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1

Developing a correlation index and U disequilibrium factor for the exploratory boreholes in Wahkut block of West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).  

PubMed

With the objective to affirm the apparent uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for the non-cored as well as those boreholes with poor core recovery in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya, a systematic study between the in situ measured ?-ray logs under field conditions and laboratory analyzed core assay under controlled conditions has been carried out. The study area spans 2 sqkm having 33 cored and 39 non-cored boreholes with a cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 m. On this available cored borehole database, simultaneous uranium ore zone continuity, both for in situ ?-ray logs and radiometric core assay, was evaluated with the experimental parameters of 1.0m ore zone thickness at 0.010% eU(3)O(8) cut off grade. A population of 18 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) across the 15 cored boreholes gave a grade thickness continuity index of 0.92 with a moderately strong relationship between the radiometric core assay and the in situ ?-ray logs. After validation of an in situ uranium ore zone, study boreholes were examined for their uranium disequilibrium status by fitting regression equations for the radiometric U(3)O(8)(?/?) and spectrometric radium measurements, done on the borehole core samples. A parent favoring uranium disequilibrium was observed in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, with a log normal distribution. An average uranium disequilibrium factor 1.46 ± 0.245 was estimated for the 19 study boreholes, across the block. PMID:23202436

Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod

2013-02-01

2

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of\\u000a geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations\\u000a in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits\\u000a as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX

Sushmitha Baskar; R. Baskar; Natuschka Lee; P. K. Theophilus

2009-01-01

3

Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.  

PubMed

The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education. PMID:23758496

War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

2013-01-01

4

Community composition, structure and management of subtropical vegetation of forests in Meghalaya State, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in three major forest types in Meghalaya State, northeast India, to characterise soil properties, community composition, tree population structure and management. Random sampling was conducted in each representative forest patch for community and soil analysis. Soils of pine forest were more acidic and relatively low in nutrients compared to evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Tree species richness

O. P. Tripathi; R. S. Tripathi

2010-01-01

5

Coal mining impact on vegetation of the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Meghalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive coal mining activity in the buffer zone of the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in Meghalaya, India, has led to habitat degradation and a landscape dotted with mine spoils. The present study analyses the impact of coal mining on different aspects of vegetation of the NBR. For this purpose, three coal mining sites, viz. Budugiri, Buduwathegiri and Faramgiri, were randomly

K. Sarma; S. K. Barik

2011-01-01

6

Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya, Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Environmental status and diarrhea is regarded as a complex and multidimensional topic. Diarrhea is one of the main water-borne diseases considered to be endemic in many regions of the world and brings the major health threats to the world populations, both in tropical and subtropical poor countries. The state Meghalaya situated in the North-Eastern India is an upland landmass bound by seven districts surrounded within by different tribes. The population is predominantly rural, with 81.41% of the population belongs merely to the scheduled tribes. The state offers a wide range of disease environments, dominated by communicable diseases (35.68%), and diarrhea is one of the water-borne diseases that alter the society of the state. Various factors like poor environmental sanitation, unavailability of safe drinking water, seasonal rainfall, infected foods, infection through fomites, flies, cockroaches, etc. are the main culprit that led to the cause of diarrhea in the state. The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethnobiological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. In this review, the information regarding the traditional method of utilization of 58 plant species that are used to treat and cure diarrhea and dysentery are enlisted briefly.

Laloo, Damiki; Hemalatha, Siva

2011-01-01

7

Survey of new mosquito species of Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

A study on mosquitoes in parts of Meghalaya revealed the presence of 64 species of mosquitoes under 10 genera. In monsoon (June to October) and post-monsoon (November to May) survey, 42 and 48 species of mosquitoes were detected, respectivily. Higher species diversity was found at lower elevations (up to 1050 m). Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sinensis, Aedes vexans, Ae. nigrostriatus, Ae. annandalei, Culex. fuscocephala, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. murrelli, Cx. brevipalpis, Coquillettidia novochracea, Lutzia halifaxii, Malaya genurostris, Ml. jacobsoni, Tripteroides aranoides, Toxorhynchites minimus, Uranotaenia campestris, Ur. edwardsi and Ur. testaceae which were never reported earlier from Meghalaya state were detected in the present study and the findings were discussed with previously published reports from the state. PMID:24620578

Khan, S A; Dutta, P; Borah, J; Mahanta, J

2013-03-01

8

The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TEX86 paleotemperature proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids derived from aquatic Crenarchaeota has been applied in a variety of marine and lacustrine systems. A recent study analyzing a suite of 50 globally distributed lakes for TEX86 discovered that this proxy does not appear to work in all lake systems and that the TEX86 correlates well with both annual and winter lake surface water temperature in those systems where it does appear to work. Besides this observed empirical relationship between TEX86 values and lake surface temperatures, very little is known about the ecology of the crenarchaeota in lakes. We combined both biogeochemical and molecular techniques in a multiyear study of Lake Superior using both sediment trap collection of settling particulate matter over the annual cycle and filtration of suspended particulate matter from lake water to create vertical profiles of crenarchaeotal cell numbers and lipid concentrations to investigate the spatial and temporal ecology of the lacustrine Crenarchaeota. Initial results show that the flux of the tetraether lipids is highly seasonal and mainly occurs during two time periods in winter and spring. The flux-weighted TEX86-derived temperatures from the sediment trap material agrees with the TEX86 temperature from a sediment core top from the sampling site and mixed water temperatures during the two periods of highest flux within the error of the method. Spatially, lipids used in TEX86 are found throughout the water column when the Lake Superior is isothermal, but mainly in the hypolimnion when the lake is stratified. During stratification tetraether lipids in the eplimnion appear to reflect a surface water temperature, while the more abundant tetraether lipids in the hypolimnion reflect a deep water temperature. These data suggest that the TEX86 in sediments of Lake Superior mainly reflect the water temperatures of times of highest lipid flux, mixed with a smaller portion of lipids that are mainly produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary, respectively. Dinocysts Damassadinium californicum, Carpatella cornuta, Kenleyia loph

Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

2008-12-01

9

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

2009-05-01

10

Daughter Preference and Contraceptive-use in Matrilineal Tribal Societies in Meghalaya, India  

PubMed Central

Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons.

Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

2013-01-01

11

Daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons. PMID:23930347

Narzary, Pralip Kumar; Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

2013-06-01

12

Diversity of plant species in arecanut agroforests of south Meghalaya, north-east India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In south Meghalaya, farmers maintain a variety of economically important plant species in arecanut agroforestry systems. We\\u000a investigated plant species composition of arecanut agroforests of south Meghalaya and encountered 160 plants, which included\\u000a 83 tree species, 22 shrub species, 41 herb species and 14 climber species. The study reveals that arecanut agroforests provide\\u000a cash income, medicine, timber, fuelwood and edibles

H. Tynsong; B. K. Tiwari

2010-01-01

13

A preliminary study of the insect fauna of Meghalaya, India. 12. Species of the genera Tabanus L. and Haematopota Mg. of the family Tabanidae (Diptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper incorporates two new species of the genusTabanus Linnaeus,viz., T. meghalayensis andT. miniatus and one new species of the genusHaematopota Meigen,viz., H. nigrifrons along with notes on three other species obtained from Meghalaya, India.

M Datta; S Biswas

1977-01-01

14

Three new species of feather mite of the genus Proterothrix Gaud, 1968 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) from passerines in Meghalaya, North East India.  

PubMed

Three new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae Park & Atyeo, 1971 are described from passerines of the family Muscicapidae Fleming and Leiothrichidae Swainson in India (Meghalaya, East Jaintia Hills District): Proterothrix daberti n. sp. from the White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum (Hodgson), P. khahnarensis n. sp. from the Blue Whistling-Thrush Myophonus caeruleus (Scopoli) (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) and P. indica n. sp. from the Nepal Fulvetta Alcippe nipalensis (Hodgson) (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae). P. daberti and P. khahnarensis belong to the megacaula species group and differ from one another (and from the third species belonging to the group) in having a distinct ornamentation of dorsal shields in both sexes: with small ovate and circular lacunae in P. daberti and with big ovate lacunae in P. khahnarensis. Proterothrix indica belongs to the paradoxornis species complex (wolffi species group) and differs from the other four species of the complex in having the lateral margins of prodorsal shield with incisions extending to bases of setae se in both sexes. Males of this species have opisthosomal lobes with acute apices. PMID:25079815

Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chi?amera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D Khlur B; Adam, Costic?

2014-09-01

15

Caldimonas meghalayensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic betaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring of Meghalaya in northeast India.  

PubMed

While studying the microbial diversity of hot springs of North-east India we isolated a strain AK31T from the Jakrem hot spring of Meghalaya. The strain formed light yellow colonies on nutrient agar and was Gram negative, non spore-forming rods, motile with single polar flagellum. The strain was positive for oxidase and catalase and hydrolysed starch and weakly urea. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (34.8 %), C17:0 cyclo (27.1 %), C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2OH (summed feature 3) (9.6 %), C10:0 3OH (8.0 %), C12:0 (5.8 %), C14:0 (5.3 %) and C18:1 ?7c (5.3 %). Strain AK31T contained ubiquinone-8 as the major respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified glycolipid as the polar lipids. The G + C content of the DNA of the strain AK31T was 66.7 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AK31T was member of the genus Caldimonas and closely related to Caldimonas manganoxidans JCM 10698T and Caldimonas taiwanensis On1T with 96.9 % similarity and with Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L10T and Azohydromonas australica IAM 12664T with 96.5 and 96.4 % similarity respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the strain AK31T clustered with C. manganoxidans JCM 10698T and C. taiwanensis On1T with a phylogenetic distance of 3.25 %. Based on data from the current polyphasic study, strain AK31T is proposed as a novel species of the genus Caldimonas, for which the name Caldimonas meghalayensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. meghalayensis is AK31T (= MTCC 11703T = JCM 18786T). PMID:24122117

Rakshak, K; Ravinder, K; Nupur; Srinivas, T N R; Kumar, P Anil

2013-12-01

16

Soil moisture effects on the activity of three entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) isolated from Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are obligate parasites of insects that are widely distributed in soils throughout the world. They have great potential for use as biological control agents for insect pests. It is known that strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis isolated from different geographical regions exhibit differences in their ecological traits, such as infectivity, establishment, survival, reproduction, etc. A precise knowledge of these factors is therefore an essential pre-requisite for devising successful strategies to use these nematodes in biological control programmes. The present study investigated the effect of soil moisture on the activity (as measured by number of nematodes established in hosts) of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David; Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly & Singh; Steinernema glaseri Steiner), isolated from forest soils in Meghalaya, India, under laboratory conditions. The experiments for EPNs were conducted at 25 ± 2°C (30 ± 2°C for S. thermophilum) in a sandy loam soil (85% sand, 12% silt and 3% clay, pH 6.54). Last instar larvae of wax moth, Galleria mellonella served as the experimental insect host. The soil moistures tested were 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 25% (w/w). The study revealed that soil moisture has marked influences on establishment of infective juveniles of different nematode species in insect host. While, S. thermophilum showed establishment at 4% and above soil moistures, H. indica and S. glaseri showed establishment at 5% and above soil moistures. The optimum soil moisture for different nematode species were noted as: H. indica 8-18%, S. thermophilum 6-20%, and S. glaseri 8-25%. Further, a minimum of 6% soil moisture was noted to be essential for achieving 100% host mortality for all the three nematode species. PMID:23543771

Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

2012-04-01

17

Efficacy of indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes from Meghalaya, India against the larvae of taro leaf beetle, Aplosonyx chalybaeus (Hope).  

PubMed

The efficacy of three entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species, Heterorhabditis indica, Steinernema thermophilum, and S. glaseri, from Meghalaya, India was studied against the larvae of taro leaf beetle, Aplosonyx chalybaeus (Hope) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), under the laboratory conditions. The beetle larvae (grubs) were exposed to 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 infective juveniles (IJs) of each nematode species for different time periods and they were found to be susceptible to all the EPNs tested. However, the susceptibility of grubs to nematode infection varied according to the dosages of IJs and their exposure periods. Appreciably good performance was achieved by S. glaseri, which showed 100 % mortality of insect larvae in 48 h exposure time. At 48 h of incubation, its LC50 value was 90.3 IJs/larva, which was lower than that of S. thermophilum (115.0 IJs/larva) and H. indica (186.0 IJs/larva), at the same exposure time. All the tested nematode species were also found to reproduce within the host and produced infective juveniles. H. indica, however, showed comparatively more production of IJs per cadaver of infected host (168.9 × 10(3) IJs/larva), as compared to the other two tested nematode species. The production of IJs per cadaver of infected host by S. thermophilum was recorded to be 82.0 × 10(3) IJs/larva. In case of S. glaseri, while production of IJs increased initially to 18.9 × 10(3) IJs/larva at concentration of 100 IJs/larva, it declined thereafter to 14.7 × 10(3) IJs/larva at the dose of 200 IJs/larva. In conclusion, the evidence obtained in this study suggests that all the three indigenous EPN species are virulent enough to produce 100 % mortality in the last instar larvae of A. chalybaeus. These EPN species thus have potential scope for the management of A. chalybaeus in taro crops. PMID:24082518

Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

2012-10-01

18

Changes in orographic extreme rain events over Meghalaya Hills in Northeast India in the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between large-scale circulation and the local topography plays a crucial role in determining the spatial distribution of rainfall over the Meghalaya Hills. The Meghalaya plateau forms the first orographic barrier for the humid southwest monsoon winds, on their way from the Bay of Bengal to the Himalayas. The annual rainfall distribution varies from 12,000 mm in Cherrapunji (1300 m a.s.l.) located at the southern edge of the plateau to 2200 mm in Shillong (1598 m a.s.l.) and only 1600 mm in Gauhati (54 m a.s.l.), located to the north in the Brahmaputra valley. The daily rainfall data for the 20th century, from these three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of stability of rain record at individual stations. Comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. The number of Fourier Transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the 20th century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of the 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period.

Prokop, Pawel; Walanus, Adam

2014-05-01

19

210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value. PMID:19242810

Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

2010-03-01

20

Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria are common components of phytoplankton communities in most freshwater ecosystems. Proliferations of cyanobacteria are often caused by high nutrient loading, and as such can serve as indicators of declining water quality. Massive industrialization in developing countries, like India, has polluted fresh water bodies, including wetlands. Many industries directly discard their effluents to nearby water sources without treatment. In the Sambalpur District of India effluents reach the reservoir of the worlds largest earthen dam i.e Hirakud Dam. This study examines cyanobacteria communities in the wetlands of Sambalpur District, Odisha, India, including areas subjected to industrial pollution. Result & Discussion The genera Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium were dominant genera of polluted wetlands of Sambalpur districts. A positive correlation was found between total cyanobacterial species and dissolved oxygen levels, but cyanobacterial diversity was inversely related to BOD, COD, TSS, and TDS. High dissolved oxygen content was also associated with regions of lower cyanobacteria biomass. Conclusion Cyanobacterial abundance was positively correlated to content of oxidisable organic matter, but negatively correlated to species diversity. Lower dissolved oxygen was correlated to decreased diversity and increased dominance by Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium species, observed in regions characterized by deteriorated water quality.

2013-01-01

21

Epidemiology of Malaria in Amritsar District of India  

PubMed Central

Objective Malaria is today one of the major causes of human suffering, both in terms of increasing morbidity/mortality and stunting intellectual/ economic growth. In a developing country like India, it has devastating socioeconomic consequences. The present study was therefore carried out to study the epidemiology of malaria in Amritsar district. Methods Diagnosed cases of Malaria reported from 1st January to 31st December 2009 in the erstwhile District of Amritsar were collected from the District Epidemiologist of Amritsar and Taran Taaran and studied. A total of 314 patients were studied. Data was assessed, systematically compiled and statistically analyzed. Results Most (84%) of the malaria patients in our study were less than 45 years of age. Male patients (57%) outnumbered females (43%). The majority of patients with malaria (98%) were from rural areas and 68.5% of the studied patients belonged to upper lower socioeconomical class according to Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale. The majority (83%) of patients took treatment from Registered Medical Practitioners/quacks. Out of the total patients, only 14% used mosquito nets, 13% used repellents, and 7% had wire gauze doors in their homes Conclusion The people living in rural areas were found to be more vulnerable to malaria. The disease was found to be more prevalent among the lower socio economic strata and young population leading to considerable adverse effect on health and economy. Our study aims to stress the estimation of the true burden of malaria.

Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mridula; Sharma, Vishal

2014-01-01

22

Rhinosporidiosis in bovines of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

A survey on rhinosporidiosis in animals was conducted in Kanyakumari (K.K.) district of Tamil Nadu, India. Among 103 animals (40 bullocks, 45 cows, 15 heifers, 2 bulls and a buffalo), 19 (9 bullocks, 8 cows, 1 heifer and a she-buffalo) were found to be infected with Rhinosporidium seeberi. The study revealed the endemic nature of the disease in bovines of K.K. district. Agastheeswaram taluk contributed 52.6 per cent of positive cases followed by Kalkulam (26.2 per cent). The disease was also found in exotic cattle (1 Holstein Friesien (HF) cow, 1 Swiss Brown cow and 1 HF heifer). The rest 16 were indigenous non-descript cattle. There was no sex variance as the cases were evenly distributed between both sexes. One of the infected animals was a she-buffalo. A case of recurrence of growth was observed in a bullock. Another bullock had concurrent infection of both rhinosporidiosis and nasal schistosomiasis. All the animals were adults and aged except the heifer. All were nose-roped. Cows were stall fed but bathed in ponds. PMID:3683510

Moses, J S; Balachandran, C

1987-10-01

23

Qualitative study of wild polio cases in high risk districts of Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. India has implemented a polio eradi- cation strategy which includes national immunization days and house-to-house visits. While there has been a reduction in wild polio cases, a few districts in some states continue to harbour the virus. We did a qualita- tive survey in certain districts of western Uttar Pradesh to determine the reasons for continued occurrence of wild

JUGAL KISHORE; D. PAGARE; R. MALHOTRA; M. M. SINGH

24

Anti–snake Venom Botanicals Used by the Ethnic Groups of Purulia District, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purulia, the westernmost district of West Bengal, India is inhabited by a large number of tribals. A study on ethnomedicinal plants used against snakebite in the villages of the district was carried out. Using a questionnaire, personal interviews, and conversations, 15 plant species were found to be used by the ethnic groups as anti-snake venom ousethnobotanicals. Information, mostly collected from

Abhijit Dey; Jitendra Nath De

2012-01-01

25

Factors affecting immunization coverage levels in a district of India.  

PubMed

Immunization coverage is measured to assess the performance of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. In 1988 we conducted a coverage survey among 12-23 month-old children in the North Arcot District (population 5,007,746) in southern India. In each of the 12 towns a 30-cluster sample survey was conducted. In the 35 rural blocks with 1590 panchayats, 159 were selected systematically and all children (n = 7300) were surveyed. In the towns, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 29 to 53%, BCG from 65 to 91% and OPV and DPT third dose from just over 60% to just over 80%. In the rural areas, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 10.8 to 19.3%, BCG 25.1-34.1%, DPT third dose 42.2-50.4% and OPV third dose 39.6-48%. In the towns, 25, 66, 67 and 59% of BCG, DPT, OPV and measles vaccines had been provided by private agencies showing that availability of vaccines throughout the week and easy access even in payment terms played an important role in achieving higher levels of coverage compared with rural areas where all vaccines are given by Government agencies, free of charge. In the rural areas, significantly large variations in coverage were seen among panchayats--large and peri-urban panchayats had significantly better coverage than small and more rural panchayats. Within any given block (the population unit consisting of 30-40 panchayats served by a Primary Health Centre), there were large variations in the levels of immunization coverage between panchayats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8144298

Balraj, V; Mukundan, S; Samuel, R; John, T J

1993-12-01

26

Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 ?Sv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure. PMID:23516264

Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

2013-01-01

27

Cattle mortality in the Thane district, India: A study of cause\\/effect relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unexpected mortality of more than 300 cattle was investigated near a metal recovery factory located in a rural area of the Thane district of India. The factory was engaged in reclaiming lead, aluminium, tin, and zinc from discarded lead storage batteries and soft drink cans. The environmental samples (soil, leaves, grass, slag, water, and sediment), human blood and hair

R. K. S. Dogra; R. C. Murthy; A. K. Srivastava; J. S. Gaur; L. J. Shukla; B. M. L. Varmani

1996-01-01

28

Medical ethnobotany of the tribals of Sonaghati of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present ethnobotanical exploration study presents the folk medicinal uses of certain plants by tribes of the Sonbhadra district in the Uttar Pradesh state of India. One hundred and twenty five plants from 57 families, which are therapeutically used against different diseases, such as cough, cold, dysentery, diarrhoea, ulcers, diabetes, male and female weakness, snake-bite and skin disorders are covered

A. K Singh; A. S Raghubanshi; J. S Singh

2002-01-01

29

Chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of the Gambhir River basin, Bharatpur District, Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine dug well samples have been collected from the Gambhir River basin in the Bharatpur District of Rajasthan State in India for hydrogeochemical study to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the water. Broadly speaking, the groundwaters have a chemical composition within the permissible limits suggested for drinking water. Nitrate is higher than the

R. Umar; A. Absar

2003-01-01

30

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

31

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

32

Electrical resistivity surveys to delineate groundwater potential aquifers in Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical electrical resistivity soundings were conducted in order to delineate groundwater potential aquifers in Peddavanka watershed, which is a catchment of about 398 km 2 in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The main lithologic units in the watershed are quartzite, limestone, shale, and alluvium. Ninety-nine vertical electrical soundings were conducted using the Schlumberger configuration, covering the entire watershed. The data were

S. Srinivasa Gowd

2004-01-01

33

Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Kandhamal district, Orissa, India.  

PubMed

Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the villages of Kandhamal district, Orissa, located on the east coast of India is described. Descriptive morphology, character measurements, and illustrations of males and females are provided and its taxonomic position within the genus is also defined. Voucher specimens of the new species have been deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India and Zoological Survey of India, India. PMID:24076324

Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

2013-12-01

34

Myocilin mutations among primary open angle glaucoma patients of Kanyakumari district, South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose Glaucoma can be defined as optic neuropathy leading to irreversible blindness if not treated in time. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma. The myocilin (MYOC) gene has been found to mutate in both sporadic and familial cases of POAG worldwide. About 90% of these mutations have been seen to cluster at exon III of the gene. There are documented reports of mutations in the MYOC gene among POAG patients from different parts of India. The southernmost tip of the Indian subcontinent (Kanyakumari district) has remained isolated from all these studies. The aim of this study was to indicate or rule out the disease causative role of the MYOC gene mutations in these patients by screening the MYOC gene for mutations among POAG patients of the Kanyakumari district. Methods One hundred POAG patients from the Kanyakumari District of South India were recruited for the study. The MYOC gene was screened using the PCR-SSCP methodology followed by DNA sequencing. The sequences were analyzed using BLAST. Secondary structures of the amino acid sequences with a variation were predicted. Results Two probable disease-causing variations (mutations), Ser331Thr and Pro370Leu, were each observed in one patient apiece. Two polymorphisms, (Tyr347Tyr and Thr325Thr) were also observed in the patients. Ser331Thr is a novel conservative change while Pro370Leu is a widely reported mutation with an associated severe disease phenotype. Conclusions The presence of the mutations in the patients suggests the causative role of the MYOC gene among POAG patients in the Kanyakumari district of India. The mutation frequency of 2% corresponds well with the other reports from India and other countries. However, the mutation rate reported from a population in the eastern part of India was much higher. Screening of patients from different parts of India is essential to estimate the overall mutation frequency. More functional studies on the MYOC gene are required to elucidate the pathophysiology of POAG.

Rose, Rajiv; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy; Anandan, Balakrishnan

2007-01-01

35

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India.

Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

2012-01-01

36

Assessment of essential newborn care services in secondary-level facilities from two districts of India.  

PubMed

India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts-two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (> 75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (< 50%). The findings underpin the need for improving the existing ENC services by making newborn care comers functional and enhancing skills of service providers to reduce neonatal mortality rate in India. PMID:24847602

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

2014-03-01

37

Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water\\u000a for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground\\u000a water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected\\u000a during pre- and post-monsoon seasons

C. K. Jain; A. Bandyopadhyay; A. Bhadra

2010-01-01

38

Evaluation of malaria control programme in three selected districts of Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: To ensure that the activities of Malaria Control Programme were taking place in effective and judicious manner, an intensive monitoring and supervision of various activities of the programme were carried out in Karbi-Anglong, Cachar and Nagaon districts of Assam, India during July-October 2007. Methods: Questionnaire-based protocol prepared by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme was used

Hardev Prasad

2009-01-01

39

Geothermal studies at Tattapani Hot Spring area, Sarguja District, Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tattapani area, Sarguja district, M.P. (Madhya Pradesh), is one of the strongest thermal manifestations in central India, comprising several hot springs (50-98°C) in marshy land with a cumulative discharge of about 60 1\\/min, and hydrothermal incrustations over an area 0.10 km². Thermal activity is controlled by the ENE-WSW Tattapani fault and NE-SW cross faults. Tattapani fault also forms the southern

R. Shanker; J. L. Thussu; J. M. Prasad

1987-01-01

40

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography\\/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which

Chandan Kumar; Prashant Kumar Singh; Rajesh Kumar Rai

2012-01-01

41

Size estimation of injecting drug users (IDU) using multiplier method in five Districts of India  

PubMed Central

The HIV epidemic in Manipur, the highest HIV prevalence state of India, is primarily driven by injecting drug use. Reliable estimate of population size of injecting drug users (IDU) is critical for aiding HIV prevention program in the state to combat drug driven HIV epidemic. The study described multiplier method, an indirect technique of estimation of IDU size in five districts of Manipur, India making use of existing records of rapid intervention and care (RIAC) programs. Number of IDUs who accessed RIAC services during the past 12 months was taken as the benchmark data for the size estimation. The benchmark data were then multiplied by the inverse of the proportion of the IDUs who reported having accessed RIAC services during the same period to derive the sizes of IDU population in each study districts. The estimated sizes of IDU population in five districts were: 7353 (95% CI: 6759-8123) in Imphal West, 5806 (95% CI: 5635-6054) in Imphal East, 3816 (95% CI: 3571-4139) in Thoubal, 2615 (95% CI: 2528-2731) in Churachandpur and 2137 (95% CI: 1979-2343) in Bishenpur district. Multiplier method seems to be a feasible indirect technique which can be applied to estimate of IDU population using existing data from intervention programs in settings like Manipur where reliable size estimation of IDU population is lacking.

2012-01-01

42

Parasitological aspects of malaria persistence in Koraput district Orissa, India.  

PubMed

A sample survey in 37 villages covering 10,733 people in 1986-87 in the Koraput district, Orissa showed that the malaria prevalence is of a much higher order than that reported by the National Malaria Eradication Programme (annual parasite incidence between 14.3 and 26.8 during 1981-86). Out of 833 positives detected 714 had Plasmodium falciparum, 86 had P. vivax, 12 had P. malariae and 21 had mixed infections. There were 650 asymptomatic parasite carriers and 127 gametocyte carriers. The infant parasite rate was 15.82 per cent and average enlarged spleen (AES) in 2 to 9 yr old children was 1.98. In a year round fever survey in 22 villages, 5520 blood smears were collected and 1364 were found positive for malaria, with 77.3 per cent P. falciparum. In a mass blood survey conducted in a labour camp at an irrigation project, 610 people were examined, and 181 were positive. Nearly 40 per cent of migrants and 22 per cent of locals were positive, P. falciparum being dominant. PMID:2345029

Rajagopalan, P K; Das, P K; Pani, S P; Jambulingam, P; Mohapatra, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Das, L K

1990-01-01

43

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Surveillance, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

In India, quality surveillance for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), including laboratory testing, is necessary for understanding the epidemiology and etiology of AES, planning interventions, and developing policy. We reviewed AES surveillance data for January 2011–June 2012 from Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were cleaned, incidence was determined, and demographic characteristics of cases and data quality were analyzed. A total of 812 AES case records were identified, of which 23% had illogical entries. AES incidence was highest among boys <6 years of age, and cases peaked during monsoon season. Records for laboratory results (available for Japanese encephalitis but not AES) and vaccination history were largely incomplete, so inferences about the epidemiology and etiology of AES could not be made. The low-quality AES/Japanese encephalitis surveillance data in this area provide little evidence to support development of prevention and control measures, estimate the effect of interventions, and avoid the waste of public health resources.

Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Dhole, Tapan N.; Hossain, Shaikh Shah; Krishnan, Sampath K.

2013-01-01

44

Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas.

Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

2006-01-01

45

Effect of Environmental Exposure of Arsenic on Cattle and Poultry in Nadia District, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination.

Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

2012-01-01

46

Urinary iodine concentrations in the high background radiation areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

We screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in high background radiation areas of the Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu, India. We collected 331 urine samples from three villages in the district: Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar. The median UI concentrations were 257, 262, and 454 microg/L in Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar, respectively. Only 27 samples showed mild or moderate iodine deficiency (<100 microg/L) and none showed severe deficiency (<20 microg/L). These findings indicate that iodine supplementation in the villages is sufficient, probably as a result of appropriate fortification of iodized salt in the region. Further screening, including morphological and functional analysis of the thyroid gland, will be needed to clarify the health effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure attributable to residing in a high background radiation area. PMID:19789421

Brahmanandhan, Gopalganapathi M; Hayashida, Naomi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Malathi, Jeyapandian; Khnna, David; Selvasekarapandian, Subramaniyan; Matsuda, Naoki; Takamura, Noboru

2010-01-01

47

A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people.

Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

2013-01-01

48

Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-02-01

49

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD=0.14) and 0.88 (SD=0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the ‘best practice frontier’. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD=0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD=0.16). Conclusions Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals.

Jat, Tej Ram; San Sebastian, Miguel

2013-01-01

50

Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the detailed rainfall characteristics of 3 key areas located in the eastern monsoon India: the margin of Darjeeling Himalaya, the margin of Bhutanese Himalaya and the Cherrapunji region at the southern slope of Meghalaya Upland. All these areas are sensitive to changes but differ in annual rainfall totals (2000-4000 mm, 4000-6000 m and 6000-23,000 mm respectively) and in the frequency of extreme rainfalls. Therefore the response of geomorphic processes is different, also due to various human impact. In the Darjeeling Himalaya the thresholds may be passed 2-3 times in one century and the system may return to the former equilibrium. At the margin of western Bhutanese Himalaya in 1990s, the clustering of three events caused an acceleration in the transformation and formation of a new trend of evolution, especially in the piedmont zone. In the Cherrapunji of Meghalaya region in the natural conditions the effects of dozens of extreme rainfalls every year were checked by the dense vegetation cover. After deforestation and extensive land use the fertile soil was removed and either the exposed bedrock or armoured debris top layer protect the surface against degradation and facilitate only rapid overland flow. A new "sterile" system has been formed.

Soja, Roman; Starkel, Leszek

2007-02-01

51

Health-seeking behaviour for febrile illness in malaria-endemic Kolasib district, Mizoram, India.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis and complete treatment (EDCT) is an important strategy for malaria control in India's National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. The success of this strategy is closely linked to people's health-seeking behaviour. A study was conducted to determine the treatment-seeking behaviour of suspected malaria patients in Kolasib, a highly malaria-endemic district in Mizoram, India. Approximately one-third of the 540 fever patients interviewed sought initial treatment from public health facilities, whilst the majority either took self-treatment or purchased medicines from private pharmacies. Approximately 20% of patients sought treatment after 48 h of fever onset. Patients aged >14 years and those who had an income ?Rs 5000 (US$104) were more likely to receive treatment from non-governmental health facilities. Patients aged >14 years and those residing in difficult locations were more likely to take treatment after 48 h of fever. To improve implementation of the EDCT strategy, it is necessary to conduct health education campaigns in the district (i) about seeking early treatment from public health facilities, including the fever treatment depots established in all villages, and (ii) discouraging the practice of self-treatment. PMID:24029679

Lalchhuanawma, Renthlei; Murhekar, Manoj V

2012-12-01

52

Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons.

Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

2013-01-01

53

Abortion and sex determination: conflicting messages in information materials in a District of Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

Public information campaigns are an integral component of reproductive health programmes, including on abortion. In India, where sex selective abortion is increasing, public information is being disseminated on the illegality of sex determination. This paper presents findings from a study undertaken in 2003 in one district in Rajasthan to analyse the content of information materials on abortion and sex determination and people's perceptions of them. Most of the informational material about abortion was produced by one abortion service provider, but none by the public or private sector. The public sector had produced materials on the illegality of sex determination, some of which failed to distinguish between sex selection and other reasons for abortion. In the absence of knowledge of the legal status of abortion, the negative messages and strong language of these materials may have contributed to the perception that abortion is illegal in India. Future materials should address abortion and sex determination, including the legal status of abortion, availability of providers and social norms that shape decision-making. Married and unmarried women should be addressed and the participation of family members acknowledged, while supporting independent decisions by women. Sex determination should also be addressed, and the conditions under which a woman can and cannot seek an abortion clarified, using media and materials accessible to low-literate audiences. Based on what we learned in this research, a pictorial booklet and educator's manual were produced, covering both abortion and sex determination, and are being distributed in India. PMID:16713891

Nidadavolu, Vijaya; Bracken, Hillary

2006-05-01

54

Awareness regarding eye donation among stakeholders in Srikakulam district in South India  

PubMed Central

Background There is a huge need for the availability of transplantable donor corneas worldwide to reduce the burden of corneal blindness due to corneal opacity. Voluntary eye donation depends on the awareness levels of various stakeholders in the community. This study aimed to assess the awareness level regarding eye donation among various stakeholders in Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods 355 subjects were selected from the district using multi stage random sampling. A pre tested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding each individual’s awareness, knowledge, and perception regarding eye donation. Each response was scored individually and a total score was calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with willingness towards eye donation and increased awareness levels. Results Of the 355 subjects interviewed, 192 (54%) were male and 163 (46%) were female. The mean age of the stakeholders was 35.9 years (SD ±16.1) and all the study subjects were literate. Ninety-three percent of subjects were aware of the concept of eye donation. Knowledge levels were similar among the teaching community and persons engaged in social service, but lower among students (p?district in India. The services of stakeholders could be utilized, in conjunction with other community based eye donation counselors, to promote awareness regarding eye donation among the general population.

2014-01-01

55

Association between climatic variables and malaria incidence: a study in Kokrajhar district of Assam, India.  

PubMed

A favorable climatic condition for transmission of malaria prevails in Kokrajhar district throughout the year. A sizeable part of the district is covered by forest due to which dissimilar dynamics of malaria transmission emerge in forest and non-forest areas. Observed malaria incidence rates of forest area, non-forest area and the whole district over the period 2001-2010 were considered for analyzing temporal correlation between malaria incidence and climatic variables. Associations between the two were examined by Pearson correlation analysis. Cross-correlation tests were performed between pre-whitened series of climatic variable and malaria series. Linear regressions were used to obtain linear relationships between climatic factors and malaria incidence, while weighted least squares regression was used to construct models for explaining and estimating malaria incidence rates. Annual concentration of malaria incidence was analyzed by Markham technique by obtaining seasonal index. Forest area and non-forest area have distinguishable malaria seasons. Relative humidity was positively correlated with forest malaria incidence, while temperature series were negatively correlated with non-forest malaria incidence. There was higher seasonality of concentration of malaria in the forest area than non-forest area. Significant correlation between annual changes in malaria cases in forest area and temperature was observed (coeff=0.689, p=0.040). Separate reliable models constructed for forecasting malaria incidence rates based on the combined influence of climatic variables on malaria incidence in different areas of the district were able to explain substantial percentage of observed variability in the incidence rates (R2adj=45.4%, 50.6%, 47.2%; p< .001 for all). There is an intricate association between climatic variables and malaria incidence of the district. Climatic variables influence malaria incidence in forest area and non-forest area in different ways. Rainfall plays a primary role in characterizing malaria incidences in the district. Malaria parasites in the district had adapted to a relative humidity condition higher than the normal range for transmission in India. Instead of individual influence of the climatic variables, their combined influence was utilizable for construction of models. PMID:23283041

Nath, Dilip C; Mwchahary, Dimacha Dwibrang

2013-01-01

56

Domestic and Environmental Factors of Chikungunya-affected Families in Thiruvananthapuram (Rural) District of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural) of Kerala. Settings and design:This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural) district during November 2007. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural) district during November 2007 Materials and Methods: Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers.These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area.The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method). Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%). The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic) analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.01 (6.06-14.60)], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38)], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64)], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58)] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.

Anish, TS; Vijayakumar, K; Leela, Itty Amma KR

2011-01-01

57

Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p?district (stable malaria transmission) was strongly associated with peripheral parasitaemia (adjusted OR [aOR] 43.4; 95% CI, 5.6-335.2). Additional covariates associated with parasitaemia were moderate anaemia (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8-7.7), fever within the past week (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.6), and lack of formal education (aOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0-10.7). Similarly, analysis of DU participants revealed that moderate anaemia (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.4) and fever within the past week (aOR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4-13.9) were strongly associated with peripheral and/or placental parasitaemia. Malaria-related admissions were more frequent among pregnant women in Bastar, the district with greater malaria prevalence (51% vs. 11%, p?India.

2012-01-01

58

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

2013-05-01

59

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community.

2010-01-01

60

Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA. PMID:24832008

Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

2014-09-01

61

The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.  

PubMed

HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme. PMID:23346389

Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S; Hiremath, Jyoti M; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

2012-01-01

62

Malaria transmission in the Tarai, Naini Tal District, Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

A study of the problems of malaria transmission in the Tarai of Naini Tal District, Uttar Pradesh, India, has been made by a WHO Malaria Control Demonstration Team operating in the area between 1949 and 1952. Earlier investigators of malaria transmission in the area had concluded that the fever season coincided with the pre-monsoon period; that Anopheles minimus was the chief vector; and that A. fluviatilis could be dismissed as a zoophilic non-vector. As a result of the team's malariometric and entomological surveys, the following conclusions have been reached: malaria transmission takes place throughout the year; A. minimus is virtually non-existent and plays no part in transmission; A. fluviatilis, the primary vector, is responsible for transmission in the pre- and post-monsoon periods; A. culicifacies, the secondary vector, is responsible for transmission in the monsoon period (July-September). The results of precipitin tests on A. fluviatilis—which gave a gross anthropophilic index of over 40%—indicate that the A. fluviatilis found in this region of India is a mixture of both anthropophilic and zoophilic races; further studies are required to substantiate this theory.

Issaris, P. C.; Rastogi, S. N.; Ramakrishna, V.

1953-01-01

63

Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

2014-01-01

64

Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-01-01

65

Role of Land Holding Patterns for Adoption of Dairy Husbandry Practices in Rural Areas of Bareilly District in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhushan, B., Singh, S. K., Umang, Agrawal, N., Dutt, T., Kumar, P., Sharma, A. and Ahlawat, S.P.S. 2008. Role of land holding patterns for adoption of dairy husbandry practices in rural areas of Bareilly district in India. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 185–188.To find out the effect of various land holdings on dairy husbandry practices, door-to-door survey was conducted to

Bharat Bhushan; S. K. Singh; Umang; Nidhi Agrawal; Triveni Dutt; Pushpendra Kumar; Arjava Sharma; S. P. S. Ahlawat

2008-01-01

66

Spatial distribution of metals in ground\\/surface waters in the Chandrapur district (Central India) and their plausible sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses a framework to evaluate and map environmental hazard with reference to spatial distribution of major\\u000a and trace metal contamination and its relationship with lithology in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India using geospatial,\\u000a statistical and GIS tools. In all, 208 ground water and 35 surface water samples were collected using global positioning system\\u000a (GPS) synoptically with satellite imagery

D. R. Satapathy; P. R. Salve; Y. B. Katpatal

2009-01-01

67

Quality characterization of groundwater in the south-eastern part of the Ranga Reddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in the south-eastern part of the Ranga Reddy district, Hyderabad, India, to assess the quality of groundwater for its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. The area falls under a semi-arid type of climate and consists of granites and pegmatites of igneous origin of Archaean age. Forty-five representative groundwater samples were collected from bore wells

D. Sujatha; B. Rajeswara Reddy

2003-01-01

68

Assessment of nitrate contamination due to groundwater pollution in north eastern part of Anantapur District, A.P. India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The north eastern part of Anantapur district is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, is significant as it is covered by\\u000a varied geological formations and has different land use and irrigation practices. Though ground water is the major drinking\\u000a water source, deterioration in its quality is going unchecked. In such agro-economy based rural areas, the nitrate contamination\\u000a is rampant

A. G. S. Reddy; K. Niranjan Kumar; D. Subba Rao; S. Sambashiva Rao

2009-01-01

69

Geochemistry and assessment of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater in the southern part of Bathinda district of Punjab, northwest India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater is important for sustainable development and effective management of the groundwater resource.\\u000a Fifty-six groundwater samples were collected from shallow tube wells of the intensively cultivated southern part of district\\u000a Bathinda of Punjab, India, during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Conventional graphical plots were used to define the geochemical\\u000a evaluation of aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water

Kuldip-Singh; H. S. Hundal; Dhanwinder-Singh

70

Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.  

PubMed

Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes. PMID:17101433

Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

2006-11-01

71

Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

2006-12-01

72

Epidemiological Trends of Trauma in Tertiary Care Centre in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: To study the pattern and burden of trauma cases which presented to a tertiary care centre in an upcoming Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India. Methods: This was an epidemiological study. Data was collected by purposive sampling technique. Study period lasted from Jan 2013 to Aug 2013. Collected data was analyzed. Results: The annual incidence of trauma at our centre was 15.96% (1140 cases). Most of the injuries were reported in 21-30 years age group. The male to female ratio was approximately 2.3:1. Limb injury (66.92%) constituted the commonest form of injury. Among the various injuries, fall was the commonest cause of injury (60.78%), followed by RTA (16.75%) and assault (11.6%). A majority of the cases were admitted during night time (61.24%). Conclusion: There has been an alarming increase in the number of trauma cases in the past decade. The target age group being the most productive one; it affects the economy directly . There is a need of urgent protective measures which are required for the benefit of the community.

Dsouza, Caren; Rao, Vinay V; Kumar, Arun; Diaz, Erel

2014-01-01

73

Epidemiological trends of trauma in tertiary care centre in dakshina kannada district of karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Aims and Objectives: To study the pattern and burden of trauma cases which presented to a tertiary care centre in an upcoming Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India. Methods: This was an epidemiological study. Data was collected by purposive sampling technique. Study period lasted from Jan 2013 to Aug 2013. Collected data was analyzed. Results: The annual incidence of trauma at our centre was 15.96% (1140 cases). Most of the injuries were reported in 21-30 years age group. The male to female ratio was approximately 2.3:1. Limb injury (66.92%) constituted the commonest form of injury. Among the various injuries, fall was the commonest cause of injury (60.78%), followed by RTA (16.75%) and assault (11.6%). A majority of the cases were admitted during night time (61.24%). Conclusion: There has been an alarming increase in the number of trauma cases in the past decade. The target age group being the most productive one; it affects the economy directly . There is a need of urgent protective measures which are required for the benefit of the community. PMID:24783084

Dsouza, Caren; Rao, Vinay V; Kumar, Arun; Diaz, Erel

2014-03-01

74

Chemical analysis of groundwater of Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar (India).  

PubMed

The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from hundred handpumps in five villages of the Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar, India indicates that the water samples in the area were slightly alkaline and the concentration of total hardness and heavy metal like arsenic were above the drinking water specifications as prescribed by World Health Organization (1999) and ISI (2003); whereas other chemical parameters were well within the permissible limit. The results of the present study suggest that the groundwater sources under investigation were suitable for domestic purposes including drinking except for arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in most of the handpumps analyzed was high, and that might be attributed to the excessive withdrawal of the groundwater and changes in the geo-chemical environment of the Ganga river. Moreover, the Ganga River System itself carries high sediment bed loads which contain several trace elements, including arsenic. Some effective measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge techniques are urgently required and suggested for water quality management in this region. PMID:23505826

Singh, Amrita; Choudhary, Sunil K

2011-10-01

75

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

76

The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TEX86 paleotemperature proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids derived from aquatic Crenarchaeota has been applied in a variety of marine and lacustrine systems. A recent study analyzing a suite of 50 globally distributed lakes for TEX86 discovered that this proxy does not appear to work in all lake systems and that the TEX86 correlates well with both annual and

B. Gertsch; G. Keller; T. Adatte; R. Garg; V. Prasad; Z. Berner; K. Ateequzzaman; D. Stueben

2008-01-01

77

Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 ?g/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (?-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this intersection over granitic rock. The source of As affecting the Rajnandgaon district is located in granites that have pegmatitic intrusions likely generated by hydrothermal activity.

Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

78

Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate-N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate-N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate-N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed. PMID:18075779

Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Iyengar, Leela

2008-11-01

79

Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.  

PubMed

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

80

Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

1997-11-01

81

Behavioral surveillance of premarital sex among never married young adults in a high HIV prevalence district in India.  

PubMed

In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15-24 years from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7-24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3% males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations with premarital sex for males were current use of alcohol and tobacco, and for females were not living with parents currently and being an income earner. These findings can inform HIV prevention efforts among young adults in India. PMID:20625924

Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, S G Prem; Dandona, Lalit

2011-01-01

82

Prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and severe visual impairment in a tribal district of Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background: We present the outcomes of a survey conducted in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. It was based on “Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness” methodology and conducted in 2009 in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: We examined persons of 50 years and older ages. Ophthalmic assistants noted the distant vision [best corrected vision (BCV) and as presented]. Ophthalmologist examined eyes of persons with vision less than 6/18. The principal cause of impairment in each eye and the most “preventable” or “treatable” cause were assigned. We calculated the prevalence rates of bilateral blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), and moderate visual impairment (MVI). Result: We examined 2,005/2,300 persons (response rate 87.2%). The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the BCV was 1.63% (95% CI 1.11–2.15), 5.93% (95% CI 4.96–6.90), and 14.6% (95% CI 13.2–16.1), respectively. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the presented vision was 1.87% (1.32–2.42), 6.72% (95% CI 5.70–7.74), and 19% (95% CI 17.4–20.6), respectively. Unoperated cataract was responsible for 77% of different visual disabilities. The coverage of existing cataract surgery service was 9.4%. Lack of knowledge about cataract surgery was the main cause of unoperated cataract among 41% of interviewed participants with cataract and SVI. Conclusion: Unoperated cataract was the main curable cause of visual disabilities in tribal population of India. Increasing awareness and offering cataract surgeries at affordable cost in the district would reduce visual disabilities.

Dhake, Praful V.; Dole, Kuldeep; Khandekar, Rajiv; Deshpande, Madan

2011-01-01

83

Mosquito records from a hot and dry climatic area experiencing frequent outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis, Bellary district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Mosquito species occurring in Bellary district, Karnataka, India were surveyed for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile virus (WNV) from 2001 to 2003. A total of 37 mosquito species in 6 genera were recovered from larval and adult habitats. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were represented by 11 species each, Mansonia by 2 species, and Armigeres and Lutzia by a single species. A total of 68,506 mosquitoes belonging to 20 species were collected at dusk. Most (74.6%) were Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and occurred in 2 peaks of abundance in February (304 per man hour density [PMHD]) and October (465 PMHD). The mosquito fauna of Bellary district is not diverse, possibly because of the hot and dry climatic conditions in the area. PMID:18437807

Kanojia, P C; Jamgaonkar, A V

2008-03-01

84

High prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection as detected by immunochromatographic card testing in five districts of Orissa, India, previously considered to be non-endemic.  

PubMed

India accounts for over one-third of the world's burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Although most coastal districts of Orissa state (eastern India) are LF-endemic, the western districts of Orissa are considered non-endemic. During a large-scale insecticide-treated bed net/microfinance trial, we tested one randomly selected adult (age 15-60 years) for LF from a random sample of microfinance-member households in five districts of western Orissa, using immunochromatographic card testing (ICT). Overall, 354 (adjusted prevalence 21%, 95%CI 17-25%) of 1563 persons were ICT positive, with district-wide prevalence rates ranging from 15-32%. This finding was not explained by immigration, as only 3% of subjects had ever lived in previously known LF-endemic districts. These results therefore suggest ongoing autochthonous transmission in districts where LF control programs are not operational. Our results highlight the importance of broad, systematic surveillance for LF in India and call for the implementation of LF control programs in our study districts. PMID:21122883

Foo, Patricia K; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Mahajan, Aprajit; Yoong, Joanne; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Kopf, Daniel; Blackburn, Brian G

2011-02-01

85

Spectacle compliance amongst rural secondary school children in Pune district, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Refractive errors (RE) are the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children. But benefits of visual aids, which are means for correcting RE, depend on the compliance of visual aids by end users. Aim: To study the compliance of spectacle wear among rural school children in Pune district as part of the sarva siksha abhiyan (education for all scheme) after 6 - 12 months of providing free spectacles. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional follow-up study of rural secondary school children in western India. Materials and Methods: The students were examined by a team of optometrists who collected the demographic details, observed if the child was wearing the spectacles, and performed an ocular examination. The students were asked to give reasons for non-wear in a closed-ended questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression used for data analysis. Results: Of the 2312 students who were dispensed spectacles in 2009, 1018 were re-examined in 2010. 523 students (51.4%) were female, the mean age was 12.1 years 300 (29.5%) were wearing their spectacles, 492 (68.5%) students claimed to have them at home while 211 (29.4%) reported not having them at all. Compliance of spectacle wear was positively associated to the magnitude of refractive error (P < 0.001), father's education (P = 0.016), female sex (P = 0.029) and negatively associated to the visual acuity of the better eye (P < 0.001) and area of residence (P < 0.0001). Of those that were examined and found to be myopic (N = 499), 220 (44%) wore their spectacles to examination. Factors associated with compliance to spectacle usage in the myopic population included increasing refractive error (P < 0.001), worsening visual acuity (P < 0.001), and higher academic performance (P < 0.001). The causes for not wearing spectacles were ‘lost spectacles’ 67(9.3%), ‘broken spectacles’ 125 (17.4%), ‘forgot spectacles at home’ 117 (16.3%), ‘uses spectacles sometimes’ 109 (15.2%), ‘teased about spectacles’ 142 (19.8%) and ‘do not like the spectacles’ 86 (12%). Conclusion: Spectacle compliance was poor amongst school children in rural Pune; many having significant vision loss as a result.

Gogate, Parikshit; Mukhopadhyaya, Debapriya; Mahadik, Ashok; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Sane, Shrivallabh; Shinde, Amit; Holden, Brien

2013-01-01

86

Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

Bhattacharjee, D. S.

2011-01-01

87

Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011  

PubMed Central

India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts.

Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poche, David; Poche, Richard

2013-01-01

88

Persistent foci of falciparum malaria among tribes over two decades in Koraput district of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of Odisha State that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the India’s total. Control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. Hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities. Methods Prevalence of malaria was assessed through a sample blood survey (SBS) in seven randomly selected community health centres (CHCs). Individuals of all age groups in the villages selected (one in each subcentre) were screened for malaria infection. Both thick and thin smears were prepared from blood samples collected by finger prick, stained and examined for malaria parasites searching 100 fields in each smear. The results of a blood survey (n?=?10,733) carried out, as a part of another study, during 1986–87 covering a population of 17,722 spread in 37 villages of Koraput district were compared with the current survey results. Software SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Result During the current study, blood survey was done in 135 villages screening 12,045 individuals (16.1% of the total population) and among them, 1,983 (16.5%) were found positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum was the major malaria parasite species accounted for 89.1% (1,767) of the total positives; Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae accounted for 9.3% (184) and 0.2% (5), respectively. Gametocytes were found in 7.7% (n?=?152) of the positive cases. The majority of parasite carriers (78.9%) were afebrile. The 1986–87 blood survey showed that of 10,733 people screened, 833 (7.8%) were positive for malaria parasites, 714 (85.7%) with P. falciparum, 86 (10.3%) with P. vivax, 12 (1.4%) with P. malariae and 21 (2.5%) with mixed infections. Conclusion The results of the current study indicated a rising trend in transmission of malaria in Koraput district compared to the situation during 1986–87 and indicated the necessity for a focused and reinforced approach for the control of the disease by improving people’s access to diagnosis and treatment and ensuring implementation of the intervention measures with adequate coverage and compliance.

2013-01-01

89

Implications of ignoring the old disaster management plans : Lessons learnt from the Amparav tragedy of 23 September 2004 in the Nainital district of Uttaranchal (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to discuss the causes of the landslide event at Amparav in Kumaun Himalaya (Nainital district of Uttaranchal in India) and attempts to bring forth the importance of mass awareness regarding the past disaster events in their surroundings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – On the aftermath of the landslide tragedy of 23 September, 2004 field investigations were carried out

Piyoosh Rautela; R. K. Pande

2005-01-01

90

India  

article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-16

91

Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries. In the backdrop of poor immunization coverage, non-existent adult boosters, weak case based surveillance and persistence of multiple foci, there is a heightened risk of re-emergence of the disease in epidemic forms in India. Investigating each outbreak to understand the epidemiology of the disease and its current status in the country is therefore necessary. Dhule a predominantly tribal and rural district in Northern Maharashtra has consistently recorded low vaccination coverages alongside sporaidic cases of diphtheria over the last years. Methods This study reports the findings of an onsite survey conducted to assess a recent outbreak of diphtheria in Dhule district and the response mounted to it. Secondary data regarding outbreak detection and response were obtained from the district surveillance office. Clinical data were extracted from hospital records of eleven lab confirmed cases including one death case. Frequency distributions were calculated for each identified clinical and non- clinical variable using Microsoft™ Excel® 2010. Results Our findings suggest a shift in the median age of disease to adolescents (10-15?years) without gender differences. Two cases (18%) reported disease despite immunization. Clinical symptoms included cough (82%), fever (73%), and throat congestion (64%). About 64% and 36% of the 11 confirmed cases presented with a well defined pseudomembrane and a tonsillar patch respectively. Drug resistance was observed in all three culture positive cases. One death occurred despite the administration of Anti-Diphtheric Serum in a partially immunized case (CFR 9%). Genotyping and toxigenicity of strain was not possible due to specimen contamination during transport as testing facilities were unavailable in the district. Conclusions The outbreak raises several concerns regarding the epidemiology of diphtheria in Dhule. The reason for shift in the median age despite consistently poor immunization coverage (below 50%) remains unclear. Concomitant efforts should now focus on improving and monitoring primary immunization and booster coverages across all age groups. Gradually introducing adult immunization at ten year intervals may become necessary to prevent future vulnerabilities. Laboratory networks for genotyping and toxigenicity testing are urgently mandated at district level given the endemicity of the disease in the surrounding region and its recent introduction in remote Dhule. Contingency funds with pre- agreements to obtain ADS and DT/Td vaccines at short notice and developing standard case management protocols at district level are necessary. Monitoring the disease, emerging strains and mutations, alongside drug resistance through robust and effective surveillance is a pragmatic way forward.

2013-01-01

92

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored.

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

93

Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

Mehra, R; Badhan, K

2012-11-01

94

District-level religious composition and adoption of sterilization in India.  

PubMed

This paper examined the influence of religion on the adoption of female sterilization, using data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey. The influence of religion at both individual and district levels was examined, and a multi-level modelling methodology was used for assessing community variations in the influence of religion on the adoption of sterilization. Individual religion was a strong predictor of the decision to adopt sterilization, and residence in a district in which more than 20% of the people were Muslims significantly lowered the odds of adoption of sterilization. There was more variation in the adoption of sterilization between districts for Muslim women and women from minority religious groups. The results demonstrate the influence of community conservatism on the choice of contraceptive methods and point to the mediating effects that community characteristics can have on access to sterilization services for women from religious minority sub-groups. PMID:16796156

Stephenson, Rob

2006-03-01

95

HIV testing among pregnant wives of migrant men in a rural district of India: urgent call for scale up.  

PubMed

In India, despite the fact that more pregnant women are being tested for HIV under the purview of the Prevention of Parent-to-Child HIV Transmission program, official figures indicate low rates of HIV testing, evidencing missed opportunities for HIV prevention. The present study examined the prevalence of HIV testing and the barriers to testing among pregnant women, whose vulnerability to HIV is enhanced by their spouses' risky behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to January 2011 among 357 women who had given birth in the last two years in a district in Orissa. Only one-third of women had been tested for HIV during pregnancy. Women with more than six years of education (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.06-5.39), having knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 12.37, 95% CI: 5.55-27.58), having discussions with spouses about HIV (OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.61-7.86), and seeking antenatal care in government district hospitals and private clinics as opposed to peripheral community health centers, were more likely to receive HIV testing during pregnancy. The findings point to the need to widen HIV testing to community-based services, increase coverage of HIV/sexually transmitted infection awareness and prevention programs, and encourage spousal communication through quality counseling. PMID:23751091

Sarin, Enisha; Nayak, Hiralal; Das, Madhumita; Nanda, Priya

2013-01-01

96

An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region.

Verma, Raj Kumar

2014-01-01

97

Landslide of Rishikesh-Badrinath National Highway at Devprayag, District Tehri Garhwal, Uttaranchal (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the landslide of Rishikesh-Badrinath National Highway in Uttaranchal, India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses causes, mitigation and preventive measures in and around the township of Devprayag. Findings – Apart from the major landslide events (such as Malpa and Okhimath in 1998) most landslides go unnoticed because the losses in

Ravindra K. Pande

2006-01-01

98

Identification of a threshold for biomass exposure index for chronic bronchitis in rural women of Mysore district, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Exposure to air pollution due to combustion of biomass fuels remains one of the significant risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis. There is a need to identify the minimum threshold level of biomass index that is significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. This study was undertaken to identify a threshold for biomass exposure index in a rural women population in Mysore district, south India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative population of Mysore and Nanjangud taluks. Eight villages each from Mysore and Nanjangud were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. A house-to-house survey was carried out by trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire, which evaluated the biomass smoke exposure and chronic bronchitis. All the women aged above 30 yr were included in the study. Results: A total of 2011 women from Mysore and 1942 women from Nanjangud participated in the study. All women were non-smoking and used biomass fuels as the primary fuel for cooking. A threshold of biomass fuel exposure of 60 was identified on multivariate analysis in Mysore district after adjusting for age, passive smoking and working in a occupational exposure to dust, as the minimum required for a significant association with chronic bronchitis. One in every 20 women in Mysore district exposed to biomass fuel exposure index of 110 or more developed chronic bronchitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The minimum threshold of biomass exposure index of 60 is necessary to have a significant risk of developing chronic bronchitis in women. The number needed to harm to develop chronic bronchitis reduces with increasing biomass exposure index and women residing in rural Nanjangud have a higher risk for developing chronic bronchitis as compared to women in Mysore.

Mahesh, P.A.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.; Chaya, S.K.; Vijaysimha, R.

2013-01-01

99

A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Punjab is the most cultivated state in India with the highest consumption of fertilizers. Patiala and Muktsar districts are two agricultural dominated districts of Punjab located in extreme south-east and south-west of the state. This paper highlights temporal variations of the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for irrigation and drinking purpose in these two districts. Water samples were collected in March and September 2003, representing the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Water samples were analysed for almost all major cations, anions, dissolved heavy metals and turbidity. Parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, total hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated on the basis of chemical data. A questionnaire was also used to investigate perception of villagers on taste and odour. Comparison of the concentration of the chemical constituents with WHO (world health organization) drinking water standards of 2004 and various classifications show that present status of groundwater in Patiala is better for irrigation and drinking purposes except for a few locations with a caution that it may deteriorate in near future. In Muktsar, groundwater is not suitable for drinking. Higher total hardness (TH) and total dissolved solids at numerous places indicate the unsuitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. Results obtained in this forms baseline data for the utility of groundwater. In terms of monsoon impact, Patiala groundwater shows dilution and flushing but Muktsar samples show excessive leaching of different chemical components into the groundwater leading to the enrichment of different anions and cations indicating pollution from extraneous sources. No clear correlation between the quality parameters studied here and perceived quality in terms of satisfactory taste response were obtained at electrical conductivity values higher than the threshold minimum acceptable value.

Kumar, Manish; Kumari, Kalpana; Ramanathan, Al.; Saxena, Rajinder

2007-11-01

100

Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India  

PubMed Central

Background: Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim: To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects: Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ? 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion: Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness.

Patil, Shailbala; Gogate, Parikshit; Vora, Siddharth; Ainapure, Sachin; Hingane, Ramkrishna N; Kulkarni, Anil N; Shammanna, B R

2014-01-01

101

Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

2008-01-01

102

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural SubDistrict of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002.MethodsSurvey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB

Vineet K. Chadha; Prahlad Kumar; Sharada M. Anjinappa; Sanjay Singh; Somashekar Narasimhaiah; Malathi V. Joshi; Joydev Gupta; Lakshminarayana; Jitendra Ramchandra; Magesh Velu; Suganthi Papkianathan; Suseendra Babu; Hemalatha Krishna

2012-01-01

103

Insecticide Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Districts in India and Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the DDT and deltamethrin susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Leishmania donovani, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in two countries (India and Nepal) with different histories of insecticide exposure.MethodsStandard WHO testing procedures were applied using 4% DDT and 0.05% deltamethrin impregnated papers. The effect of the physiological status (fed and unfed) of females on the outcome of

Diwakar Singh Dinesh; Murari Lal Das; Albert Picado; Lalita Roy; Suman Rijal; Shri Prakash Singh; Pradeep Das; Marleen Boelaert; Marc Coosemans

2010-01-01

104

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

105

Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk. PMID:17286178

Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

2007-10-01

106

Poverty, Dietary Imbalance and Sickness among Casual Labourer Households in Shillong (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to bring out the case of poverty, undernourishment and health conditions of casual labourers in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya, India. A large section of the unskilled labourers work as casual workers. Casual labourers are those workers who work for a very short duration (for a few hours, a day or at most

SK Mishra; JW Lyngskor

2005-01-01

107

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

108

Options for Active Case Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Endemic Districts of India, Nepal and Bangladesh, Comparing Yield, Feasibility and Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe VL elimination strategy requires cost-effective tools for case detection and management. This intervention study tests the yield, feasibility and cost of 4 different active case detection (ACD) strategies (camp, index case, incentive and blanket approach) in VL endemic districts of India, Nepal and Bangladesh.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFirst, VL screening (fever more than 14 days, splenomegaly, rK39 test) was performed in camps.

Shri Prakash Singh; Siddhivinayak Hirve; M. Mamun Huda; Megha Raj Banjara; Narendra Kumar; Dinesh Mondal; Shyam Sundar; Pradeep Das; Chitra Kumar Gurung; Suman Rijal; C. P. Thakur; Beena Varghese; Axel Kroeger

2011-01-01

109

Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al 2O 3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al 2O 3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements. The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

2011-11-01

110

Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012).  

PubMed

Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs to be implemented to control JE transmission. PMID:25027086

Mariappan, T; Samuel, P Philip; Thenmozhi, V; Paramasivan, R; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Tyagi, B K

2014-05-01

111

Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71.

Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

2013-01-01

112

Study of radionuclide distribution around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site (Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district, India).  

PubMed

The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K have been measured in the sand samples of Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district using gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity of 232Th, 238U and 40K are found to be 5787.1, 1082.9 Bq kg(-1) and BDL, respectively. The total average absorbed dose rate owing to the presence of 232Th, 238U and 40K is found to be 3900.4 nGy h(-1). The annual effective dose is 4.7 mSv y(-1) and the results are discussed in this paper. PMID:15755771

Malathi, J; Selvasekarapandian, S; Brahmanandhan, G M; Khanna, D; Meenakshisundaram, V; Mathiyarsu, R

2005-01-01

113

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

114

Distribution, endogamy, and isolation of Malas of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

This study investigates the distribution of Malas, a scheduled caste population of Andhra Pradesh, their isolates in different eco-cultural zones, and their endogamy and isolation by marriage district. The Malas, formerly "untouchables," occupy the lowest status in the Hindu hierarchy. The sample consists of 10% of Malas from 10% of the villages in 2 taluks of Chitoor district of Andhra Pradesh. 6 Mala populations--Tangala, Maladasari, Pakanati, Rampala, Murikinati, and Bommanati--live in the area. These populations show a regionality in their distribution, with very little overlapping even when 2 populations inhabit the same village. Of 885 marriages in the 6 endogamous populations, all but 3 have been contracted between individuals belonging to the same Mala group. The 3 exogamous marriages took place between Mala men and women from another caste. Such small exceptions to the general rule do not mean that the Mala populations are not breeding isolates; these 6 populations satisfy Wright's island model. The high incidence of matings between closely related populations also contributes to their genetic and breeding isolation. Consanguineous marriages range from 26.76 to 38.75%. The distance between the birth place of spouses in miles, called marriage distance, shows a range from 7.72 to 15.71 miles. Lower values mean higher population densities. Groups within each population are isolated by distance and form small overlapping Mendelian populations, approaching a stepping stone model with continuous variation of genetic traits between adjacent groups of people. PMID:6543997

Reddy, P C

1984-01-01

115

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

116

Mental Health Care of Older People: Can the District Mental Health Program of India Make a Difference?  

PubMed Central

Background: District mental health program (DMHP) is the flagship program of Government of India to deliver mental health-care throughout the country. Being an out-reach program, it is likely that elderly people with mental health programs are accessing it more frequently. If this is the case, there is potential for including additional components in this program so that something more than the generic service is offered to them. Aim: This study aims to find out whether the elderly are accessing the DMHP services frequently. Materials and Methods: We compared the proportion of elderly people attending two mental health-care facilities: - A Government Medical College Out-patient Department and the clinics run by the DMHP of the same department. Results: A significantly higher number of elderly people are attending the clinics of the DMHP compared to the outpatient service of a teaching hospital. Conclusion and Implication: It is concluded that DMHP can be further strengthened by adding additional components like service for the elderly. This is important in view of the increasing number of older people who may need these services in future.

Tharayil, Harish M.; Thomas, Anish; Balan, Bindu V.; Shaji, K. S.

2013-01-01

117

Oral health status of Tibetan and local school children of Kushalnagar, Mysore district, India: A comparative study.  

PubMed

The presence of migrants culturally different from inhabitants of the host country is now a widespread phenomenon. It is known that dietary habits and oral hygiene practices vary from country to country, which in turn has a profound effect on oral health. Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health status of Tibetan school children and local school children of Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe). Study design: A survey was conducted at Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe), in Mysore district, India to assess the oral health status of Tibetan school children (n = 300) and local school children (n = 300) and compared using World Health Organization oral health proforma (1997). Results: The proportional values are compared using chi-square test and the mean values are compared using Student's t-test. Statistically significant results were obtained for soft tissue lesions, dental caries, malocclusion, and treatment needs. However, results were not significant when gingivitis was compared in the two populations. Conclusions: Tibetan school children showed higher prevalence of Angular cheilitis, gingival bleeding, dental caries experience, malocclusion, and treatment needs in comparison with non-Tibetans. Among the Tibetan school children, the requirement for two or more surface filling was more. PMID:24739911

Havaldar, K S; Bhat, S S; Hegde, S K

2014-01-01

118

DOTS-based tuberculosis treatment and control during civil conflict and an HIV epidemic, Churachandpur District, India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To pilot the WHO guidelines on DOTS for tuberculosis (TB) among displaced people affected by conflict in Churachandpur District, Manipur State, north-east India, which has endured an HIV epidemic, injecting drug use, civil unrest, high levels of TB, and poor TB treatment and prevention services for many years. METHODS: Prerequisites for TB control programmes were established. WHO guidelines and protocols were adapted for local use. Outreach workers were appointed from each ethnic group involved in the conflict, and training was conducted. Quality control and evaluation processes were introduced. FINDINGS: TB was diagnosed in 178 people between June and December 1998. Of the 170 with pulmonary disease, 85 were smear-positive. Successful outcomes were recorded in 91% of all patients and in 86% of smear-positive cases of pulmonary TB. The default rate and the mortality rate were low at 3% each. HIV positive serostatus was the only factor associated with a poor treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: TB treatment and control were possible in a conflict setting and WHO targets for cure were attainable. The factors associated with the success of the programme were strong local community support, the selection of outreach workers from each ethnic group to allow access to all areas and patients, the use of directly observed therapy three times a week instead of daily in the interest of increased safety, and the limiting of distances travelled by both outreach workers and patients.

Rodger, Alison J.; Toole, Mike; Lalnuntluangi, Baby; Muana, V.; Deutschmann, Peter

2002-01-01

119

Relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among adolescent National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, south India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group.

Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay

2013-01-01

120

Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity. PMID:22899219

Badhan, K; Mehra, R

2012-11-01

121

Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. PMID:24911512

Coffey, Diane

2014-08-01

122

Follow-up Assessment of Under-nourished Children Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme in Tapi District, India  

PubMed Central

Background: India shares the largest burden of under-nutrition in world. The aim of this study was to conduct follow-up assessment of under-nourished children attending anganwadi center (AWC). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in 50 AWC of Tapi district. Total 529 children aged 1-6 years diagnosed as under-nourished before 1 year were included. Pre-structured questionnaire was used for present day assessment of these children followed by Epi-info mediated analysis. Results: Children of literate mothers had higher weight gain. Ninety percent of children attended anganwadi regularly, however 25% of children dropped out for more than 1 month. In 1 year, growth had faltered in 20% children and was stagnant in 63% of them. Children who were treated for under-nutrition; that completed course at Child Development and Nutrition Center; and whose parents were counseled about the under-nourished status of child had higher weight gain than their counterparts. Conclusions: Parents of under-nourished children must be counseled about the nutritional status of their child. In cases of under-nourished child, referral to higher center must be ensured by health worker. Supplementary feeding as a long-term solution to country's under-nutrition problem should be studied in detail with the alternative solutions.

Desai, Kanan T.; Nayak, Sunil N.; Patel, Prakash B.; Modi, Bhautik P.; Gharat, Vaibhav V.; Bansal, Rajkumar

2014-01-01

123

Determination of 222RN level in groundwater using a Rad7 detector in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

Radon gas is a significant health threat linked to thousands of preventable deaths each year. In this paper, radon activity concentration is measured in 260 groundwater samples collected from 65 villages in the Bathinda district of Punjab State, India, using Rad7, an electronic radon detector (Durridge Co., USA). The radon concentration varies from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 5.1 ± 0.3 Bq l(-1) with a mean value of 2.63 Bq l(-1). The recorded values of radon concentration in groundwater are within the safe limit of 11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The annual effective dose in stomach and lungs per person is also evaluated in this research. The estimated total annual effective dose of adults ranged from 8.82 to 49.98 µSv y(-1). The total annual effective dose from all locations of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv y(-1)), recommended by World Health Organisation and EU Council. PMID:23509398

Duggal, Vikas; Mehra, Rohit; Rani, Asha

2013-09-01

124

Ethnomedicinal plants and their utilization by villagers in Kumaragiri Hills of Salem district of Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the ethnomedicinal plants of Kumaragiri Hills of Salem district, Tamilnadu. The indigenous knowledge of the village dwellers, the herbal medicine practitioners and other traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal value were collected through questionnaire and personal interviewed during field trips. The study revealed some unknown medical uses of medicinal plants. The scientific name, family, vernacular name (Tamil), part used and traditional practice of 80 species, 65 genera and families are discussed here for the treatment of various ailments. The dicotyledons are represented by 73 species of 58 genera and 37 families while monocotyledons are represented by 7 species of 7 genera and 4 families. 91.25% dicotyledons and :8.75% monocotyledons were encountered. PMID:20448846

Alagesaboopathi, C

2009-01-01

125

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

2009-10-01

126

Status of iodine deficiency disorder in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a public health problem in Uttarakhand state. Objective: The present study was conducted in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the status of iodine deficiency amongst school age children (6-12 years). Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size (PPS) cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1807 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each child was conducted. Urine and Salt samples were collected from children. Results: The Total Goiter Rate (TGR) was found to be 13.2%. The proportion of children with Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) level <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and ?200 ?g/l was found to be nil, 6.0, 21.2, 34.2 and 38.5 percent, respectively. The median UIE level was 150 ?g/l. Only 46.7% of the salt samples had stipulated level of iodine of 15 ppm and more. Conclusion: The study population had mild degree of public health problem of iodine deficiency.

Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R. M.; Jain, Vandana; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

2014-01-01

127

Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

1988-01-01

128

Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses was assessed in Alathur Block located in Perambalur District of the state of Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from ten villages were analyzed in two seasons for major cations, anions and other parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Kelly's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio, % sodium, chloro-alkaline indices, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index to know the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Piper trilinear diagram interpretations were made to know the suitability of chemical type of the groundwater. It reveals that the subsurface water is alkaline (Na + K) than the alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, most of the groundwater samples belong to class high-salinity hazard and low-sodium hazard (C3-S1) and high-salinity hazard and medium-sodium hazard (C3-S2), which indicate that the groundwater of most stations require a special type of irrigation method.

Jafar Ahamed, A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Loganathan, K.; Manikandan, K.

2013-12-01

129

Insecticide Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Districts in India and Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the DDT and deltamethrin susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Leishmania donovani, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in two countries (India and Nepal) with different histories of insecticide exposure. Methods Standard WHO testing procedures were applied using 4% DDT and 0.05% deltamethrin impregnated papers. The effect of the physiological status (fed and unfed) of females on the outcome of the bioassays was assessed and the optimal time of exposure for deltamethrin was evaluated on a colony population. Field populations from both countries were tested. Results Fed and unfed females responded in a similar way. For exposure time on field samples 60 min was adopted for both DDT and deltamethrin. In Bihar, knockdown and mortality with DDT was respectively 20 and 43%. In Nepal almost all sand flies were killed, except at the border with Bihar (mortality 62%). With 0.05% deltamethrin, between 96 and 100% of the sand flies were killed in both regions. Conclusions Based on literature and present data 4% DDT and 0.05% deltamethrin seem to be acceptable discriminating concentrations to separate resistant from susceptible populations. Resistance to DDT was confirmed in Bihar and in a border village of Nepal, but the sand flies were still susceptible in villages more inside Nepal where only synthetic pyrethroids are used for indoor spraying. The low effectiveness of indoor spraying with DDT in Bihar to control VL can be partially explained by this resistance hence other classes of insecticides should be tested. In both countries P. argentipes sand flies were susceptible to deltamethrin.

Picado, Albert; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Singh, Shri Prakash; Das, Pradeep; Boelaert, Marleen; Coosemans, Marc

2010-01-01

130

A spatial analysis to study access to emergency obstetric transport services under the public private "Janani Express Yojana" program in two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background The government in Madhya Pradesh (MP), India in 2006, launched “Janani Express Yojana” (JE), a decentralized, 24X7, free emergency transport service for all pregnant women under a public-private partnership. JE supports India’s large conditional cash transfer program, the “Janani Suraksha Yojana” (JSY) in the province and transports on average 60,000 parturients to hospital every month. The model is a relatively low cost one that potentially could be adopted in other parts of India and South Asia. This paper describes the uptake, time taken and geographic equity in access to the service to transport women to a facility in two districts of MP. Methods This was a facility based cross sectional study. We interviewed parturients (n = 468) who delivered during a five day study period at facilities with >10 deliveries/month (n = 61) in two study districts. The women were asked details of transportation used to arrive at the facility, time taken and their residential addresses. These details were plotted onto a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate travelled distances and identify statistically significant clusters of mothers (hot spots) reporting delays >2 hours. Results JE vehicles were well dispersed across the districts and used by 236 (50.03%) mothers of which 111(47.03%) took >2 hours to reach a facility. Inability of JE vehicle to reach a mother in time was the main reason for delays. There was no correlation between the duration of delay and distance travelled. Maps of the travel paths and travel duration of the women are presented. The study identified hot spots of mothers with delays >2 hours and explored the possible reasons for longer delays. Conclusions The JE service was accessible in all parts of the districts. Relatively high utilization rates of JE indicate that it ably supported JSY program to draw more women for institutional deliveries. However, half of the JE users experienced long (>2 hour) delays. The delayed mothers clustered in difficult terrains of the districts. Additional support particularly for the identified hot spots, enhanced monitoring by state agencies and GIS tools can facilitate better effectiveness of the JE program.

2014-01-01

131

Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.  

PubMed

The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 ?mhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+?+ NO-?-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture. PMID:20169406

Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

2011-01-01

132

Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among Primary School Children in Rural Areas of Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ‘borderline’ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the condition in the study region.

Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, MP; Jayakodi, P; Felix, AJW; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

2008-01-01

133

Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio 'a', anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C' were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio 'a' were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C' were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

2013-06-01

134

Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

2012-07-01

135

Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

2014-03-01

136

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program.

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

137

Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

2011-07-01

138

Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?district level in relation to HIV intervention programs and the degree of urbanization. These findings could be used to enhance program planning to further reduce HIV transmission in this population.

2014-01-01

139

Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the performance of irrigation system in Sirsa district, India: I. Current water management and its productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryDistributed ecohydrological modelling can provide a useful tool to evaluate the performance of irrigation systems at different spatial and temporal scales. Sirsa district, covering 4270 km 2 in the western part of Haryana State (India), has been selected for a case study with typical problems of canal water scarcity, poor groundwater quality, rising and declining groundwater levels, and sub-optimal crop production. The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP including detailed crop growth simulations was extended in a distributed manner to quantify the required hydrological and biophysical variables for all combinations of weather-crop-soil-irrigation in the study area. Field experiments, satellite images and existing geographical data were used to aggregate the representative input parameters of all so-called homogeneous ' simulation units' and their boundary conditions. The simulated mean annual evapotranspiration (689 mm) over the entire Sirsa district was 15% lower as compared to the mean annual evapotranspiration (809 mm) estimated by independent remote sensing approach. The simulated water and salt limited crop yields showed a good correspondence with the independent crop yields data obtained from remote sensing, field measurements and statistical records. The performance of Sirsa district during the agricultural year 2001-2002 was evaluated in terms of water productivity, net groundwater recharge and salt build-up. Factors responsible for low water productivity in Sirsa district include a high percentage of soil evaporation into evapotranspiration (17-54%, highest for rice), percolation from fields and seepage losses from the conveyance system (34-43% of the total canal inflow). The study also revealed a large variation of net groundwater recharge and salt build-up over different canal commands, which threatens the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Sirsa district.

Singh, R.; Kroes, J. G.; van Dam, J. C.; Feddes, R. A.

2006-10-01

140

Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (?2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ? 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ? 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment.

Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

2010-01-01

141

Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF. PMID:11057977

Singh, J; Balakrishnan, N; Bhardwaj, M; Amuthadevi, P; George, E G; Subramani, K; Soundararajan, K; Appavoo, N C; Jain, D C; Ichhpujani, R L; Bhatia, R; Sokhey, J

2000-08-01

142

Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF.

Singh, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Bhardwaj, M.; Amuthadevi, P.; George, E. G.; Subramani, K.; Soundararajan, K.; Appavoo, N. C.; Jain, D. C.; Ichhpujani, R. L.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

2000-01-01

143

Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

2014-06-01

144

Assessment of the groundwater potential and quality in Bhatsa and Kalu river basins of Thane district, western Deccan Volcanic Province of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scarcity of groundwater necessitates the present study to evaluate groundwater potential and quality for designing suitable water management plans in the Bhatsa and Kalu river basins in the Thane district in the western Deccan volcanic province of India. A Geographical Information System platform is used to integrate and spatially analyse multiparametric data comprised of satellite, topographical, geological and hydrogeological information to generate several thematic maps, including groundwater potential zonation map. This study reveals that 70% of the area has medium to low groundwater potential, while only 10% has high potential. The static and dynamic groundwater potentials are estimated to be 10.7 and 4.8% of the annual rainfall. The groundwater quality in terms of hardness, total dissolved solids, salinity and chloride is suitable for domestic and irrigational purposes. A database is developed for sustainable water management program for the region and areas where suitable water conservation techniques need to be adopted are identified.

Shankar, M. N. Ravi; Mohan, G.

2006-04-01

145

Socio-Economic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Multi-Morbidity among the Rural Elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha (India)  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-morbidity among elderly is increasingly recognized as a major public health challenge in most of the developing countries. However, information on the size of population suffering from multi-morbidity and socio-economic differentials of multi-morbidity is scarce. The objectives of this paper are twofold; first, to assess the prevalence of various chronic conditions and morbidity among rural elderly and second, to examine the socio-economic and demographic factors that have a significant effect on the morbidity. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been done using multi-stage random sampling procedure that was conducted among elderly (60+ years) in Bargarh District of Odisha during October 2011-February 2012. The survey was conducted among 310 respondents including 153 males and 157 females. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the pattern of multi-morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the adjusted effect of various socio-economic and demographic covariates of multi-morbidity. Results The overall prevalence of multi-morbidity is 57% among rural elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha. The most common diseases in rural areas are: Arthritis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), High Blood Pressure and Cataract. Results from the logistic regression analyses show that age, state of economic independence and life style indicators are the most important measured predictors of multi-morbidity. Unlike earlier studies, wealth index and education have a marginal impact on multi-morbidity rate. Moreover, the occurrence of multi-morbidity is higher for elderly males compared to their female counterparts, though the difference is not significant. Conclusion The high prevalence of morbidity observed in the present study suggests that there is an urgent need to develop geriatric health care services in a developing country like India. Any effort to reorganize primary care for elderly people should also consider the high prevalence of multi-morbidity among rural elderly in India.

Banjare, Pallavi; Pradhan, Jalandhar

2014-01-01

146

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning.

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

147

Socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural features of prior and anticipated influenza vaccine uptake in urban and rural Pune district, India: a mixed-methods case study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ensuring production capacity of efficacious vaccines for pandemic preparedness alone may not be sufficient for effective influenza control. Community willingness to accept the vaccine is also critical. Population acceptance must therefore be recognised as a major determinant of vaccine effectiveness, and the social, cultural and economic determinants of population acceptance require study for effective policy and action. Pune is a focus of pandemic influenza in India. The experience of the 2009/2010 pandemic in Pune, capacity for vaccine production and experience with vaccine use provide a unique opportunity to address key questions about an effective vaccine intervention strategy for influenza control in India. This study will examine the socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural determinants of anticipated acceptance of influenza vaccines among the urban and rural populations of Pune district. Additionally, community ideas about seasonal influenza and its distinction from pandemic influenza will be investigated. Proposed research also considers the influence of health professionals, policy makers and media professionals on the awareness, preference and use of influenza vaccines. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study including urban and rural community surveys, in-depth interviews with health professionals, case studies at two hospitals where suspected influenza cases were referred during the pandemic and in-depth interviews with media professionals and public health policy makers. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the ethics review committees of the Maharashtra Association of Anthropological Sciences and the WHO, and by the Ethics Commission of Basel, Switzerland. The proposed research will provide a better understanding of communication and education needs for vaccine action for influenza control in India and other low-income and middle-income countries. The findings and the approach for health social science research will have implications for containment of pandemic influenza in other settings and for effective vaccine action planning for other vaccines.

Kudale, Abhay; Purohit, Vidula Shridhar; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

2013-01-01

148

Cost-analysis of the WHO Essential Medicines List in A Resource-Limited Setting: Experience from A District Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

The World Health Organization (WHO) has been publishing the essential medicines list (EML) since 1977. The EML includes the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective drugs for the most relevant public health conditions worldwide. The WHO performs a cost-effectiveness analysis within each therapeutic group, but very little is known about which therapeutic groups are costliest for hospitals that adopt the WHO EML concept. In this study, we have described the annual consumption of medicines in a district hospital in India, that limited the list of available drugs according to the WHO EML concept. Only 21 drugs constituted 50% of the hospital spending. Anti-infective medicines accounted for 41% of drug spending, especially antiretrovirals which were used to treat HIV infection. Among other therapeutic groups, insulin had the highest impact on the hospital budget. We identified medicines used in perinatal care, which included anti-D immunoglobulin and lung surfactants, that were used rarely, but bore a relatively high cost burden. The results of this study indicate that, in district that adopt the WHO EML, antiretrovirals and antibiotics were the top therapeutic groups for the drug hospital budgets.

Thomas, Dixon; Zachariah, Seeba; Byram, Rajarajeshwari; Kannan, Shanmugamari

2014-01-01

149

Assessment of the potential hazards of nitrate contamination in surface and groundwater in a heavily fertilized and intensively cultivated district of India.  

PubMed

We made an inventory of nitrate (NO3-N) enrichment in surface and groundwater systems in the Hooghly district of India owing to intensive farming with high fertilizer doses as a function of quantity of fertilizers use, soil characteristics, types of crop grown, depth of groundwater sampling and also N-load in soil profiles. Water samples were collected from different sources at 412 odd sites spread over in 17 blocks of the district along with representative soil profiles. On average, the study area had high clay and NO3-N in soil profiles with an increasing and decreasing trends along depth, respectively. The NO3-N content both in surface and groundwater varied from 0.01 microg mL(-1) to 4.56 microg mL(-1), being well below the threshold limit of 10 microg mL(-1) fixed by WHO for drinking purpose. The content decreased with increasing depth of wells (r = -0.39**) and clay content of soil profiles (r = -0.31**). It, however, increased with increasing rate of fertilizer application (r = 0.72**), NO3-N load in soil profiles (r = 0.85**) and was higher in areas where shallow--rather than deep-rooted crops are grown. Results indicated even under fairly high quantity of fertilizer use, groundwater of the study area is safe for drinking purpose. PMID:18074235

Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati; Sarkar, Dibyendu

2008-11-01

150

Dr. P. C. Sen Memorial Award Paper. Status of salt iodisation and iodine deficiency in selected districts of different states of India.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a major public health problem. Surveys conducted by the National Goitre Survey team of the Directorate General of Health Services during the past three decades have revealed a high prevalence of endemic goitre in different states. Out of a total of 267 districts surveyed till date, 226 have been reported to be endemic to iodine deficiency. A successful measure for the prevention of IDD is salt iodisation. The Salt department, Government of India has taken an intensive programme of production of iodised salt in the country. The production has increased from 1.5 lakh metric tonnes in 1984 to 40 lakh metric tonnes in 1996. To assess the impact of increased production of iodised salt on the availability of iodised salt at the beneficiary and trader level and also on the status of iodine deficiency, surveys were undertaken in selected districts of 10 states and 2 union territories of the country. These studies have been presented and discussed here. PMID:10389517

Kapil, U; Nayar, D

1998-01-01

151

Development Of Remote Sensing And GIS Based Information System For Village Level Planning - A Case Study Of Addanki Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the population in India live in villages and depend on agriculture alone and it is also said that the development of the country is centered around the agriculture. Though several developmental programmes have been initiated and executed on various scales, by both central and state government agencies in prakasam district, microlevel planning taking an individual village as a center has not yet been formulated with full thrust. It is therefore proposed to develop Village Information System (VIS) and model action plan for sustainable development of ADDANKI MANDAL OF PRAKASAM DISTRICT in Andhra Pradesh Using Geospatial technologies. Village information system (VIS) would allow planners and citizens to quickly and efficiently create and test alternative development scenarios and determine their likely impacts on future land use patterns. In short, use of VIS in local government administration would increase efficacy, save time, improve accuracy, generate revenue, automate tasks, provide better decision support as well as being economical. To develop VIS and to understand the status and other aspects of spatial data, very large scale maps of natural resources, utilities, Land use / Land cover and other details are necessary. Hence this paper has considered the scale of 1:10,000 on which the entire data model is developed. This system is user friendly and many decisions can be made by the user according to their choice. The decision support system developed can also be applied on other villages of similar environmental settings. Keywords: Village Information System, Data Model, Micro Level Planning and Geospatial Technologies

Santosh, K.; Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.

2009-05-01

152

A Sickle Cell Disease Carrier Family with a Pair of Dizygotic Twins from Kalahandi District of Western Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sickle cell disease is a genetically inherited commonly encountered hematological disorder that causes high degree of morbidity, mortality and fetal wastage. The suspected cases of hemoglobinopathies suffering from anemia are routinely referred from different peripheral Primary Health Centres and Hospitals in the state of Orissa (India) to our Centre for detailed investigations and genetic\\/marriage counselling. Of these, a scheduled

R. S. Balgir

153

Soil Survey and Land Use System Approach for Planning of Sustainable Land Management A Case Study of Ananthapur District, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a country of splendid diversity of soil, climate, food, clothing and culture. The stability in the sector of food security, fiber and shelter provisions and animal wealth has been threatened due to ever-increasi ng population pressure and indiscriminatory use of land resources. It is also well recognized all over the world, specially in the developing countries that inappropriate

M. VELAYUTHAM; R. S. REDDY; N. G. RAGHU MOHAN; A. K. MAJI

154

A new report on the occurrence of monogenean parasites (Monogenoidea) on gill filaments of freshwater fishes in Meghalaya.  

PubMed

The edible freshwater fishes of several genera including Labeo, Cyprinus, Cirrhinus, Danio, Puntius, Garra (Cypriniformes), Channa (Channiformes), Clarias, Heteropneustes, Rita, Monopterus, Ompak, Bagarius and Mystus (Siluriformes) in Meghalaya State were examined for their helminth parasite spectrum. Two monogenean flukes representing the genera Diplozoon and Bifurcohaptor were recovered from the gills of the host fish, which are redescribed herein and their descriptions supplemented with information on their surface fine topography. Labeo pangusia and L. boga constitute new host records for the diplozoid monogenean. Both the monogenean species are reported for the first time from the fishes in Meghalaya, a new locality record. PMID:22654321

Thapa, Sunila; Jyrwa, Donald B; Tandon, Veena

2011-06-01

155

Radon variations in an active landslide zone along the Pindar River, in Chamoli District, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon measurements were made in the soil and spring\\/seepage water in and around an active landslide located along the Pindar river in the Chamoli District of Uttaranchal in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, to understand the application of radon in geological disasters. The landslide is a compound slide i.e. a slump in the crown portion, and debris slide and fall in the

V. M. Choubey; S. K. Bartarya; R. C. Ramola

2005-01-01

156

Data Acquisition and Analysis for Land Slide susceptibility mapping using Geographical Information System (GIS) at Nilgiris district, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop technique for landslide susceptibility mapping using artificial neural networks and then to apply the technique to the selected study area at Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu. Landslide locations are identified by interpreting the satellite images and field survey data, and a spatial database of the topography, soil, forest, and land use. Then

S. PRABU; S. S. RAMAKRISHNAN; R. VIDYA

157

Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India  

PubMed Central

Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and geographically suitable risk-reduction programmes, apply of such spatial analysis tools should suit a vital constituent in epidemiology research and risk evaluation of kala-azar.

2013-01-01

158

Rapid situation & response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone AILA in India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Cyclone AILA hit Indian States on eastern coast on May 25, 2009. An investigation was conducted to examine if AILA was responsible for increased reporting of diarrhoea cases from the district of East-Medinipur in West Bengal. Identifying causative organisms for diarrhoea and assessing their antibiotic susceptibility profile were other objectives. Methods: Rapid situation and response assessment technique was employed to triangulate primary and secondary data collected through field visits. Prescription audit was also conducted. Results: Significantly increased occurrence of diarrhoea was observed in June 2009 in two subdivisions namely Haldia and Egra (OR 1.6 and 1.3 respectively; 95% CI 1.52-1.65 and 1.21-1.32 P<0.001) considering 2007 as baseline. Vibrio cholerae grew from 54 per cent of the stool samples (21/39; 17 V. cholerae O1-Ogawa and 4 non-O1-non-O139), confirming a community outbreak of cholera. Shigella flexneri 3a was isolated from 5 per cent stool specimens. Increased rate of admission in treatment centres due to diarrhoea in the whole district coincided with the formation of cyclone and showed over two-fold rise compared to the admission recorded 6 days ago. Haldia subdivision had the highest attack rate of 9 per 1000 in the month of June, 2009 whereas for the whole district it was 5 per 1000 in the same month. All the isolates of V. cholerae were resistant to ampicillin and furazolidone and sensitive to norfloxacin and azithromycin. Interpretation & conclusions: Pre-AILA changes in the environment, AILA and seasonality of diarrhoea in the study district interplayed towards increased occurrence of diarrhoea. Continuous tracking of ‘seasonality of diarrhoea in the community with vulnerability assessment of potential hosts’, ‘antibiotic sensitivity profile of the causative microorganisms’, and ‘prescription practice of physicians’ would help appropriate disaster management.

Panda, Samiran; Pati, Kamala Kanta; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Koley, Hemanta; Pahari, Sobha; Nair, G. Balakrish

2011-01-01

159

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

1997-01-01

160

A clinical and molecular study of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in three districts of central and eastern India  

PubMed Central

Background Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is recommended throughout India as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of India. The objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of AS + SP in three diverse sites. Methods The study was undertaken in three high endemic sites of central and eastern India. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and followed for 28 days. Molecular genotyping was conducted for merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) to differentiate between re-infection and recrudescence and for the dhfr and dhps genes to monitor antifolate drug resistance. Results In all, 149 patients were enrolled at the three sites. The crude cure rates were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% in Ranchi, Keonjhar, and West Garo Hills respectively. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% at all sites. In dhfr, 27% of isolates had triple mutations, while 46% isolates were double-mutants. The most prevalent mutation was S108N followed by C59R. 164 L mutation was observed in 43/126 (34%) isolates. In dhps, most (76%) of the isolates were wild-type. Only 2.5% (2/80) isolates showed double mutation. dhfr-dhps two locus mutation were observed in 16% (13/80) isolates. Parasite clearance time was not related with antifolate mutations. Conclusions AS + SP combination therapy remained effective against falciparum malaria despite common mutations promoting resistance to antifolate drugs. Although the prevalence of double and triple mutations in dhfr was high, the prevalence of dhfr-dhps two locus mutations were low. Even isolates with dhfr triple and dhfr-dhps two locus mutations achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response.

2013-01-01

161

Prospects for small and marginal farmers in Trichy district (Tamil Nadu, India) to use water pumping windmills for irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic, technical, and agricultural aspects of equiping poor farmers in India with windpowered pumps were analyzed. It is concluded that the prospects for a market for windmills among nontarget group farmers (especially big farmers with diesel pumps) are better than the prospects among the target group farmers. Continuation of the project might lead to an improvement of the situation for the richer farmers, which would in turn lead to a decline in the situation of the original target group of the project, the small and marginal farmers.

Goedhart, P.

1984-05-01

162

Molecular evidence on the occurrence of co-infection with Pichia guilliermondii and Wuchereria bancrofti in two filarial endemic districts of India  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of India and mostly affects the poor or those with a low-income. The disease results in huge numbers of morbidities, disabilities, and deaths every year. Association of co-infection with other pathogens makes the condition more severe. Although co-infection is becoming a growing area of research, it is yet to emerge as a frontier research topic in filarial research specifically. This study reports the occurrence of a fungal infection in a large number of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis in two districts of West Bengal, India. Methods Nocturnal blood samples from filarial patients containing parasites and fungus were initially co-cultured, and further the fungus was isolated and characterized. Molecular identification of the isolate was carried out by PCR-based selective amplification and sequencing of highly-conserved D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, whereas pathogenicity was determined by amplification of the RPS0 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the relationship between the isolate and common pathogenic yeasts. The isolate was studied for antibiotic sensitivity, whereas morphological characterization was performed by microscopic techniques. Results The isolate was identified as Pichia guilliermondii and this fungus was found to exist in co-infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in filarial patients. The fungus showed resistance to azole antifungals, griseofulvin, and, amphotericin B, whereas significant susceptibility was evident in cases of nystatin and cycloheximide. A total of 197 out of 222 patients showed this co-infection. Conclusion This study revealed, for the first time, that P. guilliermondii exists as a co-infection in microfilaraemic individuals living in a filarial endemic zone. The findings are important and have relevance to human health, especially for filarial patients.

2014-01-01

163

A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03). The most common water holding containers found (outdoor) were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction. PMID:24717199

Vijayakumar, K; Sudheesh Kumar, T K; Nujum, Zinia T; Umarul, Farook; Kuriakose, Anu

2014-01-01

164

Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions. PMID:22431185

Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

2012-12-01

165

Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study of Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation is variable from place to place. Assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Quality of groundwater in a 398 km2 Peddavanka watershed of a semi-arid region of south India is evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The middle Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup and Kurnool Group of rocks underlie most of the watershed. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of quartzite, limestone, and shale. Seventy-six water samples were collected from open-wells and bore-holes. Water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (summer). The quality assessment is made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, total hardness as CaCO3, TDS, EC, and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated. According to Gibbs‘ ratio samples in both seasons fall in the rock dominance field. The overall quality of waters in the study area in post-monsoon season is high for all constituents ruling out pollution from extraneous sources.

Gowd, S. Srinivasa

2005-09-01

166

Goiter prevalence, urinary iodine, and salt iodization level in sub-Himalayan Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

National iodine deficiency disorders control program needs to be continuously monitored. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from April-May 2011 to assess the prevalence of goiter, status of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level and to estimate iodine content of salts at the household level in Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Study subjects were 2400 school children, aged 8-10 years selected through "30 cluster" sampling methodology. Goiter was assessed by standard palpation technique, UIE was estimated by wet digestion method and salt samples were tested by spot iodine testing kit. Overall goiter prevalence rate was 8.7% (95% confidence intervals = 7.6-9.8) and goiter prevalence was significantly different with respect to gender. Median UIE level was 15.6 mcg/dL (normal range: 10-20 mcg/dL). About 92.6% of the salt samples tested had adequate iodine content of ?15 ppm. Findings of the present study indicate that the district is in a transition phase from iodine-deficiency to iodine sufficiency. PMID:24820989

Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Indranil; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Romy

2014-01-01

167

Epidemiologic consequences of moderate coverage levels of measles vaccine in a district headquarter town (Alwar) in India, 1996.  

PubMed

This paper describes the epidemiology of measles in a medium size town (population 240,000) in India where vaccine coverage levels have remained constant at around 70 per cent in the past 7 years. A retrospective community survey covering 4023 children under 10 years old detected 252 cases of measles in the previous year. This gave an annual incidence of 6.3 per cent (95 per cent CI 5.5-7). About half of the cases occurred in vaccinated children. Only 5 per cent of the cases occurred in children below 9 months of age. This age is appropriate for routine measles immunization. Despite modest coverage levels with only 54 per cent effective vaccine (estimated by a screening method), there was a modest upward shift in the age distribution of measles cases; the median age was more than 48 months. PMID:9972084

Singh, J; Gupta, R S; Bora, D; Meena, V R; Jain, D C; Khare, S; Bhatia, R; Sokhey, J

1998-12-01

168

Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi pluton, Sonbhadra district, Mahakoshal mobile belt, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole around the Late Paleoproterozoic Jhirgadandi pluton in the eastern part of Parsoi Formation of Mahakoshal terrain, central India represents three distinct metamorphic zones, characterized by definite mineral assemblages. The contact-metamorphic event produced the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages Bt + Qtz + Alb + Sil ± Cd ± Grt ± Mus ± Kfs in the metapelites of inner aureole, Bt + Qtz + And + Mus + Kfs + Plag ± Cd ± Chl in middle aureole and Chl + Mus + Bt ± And + Alb + Qtz ± Ep + Mt ± tourmaline in the outer aureole. The estimated P-T conditions based on detailed geothermobarometric calculations in the thermal metamorphosed rocks are 690°C/3.4 kbar, 580 ± 15°C and 487 ± 30°C in inner aureole, middle aureole and outer aureole, respectively. The variation in metamorphic condition suggests that the shallow crustal level emplacement of Jhirgadandi pluton is responsible for the overprinting of contact metamorphic assemblages (M2) in the low grade metapelites (regional metamorphism M1) of Mahakoshal Group.

Singh, S. P.; Srivastava, Anand K.; Kumar, Gopendra; Dwivedi, S. B.

2013-06-01

169

Outcome of Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Treated in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Malappuram District, Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Settings Kerala State, India has reported the greatest dual burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Malappuram district in Kerala has monitored and recorded DM status and its control from 2010 under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). Objectives To assess, under programme conditions, comprehensiveness of recording DM status among TB cases and the TB treatment outcomes among DM patients (disaggregated by glycemic control) and compare with-non DM patients. Design This retrospective record review included 3,116TB patients from April 2010 to September 2011.DM was defined as per international guidelines and TB treatment outcomes were categorized as favourable(cured and treatment completed) and unfavourable(death, default, failure and transfer out). Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals(CI) were calculated to assess the risk of unfavourable outcomes. Results DM status was recorded in 90% of TB cases and 667 (24%) had DM. 17% of DM patients and 23% of patients with unknown DM status had unfavourable outcomes but this difference was not statistically significant. Unadjusted RR for poor glycemic control or unknown control status for unfavourable outcome were (2.00; 95% CI 0.97–4.13) and (2.14; 95% CI 1.11–4.13). Conclusion This study could not confirm an adverse association between DM or its control during treatment and the course of response to TB treatment.DM screening in TB cases and recording of DM care needs to be improved to enable more conclusive evidence.

KV, Nandakumar; Duraisamy, Karthickeyan; Balakrishnan, Shibu; M, Sunilkumar; S, Jaya Sankar; Sagili, Karuna D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; MV, Ajay Kumar; Enarson, Donald A.

2013-01-01

170

Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( C?) of fracture datasets of each domain. The C? is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

2014-04-01

171

Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance (C?) of fracture datasets of each domain. The C? is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

2014-05-01

172

Determinants of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion in a jointly determined framework: evidence from a country-wide, district-level household survey in India.  

PubMed

Summary This study provides evidence on the principal determinants of pregnancy and abortion in India using a large country-wide district-level data set (DLHS 2007). The paper provides an economic framework for the analysis of pregnancy and abortion. The study distinguishes between induced and spontaneous abortion and compares the effects of their determinants. The results show that there are wide differences between induced and spontaneous abortions in terms of the sign and magnitude of the estimated effects of several of their determinants, most notably wealth, the woman's age and her desire for children. The study makes a methodological contribution by proposing a trivariate probit estimation framework that recognizes the joint dependence of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion, and provides evidence in support of this joint dependence. The study reports an inverted U-shaped effect of a woman's age on her pregnancy and both forms of abortion. The turning point in each case is quite robust to the estimation framework. A significant effect of contextual variables, at the village level, constructed from the individual responses, on a woman's pregnancy is found. The effects are weaker in the case of induced abortion, and insignificant in the case of spontaneous abortion. The results are shown to be fairly robust. This paper extends the literature on the relation between son preference and fertility by examining the link between mother's son preference and desire for more children with abortion rates. PMID:23866167

Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

2014-07-01

173

Characterization of fluoride-tolerant halophilic Bacillus flexus NM25 (HQ875778) isolated from fluoride-affected soil in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

A new Gram-positive, nonpigmented, rod-shaped fluoride-tolerant bacterial strain, NM25, was isolated from waterlogged muddy field soil collected from the fluoride endemic area of Rampurhat II block (average fluoride in water, 4.7 mg/l, and in soil, 1.5 mg/kg) in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. The study was undertaken to characterize the fluoride-tolerant bacterial isolate, to determine its role in bioaccumulation of fluoride, and to analyze the water and soil quality of the bacterial environment. The isolate was positive for catalase, lipase, urease, protease, oxidase, and H2S production, but negative for indole production, nitrate reduction, and Vogues-Proskauer test. The organisms were sensitive to recommended doses of ofloxacin, kanamycin, rifampicin, levofloxacin, vancomycin, gatifloxacin, gentamicin, doxycycline, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence, and phylogenetic analysis, the bacterial isolate NM25 was identified as Bacillus flexus. The G+C content of the 16S rDNA was 53.14 mol%. This strain tolerated up to 20% (w/v) NaCl in nutrient agar medium and was grown at the pH range 4-12. It reduced fluoride concentration up to 67.45% and tolerated more than 1,500 ppm of fluoride in brain-heart infusion agar medium. PMID:24068284

Pal, Kartick Chandra; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Ghosh, Tuhin Subhra; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

2014-02-01

174

Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future.

Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

2014-01-01

175

The Coexistence of Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Disability in Children Aged 3-18 Years in the Barwani District, India  

PubMed Central

Background. The coexistence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID) is common. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID in Barwani, India. Method. A total of 262 children with ID were evaluated for psychiatric disorders using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Psychiatric disorders appeared in study participants at the following rates: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6.5%; autism, 4.2%; anxiety, 2.7%; bipolar disorder, 1.1%; delusional disorder, 0.8%; depression, 2.3%; obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.8%; schizophrenia, 1.9%; enuresis, 10.3%; epilepsy, 23.7%; and behavioral problems, 80.9%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was statistically higher in severely intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 49) than mildly intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 50). Conclusions. There is a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID when their IQ ? 49 compared with ID children whose IQ ? 50.

2013-01-01

176

Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns) belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done. PMID:24498812

Sharma, Pankaj; Patti, Pooja; Agnihotry, Ajeet

2013-05-15

177

Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India  

PubMed Central

The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.

Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

2006-01-01

178

Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.  

PubMed

The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards. PMID:17180415

Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

2007-09-01

179

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

1997-01-01

180

Syndepositional and postdepositional features of the manganese ore deposits of the Proterozoic Penganga group, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proterozoic Penganga Group consisting of terrigenous and orthochemical sediments including a manganese orebody is well developed in the northwestern part of the Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. The manganese orebody of unmetamorphosed and undeformed, interbanded manganese oxide ore, chert, and minor calcareous shale has retained excellent syndepositional and postdepositional features both on the macro-and microscales. The primary depositional features include meso- and microbands of manganese oxide and silica of different descriptions, scour-and-fill structures, and Mn oxide micronodules. Spherical siliceous ?m-sized structures and other features of biogenic origin have been observed. Diagenetic features such as fabric changes, syneresis cracks, concretionary pods, and Mn oxide nodules have been recorded. They are accompanied by penecontemporaneous deformation structures such as pinch-and-swell structures, gravity-density features, brecciation, and folding and faulting of various kinds. All these features suggest that the manganese orebody was formed in a shallow-marine environment on a stable shelf possibly behind a barrier bar and subsequently underwent diagenetic reorganization and penecontemporaneous deformation when the sediments were still in a hydroplastic state.

Bandopadhyay, P. C.

1988-04-01

181

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

182

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

183

High prevalence of pfcrt K76T and mdr1 N86Y mutations in Sonitpur district of Assam, India.  

PubMed

Present study reports the prevalence and distribution of pfcrt K76T and mdr1 N86Y mutations in malaria endemic areas of Sonitpur district of Assam. Out of 163 individuals tested for malaria, 67 (SPR = 41.1 %) were detected positive for malaria infection using rapid detection kit in the field and PCR assay in the laboratory. Nested PCR-RFLP assay was used to amplify pfcrt K76T and mdr1 N86Y genes flanking the K76T and N86Y mutations. P. falciparum was most abundant (91.04 %) among the three Plasmodium species reported and its prevalence was significantly higher as compared to P. vivax and P. malariae (?(2) = 150.76; p ? 0.0001; df = 2). Malaria was equally distributed among all the age groups and both the sexes. Hemoglobin contents in severe anaemic patients had a significant linear decreasing trend among patients with the increase in age (?(2) = 4.33; p = 0.03), whereas non severe anaemic patients exhibited significant linear increasing trend among the patients with the increase in age (?(2) = 18.38; p ? 0.0001). Pfcrt K76T mutation was recorded in 44 (72.13 %) isolates, whereas mdr1 N86Y mutation could be detected in 28 (41.79 %) isolates only. Only 32.7 % of the samples had both pfcrt K76T and mdr N86Y mutations. Number of pfcrt K76T mutant isolates was significantly higher than the wild type. However no significant difference was observed among the number of isolates with mdr1 N86Y mutant and wild isolates. PMID:25035579

Goswami, Diganta; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Kumar, Dinesh; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay; Bhola, Rk; Sharma, Dk

2014-09-01

184

Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in tsunami survivors of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Context: In this study, we assessed the relation of possible risk factors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the survivors of December 2004 tsunami in Kanyakumari district. Materials and Methods: We identified cases (n=158) and controls (n=141) by screening a random sample of 485 tsunami survivors from June 2005 to October 2005 using a validated tool, “Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R),” for symptoms suggestive of PTSD. Subjects whose score was equal to or above the 70th percentile (total score 48) were cases and those who had score below or equal to 30th percentile (total score 33) were controls. Analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences to find the risk factors of PTSD among various pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PTSD was related to female gender [odds ratio (OR) 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.26-12.39], age 40 years and above (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.63), injury to self (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.55-5.67), injury to family members (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.15), residence in urban area (area of maximum destruction) (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.35-8.41) and death of close relatives (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.91-7.68). Absence of fear of recurrence of tsunami (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60), satisfaction of services received (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92) and counseling services received more than three times (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) had protective effect against PTSD. Conclusions: There is an association of pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors with PTSD, which demands specific interventions at all phases of disaster, with a special focus on vulnerable groups.

Pyari, T. T.; Kutty, Raman V.; Sarma, P. S.

2012-01-01

185

Mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: Recent experiences from a district of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) and Albendazole is the most cost-effective strategy to control lymphatic filariasis (LF). Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to assess the coverage and the compliance of MDA, to elicit factors that influenced compliance, to document side-effects reported and to assess the awareness of the community regarding the disease and MDA program in Bankura district, West Bengal after 2012 round of MDA. Multistage cluster sampling method was adopted. Total four clusters; three villages and one urban municipality ward were selected. In each cluster, minimum 30 families were randomly selected and the head or any responsible family member was interviewed using a pre-designed, pre-tested schedule after taking written informed consent. Data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Results: Total eligible population was 683 among which 98.8% received both the drugs. About 5% of the recipients took none of the drugs. More than two-thirds of the families took unsupervised dose. Drug compliance rate was significantly lower in urban (90.7%) than in the rural clusters (95.7%) (z = 2.46, P < 0.05). Effective coverage rate was significantly lower in urban than in the rural clusters (87.4% vs. 95.3%; z = 3.57, P < 0.01). Coverage compliance gap was higher in urban (5.7%) than in rural cluster (3.9%). Fear of side-effects was the main reason for non-compliance. Reported side-effects were few, mild, and transient. Around 60% of the surveyed families were aware about the MDA program whereas, 67% of them heard about LF. Only 41% families were provided information, education, and communication in last 15 days before MDA. Major sources of information for the surveyed families were leaflets (20.3%) and poster (9.8%). Conclusions: Widespread rural urban variation in performance status, poor social mobilization activities, lack of supervised dosing, and lack of knowledge of the community about the disease and the program are the major areas of concern.

Ghosh, Santanu; Samanta, Amrita; Kole, Seshadri

2013-01-01

186

Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

187

Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage. Methods Baseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009. Results 4712 FSW participated in the study (baseline 2312; follow-up 2400), with follow-up surveys conducted 28–37?months after baseline. By follow-up, over 85% of FSW reported contact by a peer educator and having visited a project STI clinic. Compared with baseline, there were reductions in the prevalence of HIV (19.6% vs 16.4%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99, p=0.04); high-titre syphilis (5.9% vs 3.4%, AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77, p=0.001); and chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea (8.9% vs 7.0%, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, p=0.02). Reported condom use at last sex increased significantly for repeat clients (66.1% vs 84.1%, AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.48, p<0.001) and marginally for occasional clients (82.9% vs 88.0%, AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.66, p=0.2), but remained stable for regular partners (32%). Compared with street and home-based FSW, brothel-based FSW were at highest risk of HIV and STI, despite high levels of reported condom use. Conclusions This large-scale HIV prevention programme for FSW achieved reductions in HIV and STI prevalence, high rates of condom use with clients and high rates of programme coverage. Improved strategies to increase condom use with regular partners and reduce the vulnerability of brothel-based FSW to HIV are required.

Beattie, Tara S H; Shajy, Isac; Washington, Reynold; Jagannathan, Latta; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

188

Chloroquine versus amodiaquine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northeast India.  

PubMed

Amodiaquine is being used in India for presumptive treatment as an alternative to chloroquine in areas with chloroquine resistant P. falciparum. Keeping in view the toxicity of amodiaquine, studies have been undertaken to evaluate the advantage of the drug over chloroquine in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. In vivo drug resistance studies were carried out in the states of Assam and Meghalaya in India. A total of 388 subjects have been studied to compare the efficacy of chloroquine and amodiaquine. The overall cure rate, degree of resistance, mean parasite clearance time and mean parasite recrudescence time were comparable for both the drugs, the differences being not statistically significant. The results indicate no advantage of amodiaquine in the treatment of patients with P. falciparum infection in chloroquine resistant areas of northeast India and development of cross resistance in P. falciparum to these 4-aminoquinolines is complete and parallel. PMID:8543350

Misra, S P; Nandi, J; Lal, S

1995-09-01

189

Morbidity profile of paediatric inpatents at a community health centre and a nearby [correction of near by] district hospital in northern India.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to ascertain the morbidity profile among children by retrospective review of inpatient data of children admitted to Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP), Ballabgarh, a model CHC and Badshah Khan (B.K.) hospital, Faridabad, a district hospital over a period of one year. Diarrhea and pneumonia comprised 64% of all admissions at the model CHC and 30% at the district hospital. Thalassemics requiring blood transfusion formed 21% of inpatients at the district hospital. Common paediatric ailments can be managed appropriately at CHC level, provided the infrastructure as recommended by Indian Public Health sandards for CHC under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is available. The blood bank or blood storage facility at a CHC is desirable. PMID:18240477

Verma, S; Rai, S K; Kant, S; Choudhury, K

2007-01-01

190

Geomapping of trematode-induced granulomatous anterior uveitis - a newly identified cause of blindness among children in the Pudukkottai district of the Tamil Nadu State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that a specific type of allergic conjunctive-uveal granuloma reported from South India could be due to infection by a trematode parasite. In these patients, the histopathological examination of the eye reveals a zonal granulomatous inflammation with purulent material including structures displaying evidence of trematode infec- tion. To investigate this further, medical records describing such cases in the

Duraisamy Jayakumar; Sivakumar Kavitha; Sivakumar Rathinam; Gnanam Vasanthi

2009-01-01

191

Integration of capacity factors analysis risk methodology and Ostrom's social ecological system assessment framework to assess and improve domestic water infrastructure in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 50 years, both financing and socio- economic considerations in South India have shifted heavily towards improving urban infrastructure, causing rural services to be left behind. A recent report released by WHO and UNICEF states that over 884 million people, 84% of whom live in rural areas, use \\

Siddhartha Pailla; Garrick Louis

2011-01-01

192

Appropriate Strategy for Rehabilitating the Rural Blind: Education of Parents and Counselling of Visually Handicapped Persons in Bhagwanpur Block (District Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India). Brief Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-two visually handicapped persons (mean age 48.8 years) were identified in 21 of 82 rural villages surveyed by trained local field workers in India. Assessment, rehabilitation planning, parent/trainer counseling and education, and training in such areas as daily living skills and orientation and mobility were provided as appropriate. (JW)

Mathur, M. L.; And Others

1986-01-01

193

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

194

Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10.

Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

2014-01-01

195

Genetic diversity of hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency, and ABO and Rhesus blood groups in two isolates of a primitive Kharia Tribe in Sundargarh District of Northwestern Orissa, India.  

PubMed

Tribal communities constitute about 8.2% of the total population of India. Their health needs are even larger than elsewhere in India; this study investigates the genetic diversity in relation to hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency and, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in two sects, i.e. Dudh (converted Christian) and Dhelki (Hinduised) Kharia, a primitive tribe in Sundargarh district of Orissa in Central-Eastern India. A randomized screening of 767 Kharia tribals (377 males and 390 females) belonging to all age groups and both sexes was done. Laboratory analysis was carried out following the standard methodology and techniques. Contrasting differences were observed in the frequency of hematological genetic disorders such as ?-thalassemia, sickle cell, hemoglobin E, G6PD deficiency, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups between the two subgroups. Dudh Kharia had no hemoglobin variant allele other than the high prevalence of ?-thalassemia trait (8.1%), whereas, their counterpart Dhelki Kharia had the high prevalence of sickle cell allele (12.4%), hemoglobin E allele (3.2%), and ?-thalassemia allele (4.0%). Frequency distribution of hemoglobin variants between Dudh and Dhelki Kharia tribe was statistically highly significant (p?

Balgir, R S

2010-09-01

196

Monitoring and respiratory health assessment of the population exposed to cooking fuel emissions in a rural area of Jalgaon district, India.  

PubMed

Indoor air pollution is an ongoing problem in developing countries. Respiratory diseases are common worldwide in rural communities. This study was undertaken to estimate the respirable particulate matter (PM10) concentrations emitted from cooking fuels and their effects on the respiratory health of the rural population of Jalgaon district. The respiratory status of the exposed population was assessed by conducting pulmonary function tests in the study area. The levels of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were lower, and difficulty in respiration and frequent coughing were more common with higher odds ratios (OR) of 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.83) and 1.84 (95% CI = 0.95-2.10) in agrowaste-user female subjects. Ventilatory impairment among the agrowaste-user subjects was higher than among users of gas and wood. Difficulty in respiration and frequent coughing were strongly associated in wood-user female subjects as well with ORs of 2.10 (95% CI = 0.85-2.49) and 1.79 (95% CI = 0.91-1.98), respectively. Chest pain was significantly associated in agrowaste- and wood-user female subjects. This study confirms an association between the reductions in lung efficiency with high PM10 exposure in the rural population. The result of this study reveals an association between respiratory diseases symptoms and indoor air quality in the biomass-using rural population of Jalgaon district. PMID:21914708

Ingale, Lalit T; Dube, Kamalesh J; Sarode, Dhananjay B; Attarde, Sanjay B; Ingle, Sopan T

2013-11-01

197

Social gradients in self-reported health and well-being among adults aged 50 and over in Pune District, India  

PubMed Central

Background India's older population is projected to increase up to 96 million by 2011 with older people accounting for 18% of its population by 2051. The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of older adults in developing countries. Objectives To examine age and socio-economic changes on a range of key domains in self-reported health and well-being amongst older adults. Design A cross-sectional survey of 5,430 adults aged 50 and over using a shortened version of the SAGE questionnaire to assess self-reported assessments (scales of 1–5) of performance, function, disability, quality of life and well-being. Self-reported responses were calibrated using anchoring vignettes in eight key domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal relationships, sleep/energy, affect, and vision. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index and WHO health scores were calculated to examine for associations with socio-demographic variables. Results Disability in all domains increased with increasing age and decreasing levels of education. Females and the oldest old without a living spouse reported poorer health status and greater disability across all domains. Performance and functionality self-reports were similar across all SES quintiles. Self-reports on quality of life were not significantly influenced by socio-demographic variables. Discussion The study provides standardised and comparable self-rated health data using anchoring vignettes in an older population. Though expectations of good health, function and performance decrease with age, self-reports of disability severity significantly increased with age, more so if female, if uneducated and living without a spouse. However, the presence or absence of spouse did not significantly alter quality of life self-reports, suggesting a possible protective effect provided by traditional joint family structures in India, where older people are social if not financial assets for their children.

Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Juvekar, Sanjay; Lele, Pallavi; Agarwal, Dhiraj

2010-01-01

198

Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients. Comparison of LED Fluorescent Microscopy and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in a District Hospital in India.  

PubMed

HIV-related tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the World Health Organization has endorsed the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients from developing countries, but information about the use of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is scarce. In this study, we compared the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) auramine fluorescent microscopy and the Xpert assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients in a district hospital of India. Although at higher cost, Xpert outperformed LED fluorescent microscopy in all type of specimens, especially in cerebrospinal fluid where the number of positive results was increased 11 times. Pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, pus, and stool specimens also yielded positive results with the Xpert assay. When collecting two additional early-morning sputum samples, the increase of the number of positive results with the Xpert assay was lower than previously reported for HIV infected patients. Rifampicin resistance was observed in 2.2% of the cases. The results of this study show that the Xpert assay can dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and other types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis of HIV infected patients. PMID:22966426

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Azcona, Jose M; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

199

Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients. Comparison of LED Fluorescent Microscopy and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in a District Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

HIV-related tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the World Health Organization has endorsed the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients from developing countries, but information about the use of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is scarce. In this study, we compared the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) auramine fluorescent microscopy and the Xpert assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients in a district hospital of India. Although at higher cost, Xpert outperformed LED fluorescent microscopy in all type of specimens, especially in cerebrospinal fluid where the number of positive results was increased 11 times. Pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, pus, and stool specimens also yielded positive results with the Xpert assay. When collecting two additional early-morning sputum samples, the increase of the number of positive results with the Xpert assay was lower than previously reported for HIV infected patients. Rifampicin resistance was observed in 2.2% of the cases. The results of this study show that the Xpert assay can dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and other types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis of HIV infected patients.

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Azcona, Jose M.; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K.; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

200

Youth-friendly services in two rural districts of West Bengal and Jharkhand, India: definite progress, a long way to go.  

PubMed

It is a continuing challenge to reach rural youth in India with sexual and reproductive health services. Drawing on a large survey among 6,572 young people aged 15-24 and 264 rural health providers accessed by them in rural West Bengal and Jharkhand, we witnessed a long-awaited response to national efforts to promote birth spacing. That 31% of young, married women without children were using contraception to delay a first birth was evidence of cracks in the persistent tradition of demonstrating fertility soon after marriage. The coverage of public sector services for reproductive and sexual health is highly variable and the scope largely restricted to married women, with unmarried young women and men relying mainly on the informal private sector, and seriously underserved. Strong social norms proscribing pre-marital sexual relationships perpetuate barriers in meeting their needs. Access to contraception is affected by negative provider attitudes and reluctance to report having sex underestimates the real scale of unmet need. Yet, 30% of providers reported unmarried young women seeking abortion services. To address the needs of all rural youth, the public sector needs to expand its remit or engage with informal providers, train them to deliver youth-friendly services and give them a recognised role in abortion referral. PMID:21555098

Collumbien, Martine; Mishra, Manasee; Blackmore, Charlotte

2011-05-01

201

A severe and explosive outbreak of hepatitis B in a rural population in Sirsa district, Haryana, India: unnecessary therapeutic injections were a major risk factor.  

PubMed

Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. This report describes an outbreak of hepatitis B in a rural population in Haryana state in 1997. At least 54 cases of jaundice occurred in Dhottar village (population 3096) during a period of 8 months; 18 (33.3%) of them died. Virtually all fatal cases were adults and tested positive for HBsAg (other markers not done). About 88% (21/24) of surviving cases had acute or persistent HBV/HCV infections; 54% (13/24) had acute hepatitis B. Many other villages reported sporadic cases and deaths. Data were pooled from these villages for analysis of risk factors. Acute hepatitis B cases had received injections before illness more frequently (11/19) than those found negative for acute or persistent HBV/HCV infections (3/17) (P = 0.01). Although a few cases had other risk factors, these were equally prevalent in two groups. The results linked the outbreak to the use of unnecessary therapeutic injections. PMID:11218219

Singh, J; Gupta, S; Khare, S; Bhatia, R; Jain, D C; Sokhey, J

2000-12-01

202

A severe and explosive outbreak of hepatitis B in a rural population in Sirsa district, Haryana, India: unnecessary therapeutic injections were a major risk factor.  

PubMed Central

Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. This report describes an outbreak of hepatitis B in a rural population in Haryana state in 1997. At least 54 cases of jaundice occurred in Dhottar village (population 3096) during a period of 8 months; 18 (33.3%) of them died. Virtually all fatal cases were adults and tested positive for HBsAg (other markers not done). About 88% (21/24) of surviving cases had acute or persistent HBV/HCV infections; 54% (13/24) had acute hepatitis B. Many other villages reported sporadic cases and deaths. Data were pooled from these villages for analysis of risk factors. Acute hepatitis B cases had received injections before illness more frequently (11/19) than those found negative for acute or persistent HBV/HCV infections (3/17) (P = 0.01). Although a few cases had other risk factors, these were equally prevalent in two groups. The results linked the outbreak to the use of unnecessary therapeutic injections.

Singh, J.; Gupta, S.; Khare, S.; Bhatia, R.; Jain, D. C.; Sokhey, J.

2000-01-01

203

Field trial of the effectiveness of indoor-spraying with pirimiphos-methyl emulsion for malaria control in a tribal area of Phulbani district, Orissa State, India.  

PubMed

A field trial of malaria vector control was conducted in Phulbani district, Orissa, during 1984 and 1985. Indoor-spraying of pirimiphos-methyl emulsion formulation was undertaken at an application rate of 2 g/m2 in two sections (population 14,692) of Nuagaon Primary Health Centre. Houses in two adjacent sections (population 21,450) were sprayed with DDT a water dispersible powder (wdp) formulation at 1 g/m2 for comparison purposes. Operational problems in this area come from the tendency of tribal people to re-plaster over wdp applications. Pre-spray malariological indices in the trial area were 38% slide positivity rate, 37% slide falciparum rate and 12.1% annual parasite incidence. Densities of Anopheles annularis Van der Wulp, An. culicifacies Giles, An. fluviatilis Theobald and other potential malaria vectors were reduced in the pirimiphos-methyl trial area 2-35-fold more than in the area sprayed with DDT. Malariological indices were reduced by 65-68% in the pirimiphos-methyl sprayed area compared with only 26-35% reduction in the DDT sprayed area. Spraymen and villagers experienced no adverse side-effects from residual house-spraying with pirimiphos-methyl emulsion and it is concluded that this organophosphate product has advantages for malaria vector control, especially in operationally difficult situations. PMID:2979544

Das, M; Srivastava, B N; Rao, C K; Thapar, B R; Sharma, G K

1987-07-01

204

Alcohol and sexual risk behavior among migrant female sex workers and male workers in districts with high in-migration from four high HIV prevalence states in India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the association between alcohol use and sexual risk in two critical migrant populations living within the same geographical areas--migrant men and female sex-workers (FSWs). Data are drawn from two independent surveys of migrant FSWs and male workers in 14 districts of four high HIV prevalent Indian states. In the paper we have examined the independent effects of degree of mobility and alcohol use prior to sex on HIV risk behaviors. Nearly two-thirds of FSWs and a similar proportion of male migrant workers, as well as nine out of ten clients of FSWs consume alcohol. More than half of the FSWs and their clients consumed alcohol prior to sex. The practice of alcohol use prior to sex among both FSWs and their clients has a significant association with inconsistent condom use during paid as well as unpaid sex, and these effects are independent of degree of mobility. The results suggest a need for developing an in-depth understanding of the role of alcohol in accentuating HIV risk particularly among migrant populations who move frequently from one place another. PMID:20574634

Verma, Ravi K; Saggurti, Niranjan; Singh, Ajay K; Swain, Suvakanta N

2010-08-01

205

Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of any life support system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study was confined to the coastal belt of Alappuzha district, which lies in the coastal lowland division of Kerala. Groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purpose were examined by various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride. These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purpose by comparing with the WHO and Indian standards. TDS, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and permeability index were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The sample analysis reveals that the groundwater is not entirely fit for drinking with respect to pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Cl-. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Based on TDS and SAR almost all samples are suitable for irrigation purpose except a few locations, which show values beyond the permissible limits. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant water type in the study area. The sequence of the abundance of the major cations and anions is Ca > Na > Mg > K = HCO3 > Cl > SO4. Based on the total hardness and TDS, 96 % of groundwater samples are found suitable for drinking purpose.

Sarath Prasanth, S. V.; Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gangadhar, K.

2012-09-01

206

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. ...District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

2010-07-01

207

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. ...District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

2009-07-01

208

Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

2014-03-01

209

The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future changes in water quantity and quality. For disaster risk assessment, the goal is to identify the intersection of potential mass movement and flood hazards, with exposed people, resources, and assets. Base level information is required on glacier area and volume, mass balance, glacial lake distribution, surface topography, information on snow cover, duration, and snow water equivalent, and gauge measurements on river and stream flows. Where instrumental data is lacking, information of past hydrological regimes and evidence of mass movement can be derived from documentary records (archival reports), from geological indicators (i.e. palaeofloods: sedimentary and biological records over centennial to millennial scales), and from botanical sources (i.e. dendrogeomorphology). The adaptive capacity to face the challenges associated with a changing cryosphere in the Kullu district will require economic, political, and knowledge capacity to plan, prepare, and respond to issues of water quantity and quality, and disaster risk associated with mass movement and flood hazard. Socio-economic information to be assessed includes economic metrics, literacy rates, and population demographic factors such as gender, age, and religion. These same factors largely determine a communities capacity to anticipate, respond to, and recover from disasters.

Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

2014-05-01

210

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2010-10-01

211

Innovation District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

212

Geothermal district heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

1982-06-01

213

India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

2013-04-16

214

India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...

2013-04-16

215

Kanyakumari district accepts family planning.  

PubMed

The people of Kanyakumari District known for their die-hard conservatism, finally seem to have taken to family planning as a way of life. This is borne out by the overwhelming support extended by them to the tubectomy camp organized by the District Family Planning Bureau, Kanyakumari, from 22nd to 27th February 1972. The target of 300 operations set for the camp was exceeded by 99. This is a significant achievement considering the fact that the district consists of only 9 Panchayat Unions covering a vast coastal area with a population of over 1/2 lakhs which is mainly engaged in the fishing industry and is generally not in favor of family planning. The camp provided free food and transport facilities to the patient and the person attending her and a monetary incentive of Rs. 30 per case, besides post-operational care which included periodical home visits by the staff of the Public Health Center for over 3 months. Administration of Vitamin A solution and immunisation of the children of the acceptors and their neighbors constituted an additional feature of this campaign. The effort made by the staff of the Family Planning Department, the Maternity Assistants of the Headquarters Hospital, Nagercoil, where the camp was held, and the Field Publicity Department of the Government of India, were responsible for the success of this campaign. PMID:12332926

1972-04-01

216

Dynamics of distinct intraseasonal oscillation in summer monsoon rainfall over the Meghalaya-Bangladesh-western Myanmar region: covariability between the tropics and mid-latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed spatiotemporal structures for the submonthly-scale (7-25 days) intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in summer monsoon rainfall and atmospheric circulation were investigated in South Asia using high-quality rainfall and reanalysis datasets. The Meghalaya-Bangladesh-coast of the western Myanmar (MBWM) region is the predominant area of submonthly-scale ISO in the Asian monsoon regions. The distinct rainfall ISO is caused by a remarkable alternation of low-level zonal wind between westerly and easterly flows around the Gangetic Plain on the same timescales. In the active ISO phase of the MBWM, a strong low-level westerly/southwesterly flows around the plain and a center of cyclonic vorticity appears over Bangladesh. Hence, a local southerly flows toward the Meghalaya Plateau and there is strong southwesterly flow towards the coast along southeastern Bangladesh and western Myanmar, resulting in an increase in orographic rainfall. Rainfall also increases over the lowland area of the MBWM due to the low-level convergence in the boundary layer under the strong cyclonic circulation. The submonthly-scale low-level wind fluctuation around the MBWM is caused by a westward moving n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER) wave. When the anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly related to the ER wave approaches the Bay of Bengal from the western Pacific, humid westerly/southwesterly (easterly/southeasterly) flows enhance around the Gangetic Plain on the northern fringe of the anticyclone (cyclone) and in turn promote (reduce) rainfall in the MBWM. Simultaneously, robust circulation signals are observed over the mid-latitudes. In the active phase, cyclonic anomalies appear over and around the TP, having barotropic vertical structure and also contributing to the enhancement of low-level westerly flow around the Gangetic Plain. In the upper troposphere, an anticyclonic anomaly is also observed upstream of the cyclonic anomaly over the TP, having wavetrain structure. The mid-latitude circulation around the TP likely helps to induce the distinct ISO there in conjunction with the equatorial waves. Thus, the distinct ISO in the MBWM is strongly enhanced locally (~500 km) by the terrain features, although the atmospheric circulation causing the ISO has a horizontal scale of ~6,000 km or more, extending across the whole Asian monsoon system from the tropics to mid-latitudes.

Fujinami, Hatsuki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Morimoto, Akihito

2014-01-01

217

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

218

Verbal autopsy of 80,000 adult deaths in Tamilnadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs) deaths in the

Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto

2004-01-01

219

Regional and sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors have estimated for 1990 and 1995 the inventory of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O for India at a national and sub-regional district level. The district level estimates are important for improving the national inventories as well as for developing sound mitigation strategies at manageable smaller scales. Our estimates indicate that the total CO2, CH4

Amit Garg; Sumana Bhattacharya; P. R Shukla; V. K Dadhwal

2001-01-01

220

Data-Driven Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

LaFee, Scott

2002-01-01

221

Aspects of the Training and Visit System of Agricultural Extension in India: A Comparative Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper utilizes recent farm survey data to assess the performance of the Training and Visit Extension system in one district in the state of Haryana (India) compared to a neighboring district covered by an older extension system. The data show a signif...

G. Feder R. Slade

1984-01-01

222

ECOLOGICAL SANITATION SYSTEM FOR VILLAGE VIDGAON, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the design of Ecological Sanitation system (EcoSan) toilets for a village. The Vermiculture composting toilet is suggested for the village Vidgaon in Jalgaon District, India. EcoSan offers a solution to sustainable sanitation provision as it aims at providing improved sanitation by sanitizing the excreta and re-using it in agriculture. The main objective of this work

S. B. NIMBALKAR; P. H. SAWANT; R. A. HEGDE

223

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

224

Effects of Development on Gender Inequality in School Enrollment in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relationship between economic development and gender differences in school enrollments as a joint function of household (e.g., wealth) and district-level (e.g., school availability) characteristics> Using household level data for 52,439 children ages 7 to 18 in rural India and district level measures of development for 195 districts, we find evidence for most of the expected household and

Sonya Rastogi; Aparna Sundaram; Reeve Vanneman

225

Comparative Efficacies of Artemisinin Combination Therapies in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps Genes in Tea Gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India  

PubMed Central

In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I51R59N108, with pfdhps, G437 and/or E540. The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K.; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K.; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K.; Ray, Krishnangshu

2012-01-01

226

Comparative efficacies of artemisinin combination therapies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes in tea gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India.  

PubMed

In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I(51)R(59)N(108), with pfdhps, G(437) and/or E(540). The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. PMID:22314538

Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K; Ray, Krishnangshu; Maji, Ardhendu K

2012-05-01

227

DOING BUSINESS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking

RODNEY SEBASTIAN; ASHVIN PARAMESWARAN; FAIZAL YAHYA

2006-01-01

228

Economic Development, Gender Inequality, and Demographic Outcomes: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality, and female disadvantage in child survival in India, using a district-level panel data set linking 1981 and 1991 censuses. The results question the dominant view that variables directly related to women's agency (specifically, the female literacy rate and the female labor force participation rate) have played the crucial roles here. Instead,

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

229

India: Extending Primary Education through Non-Formal Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent community-oriented, evening education project for illiterate children residing in the rural Pune district of India is described and evaluated. Discussed are project organizations, requirement and training of staff, curriculum content, classroom equipment, course materials, and literacy results. (JA)

Naik, Chitra

1983-01-01

230

A closer look at child mortality among Adivasis in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use data from the National Family Health Survey 2005 to present age-specific patterns of child mortality among India's tribal (Adivasi) population. The analysis shows three clear findings. First, a disproportionately high number of child deaths are concentrated among Adivasis, especially in the 1-5 age group and in those states and districts where there is a high concentration of

Maitreyi Bordia Das; Soumya Kapoor; Denis Nikitin

2010-01-01

231

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

232

Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

233

District energy growth  

SciTech Connect

Utility competition is heating up as utilities focus attention back to district energy after turning away from it for decades after World War II. Utilities are re-entering the district energy business by forming non-regulated district energy subsidiaries. Trigen Energy Corp., as the largest commercial owner and operator of community district energy systems in North America, defines the district heating and cooling (DHC) growth trend of systems being taken over, upgraded and expanded. These trends gather momentum with the economic attractions that have propelled DHC for the past decade and more. With DHC, a building owner worries less about maintenance and can operate with a smaller workforce for maintenance. Heating and cooling systems operate more reliably. Trigen`s Trenton plant, producing electricity, heating and cooling, recovers 66 percent of input energy - more than double the efficiency of conventional electric generation. Yet, it produces less than one-half the pollutants of conventional generation.

Seeley, R.S.

1995-11-01

234

Systems for hazards identification in high mountain areas: An example from the Kullu District, western Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated\\u000a and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some\\u000a of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been

James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

2004-01-01

235

Deccan Volcanism, Climate Change and the KT Mass Extinction across India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan Trap eruptions occurred over a relatively short time period coinciding with the KT mass extinction. Here we present results based multiproxies data from intertrappean sediments located at Anjar, Kutch, western India, Jhilmili, Madhya Pradesh, central India, and Rajahmundry, SE India. We compare these results with a KT sequence in Meghalya, NE India, about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province. Intertrappean sediments at Anjar consist mainly of lacustrine sediments and exhibit at least three PGE anomalies with high Pd contents but only one with a significant Ir enrichment. The presence of dinosaurs eggshells and bone fragments above the Ir anomaly implies an upper Maastrichtian age for these sediments. Thus, the PGE anomalies do not coincide with the KT boundary, nor are they of cosmic origin because normalized PGE values suggest a flood basalt origin. Clay minerals consist mainly of smectite and palygorskite and reflect semi-arid conditions, probably linked to higher surface temperatures on a young volcanic landscape subjected to effusive volcanic activity. In the Rajhamundry area, two Deccan basalt flows, known as the Rajahmundry traps, mark the most extensive lava flows extending 1000 km across the Indian continent. The sediments directly overlying the lower trap contain the earliest Danian planktic foraminifera of zones P0-P1a and mark the initial evolution in the aftermath of the KT mass extinction. The upper trap was deposited during zone P1b corresponding to the lower part of magnetic polarity C29n. Sedimentological, mineralogical data reveal that deposition occurred in a shallow estuarine to inner neritic environment with periods of subaerial deposition marked by paleosoils. Clay minerals consist exclusively of smectite, typical of vertisoil developed under semi-arid conditions. Outcrop correlation reveals an incised valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT boundary at or close to the lower trap basalt in C29R and the upper trap near the C29R/C29N transition. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial, semi-humid to arid environments. But a short aquatic interval (<60 ky) of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow coastal marine conditions with brackish marine ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval close to the KT boundary. Similar to Rajahamundry, clays from paleosoils consist exclusively of smectite and indicate semi-arid conditions. In Meghalaya to the northeast, the K-T transition consists of Upper Cretaceous sediments dominated by sandstone, shale, sandy shale and rare coal layers, which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental reliefs. The KTB is characterized by major PGE anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). Contrary to the sections located in the Deccan traps area, dominant kaolinite in clay mineral assemblages indicates high humidity and high runoff, which is likely linked with increased warming (greenhouse effect) due to Deccan activity on the mainland. The contemporaneous semi-arid climate conditions that are observed in the Deccan Traps province are not observed in Meghalaya and therefore appear to be restricted to areas of volcanic activity.

Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.; Silvia, G.; Annachiara, B.; Brian, G.; Sunil, B.

2008-12-01

236

What does it mean to empower informationally the local government!—designing an information system for a district level development administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An information system that empowers information agents having a stake in the development of a district government is discussed in this research. It analyses the case of a district administration in India who has implemented a browser based system. This system has information asymmetry and organisational capture as its goals; and it employs a few structural elements such as an

Parthasarathi Banerjee

2001-01-01

237

VILLAGE SIZE IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is predominantly a rural and agrarian society, and 72 percent of India's population lives in villages according to the 2001 census. Village size varies considerably in the country, with some villages having fewer than 50 residents and some having more than 10,000 residents. The study first examines the growth of villages in India using census data. It then establishes

Abhishek Singh; Sandip Chakraborty; Tarun K. Roy

2008-01-01

238

It Takes a District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Fontana (California) Unified School District's No Child Left Behind Act implementation plan, focusing on the use of project charts. Illustrates the project chart function with examples from Title I and Title X. (PKP)

Rosen, Karolee

2003-01-01

239

Interconnecting District Heating Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Energy Administration has, on behalf of the Swedish Government, investigated the potential for interconnecting district heating networks in Sweden. The purpose is twofold: by creating a large heat load, cheap energy sources like waste heat ca...

1985-01-01

240

Geothermal district G1  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

Not Available

1988-12-01

241

Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India  

PubMed Central

Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care.

Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

2013-01-01

242

Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.  

PubMed

In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776

Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

2014-04-01

243

Ocular rhinosporidiosis in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

A high incidence of ocular rhinosporidiosis in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India is reported. Among the four taluks (sub-division for administration), highest occurrence was found in Agastheeswaram taluk (51.2%) followed by Kalkulam (24.4%), Thovalai (22%) and Vilavancode (2.4%). The disease occurred among both sexes equally and preponderance of a particular sex was not observed. The young adolescents were found to be more susceptible. The disease was found in all socio-economic strata and among all communities and persons belonging to different religious groups. Most of the patients gave a history of bathing in muddy stagnant pools of water. PMID:2233980

Moses, J S; Balachandran, C; Sandhanam, S; Ratnasamy, N; Thanappan, S; Rajaswar, J; Moses, D

1990-07-01

244

Ethanoveterinary Studies Amoung Farmers in Dindigul District Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The codified medical systems include Ayurveda, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa and Unani systems of medicine, with their sophisticated theoretical foundations. The vast knowledge in the codified traditions has been documented in tens of thousands of medical manuscripts. It is not commonly known that these systems cover all basic aspects and branches of medicine, from general medicine to specialised fields like

V. Balakrishnan; J. Philip Robinson; A. Manickasamy; K. C. Ravindran

245

Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.  

PubMed

Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking. PMID:23505824

Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

2011-10-01

246

Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.  

PubMed

Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the contributing factor in accumulating genetic distinctiveness in BBTV-Umiam which need further characterization. PMID:24468493

Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

2014-04-01

247

Real Wages of Casual Labourers in Shillong (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation into the real wage rates of casual labourers in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya. First, trends in nominal wages during 1997-2000 have been studied. Then the consumption expenditure of casual labourers on wage goods is analysed and finally, changes in prices of wage goods and the cost of living have been investigated during the

SK Mishra; JW Lyngskor

2003-01-01

248

Competency: District Views from Southern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

Tyo, John

1979-01-01

249

Districts for 104th Congress  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that reflected the reapportionment and delineation of congressional districts based on the 1990 census. The next (104th) Congress reflects redelineation of districts that occurred for six states: Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Virginia. Congressional Districts U.S. House of Representatives Census TIGER/Line Files

U.S. Bureau of the Census

1990-01-01

250

School District Purchasing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

Natale, Joseph L.

251

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

252

Reykjavik District Heating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reykjavik, Iceland, utilizes natural geothermal resources as the heat input for its district heating system. This system served about 8,700 of the 10,000 residences in 1970. The water used is non-corrosive, allowing the use of standard pipe and fittings. ...

J. Zoega G. Kristinsson

1970-01-01

253

Districts Shun Stimulus Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2010-01-01

254

School District Budgeting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

Hartman, William T.

255

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

256

The Importance of Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

2008-01-01

257

District-Level Downsizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

258

A District Level Planning Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines school district planning models in South Carolina. It focuses on three questions: (1) Of those school districts conducting some type of systematic planning, how many are producing strategic plans? Long-range plans? Accountability reports? (2) In those same districts, how many are preparing adequate program-management…

McHenry, W. E.; Achilles, C. M.

259

USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

260

Skewed sex ratios and criminal victimization in India.  

PubMed

Although substantial research has explored the causes of India's excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women's empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921

South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita

2014-06-01

261

Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

2013-02-01

262

India: Degree Verification Fees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

Gauthier, Grady

2004-01-01

263

Children's Books in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

Rao, Mohini

264

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

265

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

266

As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

267

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

268

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

269

Cardiac rehabilitation in India.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in India. Moreover, mortality following an acute myocardial infarction is high, which may be due to gaps in secondary prevention in general and a lack of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services in particular. This review discusses the availability of CR in India, its putative role in reducing adverse outcomes over the long-term and suggests a road map for future research to enhance CR in this country. Currently, there is limited evidence, conducted in India, demonstrating CR efficacy. Moreover, there is currently limited availability of outpatient CR programs in India. Even so, there is consensus that CR is effective and essential in the CVD population. Therefore, efforts are needed to continue CR research in India and facilitate clinical implementation. PMID:24607020

Madan, Kushal; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Contractor, Ashish; Sawhney, Jitendra Pal Singh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Rajeev

2014-01-01

270

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

271

Geoelectrical soundings and their relationship to hydraulic parameters in semiarid regions of Jalore, northwestern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoelectrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration were carried out in the close vicinity of twelve pumping test sites in the Jalore district of Rajasthan, India, to relate geoelectric and hydraulic parameters. Geoelectrical sounding data were interpreted by partial curve matching technique to obtain the initial model parameters. This initial starter model was then used to obtain the final layer parameters

G. S. Yadav; H. Abolfazli

1998-01-01

272

Knowledge for Teacher Development in India: The Importance of "Local Knowledge" for In-Service Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to enhance the relevance and quality of pre- and in-service teacher education in India has long been recognised in official commentaries. Despite the structural innovation of District Institutes of Education and Training to enhance systemic responsiveness to local contexts, training messages mediated through DIETs are largely not having…

Dyer, Caroline; Choksi, Archana; Awasty, Vinita; Iyer, Uma; Moyade, Renu; Nigam, Neerja; Purohit, Neetu; Shah, Swati; Sheth, Swati

2004-01-01

273

Enhanced frequency of micronuclei in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the maximum permissible limit in seven districts covering an area of 37,493km2. In the present study, evaluation of the micronuclei (MN) formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was carried out in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Forty

A. Basu; J. Mahata; A. K. Roy; J. N. Sarkar; G. Poddar; A. K. Nandy; P. K. Sarkar; P. K. Dutta; A. Banerjee; M. Das; K. Ray; S. Roychaudhury; A. T. Natarajan; R. Nilsson; A. K. Giri

2002-01-01

274

Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

2014-01-01

275

Wives without husbands: Gendered vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections among previously married women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using population-based and family structural data from a high HIV-prevalence district of Southern India, this paper considers four suggested social scenarios used to explain the positive correlation between HIV prevalence and previously married status among Indian women: (1) infection from and then bereavement of an infected husband; (2) abandonment after husbands learn of their wives' HIV status; (3) economic instability

Kimberly Walters; Rakhi Dandona; Lawrence C. Walters; Vemu Lakshmi; Lalit Dandona; John A. Schneider

2012-01-01

276

Do Women Groups Promote More Equity as Compared to Men Groups? Evidence from Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi and bilateral agencies have been promoting village level organizations to mobilize the poor for collective action to achieve good development outcomes in different sectors in Karnataka State, India. The World Bank formed self-help groups consisting of women for their economic development and empowerment in six districts of the State since 2000. It has also intervened in drinking water and

D Rajasekhar; R Manjula

277

Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided

Madan Mohan Mahawar; DP Jaroli

2007-01-01

278

Phytophagous mites – a potential threat to medicinal plants in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a brief survey of mites infesting medicinal plants in the Kannur district of Kerala state in south India. Six species, damaging five species of important medicinal plants, were found. These species included Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis Geij. 1939 (Tenuipalpidae) and four Eriophyid species, Paratetra murrayae ChannaBasavanna 1966, Anthocoptes vitexae Mohanasundaram 1981, Aceriasp.

Kinathi Sheela; Niravath Ramani

2012-01-01

279

Medical Ethnobotany of Plants Used as Antidotes by Yanadi Tribes in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A medical ethnobotanical survey of Yanadi tribes of the Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India during 1990 to 1992, indicated 22 plant species commonly used as antidotes for poisonous bites. The methods of administration, techniques for confirming poisonous bites, and alternative uses od plants for protection against poisonous bites were recorded. This forms the first Medical ethnobotanical report on the Yanadi,

G. Sudarsanam; G. Siva Prasad

1995-01-01

280

Groundwater quality in some villages of Haryana, India: focus on fluoride and fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluoride concentration in underground water was determined in four villages of Jind district of Haryana state (India) where it is the only source of drinking water. Various other water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, total hardness, total alkalinity as well as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate concentrations were also measured.

V Meenakshi; V. K Garg; Kavita; Renuka; Anju Malik

2004-01-01

281

Assessment of Current Status of Fluorosis in North-Western Districts of Tamil Nadu Using Community Index for Dental Fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the countries where hydrofluorosis is a major public health problem, affecting 18 of the 33 constituent States of the Country. Tamil Nadu is one of the Southern states having 10 of the 29 districts affected with fluorosis. Fluorosis is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water contamination. A cross sectional study was undertaken

R. Hari Kumar; A. L. Khandare; G. N. V. Brahmam; K. Venkiah; Gal Reddy; B. Sivakumar

282

Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, South India: community based, cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.Design: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres.Setting: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India.Subjects: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview.Main outcome measures: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of

Birgitte Bruun Nielsen; Jerker Liljestrand; Morten Hedegaard; Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted; Abraham Joseph

1997-01-01

283

Clinical trials in India.  

PubMed

The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India. PMID:17391981

Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

2007-07-01

284

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

285

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

286

Research District Seeing Growth  

SciTech Connect

Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

Madison, Alison L.

2012-05-13

287

Library Legislation in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a history of library legislation in India and recommends the establishment of library networks by law to ensure an integrated service which will effectively serve all library patrons. (17 references) (SJ)

Srivastava, Shyan Nath

1972-01-01

288

District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

2009-01-01

289

Essential health information available for India in the public domain on the internet  

PubMed Central

Background Health information and statistics are important for planning, monitoring and improvement of the health of populations. However, the availability of health information in developing countries is often inadequate. This paper reviews the essential health information available readily in the public domain on the internet for India in order to broadly assess its adequacy and inform further development. Methods The essential sources of health-related information for India were reviewed. An extensive search of relevant websites and the PubMed literature database was conducted to identify the sources. For each essential source the periodicity of the data collection, the information it generates, the geographical level at which information is reported, and its availability in the public domain on the internet were assessed. Results The available information related to non-communicable diseases and injuries was poor. This is a significant gap as India is undergoing an epidemiological transition with these diseases/conditions accounting for a major proportion of disease burden. Information on infrastructure and human resources was primarily available for the public health sector, with almost none for the private sector which provides a large proportion of the health services in India. Majority of the information was available at the state level with almost negligible at the district level, which is a limitation for the practical implementation of health programmes at the district level under the proposed decentralisation of health services in India. Conclusion This broad review of the essential health information readily available in the public domain on the internet for India highlights that the significant gaps related to non-communicable diseases and injuries, private health sector and district level information need to be addressed to further develop an effective health information system in India.

Raban, Magdalena Z; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

2009-01-01

290

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

291

Wheat Marketing and its Efficiency in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the marketing of wheat in India, focusing on the private marketing system, the marketing efficiency and quality. Wheat is now a major food staple in India, crucial to India’s food economy and security. With production reaching 70 to 75 million tons and a large demand, India’s wheat economy is the second largest in the world. The efficiency

Vasant P. Gandhi; Abraham Koshy

2006-01-01

292

Georgetown Historic District Survey: Georgetown, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Georgetown Historic District Survey was conducted within the boundaries of the Georgetown National Register Historic District in the City of Georgetown, South Carolina. The 1971 National Register nomination form for the Georgetown Historic District es...

E. Jenkins G. Henry

2010-01-01

293

A Tale of Two Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

Simon, Mark

2012-01-01

294

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

295

Evaluation of pulse polio and routine immunisation coverage: Alwar district, Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, India achieved 88% reduction in reported poliomyelitis incidence. However, absolute number of reported\\u000a cases still remains high. As an added effort to eradicate the disease, the country observed its first National Immunisation\\u000a Days (NIDs) on 9.12.95 and 20.1.96. The present study evaluates the performance of Alwar district, Rajasthan. Modified 30\\u000a cluster technique was used to collect

J. Bhattacharjee; R. S. Gupta; D. C. Jain; Devadethan; K. K. Datta

1997-01-01

296

Spatial access to inpatient health care in northern rural India.  

PubMed

Access to health care in rural areas is a major concern for local populations as well as for policy makers in developing countries. This paper examines spatial access to in-patient health care in northern rural India. In order to measure spatial access, impedance-based competition using the Three-Step floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method, a modification of the simple gravity model, was used. 3SFCA was chosen for the study of the districts of Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat in the Uttar Pradesh state and Vaishali in the Bihar state, two of India's poorest states. This approach is based on discrete distance decay and also considers more parameters than other available methods, hence is believed to be a robust methodology. It was found that Vaishali district has the highest spatial access to in-patient health care followed by Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat. There is serious lack of health care, in Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat with 40% and 90% of the villages having shortage of in-patient care facilities in these respective districts. The most important factor affecting spatial access was found to be the distance to the nearest major urban agglomeration. PMID:24893032

Ranga, Vikram; Panda, Pradeep

2014-05-01

297

Integration of linear programming and a watershed-scale hydrologic model for proposing an optimized land-use plan and assessing its impact on soil conservation--A case study of the Nagwan watershed in the Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was an attempt to develop a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for a test Nagwan watershed situated in the Damodar–Barakar catchment in India, the second most seriously eroded area in the world, for not only estimating sediment yields under prevailing resource management systems but also designing a linear programming (LP)-based optimized land-use plan for soil loss reduction

Ravinder Kaur; Rajesh Srivastava; Rajeev Betne; Kamal Mishra; D. Dutta

2004-01-01

298

Religion and identity in India’s heritage tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing worth of heritage in the renegotiation and dissemination of identities has intensified conflicts over whose voice dominates heritage tourism representations. Therefore, this study compares the way India’s heritage is represented by the Indian government, by the domestic tourism trade media and by the popular tourism media. The findings reveal that India is consistently represented as an ethnically diverse

Duarte B. Morais; Garry Chick

2008-01-01

299

Pharmacy Education in India  

PubMed Central

Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes.

Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

2010-01-01

300

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India.

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

301

Nosocomial tuberculosis in India.  

PubMed

Most high-income countries implement tuberculosis (TB) infection control programs to reduce the risk for nosocomial transmission. However, such control programs are not routinely implemented in India, the country that accounts for the largest number of TB cases in the world. Despite the high prevalence of TB in India and the expected high probability of nosocomial transmission, little is known about nosocomial and occupational TB there. The few available studies suggest that nosocomial TB may be a problem. We review the available data on this topic, describe factors that may facilitate nosocomial transmission in Indian healthcare settings, and consider the feasibility and applicability of various recommended infection control interventions in these settings. Finally, we outline the critical information needed to effectively address the problem of nosocomial transmission of TB in India. PMID:17073077

Pai, Madhukar; Kalantri, Shriprakash; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Menzies, Dick; Blumberg, Henry M

2006-09-01

302

Genomic Diversity at Thirteen Short Tandem Repeat Loci in a Substructured Caste Population, Golla, of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract Genomic diversity based on 13 short tandem repeat (STR) loci was studied in seven population groups of a substructured Golla caste from Chittoor district in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. These groups are tradi- tionally pastoral, culturally homogeneous, and strictly endogamous. Blood samples were drawn from 317 individuals from 30 Golla villages. The 13 STR loci analyzed in five

B. Mohan Reddy; Guangyun Sun; Javier Rodriguez Luis; Michael H. Crawford; Narabar Shyam Hemam; Ranjan Deka

2001-01-01

303

Genomic Diversity at Thirteen Short Tandem Repeat Loci in a Substructured Caste Population, Golla, of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic diversity based on 13 short tandem repeat (STR) loci was studied in seven population groups of a substructured Golla caste from Chittoor district in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. These groups are traditionally pastoral, culturally homogeneous, and strictly endogamous. Blood samples were drawn from 317 individuals from 30 Golla villages. The 13 STR loci analyzed in five standard multiplex polymerase

B. Mohan Reddy; Guangyun Sun; Javier Rodriguez Luis; Michael H. Crawford; Natabar Shyam Hemam; Ranjan Deka

2011-01-01

304

Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population

P Jambulingam; K Gunasekaran; SS Sahu; T Vijayakumar

2008-01-01

305

Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process

Bharat K Pradhan; Hemant K Badola

2008-01-01

306

MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA IN ASSAM, INDIA: TIMING OF RECURRENCE AND ANTIMALARIAL DRUG CONCENTRATIONS IN WHOLE BLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of 23 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the Sonapur primary health center in the Kamrup district of Assam, India to different antimalarials was investigated using the 28-day World Health Organization in vivo test. Whole blood concentrations of chloroquine, sulfadoxine, and quinine were determined at different intervals and at the time of parasites recrudescence after completion of treatment

VIRENDRA K. DUA; VAS DEV; S. PHOOKAN; N. C. GUPTA; V. P. SHARMA; S. K. SUBBARAO

307

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

308

Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

Sanchez, Amanda Joy

2011-01-01

309

Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

310

India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

311

PV opportunities in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

1996-01-01

312

A positive model of special district formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New special district governments account for most of the growth in the number of governments in the US over the past few decades. This paper presents a positive model of the formation of special districts that provide goods via an increasing-returns-to-scale technology, such as water or sewerage districts. The formation of a special district is modeled as a noncooperative game

D. Andrew Austin

1998-01-01

313

Boise geothermal district heating system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

Hanson, P.J.

1985-10-01

314

Thunderstorms over the Kanto District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is a synthetic report on the thunderstorms over the Kanto District, Japan, containing statistical surveys of thunderstorms, the results of special observations of thunderstorms, radar studies of thunderstorms, cloud seeding experiments and th...

H. Hatakeyama S. Kitazawa H. Nojima

1970-01-01

315

Engineer Profiles: The District Engineer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This series of four annual interviews with Colonel William W. Badger presents the changing viewpoints of an incumbant District Engineer. The conversations cover a wide range of subjects from the civil works planning process to personnel management. Over t...

F. N. Schubert

1983-01-01

316

Coal Heating District Heating Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Elektrisitetsforsyningens Forskningsinstitutt (EFI) has considered the Norwegian district heating potential. The remaining demand is 7 TWh and parts of it may be covered by coal when local energy resources are utilized to a reasonable extent. Two plan...

J. Hustad G. Syvertsen P. Walde

1983-01-01

317

Quality Circles for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability of quality circles in schools. Examines elements of a successful quality circle program, the decision to have such a program, establishing quality circles, potential problems, and the use of quality circles in school districts. (CT)

Zahra, Shaker A.; And Others

1985-01-01

318

Improving health services in India: a different perspective.  

PubMed

Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves. PMID:18607033

Schweitzer, Julian

2008-01-01

319

Radon and thoron anomalies along Mat fault in Mizoram, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, radon and thoron concentrations in soil gas has been monitored using LR-115(II) solid state nuclear track detectors since 15th July 2011 to February 2012. The study was carried out along Mat fault in Serchip district, Mizoram, India at two different sites - Mat Bridge (23°18'N, 92°48'E) and Tuichang (23°13'N, 92°56'E). The results obtained have been correlated to the seismic events that occurred within 800 km from the measuring sites over the mentioned period of time. Anomalous behaviour in radon concentrations have been observed prior to some earthquakes. Interestingly, some thoron anomalies were also recorded.

Jaishi, Hari Prasad; Singh, Sanjay; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

2013-12-01

320

Astronomical Archives in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview is given of the activities of nine observatories (located at Madras, Lucknow, Trivandrum, Poona, Calcutta, Dehra Dun, Kodaikanal, and Hyderabad) which were established in India in the 19th century. A bibliography of publications of these observatories, sorted according to type of astronomical data, and some notes on observational material, is also presented.

Ansari, S. M. R.

2004-12-01

321

India: Development and Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explores the role of public action in eliminating deprivation and expanding human freedoms in India. The analysis is based on a broad and integrated view of development, which focuses on well-being and freedom rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. The authors place human agency at the centre of stage, and stress the complementary roles of different

Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen

2003-01-01

322

Population Trends: India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is the second most populous country in the world. Its current estimated population of 886 million is greater than the combined populations of Africa and the Near East. lndia has only 2.3 percent of the world's land area but more than 16 percent of t...

1992-01-01

323

Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

1999-12-01

324

Women's Work in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

1983-01-01

325

Teaching English in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed and actual constitutional changes made in 1963 and 1965 concerning the status of English in India are discussed in the light of nation-wide sociological implications. The author examines the position of Hindi and English as the official languages of the nation and comments on the continuing importance of English as the language of…

Bhatia, Sugan Chand

326

Fellowships in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

327

India's population in transition.  

PubMed

This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

Visaria, L; Visaria, P

1995-10-01

328

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

329

77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-02-03

330

78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...

2013-06-21

331

77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-01-27

332

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

333

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

334

Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

2014-05-01

335

Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from cholera outbreaks in north India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from cholera outbreaks in Bhind district of Madhya Pradesh and Delhi, Northern India were characterized.\\u000a The O1 serogroup isolates from Bhind outbreak were of Inaba serotype whereas both Ogawa and Inaba serotypes were recovered\\u000a from Delhi. PCR analysis revealed that only O1 serogroup V. cholerae isolates carried the virulence-associated genes like ctxA, tcpA, ace, and zot.

Joseph J. Kingston; Kuruvilla Zachariah; Urmil Tuteja; Sanjay Kumar; Harsh Vardhan Batra

2009-01-01

336

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996–1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998–1999). District level consumption of coal\\/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors

M. Shekar Reddy; Chandra Venkataraman

2002-01-01

337

Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentrations in Tubewells in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to monitor the changes in arsenic concentration during different seasons in a one-year period during 2002-2003 in selected tubewells in an arsenic-affected area in the district of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India, and to map the location of the wells. Seasonal variations in concentrations of arsenic in water were measured from 74 selected tubewells,

Xavier Savarimuthu; Meera M. Hira-Smith; Yan Yuan; Ondine S. von Ehrenstein; Subhankar Das; Nilima Ghosh; D. N. Guha Mazumder; Allan H. Smith

2006-01-01

338

Groundwater Pollution Around an Industrial Area in the Coastal Stretch of Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial\\u000a area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and\\u000a suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and

Pradeep K. Naik; Biranchi N. Dehury; Arun N. Tiwari

2007-01-01

339

Molecular evidence of misidentification of Anopheles minimus as Anopheles fluviatilis in Assam (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anophelesminimus s.l. and Anophelesfluviatilis s.l., two closely related taxa, are reported vectors of malaria in Assam state of India. We determined the DNA sequences of morphologically identified A. minimus s.l. and A. fluviatilis s.l. collected from the Kamrup district in Assam, for two rDNA loci—internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and D3 domain of 28S rDNA (28S-D3). Analysis of rDNA data

O. P. Singh; N. Nanda; Vas Dev; Prerna Bali; Mohammad Sohail; A. Mehrunnisa; T. Adak; A. P. Dash

2010-01-01

340

Risk Assessment for Natural Uranium in Subsurface Water of Punjab State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traces of uranium were measured by laser fluorimeter in 235 subsurface water samples collected from four districts of Punjab state in India. The concentration of U in water samples ranged between <2–644 ?g\\/L with a mean value of 73.1 ?g\\/L. The radiological risk was observed to be in the range of 5.55 × 10–1.78 × 10 with a mean value

Ajay Kumar; N. Usha; P. D. Sawant; R. M. Tripathi; Sanu S. Raj; Manish Mishra; Sabyasachi Rout; P. Supreeta; Jaspal Singh; Sanjeev Kumar; H. S. Kushwaha

2011-01-01

341

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

342

Military psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists.

Prabhu, H. R. A.

2010-01-01

343

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15

344

Business Ethics in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unethical business in India became a recognized phenomenon during the second World War. Academic\\/journalistic\\/legal concern with ethics has become visible only during the nineties. Corruption-of-the-poor and corruption-of-the-rich need to be distinguished – especially in the context of globalization. The danger of attributing unethical practices to system failure is recognized. It is also important to bring to bear on intellectual property

S. K. Chakraborty

1997-01-01

345

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

346

[Child marriage in India].  

PubMed

Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000. PMID:12159404

Wen, J

1984-07-29

347

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  

PubMed

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-08-01

348

Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

2003-01-01

349

Medicine in South India  

PubMed Central

A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives.

McHenry, Malcolm M.

1978-01-01

350

Mental hospitals in India.  

PubMed

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

2000-04-01

351

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae A. Ranne T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

352

A Computational Prototype of Industrial District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our paper is to suggest an agent-based computational approach to industrial districts. Agent-based computational techniques enable us to focus industrial district modeling on evolutionary fundamentals, such as \\

Riccardo Boero; Flaminio Squazzoni

2001-01-01

353

7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Osceola, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie in the State of Florida; District No. 3. The counties of Charlotte, Collier, Hendry, Lee, and Monroe in the State of Florida; and District No. 4. The counties of De Soto, Hardee,...

2009-01-01

354

Alternatives to School District Consolidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has become both a solution for small, rural school districts and a contentious policy fraught with numerous difficulties. Despite concerns about limited curricula and higher operating expenses, there is no generalizable evidence that students educated in rural settings underachieve or have deficient social skills. Recent research has…

Berliner, Bethann

1990-01-01

355

Sharpening a District's Leadership Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create an integrated board self-assessment and superintendent evaluation process, district leaders must develop a school leadership model by adopting a coherent governance model. At the same time, they must also develop goals at the appropriate level that ensure quality governance of a school system. In the second of a two-part series, the…

Namit, Chuck

2008-01-01

356

Spatial Planning of School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of several plans based on linear programming and geographic methodology will permit school administrators to make better decisions concerning the planning of school districts: where to locate boundaries, how to eliminate overcrowding, where to locate new classrooms, and how to overcome de facto segregation. The primal and dual…

Maxfield, Donald W.

1972-01-01

357

Forecasting School District Fiscal Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper's goal is to redefine fiscal health by broadening its predictive function and to determine which fiscal indicators are useful for forecasting fiscal health for one, two, and three years. Results indicate that school district fiscal health forecasts are potentially great planning tools for local for local decision makers. Includes 11…

Smith, Curtis A.

1986-01-01

358

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

359

Nuclear Power for District Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. The evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply, the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations, is described. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fl...

R. B. Lyon R. O. Sochaski

1975-01-01

360

District Considerations in Math Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide some guidance for proper selection of a math model for application at the District level. The secondary purpose of this paper is to assure those interested in math modeling that the task is not formidable. T...

R. E. Punnett

1982-01-01

361

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

362

Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India  

PubMed Central

Background To identify levels of physical inactivity and smoking and examine their relationships to health among older people in India. Methods In 2010, Longitudinal Aging Study in India researchers interviewed 1,683 older adults in randomly sampled households with members aged???45 years in eight stratified districts in four states (90.9% response rate). We first used descriptive analyses to characterize older people in poor and good health. Differences between groups were established using chi-squared and t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed to determine whether physical inactivity and smoking led to poor health while controlling for district of residence, caste, age, gender, marital status, and educational level. Regression analyses were also used to identify significant relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Larger proportions of older people in poor health were smokers (26.1% vs. 16.9%; p???0.001) and physically inactive (vigorous activities: 88.7% vs. 70.7%, p???0.001; moderate activities: 67.1% vs. 57.1%, p???0.01). Smoking (p???0.05) and lack of vigorous physical activity (p???0.001) increased the likelihood of poor health. Low educational level was significantly related to smoking and the lack of moderate physical activity (both p???0.001). Female gender decreased the likelihood of smoking. Male gender increased the likelihood of vigorous physical activity but decreased the likelihood of moderate physical activity. Conclusions Smoking and physical inactivity have important impacts on the health of older people in India. Policy attention is needed to improve these modifiable health behaviors.

2014-01-01

363

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Northeastern states of India  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a rare disease in most parts of the world, except for Southeast Asia, some parts of North Africa and the Arctic. It is mostly seen in people of Chinese origin. In India, NPC is also rare, except for the Hill States of Northeast India, particularly Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram. The striking feature of NPC in Northeast India is that the incidence ranges over the complete spectrum from the lowest (as 0.5/100 000 to 2.0/100 000 among Caucasoid) to the highest (as ?20/100 000 among Cantonese/Zhongshan dialect Chinese). The age-adjusted rate of NPC in Kohima district of Nagaland State is 19.4/100 000, which is among the highest recorded rates. By contrast, in Assam, one of the so-called Hill States but not itself a hilly state, NPC is much less common. The Northeastern region is distinguished by a preponderance of the Tibeto-Burman languages and by variable mongoloid features among peoples of the region. The nature of the migratory populations who are presumed to be bearers of the mongoloid risk is unknown, but these NPC occurrence features provide an outstanding opportunity for NPC risk investigation, such as that of the hypothesis of Wee et al. for westward displacement of Chinese aborigines following the last glacial maximum.

Kataki, Amal Chandra; Simons, Malcolm J.; Das, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kalpana; Mehra, Narinder Kumar

2011-01-01

364

What Do Unauthorized Absences Cost the District?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: For each student day of unauthorized student absence, the district loses $11.95. Last year there were 95,818 student days of unauthorized absence for which the district did not receive any money from the state. This represented a loss to the district of $1,145,025. These appear to be staggering…

Superintendent's Communicator, 1982

1982-01-01

365

Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District was authorized and formed by the State of Vermont on January 8, 1946, under the provisions of the Soil Conservation Act No. 246 of the Acts of the 1939 Vermont General Assembly. It is one of 14 Conservation Districts in the state of Vermont. Windham District is a political subdivision of the State

Vice Chairperson; Gail MacArthur; Andrea Darrow

366

District Learning Tied to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

367

School District Effects and Efficiency. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes efforts to develop indices of student achievement, school district effort, and school district efficiency. The challenge was to develop measures that are simple to understand, yet allow comparison among districts that are not distorted by socioeconomic differences. Measures were developed for average student achievement,…

Swanson, Austin D.; Engert, Frank

368

School District Consolidation: The Benefits and Costs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School district consolidation is a striking phenomenon. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, 117,108 school districts provided elementary and secondary education in 1939-1940. By 2006-2007, the number of districts had dropped to 13,862, a decline of 88 percent. The rate of consolidation has slowed in recent years, but at…

Duncombe, William D.; Yinger, John M.

2010-01-01

369

Passages From India, Vol. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your Way;…

Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

370

India's Approaching Expeditionary Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The country of India continues to straddle the crossroads of East and West, much as it has done throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. As the world's fastest growing population with an enormous capitalist appetite, India finds itself a strategic partner ...

C. R. Liermann

2008-01-01

371

Power Sector Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming

Harbans L. Bajaj; D. Sharma

2006-01-01

372

Passages from India, Vol. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

373

India and the Green Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

Hilden, Clark G.

374

Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

Dalal, Ajit K.

2011-01-01

375

A Tale of Two Indias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

Sidhu, Jonathan

2007-01-01

376

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis - A Baseline Survey In Central India  

PubMed Central

Background The present study provides an estimate of the prevalence of bacteriologially positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Jabalpur, a district in central India. Methodology/Principal Findings A community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Jabalpur District of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A stratified cluster sampling design was adopted to select the sample. All eligible individuals were questioned for pulmonary symptoms suggestive of TB disease. Two sputum samples were collected from all eligible individuals and were examined by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy and solid media culture methods. Of the 99,918 individuals eligible for screening, 95,071 (95.1%) individuals were screened. Of these, 7,916 (8.3%) were found to have symptoms and sputum was collected from 7,533 (95.2%) individuals. Overall prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was found to be 255.3 per 100,000 population (95% C.I: 195.3–315.4). Prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.001) amongst males (355.8; 95% C.I: 304.4–413.4) compared with females (109.0; 95% C.I: 81.2–143.3). Prevalence was also significantly higher in rural areas (348.9; 95% C.I: 292.6–412.8) as compared to the urban (153.9; 95% C.I: 123.2–190.1). Conclusions/Significance The TB situation in Jabalpur district, central India, is observed to be comparable to the TB situation at the national level (255.3 versus 249). There is however, a need to maintain and further strengthen TB control measures on a sustained and long term basis in the area to have a significant impact on the disease prevalence in the community.

Rao, Vikas G.; Bhat, Jyothi; Yadav, Rajiv; Gopalan, Gopi Punnathanathu; Nagamiah, Selvakumar; Bhondeley, Manoj Kumar; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Chadha, Vineet K.; Wares, Fraser

2012-01-01

377

Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.  

PubMed

Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. PMID:24121564

Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

2014-01-15

378

Childlessness in India.  

PubMed

The 1981 Census data were analyzed to show the pattern of childlessness among ever-married women in India. 18.5% of the ever-married women in India are childless. In the younger age groups a large percentage of women are childless, but the percentage drops rapidly and stabilizes at a lower level above age 35. Rural and urban areas show similar age patterns, with rural areas having a slightly higher percentage at the beginning of the childbearing period. The higher percentage of childless women in younger ages is due primarily to shorter exposure to risk of pregnancy and most likely also in part to adolescent subfecundity. The age groups that are unlikely to be affected by these factors were examined further. In the data for 1981, median age at marriage ranges from 15-23 years for different subgroups of population, so women in the 30-49 age range were chosen. For comparison purposes, the percentage of childless women was standardized for age, but this made little difference. In India as a whole, there are 5.6% of women in the 30-49 age group who are childless, and the percentages in rural and urban areas are almost the same. There is little variation according to religious affiliation. The Hindu, who comprise nearly 84% of all married women, have the highest percentage of childless women, closely followed by the Muslim -- the 2nd largest religious group with approximately 11% of the population. The percentages of childless women are quite similar among those in the primary and middle educational categories, higher in women who are illiterate and in those who are more highly educated, and highest in those who had attended college. The distribution thus appears to be U-shaped, but this conclusion must be regarded as tentative because of the small number of married women who are in the secondary and college educational categories. PMID:12341024

Vemuri, M D; Manohar, D

1986-12-01

379

Regional Disparities in Household Consumption in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the distributions of persons by per capita household consumer expenditure on all items estimated from the 13th Round (Sept. 1957-May 1958) of the Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) separately for the rural and urban sectors of the different states of India [19]. For rural India, urban India and all-India, the disparities in consumption are analysed into between

N. Bhattacharya; B. Mahalanobis

1967-01-01

380

The Most Ancient Democracy in the World Is a Genetic Isolate: An Autosomal and Y-Chromosome Study of the Hermit Village of Malana (Himachal Pradesh, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malana, a small village in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India, has historically been considered a hermit village. Today it has a census size of 1,101 individuals. Geographic, linguistic, and population barriers have contributed to its seclusion. Little is known about the extent to which the population genetically differentiated during the years of isolation. To address this issue, we genotyped

Rajiv Giroti; Indu Talwar

2010-01-01

381

Genetic diversity within a caste population of India as measured by Y-chromosome haplogroups and haplotypes: Subcastes of the Golla of Andhra Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of population subdivision based on 15 Y-chromosome polymorphisms was studied in seven subcastes of the Golla (Karnam, Pokanati, Erra, Doddi, Punugu, Puja, and Kurava), who inhabit the Chittoor district of southern Andhra Pradesh, India. These Golla subcastes are traditionally pastoralists, cul- turally homogeneous and endogamous. DNA samples from 146 Golla males were scored for seven unique event polymorphisms

R. John Mitchell; B. Mohan Reddy; David Campo; Tania Infantino; Maria Kaps; Michael H. Crawford

2006-01-01

382

The Most Ancient Democracy in the World Is a Genetic Isolate: An Autosomal and Y-Chromosome Study of the Hermit Village of Malana (Himachal Pradesh, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Malana, a small village in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India, has historically been considered a hermit village. Today it has a census size of 1,101 individuals. Geographic, linguistic, and population barriers have contributed to its seclusion. Little is known about the extent to which the population genetically differentiated during the years of isolation. To address this issue, we genotyped

Rajiv Giroti; Indu Talwar

2010-01-01

383

Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with

Pritha Ghosh; Mayukh Banerjee; Sujata De Chaudhuri; Rajdeep Chowdhury; Jayanta K Das; Angshuman Mukherjee; Ajoy K Sarkar; Lakshmikanta Mondal; Kalipada Baidya; Tanmoy Jyoti Sau; Apurba Banerjee; Arindam Basu; Keya Chaudhuri; Kunal Ray; Ashok K Giri

2007-01-01

384

Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

Svensson, Anna

385

School Choice for the Poor? The Limits of Marketisation of Primary Education in Rural India. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…

Harma, Joanna

2010-01-01

386

ENHANCED FODDER PRODUCTION WITH INNOVATIVE SUSTAINABLE INFORMAL SEED SYSTEMS FOR FOOD-FEED CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGE SEED BANKS, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative informal institutional arrangements adapted for making rural communities seed secure in food-feed crops in Karivemula village in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Small and resource poor farmers are often at a disadvantageous position in absorbing the agricultural technology related to genetic enhancement of productive potential of agricultural crops in general and food-feed crops in

Ravinder Reddy Ch; Gurava Reddy K; S P Wani

387

Medical tourism in India.  

PubMed

The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment. PMID:22727009

Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

2012-06-01

388

India`s low-tech energy success  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

Sampat, P.

1995-11-01

389

Holocene aridification of India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T. I.; Fuller, D. Q.; Johnson, J. E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T. S.

2012-01-01

390

Cataract progression in India  

PubMed Central

AIMS—The study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using the LOCS III cataract grading scale in the field and to determine the rate of cataract progression over a 1 year period of time.?METHODS—For 150 subjects between the ages of 33 and 55 who attended the refraction clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, lens abnormalities were graded at the slit lamp using the LOCS III scale. One year later, 99 of the subjects were re-evaluated by the same methodology to assess the amount of lens change.?RESULTS—Interrater reliability was high. A change of 0.5 or more in lens colour, cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular cataract was observed in at least one eye of 54% of the subjects.?CONCLUSION—The LOCS III grading scale is a feasible method for measuring lens changes in the field with the slit lamp. Cataract progression in India is rapid enough to permit intervention studies to be performed with relatively small numbers of subjects over a short period of time (that is, 600 subjects for 2 years).??

Srinivasan, M; Rahmathullah, R.; Blair, C.; Murphy, A.; Beck, R.; Wilkins, J.; Whitcher, J.; Smolin, G.

1997-01-01

391

Geothermal district piping - A primer  

SciTech Connect

Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Rafferty, K.

1989-11-01

392

Swedish district heating using fuelwood  

SciTech Connect

The Swedish government uses monetary incentives to increase the use of biomass in the energy sector in an attempt to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper reports on the use of wood fuel for district heating in Sweden and describe a project which was the recipient of a government subsidy. This project is the first wood fired IGCC power plant in the world and has lead the way for the commercial scale demonstration plant in Brazil described in a previous paper.

Palmberger, B.; Olofsson, K. [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden)

1994-09-01

393

Central Utah Water Conservancy District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

2008-02-07

394

On the genus Hydrometra Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Hydrometridae) from India with description of two new species .  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Hydrometra Latreille, 1796, are described from the Oriental Region. Hydrometra cherukolensis sp. nov. is described from Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, belongs to the Hydrometra julieni species group, and is closely related to H. julieni Hungerford & Evans, 1934 and H. julienoidea Polhemus & Polhemus, 1995. Hydrometra nicobarensis sp. nov. is described from the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve (GNBR), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, belongs to the Hydrometra lineata species group and this new species is closely related to H. borneensis Zettel & Yang, 2004. Hydrometra okinawana Drake, 1951, collected from GNBR, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and is the first record for India. Hydrometra butleri Hungerford & Evans, 1934, is redescribed and notes on H. greeni Kirkaldy, 1898 are given. All together five species of Hydrometra, H. butleri, H. cherukolensis sp. nov., H. greeni, H. nicobarensis sp. nov. and H. okinawana are reported in the present study from India. A key to the species of Hydrometra of India and the distribution maps are also provided. PMID:24871746

Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash

2014-01-01

395

Research on antidepressants in India  

PubMed Central

Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment.

Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

2010-01-01

396

The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow.

Dell, Karen

2009-01-01

397

What Transition Means for India’s City Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British actor Sanjeev Bhaskar has recently been revisiting his family roots in the Indian subcontinent and also noting the huge contrasts with high-rise prosperity jostling for position with urban slums. 2 Indeed, anyone who has toured India other than by insulated dashes from one five-star hotel to another in a blacked-out limousine will be troubled by the poverty. India,

David Sharp

2008-01-01

398

Arecanut: India’s popular masticatory — history, chemistry and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the Indians, Malayans, or the Indonesians, betel-nut chewing is as familiar as chewing gum to the Americans. In India the\\u000a use of arecanut and its cultivation constitute a distinct agricultural practice scarcely less important than that of other\\u000a economic crops, but little attention has been given to a proper assessment of the fruit either in India or elsewhere.

V. Raghavan; H. K. Baruah

1958-01-01

399

Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

Perry, Mary

2005-01-01

400

Assessment of India's Research Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and infrastructure of the India research literature was determined. A representative database of technical articles was extracted from the Science Citation Index for the years 1991, 2002, and 2005, with each article containing at least one a...

C. A. Bowles D. Johnson R. N. Kostoff S. Dodbele

2006-01-01

401

Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan

2013-01-01

402

The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history  

PubMed Central

Background In India very few of those who need mental health care receive it, despite efforts of the 1982 National Mental Health Programme and its district-level component the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) to improve mental health care coverage. Aims To explore and unpack the political, cultural and other historical reasons for the DMHP’s failures and successes since 1947 (post-independence era), which may highlight issues for today’s current primary mental health care policy and programme. Methods Oral history interviews and documentary sourcing were conducted in 2010–11 with policy makers, programme managers and observers who had been active in the creation of the NMHP and DMHP. Results The results suggest that the widely held perception that the DMHP has failed is not entirely justified, insofar that major hurdles to the implementation of the plan have impacted on mental health coverage in primary care, rather than faults with the plan itself. These hurdles have been political neglect, inadequate leadership at central, state and district levels, inaccessible funding and improperly implemented delivery of services (including poor training, motivation and retention of staff) at district and community levels. Conclusion At this important juncture as the 12th Five Year Plan is in preparation, this historical paper suggests that though the model may be improved, the most important changes would be to encourage central and state governments to implement better technical support, access to funds and to rethink the programme leadership at national, state and district levels.

2014-01-01

403

A Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Immunization of Children in Urban Slums of Bijapur City, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The immunization coverage is not uniform in India. In Karnataka, except for Uttar Kannada District (very high immunization coverage of 95%) and 14 districts that have shown a better immunization coverage (>85% coverage), the remaining 15 districts (including Bijapur District) have poor coverage. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2002 report on Bijapur district shows that only a little over one fourth of the children were fully immunized (25.8%). The state’s fully vaccinated figure was more than two and a half times higher than that of the district. In this prevailing scenario, it becomes the need of the hour to find factors which influence routine immunization in Bijapur district, which will help the planners in implementing the immunization programme in a better way, to achieve >85% coverage. Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of respondents among guardians of children aged 12-23 months with respect to immunization. Material and Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bijapur city, India. Out of the 20 enlisted slums, 7 slums were chosen by using convenience sampling. House to house survey was done. After obtaining oral consents, information regarding knowledge, attitude and practices was collected by using a semi-structured proforma. Results: A total of 155 mothers/ responsible guardians of children in the age group of 12 to 23 months were included in the study. Children of 54 out of 155 respondents (34.84%) were fully immunized, 97 (62.58%) were partially immunized and 4 (2.58%) were unimmunized. The main reason for partial and non-immunization was found to be lack of information. Conclusion: Immunization coverage in the urban slums of Bijapur is still way short of the 85% coverage mark. A lack of information and motivation among the parents is the main reason for this dismal scenario, that needs to be rectified at the earliest.

Angadi, M.M.; Jose, Arun Pulikkottil; Udgiri, Rekha; Masali, K.A.; Sorganvi, Vijaya

2013-01-01

404

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

405

77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

2012-04-10

406

District's Workforce: Annual Report Required by the District of Columbia Retirement Reform Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An enrolled actuary was engaged by the District of Columbia Retirement Board to (1) determine the 1990 disability retirement rate for District police officers and firefighters hired before February 15, 1980; (2) determine if that rate exceeded eight-tenth...

1991-01-01

407

Soil Fertility Index, Soil Evaluation Factor, and Microbial Indices under Different Land Uses in Acidic Soil of Humid Subtropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the impact of land use on soil fertility in an Entisol in the Jalpaiguri District of humid subtropical India. The natural forest served as a control against which changes in soil properties were compared. Soil samples were collected from four different depths (0–25, 25–50, 50–75, and 75–100 cm) of soil from four land uses

Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; S. K. Reza; Biplab Sharma

2011-01-01

408

Screening for the sickle cell gene in Chhattisgarh state, India: an approach to a major public health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high\\u000a risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened\\u000a 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and\\u000a June

Pradeep K. Patra; Virander S. Chauhan; Prafulla K. Khodiar; Abdul R. Dalla; Graham R. Serjeant

2011-01-01

409

Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

2003-01-01

410

Inter-District Cooperation: Salvation of the Small School District. New Regionalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its least complex form, a cooperative can be an informal agreement between two or more school districts to cooperatively accomplish some task. As a cooperative gets more formalized and organized, with its own staff, its operations become more removed the control of its constituents and member districts. The local school district's primary…

Hartman, Luther E.

411

A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Missouri District Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Missouri district is a small rural school district with 450 students and 51 staff with a total of 210 client computers. The district consists of two schools (K-6 and 7-12) housed in a single building. This document contains the results of the four 2004 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) case studies: (1) Software costs; (2) Hardware costs; (3)…

Consortium for School Networking, 2004

2004-01-01

412

One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

Dombrowski, Richard J.

413

India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

Doeksen, Peggy

414

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

415

Malaria and the Narmada-river development in India: a case study of the Bargi dam.  

PubMed

The largest river-valley development to be proposed in India is that in the Narmada valley. The building of the Bargi dam, a multi-purpose irrigation and hydro-electric project, in Jabalpur, in central India, formed part of the first phase of the development of this valley (1974-1988). Many villages and several hectares of land in three districts were submerged as the waters rose behind the dam, the worst affected area being the catchment area of the primary health centre (PHC) at Narayanganj, in Mandla district. Until recently, cases of malaria were relatively rare in Narayanganj. However, an epidemic of malaria in late 1996 claimed hundreds of lives in the area and the outbreak spread, during 1997, to new villages in the region. A review of the records collected by the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) not only indicated that the slide positivity rate (SPR) for Narayanganj increased > 7.45-fold between 1979 and 1997 but also that the slide falciparum rate (SFR) increased > 32-fold over the same period. The NMEP data available for Mandla district as a whole indicated a doubling in mean SPR and SFR between 1979 and 1997. There is no evidence that a new species of vector has established since 1979. In fact, indoor-resting densities of anophelines and of the most established vector, Anopheles culicifacies, have fallen since the dam was built, but densities of another vector, An. fluviatilis, have increased. PMID:10690243

Singh, N; Mehra, R K; Sharma, V P

1999-07-01

416

Severe Neurotoxic Envenoming and Cardiac Complications after the Bite of a 'Sind Krait' (Bungarus cf. sindanus) in Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

We report a case of severe envenoming with unusual complications and two anecdotal cases of fatalities following proven 17-scale-row ‘Sind krait’ (Bungarus cf. sindanus) bites on people sleeping in temporary huts at construction sites in Pune District, Maharashtra, India. A 25-yr-old male developed progressive neuromuscular paralysis, abdominal pain and autonomic disturbances complicated by four prolonged episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia requiring defibrillation, and followed by pulmonary edema secondary to impaired left ventricular systolic function and hyperfusion. There was no response to antivenom; mechanical ventilation was required for six days. Only one other case of fatal envenoming likely caused by this species had been reported previously in India. The distribution of B. sindanus sensu lato from eastern Afghanistan to India overlaps with that of the superficially very similar common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). Thus, B. cf. sindanus envenoming may be common but routinely overlooked or misdiagnosed.

Pillai, Lalitha V.; Ambike, Dhananjay; Husainy, Saifuddin; Khaire, Anil; Captain, Ashok; Kuch, Ulrich

2012-01-01

417

Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.  

PubMed

Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

2014-07-01

418

Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India  

PubMed Central

Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs’ performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds—more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features.

Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

2014-01-01

419

Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural India, 2007-2008.  

PubMed

Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors affecting it. Therefore, this study attempt to examine individual, household, and community level factors affecting neonatal mortality in rural India. Data and methods. We analysed information on 171,529 singleton live births using the data from the most recent round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08. Principal component analysis was used to create an asset index. Two-level logistic regression was performed to analyse the factors associated with neonatal deaths in rural India. Results. The odds of neonatal death were lower for neonates born to mothers with secondary level education (O R = 0.60, p = 0.01) compared to those born to illiterate mothers. A progressive reduction in the odds occurred as the level of fathers' education increased. The odds of neonatal death were lower for infants born to unemployed mothers (O R = 0.89, p = 0.00) compared to those who worked as agricultural worker/farmer/laborer. The odds decreased if neonates belonged to Scheduled Tribes (O R = 0.72, p = 0.00) or 'Others' caste group (O R = 0.87, p = 0.04) and to the households with access to improved sanitation (O R = 0.87, p = 0.02), pucca house (O R = 0.87, p = 0.03) and electricity (O R = 0.84, p = 0.00). The odds were higher for male infants (O R = 1.21, p = 0.00) and whose mother experienced delivery complications (O R = 1.20, p = 0.00). Infants whose mothers received two tetanus toxoid injections (O R = 0.65, p = 0.00) were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Children of higher birth order were less likely to die compared to first birth order. Conclusion. Ensuring the consumption of an adequate quantity of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections by pregnant mothers, targeting vulnerable groups like young, first time and Scheduled Caste mothers, and improving overall household environment by increasing access to improved toilets, electricity, and pucca houses could also contribute to further reductions in neonatal mortality in rural India. Any public health interventions aimed at reducing neonatal death in rural India should consider these factors. PMID:23734339

Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit

2013-01-01

420

20 CFR 704.301 - Administration; compensation districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration; compensation districts. 704.301 Section 704...ACT AND RELATED STATUTES SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS...Administration; compensation districts. For the purpose of administration...this Act, the compensation districts established under...

2013-04-01

421

20 CFR 704.401 - Administration; compensation districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration; compensation districts. 704.401 Section 704...ACT AND RELATED STATUTES SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS...Administration; compensation districts. For the purpose of administration...Alaska, the compensation districts established for...

2013-04-01

422

20 CFR 704.201 - Administration; compensation districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Administration; compensation districts. 704.201 Section 704...ACT AND RELATED STATUTES SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LHWCA EXTENSIONS District of Columbia Workmen's Compensation...Administration; compensation districts. For the purpose of...

2013-04-01

423

Epidemic dropsy in India  

PubMed Central

Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of Argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the formation of oedema. The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a constant stimulus for fluid and salt conservation by the kidneys. Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and orthopnoea progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure are seen. Mild to moderate anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, mild to moderate renal azotemia, retinal haemorrhages, and glaucoma are common manifestations. There is no specific therapy. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment. Selective cultivation of yellow mustard, strict enforcement of the Indian Food Adulteration Act, and exemplary punishment to unscrupulous traders are the main preventive measures.???Keywords: epidemic dropsy; Argemone mexicana; sanguinarine; India

Sharma, B; Malhotra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Rathee, M.

1999-01-01

424

Actinobacteriological research in India.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are important sources of compounds for drug discovery and have attracted considerable pharmaceutical, chemical, agricultural and industrial interests. Actinobacteriological research is still in its infancy in India. Early work on actinobacteria started in the 20th century and mostly focused on studying the diversity, identification and screening for antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. Exploration of diverse habitats for the isolation of actinobacteria, have yielded till date 23 novel species. Screening of actinobacteria for antagonistic activity, has led to the discovery of four novel antibiotics. Research on enzymes mostly covered lipases, amylases, proteases, endoglucanases, a-galactosidases, pectin lyases, xylanases, L-asparaginases, L-glutaminase and cellulases. Research on exploiting actinobacteria for other purposes such as production of enzyme inhibitors, single cell protein, bioemulsifier and biosurfactants is still in the experimental stage. This review compiles the work done in last few years, with an emphasis on actinobacterial diversity and bioprospecting for pharmaceutically important compounds like antibiotics, enzymes and other important applications. The chemical creativity and biotechnological potential of Indian actinobacterial strains are yet to be fully explored. A national strategy is required consistent with the opportunities provided by CBD-Nagoya protocol. PMID:24228382

Velho-Pereira, Sonashia; Kamat, Nandkumar M

2013-08-01

425

Decriminalising homosexuality in India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

Misra, Geetanjali

2009-11-01

426

Alloalbuminemia in North India.  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic screening of sera from 550 individuals from Punjab, North India, revealed four cases of alloalbuminemia. Two albumin variants migrated slower and two migrated faster than the common albumin A. These variants were further analyzed by electrophoresis of their cyanogen bromide fragments to localize their molecular differences. One of the slow variants appears similar to, if not identical with, albumin B, with an altered cyanogen bromide fragment CNBr VII. The other slow variant appears to be a new variant (proposed name albumin Punjab) differing from albumin A in an altered fragment CNBr VI (which also occurs in albumins Kashmir and Adana) and in an altered fragment CNBr I. Among the fast variants, one has the same altered fragment CNBr V as albumin Naskapi, while the other appears to be a new variant (proposed name albumin Patiala) having an altered fragment CNBr VI. The presence of albumin Naskapi in Punjabis, North American Indians, and Eti Turks (previously reported) is consistent with the existence of a common ancestral population in which the mutation to Naskapi occurred before the migrations eastward and westward. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Kaur, H; Franklin, S G; Shrivastava, P K; Blumberg, B S

1982-01-01

427

Supporting Solo at the District Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years passed,…

Woodard, Mary

2011-01-01

428

The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

429

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

430

Perspectives on facilities management for industrial districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible evolution of facility management (FM) in industrial districts, which characterise Italian industrial system, is analysed. The paper investigates structural features of industrial districts, mainly formed by small sized enterprises, and how they influence the attributes of the FM market. An aggregation matrix is introduced to identify technical opportunities such as replicated, centralised and distributed facilities and management for

Antonella Meneghetti; Damiana Chinese

2002-01-01

431

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

432

Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Intermittent attention to the district as the unit of study has left a void in our understanding of the complexities associated with the ability of district-level leaders to contribute to successful, systemic educational reform. In this article, the authors address this void by providing a narrative synthesis of previous findings,…

Rorrer, Andrea K.; Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph

2008-01-01

433

Shared Bus Garage Serves District, City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a joint venture between the school district and the municipality of Scarsdale (New York), the district's buses are serviced in a $2 million maintenance and ground facility. The arrangement has reduced vehicle down time, saved wear and tear on the buses, and reduced fuel consumption. (MLF)

Delude, Rita

1996-01-01

434

District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

2010-01-01

435

District heating for the state of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Energy Agency is actively involved in implementing new hot water cogeneration district heating systems in Moorhead (POP 34,000), Red Wing (POP 13000), and St. Paul (POP 310,000). These projects have been funded by the Department of Energy, the State and the cities. The district heating systems designed will use coal and cogenerated thermal energy from existing electric generation

Sundberg

1981-01-01

436

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

437

Teacher-Quality Checklist for School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts struggle with multiple--and often incompatible--data systems for tracking payroll, collecting teacher evaluations, recruiting and hiring. Aligning these systems and annually assessing where a district stands is the first step towards developing a smart human capital strategy. This checklist outlines the goals, data and questions a…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

2010-01-01