Heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) for high-speed aircraft propulsion. Phase 2 (feasibility) final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the

R. A. Martin; M. A. Merrigan; M. G. Elder; J. T. Sena; E. S. Keddy; C. C. Silverstein

1994-01-01

123

Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

124

Evolution of vacuum states and phase transitions in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling of the Universe  

SciTech Connect

We consider the evolution of the ground state in the two Higgs doublet model during cooling down of the Universe after the big bang. Different regions in the space of free parameters of this model correspond to different sequences of thermal phase transitions. We discuss different paths of thermal evolution and corresponding evolution of physical properties of the system for different modern values of the parameters.

Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. P. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); IFPA, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

2010-04-15

125

On the use of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental and analytical investigation of the steady-state thermal-hydraulic operating characteristics of a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon cooling actual power electronics are presented. Boiling heat transfer coefficients and circulation mass velocities were measured while varying heat load and pressure. Both a plain and augmented riser structure, utilizing micro-fins and reentrant cavities, were simultaneously tested. The boiling heat transfer coefficients increased with

D. S. Schrage

1990-01-01

126

Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow data from 35 stations in and near Alaska were analyzed for changes between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Winter, spring, and summer flow changes and maximum annual flow changes were different for glaciated basins (more than 10% glacier-covered area) than for nonglaciated basins, showing the influence of glaciers on historical streamflowchanges. Mean February flows, for example, increased for the median of available stations by 45% for glaciated basins and by 17% for nonglaciated ones.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.

2009-01-01

127

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report of the City of Piqua, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The following are reported: thermal and electrical load analysis, alternative service areas, power plant analysis and thermal supply options, technical district heating development branch, air quality impact analysis, institutional considerations and evaluations, energy market evaluation, energy and economic development, energy and economic development, and economic and financial analysis. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-11-01

128

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France).  

PubMed

Arsenic-rich (~140-1520 mg x kg(-1)) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50 ?m). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and ?XRD) were used to directly characterize As-bearing phases. The most frequent ones were aggregates of fine clay particles. Their mineralogy varied with particle sources involved. These aggregates were formed by chlorite-phlogopite-kaolinite assemblages during the high flow and chlorite-illite-montmorillonite during the low flow. Among all the observed As-carriers in SPM, these clay assemblages were the least As-rich (0.10 up to 1.58 wt.% As) and their median As concentrations suggested that they were less concentrated during the high flow than during the low flow. Iron oxyhydroxides were evidenced by ?XRD in these clay aggregates, either as micro- to nano-sized particles and/or as coating. (Mn, Fe)oxyhydroxides were also present as discrete particles. Manganese oxides (0.14-1.26 wt.% As) transport significantly more arsenic during the low flow than during the high flow (0.16-0.79 wt.% As). The occurrence of Fe oxyhydroxide particles appeared more complex. During the low flow, observations on banks and in wetlands of freshly precipitated Fe hydroxides (ferrihydrite-type) presented the highest As concentrations (up to 6.5 wt.% As) but they were barely detected in SPM at a microscale. During the high flow, As-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides (0.10-2.80 wt.% As) were more frequent, reflecting mechanical erosion and transport when the surface water level increased. Arsenic transfers from SPM to corresponding aqueous fraction mostly depend on As-carrier stability. This study shows the temporal occurrence of each type of As-bearing phases in SPM, their As concentrations at a particle scale and abundance according to hydrological periods. PMID:21925708

Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Robin, E; Bril, H; Tamura, N; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G

2011-11-01

129

Variable Gravity Effects on the Cooling Performance of a Single Phase Confined Spray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss the testing of a spray cooling experiment designed to be flown on NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Testing Platform. Spray cooling is an example of a thermal management technique that may be utilized in high flux heat acquisition and high thermal energy transport concepts. Many researchers have investigated the utility of spray cooling for the thermal management of devices generating high heat fluxes. However, there has been little research addressing the physics and ultimate performance of spray cooling in a variable gravity environment. An experimental package, consisting of a spray chamber coupled to a fluid delivery loop system, was fabricated for variable gravity flight tests. The spray chamber contains two opposing nozzles spraying on target Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) heaters. These heaters are mounted on glass pedestals, which are part of a sump system to remove unconstrained liquid from the test chamber. Liquid is collected in the sumps and returned to the fluid delivery loop. Thermocouples mounted in and around the pedestals are used to determine both the heat loss through the underside of the IT0 heater and the heat extracted by the spray. A series of flight tests were carried out aboard the KC-135, utilizing the ability of the aircraft to produce various gravity conditions. During the flight tests, for a fixed flow rate, heat input was varied at 20, 30, 50, and 80W with variable gravities of 0.01, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.8g. Flight test data was compared to terrestrial baseline data in addition to analytical and numerical solutions to evaluate the heat transfer in the heater and support structure . There were significant differences observed in the spray cooling performance as a result of variable gravity conditions and heat inputs. In general, the Nussult number at the heater surface was found to increase with decreasing gravity conditions for heat loads greater than 30W.

Michalak, Travis; Yerkes, Kirk; Baysinger, Karri; McQuillen, John

2005-01-01

130

A wide-band corrugated rectangular waveguide phase shifter for cryogenically cooled receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-band phase shifter rectangular in cross section with transverse corrugations on all four walls is presented. The loading for the two orthogonal modes is different and is achieved by choosing dissimilar corrugation parameters. This phase shifter measures a return loss of -25 dB or better and differential phase shift of 90°±3.3° between 18.9-26.5 GHz, This all-metal robust phase shifter

S. Srikanth

1997-01-01

131

User manual for GEOCITY: A computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume 1: Main text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir was calculated. The GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, and fan-coil units. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. The life cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end users are calculated by discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H. D.; Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

1982-09-01

132

Ice pack heat sink subsystem, phase 2. [astronaut life support cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes the design, development, fabrication, and test at one gravity of a prototype ice pack heat sink subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions; the investigation of thermal storage material with the objective of uncovering materials with heats of fusion and/or solution in the range of 300 Btu/lb (700 kilojoules/kilogram); and the planned procedure for implementing an ice pack heat sink subsystem flight experiment. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Kellner, J. D.

1975-01-01

133

High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Phenyl Radical in the Gas Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenyl radical (C_6H_5) is one of the most important reactive intermediates, as it is formed from the homolytic cleavage of a CH bond in benzene (C_6H_6), and hence it plays a central role in the combustion of fossil fuels that are typically rich in aromatics. We recently recorded the first high resolution infrared spectra of jet-cooled phenyl radical in the

Erin N. Sharp-Williams; Melanie A. Roberts; David J. Nesbitt

2009-01-01

134

Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15°F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80°F with an outside ambient

J. M. Akridge; C. C. Benton

1981-01-01

135

Research, development and demonstration needs of district heating technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following chapters are included: end use technologies for district heating and cooling (DHC); district heating and cooling distribution systems; cogeneration technologies for DHC; industrial waste heat utilization for district heating; biomass fuels for use in cogeneration and heat production for DHC; solar district heating: first generation technologies; R and D needs in solar collector technology for use with interseasonal thermal storage and district heating systems; and the use of heat pumps in low temperatures district heating systems. (MHR)

Gleason, T.C.J.

1983-11-01

136

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01

137

Liquid Hot NAGMA Cooled to 0.4 K: Benchmark Thermochemistry of a Gas-Phase Peptide.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy and helium nanodroplet isolation are used to determine the gas-phase thermochemistry for isomerization between conformations of the model dipeptide, N-acetylglycine methylamide (NAGMA). A two-stage oven source is implemented to produce a gas-phase equilibrium distribution of NAGMA conformers, which is preserved when individual molecules are captured and cooled to 0.4 K by He nanodroplets. With polarization spectroscopy, the IR spectrum in the NH stretch region is assigned to a mixture of two conformers having intramolecular hydrogen bonds composed of either five- or seven-membered rings, C5 and C7, respectively. The C5 to C7 interconversion enthalpy and entropy, obtained from a van't Hoff analysis, are -4.52 ± 0.12 kJ/mol and -12.4 ± 0.2 J/(mol·K), respectively. The experimental thermochemistry is compared to high-level electronic structure theory computations. PMID:25244309

Leavitt, Christopher M; Moore, Kevin B; Raston, Paul L; Agarwal, Jay; Moody, Grant H; Shirley, Caitlyne C; Schaefer, Henry F; Douberly, Gary E

2014-10-16

138

Spray-roof cooling system-analysis: cooling concept integration, Phase I. Passive and hybrid solar manufactured building project. Project status report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The development of a roof spray system for passive/hybrid building cooling is described. Progress to date in defining and evaluating the issues and constraints relevant to spray roof cooling is described in the context of Butler's passive/hybrid manufactured buildings development program. (MHR)

Huffman, J. B.; Lindsey, L. L.; Snyder, M. K.

1981-03-10

139

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5°C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy,

H. Akbari; S. Bretz; J. Hanford; A. Rosenfeld; D. Sailor; H. Taha; W. Bos

1992-01-01

140

Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

1980-01-01

141

Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic-rich (~140–1520mg.kg?1) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50?m). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and

C. Grosbois; A. Courtin-Nomade; E. Robin; H. Bril; N. Tamura; J. Schäfer; G. Blanc

2011-01-01

142

Gas-phase saturation and evaporative cooling effects during wet compression of a fuel aerosol under RCM conditions  

SciTech Connect

Wet compression of a fuel aerosol has been proposed as a means of creating gas-phase mixtures of involatile diesel-representative fuels and oxidizer + diluent gases for rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments. The use of high concentration aerosols (e.g., {proportional_to}0.1 mL{sub fuel}/L{sub gas}, {proportional_to}1 x 10{sup 9} droplets/L{sub gas} for stoichiometric fuel loading at ambient conditions) can result in droplet-droplet interactions which lead to significant gas-phase fuel saturation and evaporative cooling during the volumetric compression process. In addition, localized stratification (i.e., on the droplet scale) of the fuel vapor and of temperature can lead to non-homogeneous reaction and heat release processes - features which could prevent adequate segregation of the underlying chemical kinetic rates from rates of physical transport. These characteristics are dependent on many factors including physical parameters such as overall fuel loading and initial droplet size relative to the compression rate, as well as fuel and diluent properties such as the boiling curve, vaporization enthalpy, heat capacity, and mass and thermal diffusivities. This study investigates the physical issues, especially fuel saturation and evaporative cooling effects, using a spherically-symmetric, single-droplet wet compression model. n-Dodecane is used as the fuel with the gas containing 21% O{sub 2} and 79% N{sub 2}. An overall compression time and compression ratio of 15.3 ms and 13.4 are used, respectively. It is found that smaller droplets (d{sub 0}{proportional_to} 2-3 {mu}m) are more affected by 'far-field' saturation and cooling effects, while larger droplets (d{sub 0}{proportional_to} 14 {mu}m) result in greater localized stratification of the gas-phase due to the larger diffusion distances for heat and mass transport. Vaporization of larger droplets is more affected by the volumetric compression process since evaporation requires more time to be completed even at the same overall fuel loading. All of the cases explored here yield greater compositional stratification than thermal stratification due to the high Lewis numbers of the fuel-air mixtures (Le{sub g} {proportional_to} 3.8). (author)

Goldsborough, S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Johnson, M.V. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Zhu, G.S. [HDEP Performance and Emissions, DTNA - Detroit Diesel Corporation, Detroit, MI (United States); Aggarwal, S.K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1030 Engineering Research Facility, Chicago, IL (United States)

2011-01-15

143

Phase II Testing of Liquid Cooling Garments Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is used to evaluate NASA's liquid cooling garments (LCGs) used in advanced space suits for extravehicular applications. The manikin has 120 separate heated/sweating zones and is controlled by a finite element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. Previous testing showed the thermal sensation and comfort followed the expected trends as the LCG inlet fluid temperature was changed. The Phase II test data demonstrates the repeatability of ADAM by retesting the baseline LCG. Skin and core temperature predictions using ADAM in an LCG/Arctic suit combination are compared to NASA physiological data to validate the manikin/model. Additional LCG configurations are assessed using the manikin and compared to the baseline LCG. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing, including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/chemical protective suits, and fire protection suits.

Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Bue,Grant; Rugh, John

2006-01-01

144

Phase diagram of the asymmetric Hubbard model and an entropic chromatographic method for cooling cold fermions in optical lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phase diagram of the asymmetric Hubbard model (AHM), which is characterized by different values of the hopping for the two spin projections of a fermion or, equivalently, two different orbitals. This model is expected to provide a good description of a mass-imbalanced cold fermionic mixture in a 3D optical lattice. We use the dynamical mean-field theory to study various physical properties of this system. In particular, we show how orbital-selective physics, observed in multiorbital strongly correlated electron systems, can be realized in such a simple model. We find that the density distribution is a good probe of this orbital-selective crossover from a Fermi-liquid to a non-Fermi-liquid state. Below an ordering temperature To, which is a function of both the interaction and hopping asymmetry, the system exhibits staggered long-range orbital order. Apart from the special case of the symmetric limit, i.e., Hubbard model, where there is no hopping asymmetry, this orbital order is accompanied by a true charge density wave order for all values of the hopping asymmetry. We calculate the order parameters and various physical quantities including the thermodynamics in both the ordered and disordered phases. We find that the formation of the charge density wave is signaled by an abrupt increase in the sublattice double occupancies. Finally, we propose a new method, entropic chromatography, for cooling fermionic atoms in optical lattices, by exploiting the properties of the AHM. To establish this cooling strategy on a firmer basis, we also discuss the variations in temperature induced by the adiabatic tuning of interactions and hopping parameters.

Winograd, E. A.; Chitra, R.; Rozenberg, M. J.

2012-11-01

145

Studies in neutron phase space cooling for cold and ultra-cold neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses problems in the phase space compression of neutrons in two different energy regimes. The first part applies to the cold neutron regime. We constructed a microscopic model for the neutron dynamic structure factor S(Q, o) of solid methane in phase II. The model treats the effects of molecular translations, intra-molecular vibrations and intra-molecular rotations as uncoupled. Total scattering cross sections were calculated from the model for the incident neutron energies of 0.1 meV ˜ 1 meV and compared with existing data. This model was tested by calculating and measuring the neutron brightness from the solid methane cold neutron moderator of the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) at 4K and 20K. Within the expected accuracy of our approximate approach, the model matches the measured neutron spectral intensity. We have also used the model to guide future investigations into other cold neutron moderator media in an attempt to reach the "very cold neutron" (VCN) energy regime. The second part describes the study of solid oxygen as an ultra-cold neutron moderating medium. Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are neutrons with energy of a few hundred neV. A UCN source with higher intensity is necessary to measure fundamental properties of the neutron such as the neutron lifetime or the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). Solid oxygen may be an attractive choice as a UCN source. Theoretical calculations for a perfect solid crystal predict high UCN brightness is possible from solid oxygen. However, it has been experimentally shown that the UCN production rate from solid oxygen depends strongly on the crystal condition, especially at low temperature. We tested crystal growth of solid oxygen over a wide range of temperatures and in external magnetic fields. In addition, the UCN production rate in solid oxygen was measured on FP-12 at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE).

Shin, Yunchang

146

Innovation District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

147

Stability and Phase Noise Tests of Two Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cryocooled Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 8K - 10K temperature range was previously demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(sub y) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -15) for measuring times 200 seconds less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 600 seconds using a hydrogen maser as reference. We present here test results for a second unit which allows CSO short-term stability and phase noise to be measured for the first time. Also included are design details of a new RF receiver and an intercomparison with the first CSO unit. Cryogenic oscillators operating below about 10K offer the highest possible short term stability of any frequency sources. However, their use has so far been restricted to research environments due to the limited operating periods associated with liquid helium consumption. The cryocooled CSO is being built in support of the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment and is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3-4 x 10 (exp -15) (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 100 seconds) and phase noise of -73dB/Hz @ 1Hz measured at 34 GHz. Installation in 5 stations of NASA's deep space network (DSN) is planned in the years 2000 - 2002. In the previous tests, actual stability of the CSO for measuring times tau less than or equal to 200 seconds could not be directly measured, being masked by short-term fluctuations of the H-maser reference. Excellent short-term performance, however, could be inferred by the success of an application of the CSO as local oscillator (L.O.) to the JPL LITS passive atomic standard, where medium-term stability showed no degradation due to L.O. instabilities at a level of (sigma)y = 3 x 10 (exp -14)/square root of tau. A second CSO has now been constructed, and all cryogenic aspects have been verified, including a resonator turn-over temperature of 7.907 K, and Q of 7.4 x 10 (exp 8). These values compare to a turn-over of 8.821 K and Q of 1.0 x 10 (exp 9) for the first resonator. Operation of this second unit provides a capability to directly verify for the first time the short-term (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 200 seconds) stability and the phase noise of the CSO units. The RF receiver used in earlier tests was sufficient to meet Cassini requirements for tau greater than or equal to 10 seconds but had short-term stability limited to 2-4 x 10 (exp -14) at tau = 1 second, a value 10 times too high to meet our requirements. A new low-noise receiver has been designed to provide approximately equal to 10-15 performance at 1 second, and one receiver is now operational, demonstrating again short-term CSO performance with H maser-limited stability. Short-term performance was degraded in the old receiver due to insufficient tuning bandwidth in a 100MHZ quartz VCO that was frequency-locked to the cryogenic sapphire resonator. The new receivers are designed for sufficient bandwidth, loop gain and low noise to achieve the required performance.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

1998-01-01

148

Phase equilibria studies of SnAgCu eutectic solder using differential cooling of Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a study of the phase equilibria of the Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu alloy investigated by a differential cooling method. The\\u000a difficulty in assessing phase equilibria of the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) system because of the insufficient resolution of conventional\\u000a characterization techniques is solved by inducing preferential growth of a solid phase in a melt by holding the alloy at the\\u000a solid-liquid phase-equilibrium

Jae-Yong Park; Choong-Un Kim; Ted Carper; Viswanadham Puligandla

2003-01-01

149

Giant zero field cooled spontaneous exchange bias effect in phase separated La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a giant zero field cooled exchange bias (ZEB) effect (˜0.65 T) in La1.5Sr0.5CoMnO6 sample. Magnetic study has revealed a reentrant spin glass ˜90 K, phase separation to spin glass and ferromagnetic phases below 50 K and canted antiferromagnetic transition ˜10 K. A small conventional exchange bias (CEB) is established with the advent of spontaneous phase separation down to 10 K. Giant ZEB and enhanced CEB effects are found only below 10 K and are attributed to the large unidirectional anisotropy at the interface of isothermally field induced ferromagnetic phase and canted antiferromagnetic background.

Krishna Murthy, J.; Venimadhav, A.

2013-12-01

150

High-speed determination of the solidus line in the phase diagram of the system Bi-Sb for ultrarapidly cooled melts  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is presented for the high-speed determination of the solidus line in the phase diagrams of BiSb for ultrarapidly cooled melts. Bi-Sb alloys have become widely used as materials for solid cryogenics. In order to solve the task by melting in evacuated and sealed quartz ampuls, alloys were prepared contining 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60- 70. 80, and 90 at.% antimony. The samples of the melts were subjected to recrystallization at cooling rates of the order of 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ K/sec. In the solidification at cooling rates of the orders of 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ K/sec Bi-Sb alloys crystallize without the consequences of interphase segregational redistribution of the components in the crystallization period; this allows the determination of the equilibrium solidus line when taking the heating curves of alloys rapidly annealed from the liquid phase.

Petrov, D.A.; Glazov, V.M.

1986-02-01

151

District-heating handbook. Volume 1. A design guide  

SciTech Connect

An overview and listing of district heating and cooling are presented. Other topics include: overall system considerations, sources of energy for district heating systems, steam and hot water production plant, air conditioning, distribution systems, metering, district heating service to the user, and the economic and financial analysis of community energy systems. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-01-01

152

Cooling causes changes in the distribution of lipoprotein lipase and milk fat globule membrane proteins between the skim milk and cream phase.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and free fatty acid levels were studied in freshly milked, uncooled milk from individual Danish Holstein or Jersey cows, or after storage for up to 24h at either a cooling temperature (4°C) or at the milking temperature (31°C). Upon cooling for up to 24h, LPL activity increased in the cream phase, whereas the activity in the skim milk was steady, as observed for Jersey cows, or increased, as seen for the Holsteins. Storage at 31°C decreased the LPL activity in both the cream phase and the skim milk phase. The increase in free fatty acid levels was found to depend on LPL activity, incubation temperature, substrate availability, and incubation time. Furthermore, the migration of milk proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase upon cooling of milk from Jersey cows or from Danish Holstein cows was studied using proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteins associated with the milk fat globules were isolated from all milk fractions and analyzed. Major changes in the distributions of proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase were observed after cooling at 4°C for 4h, where a total of 29 proteins between the 2 breeds was found to change their association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) significantly. Among these, the MFGM proteins adipophilin, fatty acid-binding protein, and lactadherin, as well as the non-MFGM proteins ?-casein, lactoferrin, and heat shock protein-71, were identified. Adipophilin, lactadherin, and lactoferrin were quantitatively more associated with the MFGM upon cold storage at 4°C, whereas ?-casein, fatty acid-binding protein, and heat shock protein-71 were found to be less associated with the MFGM upon cold storage. PMID:21257033

Dickow, J A; Larsen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Wiking, L

2011-02-01

153

Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)] [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-04-01

154

Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )  

SciTech Connect

This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site. Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

Erkelens, Conrad

1994-03-01

155

Thermal hydraulic analysis of two-phase closed thermosyphon cooling system for new cold neutron source moderator of Breazeale research reactor at Penn State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold neutron source cooling system is required for the Penn State's next generation cold neutron source facility that can accommodate a variable heat load up to about ˜10W with operating temperature of about 28K. An existing cold neutron source cooling system operating at the University of Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) facility failed to accommodate heat loads upwards of 4W with the moderator temperature reaching a maximum of 44K, which is the critical temperature for the operating fluid neon. The cooling system that was used in the TCNS cooling system was a two-phase closed thermosyphon with a reservoir (TPCTR). The reservoir containing neon gas is kept at room temperature. In this study a detailed thermal analysis of the fundamental operating principles of a TPCTR were carried out. A detailed parametric study of the various geometric and thermo-physical factors that affect the limits of the operational capacity of the TPCTR investigated. A CFD analysis is carried out in order to further refine the heat transfer analysis and understand the flow structure inside the thermosyphon and the two-phase nucleate boiling in the evaporator section of the thermosyphon. In order to help the new design, a variety of ways of increasing the operating range and heat removal capacity of the TPCTR cooling system were analyzed so that it can accommodate the anticipated heat load of 10W or more. It is found, for example, that doubling the pressure of the system will increase the capacity index zeta by 50% for a system with an initial fill ratio FR of 1. A decrease in cryorefrigeration performance angle increases the capacity index. For example taking the current condition of the TCNS system and reducing the angle from the current value of ˜700 by half (˜350) will increase the cooling power 300%. Finally based on detailed analytic and CFD analysis the best operating condition were proposed.

Habte, Melaku

156

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width of the Tetrataenite Phase and Island Phase in the Cloudy Zone"  

E-print Network

"Cooling Rate Variations in IAB/IIIcd Iron Meteorites As Observed Using the Width of a series of iron meteorites, which probably formed in one asteroid, in order to learn about how these meteorites cooled, and ultimately, how their parent asteroid formed. Meteorites are pieces

Mountziaris, T. J.

157

Stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

1982-03-01

158

Effect of oxygen on phase formation and thermal stability of slowly cooled Zr 65Al 7.5Cu 17.5Ni 10 metallic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of small amounts of oxygen (0.28–0.6at.%) on the phase formation and the thermal stability of bulk samples of the Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10 alloy prepared by die casting into a copper mould has been studied by X-ray diffraction, microstructural characterization and differential scanning calorimetry. In contrast to rapidly quenched ribbons, the crystalline volume fraction in slowly cooled bulk samples increases with

A. Gebert; J. Eckert; L. Schultz

1998-01-01

159

New petrological constraints on the last eruptive phase of the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy): Clues from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic analyses of the three youngest pyroclastic products (ca. 86 ky) belonging to the Sabatini Volcanic District (Roman Province, central Italy). By means of thermometers, hygrometers and oxygen barometers, we have estimated that the crystallization temperature of magma progressively decreases over time (910-740 °C), whereas the amount of water dissolved in the melt and fO2 progressively increases as compositions of magmas become more differentiated (4.5-6.4 wt.% H2O and 0.4-2.6 ?QFM buffer, respectively). Thermodynamic simulations of phase equilibria indicate that geochemical trends in mafic magmas (MgO > 4 wt.%) can be reproduced by abundant fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene (~ 50 wt.% crystallization), while the trends of more evolved magmas (MgO ? 4 wt.%) originated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase and sanidine (~ 45 wt.% crystallization). The behavior of trace elements highlights that magmatic differentiation is controlled by polybaric differentiation that includes: (1) prolonged fractionation of mafic, anhydrous minerals from a primitive, H2O-poor magma at depth and (2) extraction of a more evolved, H2O-rich magma that crystallizes abundant felsic and subordinated hydrous minerals at shallow crustal levels. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling also reveal that magmas interacted with the carbonate rocks of the subvolcanic basement. The effect of carbonate assimilation accounts for both trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic variations in magmas, suggesting a maximum degree of carbonate assimilation of less than 5 wt.%.

Del Bello, Elisabetta; Mollo, Silvio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; von Quadt, Albrecht; Forni, Francesca; Bachmann, Olivier

2014-09-01

160

Heat pipe implications for district energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The heat pipe is a very adaptable heat transfer device which could have a large impact on district energy systems. The heat pipe is a very simple (no moving parts), passive, fast acting heat transfer device which does not require pumps, valves, or a large cross sectional area. The heat pipe can be adapted for primary and secondary heat transfer loop applications for district heating and cooling as well as dehumidification, thermal storage, passive defrost and heat recovery.

Cooper, J.T. [Heat Pipe Technology, Inc, Alachua, FL (United States)

1995-09-01

161

Global cooling?  

PubMed

The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes. PMID:17841800

Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

1976-08-01

162

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VII. Appendix C  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains: Hudson No. 2 Limited Retrofit Cost Estimates provided by Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (SWEC); backup data and basis of estimate for SWEC Heater Plant and Gas Turbine Plant (Kearny No. 12) cost estimates; and Appendices - Analysis of Relevant Tax Laws.

Not Available

1984-01-31

163

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

164

Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL); Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL); Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL)

2009-12-15

165

Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

Farthing, William Earl (Pinson, AL) [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon (Pelham, AL) [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert (Birmingham, AL) [Birmingham, AL

2008-02-12

166

A NEUTRON STAR STIFF EQUATION OF STATE DERIVED FROM COOLING PHASES OF THE X-RAY BURSTER 4U 1724-307  

SciTech Connect

Thermal emission during X-ray bursts is a powerful tool for determining neutron star (NS) masses and radii if the Eddington flux and the apparent radius in the cooling tail can be measured accurately and distances to the sources are known. We propose here an improved method of determining the basic stellar parameters using the data from the cooling phase of photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts covering a large range of luminosities. Because at that phase the blackbody apparent radius depends only on the spectral hardening factor (color correction), we suggest fitting the theoretical dependences of the color correction versus flux in Eddington units to the observed variations of the inverse square root of the apparent blackbody radius with the flux. For that we use a large set of atmosphere models for burst luminosities varying by three orders of magnitude and for various chemical compositions and surface gravities. We show that spectral variations observed during a long PRE burst from 4U 1724-307 are entirely consistent with the theoretical expectations for the passively cooling NS atmospheres. Our method allows us to more reliably determine both the Eddington flux (which is found to be smaller than the touchdown flux by 15%) and the ratio of the stellar apparent radius to the distance. We then find a lower limit on the NS radius of 14 km for masses below 2.3 M{sub Sun }, independently of the chemical composition. These results suggest that the matter inside NSs is characterized by a stiff equation of state. We also find evidence in favor of hydrogen-rich accreting matter and obtain an upper limit to the distance of 7 kpc. We finally show that the apparent blackbody emitting area in the cooling tails of the short bursts from 4U 1724-307 is two times smaller than that for the long burst and their evolution does not follow the theory. This makes their usage for determining the NS parameters questionable and casts serious doubt on the results of previous works that used similar bursts from other sources for analysis.

Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Poutanen, Juri [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Revnivtsev, Mikhail, E-mail: suleimanov@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: werner@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: juri.poutanen@oulu.fi [Space Research Institute (IKI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

2011-12-01

167

Gas-phase saturation and evaporative cooling effects during wet compression of a fuel aerosol under RCM conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet compression of a fuel aerosol has been proposed as a means of creating gas-phase mixtures of involatile diesel-representative fuels and oxidizer + diluent gases for rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments. The use of high concentration aerosols (e.g., 0.1 mL{sub fuel}\\/L{sub gas}, 1 x 10 droplets\\/L{sub gas} for stoichiometric fuel loading at ambient conditions) can result in droplet-droplet interactions which

S. S. Goldsborough; M. V. Johnson; G. S. Zhu; S. K. Aggarwal

2011-01-01

168

Study of the phase diagram and continuous cooling transformation of 12%Cr ultra-super-critical rotor steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudo-equilibrium phase diagram of a 12%Cr ultra-super-critical rotor steel was calculated by the use of Thermo-Calc software. The equilibrium microstructures at room temperature consist of ferrite (?) and carbides of M23C6 type, and the critical points A1 and A3 of the steel are 811 °C and 928 °C, respectively. The critical points Ac1, Ac3 and Ms determined by a dilatometry method

Baozhong Wang; Wantang Fu; Yong Li; Ping Jiang; Wenhui Zhang; Yongjun Tian

2008-01-01

169

Gas cooled solar power plant for generating electrical energy in the 20MWe operating range (GAST): Preliminary design phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R&D work required for the erection of a pilot plant was defined. Since the location of the site is not yet determined, the project work was based on preliminary basic data. Significant results of the preliminary design phase include both the choice of a combined gas/steam thermal energy conversion process for the reference concept and basic concepts for heliostat, heliostat field arrangement, receiver, tower and master control/process computer system.

Kostrzewa, S.; Wehowsky, P.

1981-07-01

170

73-20-1. Short title. This act may be cited as the "Watershed District Act".  

E-print Network

districts; and B. "supervisors" means supervisors of soil and water conservation district or districts as subdistricts of soil and water conservation districts in a watershed area, as provided in the Watershed to any phase of conservation of water, or of water usage, including water-based recreation, flood

Johnson, Eric E.

171

Lost in Transition: HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Infection among Young People Living in Post-Emergency Phase Transit Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. Methods In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District’s sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70–18.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28–6.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43–6.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04–5.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Conclusions Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV. PMID:24587034

Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Atim, Stella; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M.

2014-01-01

172

Data-Driven Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

LaFee, Scott

2002-01-01

173

648 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 43, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2007 Two-Phase Cooling Method Using the R134a  

E-print Network

that included a simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles. The cooling method involves automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30-kW trac- tion inverter

Tolbert, Leon M.

174

Studies on magnetohydrodynamic flow characteristics and heat transfer of liquid metal two-phase flow cooling systems for a magnetically confined fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid metal cooling for the first wall and blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor has various advantages. However, it has the disadvantages of large magnetohydrodynamic pressure drops and heat transfer deterioration under a strong magnetic field. Thus, the present authors have proposed cooling with a helium-lithium annular mist flow as well as the cooling with a liquid metal boiling

Minoru Takahashi; Akira Inoue; Masanori Aritomi; Mitsuo Matsuzaki

1995-01-01

175

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

176

Cooled railplug  

DOEpatents

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01

177

St. Paul District heating system conceptual design study and report. Appendix C of market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a hot water, cogeneration district heating system serving the central business district of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four-five year time span. This

M. H. Barnes; S. Bishop; B. Abrahamsson

1982-01-01

178

Ventilative cooling  

E-print Network

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01

179

Cool Vest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

1982-01-01

180

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

181

Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

182

How do Italian footwear industrial districts face globalization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of globalization of production on the Italian footwear sector and investigates the structural changes taking place in some shoe districts as they join international production networks. The following questions are discussed: Are Italian footwear districts specializing in particular phases of the production cycle? Is there a trend towards the reduction of activities carried out within

Alessia Amighini; Roberta Rabellotti

2006-01-01

183

Leaner Class Sizes Add Fiscal Stress to Florida Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a total price tag pushing $10 billion, Florida's "class-size-reduction mandate"--the nation's toughest--is under fire, as school districts call on lawmakers to weaken the 2002 constitutional requirement before it is fully phased in later this year. Starting with the 2008-09 school year, individual districts must meet new size caps in each…

McNeil, Michele

2008-01-01

184

District Heating/Cogeneration Application Studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a series of studies on the institutional and technical aspects of cogeneration and district heating, a net energy analysis has been performed on three systems for providing space heating, space cooling, domestic hot water, and domestic electric...

J. C. Yeoman

1979-01-01

185

CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)  

E-print Network

The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

2007-01-01

186

Cooling Off  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to challenges of maintaining temperatures while living in space. Thinking and acting like scientists and engineers, learners experiment to learn how to measure the specific heat capacity (or simply, specific heat) of water and then design an improved cooling system like those used in spacesuits. This lesson is developed using a 5E model of learning. In the ENGAGE section of the lesson, learners look at NASA technology and its relationship to improvements in athletic clothing and equipment. They learn about technology in spacesuit design and the use of this technology in everyday life. Working in teams, students conduct experiments relating to specific heat capacity on a cooling system they design in the EXPLORE and EXPLAIN sections. They are challenged to improve the cooling system in the EXTEND section of this lesson. Learners assess their understanding and abilities throughout the lesson and revisit the Essential Questions during the EVALUATE section.

Nasa

2014-06-27

187

Cooling Vest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

1983-01-01

188

Cooling vest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive vest of heat-sealable urethane material, when strapped to person's body, presents significant uncomplicated cooling system for environments where heavy accumulation of metabolic heat exists. Garment is applicable to occupations where physical exertion is required under heavy protective clothing.

Kosmo, J.; Kane, J.; Coverdale, J.

1977-01-01

189

It Takes a District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Fontana (California) Unified School District's No Child Left Behind Act implementation plan, focusing on the use of project charts. Illustrates the project chart function with examples from Title I and Title X. (PKP)

Rosen, Karolee

2003-01-01

190

The Sudbury Mining District  

E-print Network

In this paper will be given a brief history of the Sudbury Mining district and something of the geology and ore deposits of the same; also, a description of the mining and metallurgical methods used by the Canadian Copper ...

Bedell, Frank G.

1906-06-01

191

Is a Monolithic Dome in Your District's Future?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monolithic domes are less costly to build than traditional structures and can cost as much as 50 percent less to heat and cool. Districts across the country that have opted for monolithic-dome school facilities say their decision was a cost-effective alternative to conventional construction. (MLH)

Lanham, Carol

2000-01-01

192

Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

Ruder, Robert

2010-01-01

193

Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Volume 5. Phases I-III. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

Not Available

1983-06-01

194

Cooling of Color Superconducting Compact Stars  

E-print Network

We review the status of research on the cooling of compact stars, with emphasis on the influence of color superconducting quark matter phases. Although a consistent microscopic approach is not yet available, severe constraints on the phase structure of matter at high densities come from recent mass and cooling observations of compact stars.

David Blaschke

2006-03-26

195

Cool It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this fun hands-on activity, learners use simple materials to investigate evaporation. How can the evaporation of water on a hot day be used to cool an object? Find out the experimental way! The activity is based on an episode of Cyberchase called "Digit's B-Day Surprise" and was developed to capture kids' interest in math using the appeal of the popular PBS series.

Wnet; Title Entertainment, Inc.

2009-01-01

196

Phase Transitions and He-Synthesis-Driven Winds in Neutrino Cooled Accretion Disks: Prospects for Late Flares in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the long-term evolution of debris following the tidal disruption of compact stars in the context of short gamma ray bursts. The initial encounter impulsively creates a hot, dense, neutrino-cooled disk capable of powering the prompt emission. After a long delay, we find that powerful winds are launched from the surface of the disk, driven by the recombination of

William H. Lee; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Diego López-Cámara

2009-01-01

197

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper

L. B. Hernandez; O. M. Rabbia

2009-01-01

198

Search for cool giant exoplanets around young and nearby stars - VLT/NaCo near-infrared phase-coronagraphic and differential imaging  

E-print Network

[Abridged] Context. Spectral differential imaging (SDI) is part of the observing strategy of current and future high-contrast imaging instruments. It aims to reduce the stellar speckles preventing the detection of cool planets, using in/out methane-band images. It attenuates the signature of off-axis companions to the star, like angular differential imaging (ADI). However, this attenuation is dependent on the spectral properties of the low-mass companions we are searching for. The implications of this particularity on the estimation of the detection limits have been poorly explored so far. Aims. We perform an imaging survey to search for cool (Teff2. According to the BT-Settl model, this translates into Tefffilter characteristics and better image quality.

Maire, A -L; Rameau, J; Chauvin, G; Lagrange, A -M; Bonnefoy, M; Desidera, S; Sylvestre, M; Baudoz, P; Galicher, R; Mouillet, D

2014-01-01

199

Energy Accounting for District Heating and Cooling Plants  

E-print Network

.258.065 11. Item 11 divided by iU1Il 6. 11. Plant Use Net 1,395,416.000 45,013.419 lJ. Item 11 IftUltipl1ed by item J. ..... ~~: Item 13 divided by Lta.. 6. 12. Phot Nflt./Area KWH/M SQ.FT. 276.700 8.926 :~t... (10) /(13) ~ 8'1'11.~15. ?85. (21/(12) ~ 16. LIJS .IIATBR SOPTEIIIER 20., 21. ~ 17. LIJS. II.O.~ (16)/(10) ~ 18. OIW 11.0. ~LBS. 22. OIW lIftER Figure 10 875 ESL-IE-79-04-102 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology...

Barrett, J. A.

1979-01-01

200

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-print Network

,338 sq.ft) Heating: steam network at = 100 PSIG (328F) Approximitely 600m (2,000') of buried lines #12;8 Central Plant GREEN LAWN IN JANUARY! Yesterday Inefficient Distribution Steam traps Steam vents Purges Poorly insulated Steam lines in tunnels and buried Numerous leaks #12;9 Production of steam with all

201

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

202

Reykjavik District Heating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reykjavik, Iceland, utilizes natural geothermal resources as the heat input for its district heating system. This system served about 8,700 of the 10,000 residences in 1970. The water used is non-corrosive, allowing the use of standard pipe and fittings. ...

J. Zoega, G. Kristinsson

1970-01-01

203

Apatite Chemistry in a Felsic Magmatic System From the El Teniente District (Chile) as Monitor of an Early, Single-phase, Cl and S-rich Magmatic Volatile Phase Evolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite (Ap) is a ubiquitous accessory mineral phase in igneous rocks, that can incorporate several geochemically important elements among which are volatiles as Cl, H2O, S, As, F. Furthermore, as Ap starts to crystallize early in felsic magmas, and continue through a wide temperature range, it can potentially be used to monitor the evolution of magmatic volatiles in porphyry copper systems. In this work, we have studied magmatic Ap from Late Miocene dacitic porphyries spatially and temporally associated to the Cu-(Mo) La Huifa- La Negra prospect (4 km NE from the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, Chile). These felsic rocks formed from hydrous magmas as indicated by early crystallized Hb (before Bt). Al-Hb geobarometer indicates that phenocrysts formed at ˜2 Kb, while fine grained groundmass suggests a depressurization. Ap is present as small (˜10-50 microns) subhedral to euhedral prisms included in Fe-Ti oxides, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite phenocrysts (IAp), and as bigger (up to ˜300 microns) isolated microphenocrysts (MAp), indicating crystallization throughout magmatic evolution. About 300 EPM analyses of Cl, F and SO3 have been performed on Ap in different textural positions. Only Ap included in anhydrous phases (mostly Pl and oxides) and unaltered grains from the groundmass were used to evaluate volatile evolution. Calculated apatite saturation temperature following Piccoli and Candela (1994) indicates that they started to crystallize ˜900°C. The most outstanding chemical feature of the studied Ap is their high Cl (up to 4.52 wt%) and SO3 (up to 0.98 wt%) contents, being highest in IAp. Cl/F and Cl/OH strongly decrease from ApI to MAp within all studied samples varying in SiO2 content from 66.3 to 69.7 wt%. They display a continuous and well defined trend. This variation is controlled mainly by Cl decrease and F increase, meanwhile OH remains roughly constant. SO3 in Ap varies from 0.98wt% in IAp to below detection limit (0.02 wt% SO3) in MAp. S and Cl in Ap show a general positive correlation being their contents in IAp higher than those in MAp. The results are consistent with Ap starting to crystallize at ˜2Kb, in equilibrium with an early formed, high temperature, highly saline S-rich magmatic volatile phase that evolved toward less saline less S-rich compositions. The strong decrease of Cl/OH as F increases indicates that the exsolved volatile phase is a single phase (supercritical), in agreement with its P and T of formation. High sulfur contents in IAp suggest the host magma was sulfate-rich, and thus oxidized as it's also suggested by high Mg# (0.66-0.75) in primary ferromagnesian minerals. Sulfur presence, along with Cl, would enhance metal (Cu) partitioning from melt into magmatic volatile phase (Simon et al, 2006), while low crystal charge prevailing during early volatile exsolution would favour coalescence and upward migration processes, to finally accumulation in upper parts of the system. Thus, the aqueous Cl and S-rich fluids exsolved, at high pressure (˜2 Kb), upon magma differentiation at La Huifa-La Negra prospect, could have efficiently extracted metals from the magma and hence, it would have the potential to create a hydrothermal ore deposit provided that the magma was not erupted and that the necessary conditions for subsequent ore deposition prevailed. This is a contribution to DIUC 203-320-013-1 Piccoli, P. and Candela, P. 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Simon, A.C., Pettke, T., Candela, P., Piccoli, P. y Heinrich, C.A., 2006. GCA, 70, 5583-5600.

Hernandez, L. B.; Rabbia, O. M.

2009-05-01

204

Problems of Affluent School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

McLoone, Eugene P.

205

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19

206

Phase transitions and He-synthesis driven winds in neutrino cooled accretion disks: prospects for late flares in short gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

We consider the long term evolution of debris following the tidal disruption of compact stars in the context of short gamma ray bursts (SGRBs). The initial encounter impulsively creates a hot, dense, neutrino-cooled disk capable of powering the prompt emission. After a long delay, we find that powerful winds are launched from the surface of the disk, driven by the recombination of free nucleons into alpha-particles. The associated energy release depletes the mass supply and eventually shuts off activity of the central engine. As a result, the luminosity and mass accretion rate deviate from the earlier self-similar behavior expected for an isolated ring with efficient cooling. This then enables a secondary episode of delayed activity to become prominent as an observable signature, when material in the tidal tails produced by the initial encounter returns to the vicinity of the central object. The time scale of the new accretion event can reach tens of seconds to minutes, depending on the details of the system....

Lee, William H; Diego-Lopez-Camara,

2009-01-01

207

Phase Transitions and He-Synthesis-Driven Winds in Neutrino Cooled Accretion Disks: Prospects for Late Flares in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the long-term evolution of debris following the tidal disruption of compact stars in the context of short gamma ray bursts. The initial encounter impulsively creates a hot, dense, neutrino-cooled disk capable of powering the prompt emission. After a long delay, we find that powerful winds are launched from the surface of the disk, driven by the recombination of free nucleons into ?-particles. The associated energy release depletes the mass supply and eventually shuts off activity of the central engine. As a result, the luminosity and mass accretion rate deviate from the earlier self-similar behavior expected for an isolated ring with efficient cooling. This then enables a secondary episode of delayed activity to become prominent as an observable signature, when material in the tidal tails produced by the initial encounter returns to the vicinity of the central object. The timescale of the new accretion event can reach tens of seconds to minutes, depending on the details of the system. The associated energies and timescales are consistent with those occurring in X-ray flares.

Lee, William H.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; López-Cámara, Diego

2009-07-01

208

"Strategic Review of FY06 District & School-Level Resources". In Fulfillment of a Memorandum of Understanding between: The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and The Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA). Phase II- Final ERS Report. An Executive Summary and Management Brief Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2006, Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and the Unified Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that called for a third-party research firm to analyze resource use across the Los Angeles school system. Education Resource Strategies (ERS) was chosen to conduct this analysis. The study was…

Frank, Stephen; Travers, Jonathan

2007-01-01

209

Decentralization: The Administrator's Guidebook to School District Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school district decentralization process is described in this guidebook, which focuses on the administrator's role in implementation. Three chapters are organized around the three phases of decentralization--exploration, trial, and commitment. Each phase is examined in terms of the real-life experiences of administrators and other…

Brown, Daniel J.

210

Principles and applications of muon cooling  

SciTech Connect

The basic principles of the application of ionization cooling to obtain high phase-space density muon beams are described, and its limitations are outlined. Sample cooling scenarios are presented. Applications of cooled muon beams in high-energy accelerators are suggested; high-luminosity ..mu../sup +/-..mu../sup -/ and ..mu..-p colliders at greater than or equal to -TeV energy are possible.

Neuffer, D.

1983-01-01

211

Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore phase change at a molecular level. They trace the path of an atom to view intermolecular interactions and investigate how temperature relates to phase change. Upon activity completion, students will be able to give examples of phase change, explain how the input of energy into a system affects the state of matter, and describe how both latent heat and evaporative cooling play a role in changes of phase.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

212

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

213

Calculation and visual displaying of the water chemistry conditions in return cooling systems at thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matters concerned with treatment of cooling water at thermal power stations are addressed. Problems arising during operation of return cooling systems equipped with cooling towers are analyzed. The software used for monitoring, control, and indication of the hydraulic and water chemistry operating conditions of the circulation system at the Yaivinsk district power station is considered.

Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Ivanov, E. N.; Makushin, A. A.

2013-07-01

214

Cool gas in symbiotic binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic binary stars generally consist of a hot, compact star in orbit around a cooler red giant. A subset of these objects undergoes eclipses due to the plane of the binary orbit being close to our line of sight. For this subset, there are phases at which the large, cool giant interposes itself between us and the hot white dwarf.

B. R. Espey; R. E. Schulte-Ladbeck

1996-01-01

215

Heating and cooling of the interstellar gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic considerations of the global heating and cooling of the interstellar gas are summarized. The various energy sources are reviewed. Expressions for the rates of a number of typical heating and cooling processes are given. General comments are made about the conditions in the several phases of the interstellar medium in thermal balance.

Black, John H.

1987-01-01

216

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis  

E-print Network

This is the second report of the ASHRAE 1093-RP project that reports on the progress during the scheduled Phase II effort. In this report, we present: (1) the data sets identified and acquired required for the analysis; (2) the method adopted...

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01

217

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

218

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-print Network

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13

219

Magneto-optical cooling of atoms.  

PubMed

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces, can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultracold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power. PMID:25078213

Raizen, Mark G; Budker, Dmitry; Rochester, Simon M; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2014-08-01

220

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-print Network

conventional water chilling plant to serve DP1/DMOS5 was avoided, saving $5.0 million (net) in capital and reducing the new semiconductor factory's size, complexity, and construction schedule. Furthermore, the existing 29,000 ton cooling district and operations...

Fiorino, D. P.

221

Research District Seeing Growth  

SciTech Connect

Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

Madison, Alison L.

2012-05-13

222

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

223

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

224

Cooling of Kilauea Iki lava lake  

SciTech Connect

In 1959 Kilauea Iki erupted leaving a 110 to 120 m lake of molten lava in its crater. The resulting lava lake has provided a unique opportunity to study the cooling dynamics of a molten body and its associated hydrothermal system. Field measurements taken at Kilauea Iki indicate that the hydrothermal system above the cooling magma body goes through several stages, some of which are well modeled analytically. Field measurements also indicate that during most of the solidification period of the lake, cooling from above is controlled by 2-phase convection while conduction dominates the cooling of the lake from below. A summary of the field work related to the study of the cooling dynamics of Kilauea Iki is presented. Quantitative and qualitative cooling models for the lake are discussed.

Hills, R.G.

1982-02-01

225

Cooling rates of group IVA iron meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooling rates of six group IVA iron meteorites were estimated by a taenite central Ni concentration-taenite half-width method. Calculated cooling rates range from 13 to 25 C/Myr, with an average of 20 C/Myr. No correlation between cooling rate and bulk Ni content is observed, and the data appear to be consistent with a uniform cooling rate as expected from an igneous core origin. This result differs from previous studies reporting a wide range in cooling rates that were strongly correlated with bulk Ni content. The differences result mainly from differences in the phase diagram and the selected diffusion coefficients. Cooling rates inferred from taenite Ni concentrations at the interface with kamacite are consistent with those based on taenite central Ni content.

Willis, J.; Wasson, J. T.

1978-01-01

226

Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average density of D2O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ˜210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D2O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called "low-density liquid" and "high-density liquid" phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.

Wang, Zhe; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Harriger, Leland; Leão, Juscelino B.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

2014-07-01

227

Facilities Study Report to the Board of Education. Phase I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Birmingham school district, not unlike many other districts in the Metropolitan Detroit Area, has been experiencing a declining student enrollment. A committee was appointed to make a thorough study of the facilities and the future needs of the school district and make recommendations. The task was divided into two phases. The first phase was…

Goetz, Frank; And Others

228

ASTROMAG coil cooling study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

1990-01-01

229

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Districts shall consist of the following: (1) District 1 consists of Tulare, Kern, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District...

2012-01-01

230

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey...

2011-01-01

231

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey...

2010-01-01

232

7 CFR 916.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include all of the production area lying south of the northern boundaries of the counties of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino. (d) District 4...

2011-01-01

233

Districts Refashion Teacher Base Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A handful of districts, some with the approval of their local teachers' unions, are experimenting with alternatives to the fundamental components that govern teachers' base-pay raises. Ranging from a long-standing plan in Eagle County, Colorado, to a contract ratified earlier this year by teachers in the Pittsburgh district, the systems tie raises…

Sawchuk, Stephen

2010-01-01

234

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

235

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

236

Compensation of School District Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently considerable attention has been focused on the inadequacy of presently used methods of compensating school district personnel. The increasing incidence of teacher strikes in many school districts has established the need for an effective alternative to the inherent rigidity of the commonly used fixed step salary schedule. The purpose of this study is to propose one such alternative that

James E. Bruno

1971-01-01

237

Intra-District Inequalities, II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on intra-district inequalities is necessary for determining if changes in state financing formulas have affected inequitable distributions of educational resources within school districts and between classrooms in individual schools. Material inequalities in per pupil expenditures based on race were outlawed by the Hobsen vs Hansen court…

Weinberg, Meyer

1980-01-01

238

Plugging of cooling holes in film-cooled turbine vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plugging of vane cooling holes by impurities in a marine gas turbine was closely simulated in burner rig tests where dopants were added to the combustion products of a clean fuel (Jet-A). Hole plugging occurred when liquid phases, resulting from the dopants, were present in the combustion products. Increasing flame temperature and dopant concentration resulted in an increased rate of deposition and hole plugging.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

239

Intermediate Energy Electron Cooling for Antiproton Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron cooling at low energies ((gamma) slightly greater than one) has been shown to be an extremely effective means to increase the phase space density of proton beams. This document starts with a review of the progress made in low energy electron cooling, followed by a brief look at the parameters of intermediate energy electron cooling. ((gamma) of five to ten). The results of an emittance measurement done on an electrostatic accelerator are presented indicating that such a device would be ideal for intermediate energy electron cooling. A complete electron optics design of the system is done next, solving the beam envelope evolution problem in the presence of emittance, space charge, and acceleration. Application of intermediate energy electron cooling to the Fermilab antiproton source is theoretically studied. The amount of time it takes for the antiproton beam to cool is calculated including the effects of finite electron beam temperature, betatron oscillations, and intrabeam scattering. A four ampere electron beam will cool the Fermilab antiproton beam in half an hour. Lastly, the final equilibrium antiproton emittances obtainable are estimated. Equilibrium between the competing processes of intrabeam scattering and electron cooling exists when the transverse antiproton beam emittances are 0.12 (pi) mm-mr and the longitudinal antiproton beam emittance is (DELTA)p/p = 1 x 10('-5). This represents a phase space density increase of about 15 in each transverse plane, and an improvement of 20 in the energy resolution of the accumulator. Possible instabilities of such a dense beam are investigated.

Larson, Delbert John

240

Cooling arrangement for water-cooled internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling arrangement is described for a water-cooled internal combustion engine. The cooling arrangement comprises a radiator, a water jacket of the internal combustion engine, a cooling water passage for circulating the cooling between the radiator and the water jacket, and a cooling water temperature detecting means for outputting signal related to the cooling water temperature detecting means for outputting

T. Taguchi; M. Nakano; N. Hiramoto; H. Tominaga

1986-01-01

241

District Computer Concerns: Checklist for Monitoring Instructional Use of Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist those involved with planning, organizing, and implementing computer use in schools, this checklist can be applied to: (1) assess the present state of instructional computer use in the district; (2) assist with the development of plans or guidelines for computer use; (3) support a start-up phase; and (4) monitor the…

Coe, Merilyn

242

Inhomogeneous color superconductivity and the cooling of compact stars  

E-print Network

In this talk I discuss the inhomogeneous (LOFF) color superconductive phases of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, I show the effect of a core of LOFF phase on the cooling of a compact star.

M. Ruggieri

2007-04-13

243

Liquid-Cooled Garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

1977-01-01

244

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-print Network

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01

245

The Cool Flames Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to volume ratio, and (T(bar) - Tw ) is the spatially averaged temperature excess. This Newtonian form has been validated in spatially-uniform, well-stirred reactors, provided the effective heat transfer coefficient associated with the unsteady process is properly evaluated. Unfortunately, it is not a valid assumption for spatially-nonuniform temperature distributions induced by natural convection in unstirred reactors. "This is why the analysis of such a system is so difficult." Historically, the complexities associated with natural convection were perhaps recognized as early as 1938 when thermal ignition theory was first developed. In the 1955 text "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics", Frank-Kamenetskii recognized that "the purely conductive theory can be applied at sufficiently low pressure and small dimensions of the vessel when the influence of natural convection can be disregarded." This was reiterated by Tyler in 1966 and further emphasized by Barnard and Harwood in 1974. Specifically, they state: "It is generally assumed that heat losses are purely conductive. While this may be valid for certain low pressure slow combustion regimes, it is unlikely to be true for the cool flame and ignition regimes." While this statement is true for terrestrial experiments, the purely conductive heat transport assumption is valid at microgravity (mu-g). Specifically, buoyant complexities are suppressed at mu-g and the reaction-diffusion structure associated with low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignitions can be studied. Without natural convection, the system is simpler, does not require determination of the effective heat transfer coefficient, and is a testbed for analytic and numerical models that assume pure diffusive transport. In addition, mu-g experiments will provide baseline data that will improve our understanding of the effects of natural convection on Earth.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

2001-01-01

246

Air radiator cooling tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an air radiator cooling tower comprising a piping system for the supply and removal of water circulating in cooled tubular elements joined into groups by means of tubular girders, an exhaust tower for the circulation of cooling air, and a device for the excitation of oscillations transmitted through direct contact over the surface of the tubular elements

B. B. Kazanovich; G. R. Santurian; P. A. Fischenko

1979-01-01

247

Quality Circles for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability of quality circles in schools. Examines elements of a successful quality circle program, the decision to have such a program, establishing quality circles, potential problems, and the use of quality circles in school districts. (CT)

Zahra, Shaker A.; And Others

1985-01-01

248

District heating campaign in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-09-01

249

Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories  

E-print Network

Demand for water is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected. The Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas are carrying out a number of successful programs in the areas of education and public awareness, technical assistance...

Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

1999-09-06

250

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01

251

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24

252

Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical.  

PubMed

Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling, which led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. More recently, substantial progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases. Their permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate systems with varied and controllable phases, dynamics and chemistry. However, although advances have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far. This is due to unfavourable ratios of elastic to inelastic scattering and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. Here we report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH(•)) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least one order of magnitude in temperature, and a corresponding increase in phase-space density by three orders of magnitude, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and a sufficiently large initial population, much colder temperatures are possible; even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical (or anything else it can sympathetically cool) may be within reach. PMID:23257881

Stuhl, Benjamin K; Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L; Ye, Jun

2012-12-20

253

Laser cooling with a modified optical shaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some practical improvements are proposed for the “optical-shaker” laser-cooling technique [I. S. Averbukh and Y. Prior, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153002 (2005)]. The improved technique results in an increased cooling rate and decreases the minimum cooling temperature achievable with the optical shaker. The modified shaker requires only one measurement of the force on the atoms before each cooling step, resulting in a simplification of the feedback electronics. The force is inferred from the power variations of the transmitted laser beams and is used to determine the best moment at which the cooling steps are applied. The temperature of the atomic system is automatically monitored, which allows maintaining an optimum cooling rate as the temperature decreases. The improved shaker is simple to build, provides a faster rate of cooling, and can work in the microkelvin regime. Numerical modeling shows a reduction by a factor of 3 in the required number of phase jumps and a lower temperature limit reduced by an order of magnitude compared to the initially proposed shaker. The technique is also extendable to cooling in three dimensions.

Marmet, L.

2009-01-01

254

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

255

78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...

2013-06-21

256

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

257

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

258

Performance of the dark energy camera liquid nitrogen cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Camera, the Imager and its cooling system was installed onto the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile in September 2012. The imager cooling system is a LN2 two-phase closed loop cryogenic cooling system. The cryogenic circulation processing is located off the telescope. Liquid nitrogen vacuum jacketed transfer lines are run up the outside of the telescope truss tubes to the imager inside the prime focus cage. The design of the cooling system along with commissioning experiences and initial cooling system performance is described. The LN2 cooling system with the DES imager was initially operated at Fermilab for testing, then shipped and tested in the Blanco Coudé room. Now the imager is operating inside the prime focus cage. It is shown that the cooling performance sufficiently cools the imager in a closed loop mode, which can operate for extended time periods without maintenance or LN2 fills.

Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Alvarez, R.; Bonati, M.; Derylo, G.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A.; Munoz, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schultz, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Zhao, A.

2014-01-01

259

PROGRESS IN DESIGNING A MUON COOLING RING WITH LITHIUM LENSES.  

SciTech Connect

We discuss particle tracking simulations in a storage ring with lithium lens inserts designed for the six-dimensional phase space cooling of muons by the ionization cooling. The ring design contains one or more lithium lens absorbers for transverse cooling that transmit the beam with very small beta-function values, in addition to liquid-hydrogen wedge-shaped absorbers in dispersive locations for longitudinal cooling. Such a ring could comprise the final component of a cooling system for use in a muon collider. The beam matching between dipole-quadrupole lattices and the lithium lenses is of particular interest.

FUKUI,Y.CLINE,D.B.GARREN,A.A.KIRK,H.G.

2004-03-03

260

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

261

S'COOL Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This flyer is a two-page overview of the Student Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) education project. It covers the project's educational contributions, societal benefits, educational outgrowths, and scientific findings. The flyer shows the numbers and locations of S'COOL participation and regional observation coverage. It also contains URLs for online resources (e.g., GLOBE contrail education and S-COOL Website).

2005-01-01

262

Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

Litvinenko, Vladimir; Derbenev, Yaroslav

2009-03-01

263

Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

Litvinenko, Vladimir N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)

2009-03-20

264

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01

265

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

266

Volcanoes and Global Cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanic eruptions are thought to be responsible for the global cooling that has been observed for a few years after a major eruption. The amount and global extent of the cooling depend on the force of the eruption and, possibly, its latitude. When large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere, they can produce a large, widespread cooling effect. As a prime example, the effects of Mount Pinatubo, which erupted in June 1991, may have lasted a few years, serving to offset temporarily the predicted greenhouse effect. This site describes the phenomenon of volcanic global cooling and NASA's instruments and missions to study it.

267

Iodine deficiency in district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

The state of Himachal Pradesh is a known iodine deficiency endemic region since the last 40 years. The state government is supplying iodised salt to the district since 1970. No recent survey has been conducted on the prevalence of iodine deficiency from the district Kinnaur which is located at an average altitude of 10,000 feet above sea level. A total of 1094 children in the age group of 6-10 years were included in the study and clinically examined. The total goitre prevalence of 6.1% was found in the subjects studied. Urine samples were collected from 226 children and were analysed using standard laboratory procedures. It was found that the percentage of children with < 2 mcg/dl, 2-4.9 mcg/dl, 5-9.9 mcg/dl and 10 and above mcg/dl of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level was 1.3, 5.8, 10.6 and 82.3 respectively. A total of 242 salt samples were collected and analysed using the standard iodometric titration method. Results showed that almost 90% of the families were consuming salt with an iodine content of 15 ppm and more which is the stipulated level of iodisation of salt. The findings of the study indicate that iodine nutrition is in the transition phase from iodine deficient to iodine sufficient. Findings revealed a need for further strengthening the monitoring of the quality of salt being distributed in Kinnaur to achieve elimination of iodine deficiency. PMID:10771997

Kapil, U; Sharma, N C; Ramachandran, S; Nayar, D; Vashisht, M

1998-01-01

268

Congressional District Visits in August  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

Hoover, Fushcia

2014-08-01

269

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

college, or school district, Defendants, and Case 2:06-cv-15024-DML-RSW Document 39 Filed 12/19/2006 Page to defendant the constitutionality" of the ballot initiative. Mot. to Case 2:06-cv-15024-DML-RSW Document 39

Shyy, Wei

270

Stacking with stochastic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10 5 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the ' old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

2004-10-01

271

Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most precisely determined upper limits for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) is set by the thallium (Tl) atomic beam experiment. One way to enhance the sensitivity of the atomic beam setup is to laser cool the Tl atoms to reduce the EDM-like phase caused by the E×v effect. In this report, a cooling scheme based on the 6P3/2(F=2)?6D5/2(F'=3) transition in Tl is proposed. The absolute frequency measurement of this nearly closed-cycle transition was performed in an atomic beam apparatus. Two Ti:sapphire lasers were frequency-doubled using enhancement cavities in X-type configurations to provide the needed 377- and 352-nm light sources for the optical pumping and cooling transitions, respectively. The absolute frequency of this cooling transition is determined to be 851 634 646(56) MHz.

Fan, Isaac; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Lien, Yu-Hung; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Liu, Yi-Wei

2011-10-01

272

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2011-01-01

273

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2013-01-01

275

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2014-01-01

276

Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

The participation of irrigation districts (IDs) in surface water transfers from agriculture-to-municipal uses is studied by examining IDs’ economic and political behavior, comparing their performance with non-districts (non-IDs), and analyzing...

Ghimire, Narishwar

2013-04-11

277

7 CFR 989.22 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.22 District. District means any one of...

2011-01-01

278

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2010-01-01

279

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2011-01-01

280

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San Benito, Monterey, Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

281

36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seashore District shall include all those portions of the towns of Provincetown, Truro, Wellfleet, Eastham, Orleans and Chatham lying within the exterior boundaries of the Cape Cod National Seashore. (b) Zoning bylaws for the Seashore District...

2010-07-01

282

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

...Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County, Calaveras County...California District includes and consists of San Bernardino County, Orange County, San Diego County, Imperial County, Riverside...

2014-01-01

283

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae, A. Ranne, T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

284

7 CFR 906.16 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.16 District. District means any of the...

2010-01-01

285

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2013-01-01

286

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2012-01-01

287

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2014-01-01

288

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2010-01-01

289

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2011-01-01

290

7 CFR 953.11 - District.  

...in the State of Virginia. District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in the State of Virginia. District No. 4. Northampton, Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Chowan, Perquimans,...

2014-01-01

291

Restructuring Industrial Districts, Scaling Up Regional Development  

E-print Network

421 Restructuring Industrial Districts, Scaling Up Regional Development: A Study of the Wenzhou, industrial diversification, and spatial restructuring. Firms in Wenzhou have gone through localization industrial districts (MIDs). However, with China's changing institutional environment and intensifying

Wei, Yehua Dennis

292

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2014-01-01

293

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2012-01-01

294

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2011-01-01

295

7 CFR 930.6 - District.  

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means...

2014-01-01

296

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2013-01-01

297

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2011-01-01

298

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

299

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2013-01-01

300

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

301

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01

302

S'COOL Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

Bryson, Linda

2004-01-01

303

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26

304

Liquid Cooled Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

1979-01-01

305

Why Cool Roofs?  

SciTech Connect

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2010-01-01

306

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

2013-01-04

307

75 FR 52734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Cooling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission...and Approval; Cooling Water Intake Structure Phase...announces an Information Collection Request (ICR) has...Facility rule requires the collection of information from...transmission, use a cooling water intake structure...

2010-08-27

308

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

Wagner, E.P. Jr.

1999-01-12

309

Water cooled steam jet  

DOEpatents

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

310

Updated January 2014 District Coordinators  

E-print Network

, Saginaw, MI 48607 e-mail: eastd@msu.edu Tamara Harris: (877) 643-9885 harri756@msu.edu Toll Free: (877 102, Port Huron, MI 48060 e-mail: bixlerj@msu.edu Tamara Harris: (877) 643-9885 harri756@msu.edu Toll ­ Serving Macomb, Oakland, Wayne Marie Ruemenapp MSU Extension District 11, 28115 Meadowbrook, Novi, MI

311

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

312

Sharpening a District's Leadership Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create an integrated board self-assessment and superintendent evaluation process, district leaders must develop a school leadership model by adopting a coherent governance model. At the same time, they must also develop goals at the appropriate level that ensure quality governance of a school system. In the second of a two-part series, the…

Namit, Chuck

2008-01-01

313

Alternatives to School District Consolidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has become both a solution for small, rural school districts and a contentious policy fraught with numerous difficulties. Despite concerns about limited curricula and higher operating expenses, there is no generalizable evidence that students educated in rural settings underachieve or have deficient social skills. Recent research has…

Berliner, Bethann

1990-01-01

314

Competition with Charters Motivates Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

2013-01-01

315

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

316

Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01

317

Cooling Rates of Chondrules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling rates for chondrules are among many aspects of chondrule forming events currently under debate and estimates by different authors vary considerably. Calculations based on radiation from isolated chondrules yield an extremely high cooling rate of ~10^5 degrees C/hr [1]. The cooling rates derived from previous petrological and experimental studies are much lower but inconsistent, ranging from 5 - 100 degrees C/hr [2] to ~1000 degrees C/hr [3]. Since cooling rates bear important information about the chondrule-forming environment, they need to be more tightly constrained. Here we re-evaluate the chondrule cooling rates based on the results of our recent flash heating experiments, mainly the volatile loss data, as well as textures, and olivine zoning profiles of the chondrule analog materials. Linear cooling vs. cooling curves. Many previous studies either assumed or used linear cooling rates for chondrules [2,3]. In reality, even with simple radiative cooling, the cooling rates should have followed a non-linear path, according to the Stefan- Boltzmann law. We used non-linear cooling rates throughout our experiments, and our observations show that the initial cooling rate at the high temperature end of a specific cooling curve affects chondrule properties most. Volatile loss results. Our Na and S loss experiments [4] have shown that to reproduce the very high Na contents [5,6] and primary sulfide [7] found in some natural chondrules, heating has to be brief, but fast cooling and relatively high fO2 are also essential. With an fO2 of ~10^(-10) atm, for a type II chondrule flash heated to its liquidus temperature, cooling curves beginning at ~2500 degrees C/hr are necessary to retain >90% of its original Na content or part of its S, unless the ambient gas is very enriched in these elements [8]. Under lower fO2, or for type I chondrule composition, even higher cooling rates are required. Textures and olivine zoning with ~10^1 - ~10^3 degrees C/hr initial cooling rates. Depending on temperature and starting composition, the charges cooled under such cooling rates exhibit either total glass, BO, PO, POP, or relict olivine texture, consistent with previous linear cooling experiments [2,3,9]. For type IIAB chondrule charges with PO, olivine zoning produced by initially cooling between 500 degrees C/hr and 5000 degrees C/hr is very similar to that of Semarkona chondrules [2]. In this cooling rate range, higher cooling rates enhance the zoning. Charges cooled between 10 degrees C/hr and 100 degrees C/hr show very limited olivine zoning. Textures and olivine zoning with ~10^5 degrees C/hr initial cooling rates. A cooling rate this high can only be achieved by quenching the charge in air immediately after the desired temperature is reached. The final charges are composed of glass and numerous small olivine crystals with grain sizes seldom exceeding 20 fm. Repeated heating/quenching cycles at lower temperature slowly coarsen the olivine crystals: 100 heating/quenching cycles can double the size of olivine, but the final olivine crystals are somewhat rounded and have curved embayments. Very limited olivine zoning is produced: the core/rim difference in FeO rarely exceeds 5%. Discussion. Under flash heating conditions, cooling rates of 10 - 100 degrees C/hr will cause extensive volatile loss except with an unusual ambient gas, and produce limited olivine zoning. Cooling rates of as high as 105 degrees C/hr certainly can preserve high volatile contents, but the crystals grown are too small. Repeated heating/extremely fast cooling cycles can coarsen the olivine grains, but not enough, and do not reproduce porphyritic chondrule textures well. In addition, the heating mechanism to heat chondrules hundreds of times with peak temperatures always constrained within a narrow window is unrealistic. The initial cooling rates of the chondrule cooling curves are more likely between these two extremes, and from our volatile loss results, they are probably in the range of several thousand degrees per hour, especially for type II chondrules.

Yu, Y.; Hewins, R. H.; Eiben, B. A.

1995-09-01

318

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Full Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems.

Not Available

2011-08-01

319

Energy Sources and Systems Analysis: 40 South Lincoln Redevelopment District (Short Report)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the a brief overview of the results of a case study to analyze district energy systems for their potential use in a project that involves redeveloping 270 units of existing public housing, along with other nearby sites. When complete, the redevelopment project will encompass more than 900 mixed-income residential units, commercial and retail properties, and open space. The analysis estimated the hourly heating, cooling, domestic hot water, and electric loads required by the community; investigated potential district system technologies to meet those needs; and researched available fuel sources to power such systems. A full report of this case study is also available.

Not Available

2011-08-01

320

How Can We Fund Charter Districts? The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore funding issues related to charter districts. It begins with definitions of charter school and charter district. It continues with a brief discussion of public-school finance and some of the policy issues associated with distributing state funds to school districts, allowing school districts to generate…

Augenblick, John; Sharp, Jennifer

321

District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

2014-01-01

322

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

323

School District Cash Management. Program Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

324

District Learning Tied to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

325

Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

1998-01-01

326

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E, plus the area of Adams...County not included in the East or South Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The...

2011-01-01

327

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E, plus the area of Adams...County not included in the East or South Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The...

2012-01-01

328

School District Effects and Efficiency. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes efforts to develop indices of student achievement, school district effort, and school district efficiency. The challenge was to develop measures that are simple to understand, yet allow comparison among districts that are not distorted by socioeconomic differences. Measures were developed for average student achievement,…

Swanson, Austin D.; Engert, Frank

329

Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

Faulkner, F. E.

1971-01-01

330

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

331

Cooling of solar flares plasmas. 1: Theoretical considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical models of the cooling of flare plasma are reexamined. By assuming that the cooling occurs in two separate phase where conduction and radiation, respectively, dominate, a simple analytic formula for the cooling time of a flare plasma is derived. Unlike earlier order-of-magnitude scalings, this result accounts for the effect of the evolution of the loop plasma parameters on the cooling time. When the conductive cooling leads to an 'evaporation' of chromospheric material, the cooling time scales L(exp 5/6)/p(exp 1/6), where the coronal phase (defined as the time maximum temperature). When the conductive cooling is static, the cooling time scales as L(exp 3/4)n(exp 1/4). In deriving these results, use was made of an important scaling law (T proportional to n(exp 2)) during the radiative cooling phase that was forst noted in one-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations (Serio et al. 1991; Jakimiec et al. 1992). Our own simulations show that this result is restricted to approximately the radiative loss function of Rosner, Tucker, & Vaiana (1978). for different radiative loss functions, other scaling result, with T and n scaling almost linearly when the radiative loss falls off as T(exp -2). It is shown that these scaling laws are part of a class of analytic solutions developed by Antiocos (1980).

Cargill, Peter J.; Mariska, John T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

1995-01-01

332

District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Summary of Twin Cities case study and the St. Paul Project  

SciTech Connect

A site-specific study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a large, cogeneration/district-heating system for US cities. The MInneapolis-St. Paul area was chosen as the site for a case study of a modern hot-water district-heating system. The first phase of the work was a conceptual feasibility study for the entire metropolitan region. The effort concentrated on assessing the heat loads and heat sources that could be connected over a 20-year period. This study phase set the framework for the overall potential for district heating in the region and was the stimulus for the sceond phase, the St. Paul district-heating demonstration project. The St. P District-Heating Development Company is planning to build the first modern hot-water district-heating system in a major US city.

Karnitz, M.A.; Kolb, J.O.

1983-02-01

333

Implementation of Stochastic Cooling Hardware at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider  

SciTech Connect

The invention of Stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer made possible the increase in phase space density of charged particle beams. In particular, this feedback technique allowed the development of proton antiproton colliders at both CERN and Fermilab. This paper describes the development of hardware systems necessary to cool antiprotons at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider complex.

Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; /Fermilab

2011-08-01

334

Power cooling primer  

SciTech Connect

Power cooling technology has come a long way since the Clean Water Act was passed in the 1970s. Now, the choice between a wet, dry or hybrid cooling system depends on a host of variables. Since the initial passage of the Clean Water Act and other environmental laws in the early 1970's, both the regulations governing discharge of the resulting waste heat and the technology for complying with them have become increasingly complex. As a result, the decision as to the type of cooling system to use depends on a variety of project parameters, such as size of unit, site, and environmental constraints.

Williams, P.L. (Independent Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

335

Personal Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

1986-01-01

336

Sub-cooled nitrogen cryogenic cooling system for superconducting fault current limiter by using GM-cryocooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 21st Century Frontier R&D Program was planned to develop and commercialize the inductive Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) in Korea until 2011. The 1.2 kV/80 A inductive SFCL was planned to develop at the first year in the first phase (2001-2002) and the 6.6 kV/200 A inductive SFCL for short run operation test was planned to develop at the second and third year in the first phase (2002-2004). The experimental characteristics of conduction-cooled cooling system developed in the first year was very weak from the sudden large thermal disturbance. Therefore, the conduction-cooled cooling system was concluded not appropriate for the cryogenic technology of the application of superconducting fault current limiter. In the third year research, the improved sub-cooled nitrogen cooling system was adopted and investigated. In this paper, the characteristics of each cooling type was compared and the basic deign of ameliorated cooling system was introduced and the total heat load of the cooling system was calculated and compared with the heat load of the cooling system developed at 2nd year research.

Kang, Hyoungku; Kim, Hyung Jin; Bae, Duck Kweon; Ahn, Min Cheol; Chang, Ho-Myung; Ko, Tae Kuk

2005-01-01

337

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-print Network

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

338

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-print Network

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01

339

Waveguide cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

340

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... antifreeze agents at Linneaus Terrace, Wright Valley (Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 19 ...

341

Cooling of a sunspot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether a perturbed photospheric area can grow into a region of reduced temperature resembling a sunspot is investigated by considering whether instabilities exist that can lead to a growing temperature change and corresponding magnetic-field concentration in some region of the photosphere. After showing that Alfven cooling can lead to these instabilities, the effect of a heat sink on the temperature development of a perturbed portion of the photosphere is studied. A simple form of Alfven-wave cooling is postulated, and computations are performed to determine whether growing modes exist for physically relevant boundary conditions. The results indicate that simple inhibition of convection does not give growing modes, but Alfven-wave production can result in cooling that leads to growing field concentration. It is concluded that since growing instabilities can occur with strong enough cooling, it is quite possible that energy loss through Alfven waves gives rise to a self-generating temperature change and sunspot formation.

Boruta, N.

1977-01-01

342

Solar heating and cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading from a site about the future of energy introduces students to passive solar design for homes. The reading describes design elements that are used for passive solar heating and cooling. For example, reflective coatings can be applied to roofs, windows, and exterior walls to help cool houses. The reading recommends that those interested in passive solar design consult an architect. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

343

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS MAKE MONEY Robert Burger President ABSTRACT Question:-Why is the low bidder system a sacred cow? If contractors understand, by specifications, that the second low bidder will be awarded the contract all bidders will do... compliance and performanc are not safeguarded in the bid specification documents. With cooling towers, for instance, t e Wet Bulb Temperature criteria ofDesign is! extremely important. One or two degrees off can mean many dollars in costs...

Burger, R.

344

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOEpatents

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11

345

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01

346

CO2 cooling for the CMS tracker at SLHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a new CMS tracker at SLHC cooling of the silicon sensors and their electronics is a crucial issue. Currently under investigation is an evaporative CO2 cooling system, being able to provide more cooling power at a lower mass than a mono-phase liquid system. Furthermore carbon dioxide could allow for lower operating temperatures, which are beneficial for the sensor performance and lifetime. The CO2 cooling test system at RWTH Aachen University is being presented. First measurements and results are shown, demonstrating the functionality of the system.

Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Wlochal, M.

2011-01-01

347

New district-heating system economic factors vary with different supply temperatures  

SciTech Connect

District heating has been in use for many years and offers economic, environmental, and energy conservation benefits. A new district heating system may be based on either a steam or hot water distribution system. The supply media choice is based upon the composition of the load and other factors. This report discusses the relative advantages of steam vs hot water systems and between hot water systems of varying temperatures. Points of comparison include: capital costs, cogeneration efficiencies, building conversion costs, operating and maintenance costs, energy losses, maximum transport distances, and cooling applications. The major conclusion is that a thorough analysis of the market, including building equipment and consumer requirements, is essential in designing a district heating system and is of primary importance in determining the optimum supply temperature.

Borkowski, R.J.; Stovall, T.K.; Karnitz, M.A.

1982-10-01

348

Cool Flame Quenching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism, following the work on diffusion-controlled cool flames by Fairlie et,al., 2000.

Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

2001-01-01

349

346 - Extensive sensitivity analysis of diverse ventilation cooling techniques for a typical administrative building in Mid-European climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this study is to compare the cooling potential of diverse passive cooling techniques linked to ventilation: controlled thermal phase-shifting (a recently discovered phenomenon), air-soil heat exchangers, evaporative cooling, and direct night cooling. The potential of these techniques is investigated for the case of an administrative building located in a moderate climate, with a specific attention to urban versus

P. Hollmuller; P. Gallinelli; B. Lachal; W. Weber

350

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER  

SciTech Connect

Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

2009-02-10

351

Research Proposal for the Design and Engineering Phase of a Solar Heating and Cooling System Experiment at the Warner Robins Public Library, Warner Robins, Georgia. Submitted to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of reasons are advanced to include a solar heating and cooling experiment in a library building. The unique aspects of the experiment are to be a seasonally adjustable collector tilt and testing of a new generation of absorption air conditioners. After a brief description of the proposed experiment, the proposal contains forms filed by…

Phillips, Warren H.; And Others

352

RADIANT COOLING RESEARCH SCOPING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.2 RADIANT COOLING Radiant cooling uses actively cooled surfaces to absorb excess thermal energy and remove it from a space. This is more or less the inverse of the radiant floor heating systems that have become relatively popular in North American residential applications. In the case of radiant cooling, thermal energy is flowing from the occupants, equipment, lights, and other

Timothy Moore; Fred Bauman; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

353

Hybrid Evaporative - Condenser Cooling Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to save energy in power producing and power consuming systems and the fact that evaporative cooling is the most efficient method for heat rejection led to the design and testing of a model of a special cooling tower, fn this hybrid system an evaporative condenser is being built into the cooling tower and the advantages of evaporative cooling

Uriyel Fisher; Wolfgang Leidenfrost; Jiashang Li

1981-01-01

354

Deep versus shallow cooling ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some months ago, the Engineering Department was requested to make an evaluation estimate of the cost of obtaining approximately 150,000 gpm of cooling water from shallow ponds or from cooling towers. Their conclusions (see DPWZ-5305) were (1) that both schemes were feasible and each produced cooling water of approximately the same annual average temperature; (2) the cooling towers could be

Babcock

1956-01-01

355

Newton's Law of Cooling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students come to see the exponential trend demonstrated through the changing temperatures measured while heating and cooling a beaker of water. This task is accomplished by first appealing to students' real-life heating and cooling experiences, and by showing an example exponential curve. After reviewing the basic principles of heat transfer, students make predictions about the heating and cooling curves of a beaker of tepid water in different environments. During a simple teacher demonstration/experiment, students gather temperature data while a beaker of tepid water cools in an ice water bath, and while it heats up in a hot water bath. They plot the data to create heating and cooling curves, which are recognized as having exponential trends, verifying Newton's result that the change in a sample's temperature is proportional to the difference between the sample's temperature and the temperature of the environment around it. Students apply and explore how their new knowledge may be applied to real-world engineering applications.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

356

Cooling in a compound bucket  

SciTech Connect

Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

357

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

358

District nurse clinics: accountability and practice.  

PubMed

The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics. PMID:23370845

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2013-02-01

359

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

360

Cooling of neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

Pethick, C. J.

1992-01-01

361

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

362

Congressional District Data for the 93d Congress. A Computer Profile. Washington, Districts 1-7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present separate computer generated statistical profiles for congressional districts of the 93d Congress. They include selected data on demographic, economic, and housing characteristics for the states and congressional districts. Data are pre...

1972-01-01

363

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South. Antelope Creek, Lincoln, NE ..................... 26-2 4. Bear Creek Lake, CO.................................. 26-3 5. Big Sioux River & Skunk Creek, Sioux Falls, SD ......................................... 26

US Army Corps of Engineers

364

77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

2012-04-10

365

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

366

A New System for Cooling and Gas Promoting Extraction Utilizing Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new system utilizing carbon dioxide (CO2) to promote gas extraction and to cool a mining face. Based on the phase transformation characteristics of CO2, this system chooses CO2 as the secondary refrigerant to cool mining face; after absorbing heat from the mining face, low temperature CO2 is injected into goaf, cooling goaf and improving desorption of

Wang Lan yun; Jiang Shu guang; Xu Yong liang; Zhang Wei qing; Shao Hao; Wu Zheng yan; Zou Li li

2010-01-01

367

Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija

2011-01-01

368

A Cyclic Cooling Algorithm  

E-print Network

We introduce a scheme to perform the cooling algorithm, first presented by Oscar Boykin et al. in 2002, for an arbitrary number of times on the same set of qbits. We achieve this goal by adding an additional SWAP-gate and a bath contact to the algorithm. This way one qbit may repeatedly be cooled without adding additional qbits to the system. By using a product Liouville space to model the bath contact we calculate the density matrix of the system after a given number of applications of the algorithm.

F. Rempp; M. Michel; G. Mahler

2007-02-07

369

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended investigation students determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when itâs cold and how they cool the brood when itâs hot. In the process, students will discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible. Required materials and step-by-step instructional guidelines are included in a pdf guide. Teachers and students may extend upon this activity by using their âhoneybeeâ investigations to design open-ended experiments to determine ways to heat and cool things through direct contact (conduction), through the movement of air or water (convection), and by evaporation.

Bob Madsen, Dull K.

370

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

371

Cooling with Sunshades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about passive cooling methods. Learners will construct a simple device to measure how effective different materials are for protecting against sunlight, explain how heat relates to the motion of atoms and molecules, describe how heat can be transmitted from one place to another, explain how sunlight arriving on Earth interacts with matter, and describe how MESSENGER is protected by a simple sunshade in the hot Mercurian environment. Materials required to do this activity include several commonly-found items (e.g., coffee cans, ice cubes, tape, ruler, calculators, stopwatch, and scale). This is lesson 3 of 4 at the Grade 9-12 range of "Staying Cool."

372

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

373

University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste  

E-print Network

, water purifiers, water distillers, water ionizer, water coolers, counter top ultra violet waterUniversity of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste Testing University of the District of Columbia Date: May 2005 Prepared for the DC Water Resources Research Institute

District of Columbia, University of the

374

One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

Dombrowski, Richard J.

375

Inter-District Cooperation: Salvation of the Small School District. New Regionalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its least complex form, a cooperative can be an informal agreement between two or more school districts to cooperatively accomplish some task. As a cooperative gets more formalized and organized, with its own staff, its operations become more removed the control of its constituents and member districts. The local school district's primary…

Hartman, Luther E.

376

Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

Espinosa, Ruben W.

2010-01-01

377

Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

2003-01-01

378

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

379

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-print Network

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07

380

Curved film cooling admission tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (inventors)

1980-01-01

381

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01

382

Tungsten Helium cooled Target  

E-print Network

shock and low stress level Flexible target material (choice, arrangement, geometry...) #12;Page 6Cyril and after heat Less frequent maintenance and handling of radioactive material Solid waste Upgradeable cladding >Advantages: Known technology Low activity in the cooling fluid Leak tightness >Drawbacks

McDonald, Kirk

383

Transpiration Cooling Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

1997-01-01

384

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-print Network

BLOOD COLLECTION LAB PLATELET DONATION GRADUATE EDUCATION ID CLINIC THE CAFE MAIL ROOM A B C MACNIDER HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL) MEDICALDR. WOMEN'S SERVICES BLOOD BANK FIRST FLOOR OF UNC HOSPITALS BERRYHILL OIS DIGITAL MEDIA SERVICES

Crews, Stephen

385

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-print Network

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units...

Burger, R.

386

Energy efficient liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of this paper is an investigation of the hydrodynamic performance of liquid pumps for electronics cooling applications, considered in conjunction with a range of primary heat exchangers. Pressure-flow characteristics of a set of geometrically- similar, miniature-scale centrifugal pumps are measured, and reductions in hydrodynamic efficiency are seen to occur below a critical Reynolds number. Six primary heat exchangers

Jeff Punch

2008-01-01

387

Cooled ISOFLOW laser mirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISOFLOW cooled mirror technology was developed at Itek with the goal of producing a high performance heat exchanger with emphasis on coolant efficiency and low jitter. Design and analysis capabilities, as well as manufacturing processes were developed and demonstrated in 8.0 inch diameter mirrors made from single crystal silicon, silicon carbide, and Ultra Low Expansion glass. The ISOFLOW mirror

Mark A. Ealey; John A. Wellman

1993-01-01

388

Bee Cool! (Honeybee Thermoregulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an open-ended investigation to determine how honeybees heat their larvae (brood) when itÃÂs cold and how they cool the brood when itÃÂs hot. Students will also discover the physical principals that make thermoregulation possible.

Mr. Bob Madsen (Dull Knife Memorial College)

1999-07-01

389

Warm and Cool Cityscapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

Jubelirer, Shelly

2012-01-01

390

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-print Network

has a total shop area of 128,000 square feet and the majority of the machine tools are equipped with computerized numerical controls. The cooling system was designed around five (5) floor mounted, 50,000 CFM, air handling units which had been...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01

391

Laser-cooling-assisted mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

Mass spectrometry is used in a wide range of scientific disciplines including proteomics, pharmaceutics, forensics, and fundamental physics and chemistry. Given this ubiquity, there is a worldwide effort to improve the efficiency and resolution of mass spectrometers. However, the performance of all techniques is ultimately limited by the initial phase-space distribution of the molecules being analyzed. Here, we dramatically reduce the width of this initial phase-space distribution by sympathetically cooling the input molecules with laser-cooled, co-trapped atomic ions, improving both the mass resolution and detection efficiency of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer by over an order of magnitude. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations verify the technique and aid with evaluating its effectiveness. Our technique appears to be applicable to other types of mass spectrometers.

Schneider, Christian; Chen, Kuang; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

2014-01-01

392

Laser-Cooling-Assisted Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry is used in a wide range of scientific disciplines including proteomics, pharmaceutics, forensics, and fundamental physics and chemistry. Given this ubiquity, there is a worldwide effort to improve the efficiency and resolution of mass spectrometers. However, the performance of all techniques is ultimately limited by the initial phase-space distribution of the molecules being analyzed. Here, we dramatically reduce the width of this initial phase-space distribution by sympathetically cooling the input molecules with laser-cooled, cotrapped atomic ions, improving both the mass resolution and detection efficiency of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer by over an order of magnitude. Detailed molecular-dynamics simulations verify the technique and aid with evaluating its effectiveness. This technique appears to be applicable to other types of mass spectrometers.

Schneider, Christian; Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen, Kuang; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

2014-09-01

393

Physiologic and Functional Responses of MS Patients to Body Cooling Using Commercially Available Cooling Garments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal cooling systems are widely used in industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. Increasingly they are also used by heat sensitive multiple sclerosis (HSMS) patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. There are a variety of cooling systems commercially available to the MS community. However, little information is available regarding the comparative physiological changes produced by routine operation of these various systems. The objective of this study was to document and compare the patient response to two passive cooling vests and one active cooling garment. The Life Enhancement Technology, Inc. (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems (MCS) Change of Phase garment, and the Steele Vest were each used to cool 13 male and 13 female MS subjects (31 to 67 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 C), were tested with one of the cooling garments. Oral, fight and left ear temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. An-n, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. Each subject was given a series of subjective and objective evaluation tests before and after cooling. The LET and Steele vests test groups had similar, significant (P less than 0.01) cooling effects on oral and ear canal temperature, which decreased approximately 0.4 C, and 0.3 C, respectively. Core temperature increased (N.S.) with all three vests during cooling. The LET vest produced the coldest (P less than 0.01) skin temperature. Overall, the LET vest provided the most improvement on subjective and objective performance measures. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all MS patients. Cooling with the LET active garment configuration resulted in the lowest body temperatures for the MS subjects; cooling with the MCS vest was least effective. For functional responses, the LET test group performed better than the other two vests.

Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Luna, Bernadette; Webbon, Bruce W.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

394

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-print Network

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

395

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-print Network

by increasing the turbine inlet temperatures. Since modern turbine inlet temperatures exceed the melting point of the constituent superalloys, it is necessary to provide an aggressive cooling system. Relatively cool air, ducted from the compressor of the engine...

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-10-12

396

City Districts Embracing K-8 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with school districts' K-8 configurations. Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York, and Philadelphia are among the districts making the change, driven by a small body of research and a rising pile of anecdotes suggesting that K-8 configurations help academic performance, decrease discipline problems, enhance parent…

Gewertz, Catherine

2004-01-01

397

School District Reorganization: A Qualified Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circumstances preceding and following the 1984 merger of two small school districts in North Central New York State contained cooperation, controversy, and disharmony. The school districts had enough similarities--in their rural, agricultural base, in the pride and loyalty with which many residents viewed their schools, in the central role…

Canter, Gary

398

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

399

Implementing Clinical Supervision: A District Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Avondale School District's approach to incorporating clinical supervision within the teacher evaluation process. The development of major teacher appraisal systems, their underlying philosophies, and their characteristics are reviewed. In addition, specific processes and training activities used to develop a district model…

Blake, Norine; DeMont, Roger A.

400

Making Use of District and School Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how districts can better use their extensive student databases and other existing data to explore questions of interest. School districts are required to maintain a wealth of student information in electronic data systems and other formats. The meaningfulness of the data depends to a large degree on whether they can understand…

Parke, Carol S.

2012-01-01

401

District internationalisation and trans-local development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast rise of ‘made in China’ in international markets has raised concern among industrial districts in Italy and elsewhere. The challenge comes from a rich variety of factors of development, including local entrepreneurial and public resources. Building on results of fieldwork research on specialised towns and industrial clusters in Guangdong (China), and on investigations of Italian industrial districts, we

Marco Bellandi; Annalisa Caloffi

2008-01-01

402

Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

2012-01-01

403

District Heating System, City of Caliente, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140 exp 0 F water availa...

T. Karlsson

1984-01-01

404

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and…

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

405

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

406

Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

Jacobson, Linda

2008-01-01

407

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

408

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

409

Transportation in the Millard School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to increasing costs for bus service, the Millard School District in Nebraska has instituted a successful plan whereby students pay partially for bus service by purchasing coupon books. While elementary students more than one mile away are still bused at district expense, junior high students more than two miles away must pay the partial cost…

Bosse, Jerry

410

Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

2012-01-01

411

Rural Districts Bolster Choices with Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All schools can benefit from giving students the option of online learning, but for many rural schools, online learning is a lifeline. In the past two years, Lane Education Service District in Oregon, USA, has developed online resources for 14 Lane County school districts, which vary in size from 170 students to as many as 17,000. Many of the…

Brown, Don

2012-01-01

412

School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

2009-01-01

413

District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

2010-01-01

414

Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

McDaniel, Gwenn

2010-01-01

415

Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

1982-04-26

416

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

417

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-print Network

Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01

418

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16

419

Cooling options for Astromag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the various cooling options for the Astromag particle physics experiment is presented. The baseline design for the cryogenic system involves using a natural circulation fountain-effect driven flow loop (Hofmann type). The present paper considers two alternative options for cooling. The first design involves a thermal strap made of a high-conductivity metal, e.g., high-purity aluminum or copper, which connects the coil to the helium reservoir. Venting helium vapor can also be used to minimize the temperature of the magnet and recover from a quench. The second design is based on an He II heat pipe concept where steady state heat transport is by counterflow. Cavitation is prevented by use of a porous plug. Forced flow He II is also available but only during extraordinary operating conditions.

Maytal, B. Z.; Van Sciver, S. W.

1992-01-01

420

Radial turbine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

Roelke, Richard J.

1992-01-01

421

The effect of cooling rate on thermophysical properties of magnesium alloys  

E-print Network

ARTICLES The effect of cooling rate on thermophysical properties of magnesium alloys M.N. Khan magnesium alloys (AZ91D, AM60B, and AE44) have been studied. Phase-transformation temperatures and enthalpy behavior of magnesium alloys, but the effect of cooling rate on phase-transformation temperatures

Medraj, Mamoun

422

Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

1991-01-01

423

Hot Potato, Cool Foil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore material properties by applying some basic principles of heat transfer. They use calorimeters to determine the specific heat of three substances: aluminum, copper and another of their choice. Each substance is cooled in a freezer and then placed in the calorimeter. The temperature change of the water and the substance are used in heat transfer equations to determine the specific heat of each substance. The students compare their calculated values with tabulated data.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

424

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOEpatents

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01

425

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-print Network

, and the sys tem approach temperature was 3 degrees F, a 55 degree F chilled water supply temerature could be generated. The system approach temperature is the combination of partially loaded cool ing tower approach plus thermal losses in the piping... ing tower ambient wet bulb temper ature to the system approach temperature. As an example, given a b~ degree wet bulb ambient and a system approach temperature of 7 degrees, a 55 de gree chilled water supply temperature could be generated...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01

426

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-print Network

will reduce feed intake, increase the maintenance re- quirement (panting can increase this as much as 25 percent) and decrease fertility, immune sys- tem function, growth, milk pro- duction and productive ability. Cattle under heat stress have higher... affect cattle postpartum. Re- search reports that rectal tem- perature respiration rate and calf birth weight respond consistently and positively to prepartum cool- ing. Responses in postpartum milk production and reproductive measures have been variable...

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17

427

Gas turbine vane cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system for stationary vanes in the turbine section of a gas turbine is described. Combustors for the turbine are disposed in a chamber that receives compressed air from a compressor section. This compressed air forms both combustion air and cooling air. The cooling air portion of the compressed air is recirculated through the vanes by bleeding it from

A. G. Chen; G. G. McQuiggan

1995-01-01

428

Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

Menna, A. A.

1987-01-01

429

The RF System for the International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment  

E-print Network

The International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ionisation cooling to reduce the phase space footprint of a charged particle beam, principally to allow the subsequent acceleration of muons for next generation colliders and/or neutrino factories. The experiment (and indeed any subsequent accelerator cooling channel based on the same principles) poses certain unusual requirements on its RF system, whilst the precision measurement of the ionisation cooling process demands special diagnostics. This paper shall outline the key features of the RF system, including the low level RF control, the power amplifier chain, distribution network, cavities, tuners and couplers, many parts of which are required to operate in a high magnetic field environment. The RF diagnostics which, in conjunction with the other MICE diagnostics, shall allow detailed knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the acceleration field during the transit of each individual muon will also ...

Ronald, K.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Moss, A.; Grant, A.; White, C.; Griffiths, S.; Stanley, T.; Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, S.; Moretti, A.; Pasquinelli, R.; Peterson, D.; Schultz, R.; Volk, J.; Popovic, M.; Torun, Y.; Hanlet, P.; Alsari, S.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Hunt, C.; Summers, D.; Luo, T.; Smith, P.J.

2014-01-01

430

V E N T U R A B A S I N GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1  

E-print Network

City Amedee Coso Desert Hot Springs Salton Sea Heber Brawley (Abd.) Mesquite (Abd.) East Mesa . STATE, Director . Barstow . Palm Springs . .Desert Hot Springs . El Centro .Needles DIVISION OF OIL, GAS DISTRICT 3 DISTRICT 6 DISTRICT 5 DISTRICT 4 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT

431

St. Paul District heating system conceptual design study and report. Appendix C of market assessment and economic analysis of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the St. Paul District Heating Demonstration Project are (1) to assess the detailed economic feasibility of a hot water, cogeneration district heating system serving the central business district of St. Paul, Minnesota, and (2) to develop an implementation plan for financing and construction of the first phase of the system over a four-five year time span. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for a 270-MW(t) hot water district heating system serving the central business district of St. Paul and the nearby State Capitol Complex. The system design is based on extensive European hot water design and operating experience. The base heat source for the system is the Northern States Power Co. (NSP) High Bridge Power Plant which has three turbines that can be retrofitted to either extraction or back-pressure cogeneration operation. Hot water at 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C), produced in steam-to-water heat exchangers, is transported to the St. Paul central business district 0.8 miles (1.3 km) away. This conceptual design includes the supply-and-return transmission lines from the High Bridge Plant but does not include the design and cost of piping, heat exchangers, pumps, and controls for retrofitting the High Bridge Plant to cogeneration operation. The system design and construction costs developed in this study are based on the geotechnical analysis of the market area, piping design criteria including code requirements, and piping installation procedures that maximize system reliability and maintainability. The construction cost is developed for a four-five year construction phase based on analyses of the market by the St. Paul DHDC. The total construction cost for the hot water transmission and distribution system in mid-1980 (ENR index = 3200) prices is $29,000,000 including engineering and contingencies. Plant modifications to three power plants for system peaking and reserve requirements are estimated at $4,009, 500.

Barnes, M.H.; Bishop, S.; Abrahamsson, B.

1982-01-01

432

Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

1974-01-01

433

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

434

An Automated Online Circulation Subsystem: The Dallas County Community College District's Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the design and implementation of the Automated Library Information System (ALIS) as the pilot project for the Dallas County Community College District's Automated Information Resources System (AIRS). The focus of the report is the online circulation subsystem of ALIS, which was implemented in September 1977 as phase one of…

Ferguson, Sarah Ann

435

Mineralization in the Bonser Vein, Coniston, English Lake District: Mineral Assemblages, Paragenesis, and Formation Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bonser vein, one of the most productive sources of copper in the English Lake District, contains a mineral assemblage comprising quartz, chlorite, calcite, dolomite, stilpnomelane, magnetite, pyrrhotine, pyrite, marcasite, native bismuth, bismuthinite, laltakarite, joseite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and cosalite. The phases pyrrhotine, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, laitakarite, joseite, and cosalite were analysed by electron microprobe. The occurrence of laitakarite is

C. J. Stanley; D. J. VAUGHAN

1982-01-01

436

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

437

Supporting Information Photochemical Phase Transition versus Photochemical Phase Separation  

E-print Network

a nematic phase between 110 and 227 o C. Figure S1 shows the DSC heating and cooling curve COOHOC6H13 ON N C 175 195 215 235 Endo Tni C N I Figure S1. DSC heating and cooling curves of the LC azo dopant without phase separation. As an example, Figure S2 shows the heating curves of the nematic LC host used

Zhao, Yue

438

Regional Hydrothermal Cooling During the Initiation of Continental Rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochronologic data from the uplifted flanks of the Red Sea clearly indicate at least two distinct phases of regional cooling: the first at about 32 Ma and the second at about 21 Ma according to Omar and Steckler (1995). The latter phase correlates well with the rapid subsidence in the rift and uplift of the flanks. Thus this cooling data is generally interpreted to result from tectonic denudation. The earlier cooling is more problematic, since sediments of the same age are not clearly identified in rift basins. A different explanation for the early cooling episode is suggested by numerical models of lithospheric stretching. Those models show that rift initiation can result in a very broad region of lithospheric downbending. This bending produces small magnitude (several percent) surface extension of the sides of the rift. Eventually, these rift flanks are bent in the opposite sense and uplifted. The earlier phase of extensional strain may create a system of cracks and faults of sufficient permeability to allow significant water circulation. Hydrothermal flow could produce cooling of rocks as deep as 5-10 km. The cooling would be recorded in low-temperature thermochrologic systems such as apatite fission tracks. Model thermal histories for different rift and hydrothermal flow histories are compared to fission track data from the Red Sea region.

Buck, W. R.

2001-12-01

439

Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating

M. T. Farmer; D. J. Kilsdonk; C. P. Tzanos; S. Lomperski; R. W. Aeschlimann; D. Pointer

2005-01-01

440

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A REAL TIME GPS NETWORK FOR THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of Southern California, in collaboration with the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) at University of California, San Diego, has undertaken the design and implementation of a 30-station real time GPS network (RTN). MWDRTN is currently in the final field installation stage (first phase) and the initial field- testing phase. The network is designed

Cecilia Whitaker

2006-01-01

441

Laser cooling in the Penning trap: an analytical model for cooling rates in the presence of an axializing field  

E-print Network

Ions stored in Penning traps may have useful applications in the field of quantum information processing. There are, however, difficulties associated with the laser cooling of one of the radial motions of ions in these traps, namely the magnetron motion. The application of a small radio-frequency quadrupolar electric potential resonant with the sum of the two radial motional frequencies has been shown to couple these motions and to lead to more efficient laser cooling. We present an analytical model that enables us to determine laser cooling rates in the presence of such an 'axializing' field. It is found that this field leads to an averaging of the laser cooling rates for the two motions and hence improves the overall laser cooling efficiency. The model also predicts shifts in the motional frequencies due to the axializing field that are in qualitative agreement with those measured in recent experiments. It is possible to determine laser cooling rates experimentally by studying the phase response of the cooled ions to a near resonant excitation field. Using the model developed in this paper, we study the expected phase response when an axializing field is present.

R. J. Hendricks; E. S. Phillips; D. M. Segal; R. C. Thompson

2007-09-24

442

Process Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

the information and basic techniques needed by the plant operating engineer for =npleting an eca10mic evaluation of a cooling tower efficiency irrprovement rroclification or investment. BASIC DEFINITIO~ FC - First Cost - 'll1is is the initial oost of any... to be in use. oc Depreciation Olarge - OC is the annual depreciation of the investJrent. For the thermal upgrade exarrple, straight line depreciation would be FC/EL. TYPES OF ECCN:MIC MEASURES funey saved today is rrore valuable than that saved at a...

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01

443

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOEpatents

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

444

Solute partitioning under continuous cooling conditions as a cooling rate indicator. [in lunar rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of solute partitioning in a finite body under conditions of continuous cooling is developed for the determination of cooling rates from concentration profile data, and applied to the partitioning of zirconium between ilmenite and ulvospinel in the Apollo 15 Elbow Crater rocks. Partitioning in a layered composite solid is described numerically in terms of concentration profiles and diffusion coefficients which are functions of time and temperature, respectively; a program based on the model can be used to calculate concentration profiles for various assumed cooling rates given the diffusion coefficients in the two phases and the equilibrium partitioning ratio over a range of temperatures. In the case of the Elbow Rock gabbros, the cooling rates are calculated from measured concentration ratios 10 microns from the interphase boundaries under the assumptions of uniform and equilibrium initial conditions at various starting temperatures. It is shown that the specimens could not have had uniform concentrations profiles at the previously suggested initial temperature of 1350 K. It is concluded that even under conditions where the initial temperature, grain sizes and solute diffusion coefficients are not well characterized, the model can be used to estimate the cooling rate of a grain assemblage to within an order of magnitude.

Onorato, P. I. K.; Hopper, R. W.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.; Taylor, L. A.; Garrison, J. R.; Hunter, R.

1981-01-01

445

School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

Tallman, Mark

2012-01-01

446

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524  

E-print Network

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PO BOX 131 CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524 208-843-2931 PHONE AVENUE, SUITE 1100 PORTLAND, OREGON 97204-1348 FROM: NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PROJECTS DATE: 10/4/06 Dear Council Members: The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District

447

An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

2012-01-01

448

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2011-01-01

449

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Glenn. (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito...

2010-01-01

450

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St. Johns,...

2010-01-01

451

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

...include the County of St. Lucie and that part of the Counties of Brevard, Indian River, Martin, and Palm Beach described as lying within Regulation Area II, and County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus...

2014-01-01

452

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

...Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, and Spokane in the State of Washington, and all other counties in Washington lying north thereof. (4) Yakima District shall include all of the State of Washington, not included in the Wenatchee...

2014-01-01

453

Solidere : the battle for Beirut's Central District  

E-print Network

The Beirut Central District was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War which extended from 1975 to 1990. Unable to reconstruct the center itself, the Lebanese government turned to a private Real Estate Holding Company ...

Mango, Tamam, 1981-

2004-01-01

454

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.24 Districts. For the purpose of determining...

2013-01-01

455

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

...hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim Wells, Nueces, Kleberg, Brooks, Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of...

2014-01-01

456

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945...and Power; and (c) District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining designated counties in Idaho included...

2012-01-01

457

7 CFR 924.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions...and Umatilla County in the State of Oregon. (b) District 2 shall include the County of Umatilla in the State of Oregon and the Counties of Walla Walla,...

2011-01-01

458

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945...and Power; and (c) District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining designated counties in Idaho included...

2013-01-01

459

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945...and Power; and (c) District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining designated counties in Idaho included...

2014-01-01

460

7 CFR 924.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions...and Umatilla County in the State of Oregon. (b) District 2 shall include the County of Umatilla in the State of Oregon and the Counties of Walla Walla,...

2010-01-01

461

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2011-01-01

462

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2014-01-01

463

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota in the State of Florida. [33 FR 8586, June 12,...

2012-01-01

464

Cool Science: Using Children's Art to Communicate Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool Science is a K-12 Climate Change Science Art Competition. Working with teachers, parents, and students, the project aims to identify outstanding works of art by students about climate change and display the art throughout public mass transit. Cool Science has three distinct goals: 1) provide a convenient means for art and science teachers to incorporate climate change into their curriculum, 2) support teacher/student learning about climate change science, and 3) foster informal learning about climate change among people riding mass transit. By efficiently connecting formal and informal learning with one project, Cool Science is an innovative project that expands the way we engage and evaluate students. Using children's artwork to communicate complex scientific issues such as climate change is a powerful learning experience for the artist, teacher, and audience. Last year, Cool Science received nearly 600 entries from students representing 36 teachers from 32 school districts. Six winning entries went on public display with one highlighted each month from January through June. In addition, there were 6 Runner Ups and 12 Honorable Mentions. For the winning students, it is an unforgettable experience to see a nine-foot version of their artwork traveling around the streets on the side of a bus!

Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

2013-12-01

465

The ReDistricting Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Redistricting Game is designed to educate, engage, and empower citizens around the issue of political redistricting. Currently, the political system in most states allows the state legislators themselves to draw the lines. This system is subject to a wide range of abuses and manipulations that encourage incumbents to draw districts which protect their seats rather than risk an open contest.By exploring how the system works, as well as how open it is to abuse, The Redistricting Game allows players to experience the realities of one of the most important (yet least understood) aspects of our political system. The game provides a basic introduction to the redistricting system, allows players to explore the ways in which abuses can undermine the system, and provides info about reform initiatives - including a playable version of the Tanner Reform bill to demonstrate the ways that the system might be made more consistent with tenets of good governance. Beyond playing the game, the web site for The Redistricting Game provides a wealth of information about redistricting in every state as well as providing hands-on opportunities for civic engagement and political action.

California, University O.

466

Reconstructing late Holocene palaeoenvironments in Bangladesh: phytolith analysis of archaeological soils from Somapura Mahavihara site in the Paharpur area, Badalgacchi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on phytolith analysis of late Holocene-aged soils in and around the Somapura Mahavihara archaeological monastery site in the Paharpur area, Badalgacchi Upazila of Naogaon District in northwestern Bangladesh was undertaken. Results indicate five climate zones marked by alternatively cool and temperate events. The phytolith assemblages of Zones 1, 3 and 5 are clearly characterized by a higher

A. K. M. Masud Alam; Shucheng Xie; Lynley A. Wallis

2009-01-01

467

Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District  

E-print Network

through instruction and support in multiple environments using various approaches that differ by level of teacher support and child control. This study describes one urban school district’s real-world attempt to create a balance between reading... and writing, between teacher-directed and student-centered activities, and between skills- based and meaning based approaches to literacy instruction. A triangulation strategy using multiple methods of data collection, including classroom observations...

Frey, Bruce B.; Lee, Steven W.; Tollefson, Nona; Pass, Lisa; Massengill Shaw, Donita

2005-01-01

468

AGN and Cooling Flows  

E-print Network

For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. A small number of enthusiasts have argued for a radically different interpretation of the data, but had little impact on prevailing opinion because the unsteady heating picture that they advocate is extremely hard to work out in detail. Here I explain why it is difficult to extract robust observational predictions from the heating picture. Major problems include the variability of the sources, the different ways in which a bi-polar flow can impact on X-ray emission, the weakness of synchrotron emission from sub-relativistic flows, and the sensitivity of synchrotron emission to a magnetic field that is probably highly localized.

James Binney

2001-03-23

469

SIMULATING THE COOLING FLOW OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas reaches the supermassive black hole at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the cooling of gas out to 100 kpc with the cold gas accretion in the central 100 pc, potentially closing the loop between cooling and heating. Isotropic heat conduction does not affect the result significantly, but we show that including the potential well of the brightest cluster galaxy is necessary to obtain the correct result. Also, we found that the outcome is sensitive to resolution, requiring very high mass resolution to correctly reproduce the small transition radius.

Li Yuan; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-03-01

470

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16

471

Modeling a Transient Pressurization with Active Cooling Sizing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As interest in the area of in-space zero boil-off cryogenic propellant storage develops, the need to visualize and quantify cryogen behavior during ventless tank self-pressurization and subsequent cool-down with active thermal control has become apparent. During the course of a mission, such as the launch ascent phase, there are periods that power to the active cooling system will be unavailable. In addition, because it is not feasible to install vacuum jackets on large propellant tanks, as is typically done for in-space cryogenic applications for science payloads, instances like the launch ascent heating phase are important to study. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize cryogenic tank pressurization during ventless cryogen storage without active cooling, but few tools exist to model this behavior in a user-friendly environment for general use, and none exist that quantify the marginal active cooling system size needed for power down periods to manage tank pressure response once active cooling is resumed. This paper describes the Transient pressurization with Active Cooling Tool (TACT), which is based on a ventless three-lump homogeneous thermodynamic self-pressurization model1 coupled with an active cooling system estimator. TACT has been designed to estimate the pressurization of a heated but unvented cryogenic tank, assuming an unavailable power period followed by a given cryocooler heat removal rate. By receiving input data on the tank material and geometry, propellant initial conditions, and passive and transient heating rates, a pressurization and recovery profile can be found, which establishes the time needed to return to a designated pressure. This provides the ability to understand the effect that launch ascent and unpowered mission segments have on the size of an active cooling system. A sample of the trends found show that an active cooling system sized for twice the steady state heating rate would results in a reasonable time for tank pressure recovery with ZBO of a liquid oxygen propellant tank.

Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Elchert, Justin P.

2011-01-01

472

Cooling of Neutron Stars with Color Superconducting Quark Cores  

E-print Network

We show that within a recently developed nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. We study the cooling of these objects in isolation for different values of the gravitational mass and argue that, if the quark matter phase would allow unpaired quarks, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. The comparison with observational data puts tight constraints on possible color superconducting quark matter phases. Possible candidates with diquark gaps of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV such as the "2SC+X" and the color spin locking (CSL) phase are presented.

David Blaschke; Dmitri N. Voskresensky; Hovik Grigorian

2005-10-27

473

Effects of emulsifier on particle size of a phase change material in a mixture with water  

SciTech Connect

The use of a phase-change material (PCM) in a district cooling system was studied in order to increase the heat transfer performance of the system. One of the major technical obstacles to its use is the clogging of the piping system. The present study attempts to minimize the clogging problem by using an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane (a PCM) were studied. A small amount (60 to 2775 ppm) of emulsifier caused remarkable effects resulting in the production of fine PCM particles. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased in the 25% hexadecane mixture with water, the size of the solid particles of hexadecane became smaller. When the size of the hexadecane particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the surface of the cold wall of a heat exchanger.

Choi, E.; Cho, Y.I.; Lorsch, H.G.

1991-06-30

474

Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

2004-10-01

475

Electron cooling experiments in CSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400 MeV/u 12C6+ and 200 MeV/u 129Xe54+ were stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, and the cooling force was measured in different conditions.

Yang, XiaoDong; Li, Jie; Mao, LiJun; Li, GuoHong; Ma, XiaoMing; Yan, TaiLai; Mao, RuiShi; Yang, JianCheng; Yuan, YouJin; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Reva, Vladimir

2011-12-01

476

Variable area fuel cell cooling  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

477

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOEpatents

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14

478

Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

2013-01-01

479

Three-dimensional laser cooling  

SciTech Connect

To realize effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously with longitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are theoretically studied. The schemes are both based on forced synchro-betatron coupling, which transfer the extremely effective longitudinal laser cooling action to transverse directions. The coupling is provided by an rf-cavity with a transverse variation of the longitudinal electric field (e.g. TM{sub 210} mode) or by a normal rf-cavity located at a position of finite dispersion. It is shown that, when a working point is close to the difference resonance, cooling in all three degrees of freedom is simultaneously obtained.

Okamoto, Hiromi; Sessler, A.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Moehl, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

1994-06-01

480

Thermoelectrically cooled water trap  

DOEpatents

A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

2006-02-21

481

Spectropolarimetry of cool stars  

E-print Network

In recent years, the development of spectropolarimetric techniques deeply modified our knowledge of stellar magnetism. In the case of solar-type stars, the challenge is to measure a geometrically complex field and determine its evolution over very different time frames. In this article, I summarize some important observational results obtained in this field over the last two decades and detail what they tell us about the dynamo processes that orchestrate the activity of cool stars. I also discuss what we learn from such observations about the ability of magnetic fields to affect the formation and evolution of Sun-like stars. Finally, I evoke promising directions to be explored in the coming years, thanks to the advent of a new generation of instruments specifically designed to progress in this domain.

P. Petit

2007-03-27

482

Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-01

483

Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a

M. S. Hatamipour; H. Mahiyar; M. Taheri

2007-01-01

484

Hybrid cooled data center using above ambient liquid cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customers who operate large data centers are looking for new ways to reduce their energy consumption and improve the ability to support higher compute density. An approach to liquid cooling that uses warm water instead of chilled water to cool system components and eliminate or greatly reduce the need for chillers in the data center is described in this paper.

Brandon A Rubenstein; R. Zeighami; R. Lankston; E. Peterson

2010-01-01