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1

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of\\u000a geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations\\u000a in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits\\u000a as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX

Sushmitha Baskar; R. Baskar; Natuschka Lee; P. K. Theophilus

2009-01-01

2

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

2009-05-01

3

Daily intake of manganese by local population around Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India.  

PubMed

Present work is carried out adjacent to world's highest rainfall area Kylleng Pyndengsohiong (KP) Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India to establish the baseline value of manganese intake through dietary route by the local tribe population in view of proposed uranium mining. The locally available food items collected from villages surrounding the proposed uranium mining site at KP Mawthabah (Domiasiat) were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique. The manganese concentration in different food categories varies from 2.76-12.50 mg kg(-1) in cereals, 1.8-4.20 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables, 0.30-13.50 mg kg(-1) in non leafy vegetables, 0.50-15.30 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, 0.70-1.50 mg kg(-1) in fruits and 0.12-0.96 mg kg(-1) in flesh food. The mean dietary intake of Mn was found to be 3.83+/-0.25 mg d(-1) compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of 2-5 mg d(-1). The daily intake of Manganese by the local tribe population is comparable with the value (3.7 mg d(-1)) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for reference man and lower than the intake value observed for Indian and other Asian population. PMID:19193395

Gothankar, S S; Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2009-02-04

4

Morphogroups and small sized tests in Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) from the Late Maastrichtian succession of Meghalaya, India as indicators of biotic response to paleoenvironmental stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous-Paleocene shelf successions of Therriaghat and Mahadeo in Meghalaya, India preserve almost the whole of the Late Maastrichtian stage, in which the warm water Tethyan planktonic foraminifera Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) occurs in the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Zone (=Zone CF4) and Pseudoguembelina palpebra Zone (=Zone CF2) as five distinct morphogroups (A-E). Morphogroups A-C commonly occur in rocks representing the transgressive regime of the R. fructicosa Zone at Therriaghat whereas that of P. palpebra Zone was conducive for morphogroup D in the deeper shelf around Therriaghat and morphogroup E in the near shore shelf around Mahadeo. The absence of P. elegans in the Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Zone (=Zone CF3) is postulated due to tectonic cause whereas its absence in the Plummeritahantkeninoides Zone (=Zone CF1) was due to regression. Analysis of growth parameters including length, width, thickness and angle of flaring of the tests of the species reveal that morphogroups B and C are generally larger in size than the other morphogroups and the test length of the Meghalaya specimens is smallest over its world occurrences.Diverse morphogroups and small tests are unique in the species of Meghalaya; however, the cause of such unusual growth is difficult to explain. Due to development close to the tectonically active Deccan volcanic Province and the Assam-Arakan and Himalayan mobile belts, the Meghalaya shelf had unusual biotic stress due to volcanic eruption, sea level fluctuations induced by plate collision and climate warming and retreat of the neo-Tethys. During the biozones CF4 and CF2 when vigorous Deccan outbursts occurred, P. elegans developed diverse morphogroups and acquired small size tests to cope with the changed environments and possibly to increase its chances of avoiding by microspherule missiles.

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay K.

2012-04-01

5

Strain analysis and stratigraphic status of Nongkhya, Sumer and Mawmaram conglomerates of Shillong basin, Meghalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shillong basin, one of the Purana basins of the Indian peninsula is situated in the central and eastern parts of the Shillong\\u000a plateau of NE India. Metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the basin are of Mesoproterozoic age and lithostratigraphically\\u000a belong to Shillong Group (erstwhile Shillong series) comprising Lower Metapelitic Formation (LMF) and Upper Quartzitic Formation\\u000a (UQF). A long, persistent, faulted

Niva Rani Devi; K. P. Sarma

2010-01-01

6

Flora of Hassan District Karnataka, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hassan District is a compact, hitherto botanically unexplored area straddling the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. A wide range of climatic and topographic variations has endowed it with a broad spectrum of vegetational patterns ranging from arid scrub ...

1976-01-01

7

210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value. PMID:19242810

Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

2009-02-26

8

Body mass index in Central India: inter district variation.  

PubMed

Basic causes of poor state of nutrition and infections in developing countries are poverty, low level of hygienic conditions and little access to preventive and health care. Central India is known for its high rate of population growth and mortality, which persisted over time along with a low level of social, economic and infrastructure development. In the present study the body mass index (BMI) of 31 populations residing in 38 districts of Central India (comprising the States of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh) is assessed. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India were utilized in this context. The mean body mass index values of the populations of total backward and non-backward districts are found to be lower than that of well-to-do individuals of India (Bharati 1989, Khongsdier 1997, Reddy 1998), but it is not as low as that found among the South Indian populations (Ferro-Luzzi et al. 1992). In the present investigation, it is also found that the majority of the backward districts fall in the category of different grade of chronic energy deficiency (CED), while in the non-backward districts a considerably less number of districts follows this trend. A better level of the nutritional status among the populations of the non-backward districts corroborates the findings of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (NFHS 1992). It reveals that the apparently healthy individuals with CED grade I in the present study may be thin but physically active and healthy. The present study, however, narrates further intensive investigations in these populations, because the BMI as a measure of the CED should incorporate the aspects like morbidity and health status of a population. PMID:17240962

Gautam, Rajesh K; Adak, Dipak K; Gharami, Ajay K; Dutta, T

2006-12-01

9

Outbreak of chikungunya fever, Dakshina Kannada District, South India, 2008.  

PubMed

The outbreak of chikungunya fever that surfaced in India during late 2005 has affected more than 1.56 million people, spread to more than 17 states/union territories, and is still ongoing. Many of these areas are dengue- and leptospirosis-endemic settings. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in one such chikungunya-affected location in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State to estimate the magnitude of the epidemic and the proportion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections that remained clinically inapparent. The seropositivity for CHIKV infection was 62.2%, and the attack rate of confirmed CHIK fever was 58.3%. The proportion of inapparent CHIKV infection was 6.3%. The increasing trend in the seropositivity and attack rate of CHIKV infection with age group was statistically significant. The present study is an indicator of the magnitude of the ongoing outbreak of CHIKV infection in India that started during 2005-2006. PMID:20889860

Manimunda, Sathya P; Sugunan, Attayur P; Rai, Subhodh K; Vijayachari, Paluru; Shriram, Ananganallur N; Sharma, Sameer; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Chaitanya, Itta K; Guruprasad, Dev R; Sudeep, Anakkathil B

2010-10-01

10

Outbreak of Chikungunya Fever, Dakshina Kannada District, South India, 2008  

PubMed Central

The outbreak of chikungunya fever that surfaced in India during late 2005 has affected more than 1.56 million people, spread to more than 17 states/union territories, and is still ongoing. Many of these areas are dengue- and leptospirosis-endemic settings. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in one such chikungunya-affected location in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State to estimate the magnitude of the epidemic and the proportion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections that remained clinically inapparent. The seropositivity for CHIKV infection was 62.2%, and the attack rate of confirmed CHIK fever was 58.3%. The proportion of inapparent CHIKV infection was 6.3%. The increasing trend in the seropositivity and attack rate of CHIKV infection with age group was statistically significant. The present study is an indicator of the magnitude of the ongoing outbreak of CHIKV infection in India that started during 2005–2006.

Manimunda, Sathya P.; Sugunan, Attayur P.; Rai, Subhodh K.; Vijayachari, Paluru; Shriram, Ananganallur N.; Sharma, Sameer; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Chaitanya, Itta K.; Guruprasad, Dev R.; Sudeep, Anakkathil B.

2010-01-01

11

Cancer pattern and survival in a rural district in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cancer pattern data are rare and survival data are none from rural districts of India. Methods: The Dindigul Ambilikkai Cancer Registry (DACR) covering rural population of 2 millions in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu state, South India, registered 4516 incident cancers during 2003–2006 by active case finding from 102 data sources for studying incidence pattern, of which, 1045 incident cancers

Rajaraman Swaminathan; Ramanujam Selvakumaran; Pulikattil Okkuru Esmy; P. Sampath; Jacques Ferlay; Vinoda Jissa; Viswanathan Shanta; Mary Cherian; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

2009-01-01

12

Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).  

PubMed

Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration. PMID:22324150

Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

2011-01-01

13

Qualitative study of wild polio cases in high risk districts of Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. India has implemented a polio eradi- cation strategy which includes national immunization days and house-to-house visits. While there has been a reduction in wild polio cases, a few districts in some states continue to harbour the virus. We did a qualita- tive survey in certain districts of western Uttar Pradesh to determine the reasons for continued occurrence of wild

JUGAL KISHORE; D. PAGARE; R. MALHOTRA; M. M. SINGH

14

Metal contents in the groundwater of Sahebgunj district, Jharkhand, India, with special reference to arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study has been presented on groundwater metal contents of Sahebgunj district in the state of Jharkhand, India with special reference to arsenic. Both tubewell and well waters have been studied separately with greater emphasis on tubewell waters. Groundwaters of all the nine blocks of Sahebgunj district have been surveyed for iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc in

S. Bhattacharjee; S. Chakravarty; S. Maity; V. Dureja; K. K. Gupta

2005-01-01

15

Measuring Regional Backwardness: Poverty, Gender, and Children in the Districts of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines regional disparity in India from the perspective of the smallest geographical unit for which a consisent set of data is available: the district. By doing so, we are able to focus on pockets of deprivation rather than viewing deprivation as a phenomenon affecting a state or a region in its entirety: ‘forward’ states have deprived districts while

Amaresh Dubey

2007-01-01

16

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

17

Magnetic Anomalies and Basement Structure Around Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic regional magnetic survey was carried out in the districts of Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam in Andhra pradesh, India comprising an area of 15, 000 sq. km of eastern migmatite zone of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. The magnetic anomalies are very noisy, varying between ?1300 nT and +700 nT in amplitude and correlate very poorly with the surface geology.

I. V. Radhakrishna Murthy; P. Rama Rao

2001-01-01

18

Who Collects Resources in Degraded Environment? A Case Study from Jhabua District, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of the variation in stocks of three resources, namely, water, forests and fodder biomass, on resource collection time of rural households in India, especially women. Using household level data from 543 households across 60 villages in the Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh, we estimate reduced form gender-specific time allocation equations derived from a household production

Neetu Chopra; Supriya Singh; Shreekant Gupta; Urvashi Narain; KLAAS VAN' T VELD

19

Sacred Groves of Parinche Valley of Pune District of Maharashtra, India and their Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacred groves are protected areas of forests because of religious beliefs and constitute an important aspect of the cultural life of various communities throughout the world. The source of this culture can be traced back to prehistoric times. The sacred groves of Parinche valley, Pune district of Maharashtra, India were studied to understand their status and importance in relation to

Chandrakant K. Waghchaure; Pundarikakshudu Tetali; Venkat R. Gunale; Noshir H. Antia; Tannaz J. Birdi

2006-01-01

20

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

21

Medical ethnobotany of the tribals of Sonaghati of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present ethnobotanical exploration study presents the folk medicinal uses of certain plants by tribes of the Sonbhadra district in the Uttar Pradesh state of India. One hundred and twenty five plants from 57 families, which are therapeutically used against different diseases, such as cough, cold, dysentery, diarrhoea, ulcers, diabetes, male and female weakness, snake-bite and skin disorders are covered

A. K Singh; A. S Raghubanshi; J. S Singh

2002-01-01

22

Seasonal Distribution of Trace Metals in Groundwater of Dhemaji District, Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study has been carried out with respect to chromium, manganese, zinc, copper and nickel contamination of groundwater in Dhemaji district of Assam, India. Twenty groundwater samples were collected from tube well and ring well in both dry and wet seasons. The metals were analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200 model. Normal distribution and correlation

Mridul Buragohain; Bhabajit Bhuyan; Hari Prasad Sarma

23

Forest dynamics in tropical rain forests of Uttara Kannada district in Western Ghats, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species richness, tree and stem density, basal area and recruitment details were monitored for ten years (1984 to 1994) in eight one-hectare forest sites in evergreen and moist deciduous forest zones of the tropical rain forests in Uttara Kannada district of the Western Ghats in southern India. Changes in species richness and basal area were observed in majority of the

D. M. Bhat; M. B. Naik; S. G. Patagar; G. T. Hegde; Y. G. Kanade; G. N. Hegde; C. M. Shastri; D. M. Shetti; R. M. Furtado

2000-01-01

24

Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed

Surinder Singh; Baldev Singh; Ajay Kumar

2003-01-01

25

Abortion and Sex Determination: Conflicting Messages in Information Materials in a District of Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public information campaigns are an integral component of reproductive health programmes, including on abortion. In India, where sex selective abortion is increasing, public information is being disseminated on the illegality of sex determination. This paper presents findings from a study undertaken in 2003 in one district in Rajasthan to analyse the content of information materials on abortion and sex determination

Vijaya Nidadavolu; Hillary Bracken

2006-01-01

26

‘She says herself, “I have no future”’: love, fate and territory in Leh District, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

How and to what extent can love and desire be managed as factors in geopolitical strategy? This research expands the subject matter of geopolitical analysis and uses feminist tactics to highlight the contingent and embodied practices through which geopolitical strategies materialize in seemingly unlikely venues. In the Leh District of India's Jammu and Kashmir State, political conflict between Buddhists and

Sara Smith

2011-01-01

27

Chemistry of groundwater in Gulbarga district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater quality of Gulbarga District is extensively monitored for two years of study period from October 1999 to September 2001. Twenty-five different sampling stations were selected for the study purpose in the city and five selected villages in the district. Gulbarga districts lies in the northern plains of Karnataka State, covers an area of 16,244 km2 and lies between 16 degrees-11' and 17 degrees-19'N latitude and 76 degrees-54'E longitude The study revealed that the water sources in the area are heavily polluted. The major water quality parameters exceeding the permissible limits during all the seasons are total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity and MPN (Bacterial count) and other parameters have shown distinctive variation in different stations and season. Most of these parameters are correlated with one another. Statistical analysis of the data is presented. PMID:17380415

Majagi, Shashikanth; Vijaykumar, K; Rajshekhar, M; Vasanthkumar, B

2007-03-23

28

Rural to Urban Migration: A District Level Analysis for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the recent census data this paper analyses the district level rural to urban migration rates (both intra-state and the inter-state) among males and females separately. Both the rates are closely associated irrespective of whether the migrants originate from the rural areas within the state or outside the state. This would suggest that women usually migrate as accompanists of

Arup Mitra; Mayumi Murayama

2008-01-01

29

Immunization coverage in tribal and rural areas of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This paper aims to report and compare the immunization coverage of various vaccines among tribal and rural children in a distinct\\u000a socio-economic environment in India.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study was conducted in two tribal and two rural developmental blocks of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India,\\u000a by employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Data collected included the immunisation coverage\\u000a and

Godi Rajendra Varma; Yadlapalli Sriparvati Kusuma

2008-01-01

30

Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.  

PubMed

The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. PMID:17574725

Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

2007-06-14

31

Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.  

PubMed

The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique. PMID:15763155

Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

2005-04-01

32

Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water\\u000a for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground\\u000a water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected\\u000a during pre- and post-monsoon seasons

C. K. Jain; A. Bandyopadhyay; A. Bhadra

2010-01-01

33

Wind energy potential assessment in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of wind energy and its characteristics at Kumta and Sirsi in Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka has been studied based on primary data collected at these sites for a period of 24 months. Wind regimes at Karwar (1952–1989), Honnavar (1939–1989) and Shirali (1974–1989) have also been analysed based on data collected from India Meteorological Department (IMD) of respective meterological

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian; N. V. Joshi

1997-01-01

34

Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of Nellore district, Andhrapradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg\\/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6. The chloride concentration ranged from 65 - 4950

Ramesh Reddy Putheti; R N Okigbo; Madhusoodan sai Advanapu; Radha Leburu

35

Groundwater quality assessment from a hard rock terrain, Salem district of Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 162 groundwater samples for three representative seasons were collected from Salem district of Tamilnadu, India\\u000a to decipher hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural proposes.\\u000a The water is neutral to alkaline in nature with pH ranging from 6.6 to 8.6 with an average of 8.0. Higher electrical conductivity\\u000a was observed during post-monsoon

K. Srinivasamoorthy; C. Nanthakumar; M. Vasanthavigar; K. Vijayaraghavan; R. Rajivgandhi; S. Chidambaram; P. Anandhan; R. Manivannan; S. Vasudevan

2011-01-01

36

Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and hydrochemical studies were conducted in Nalgonda District (A.P.), to explore the causes of high fluorine in waters, causing a widespread incidence of fluorosis in the local population. Samples of granitic rocks, soils, stream sediments, and waters were analyzed for F and other salient chemical parameters. Samples from the area of Hyderabad city were analyzed for comparison. The F content of waters in areas with endemic fluorosis ranges from 0.4 to 20 mg/l. The low calcium content of rocks and soils, and the presence of high levels of sodium bicarbonate in soils and waters are important factors favoring high levels of F in waters.

Ramamohana Rao, N. V.; Rao, N.; Surya Prakash Rao, K.; Schuiling, R. D.

1993-04-01

37

Prevalence of hearing impairement in the district of Lucknow, India.  

PubMed

A multi-cluster study (survey) was carried out by department of ENT KG Medical University, Lucknow from July 2003 to August 2004 in rural and urban population of Lucknow district to estimate prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in the community. Data included audiological profile and basic ear examination that was analysed through EARFORM software program of WHO. Overall hearing impairment was seen in 15.14% of rural as opposed to 5.9% of urban population. A higher prevalence of disabling hearing impairment (DHI) in elderly and deafness in 0-10 years age group was seen. The prevalence of sensorineural deafness necessitating hearing aids was 20% in rural and 50% in urban areas respectively. The presence of DHI was seen in 1/2 urban subjects and 1/3rd of rural counterparts. The incidence of cerumen / debris was very common in both types of population and the need of surgery was much more amongst rural subjects indicating more advanced / dangerous ear disease. PMID:21941050

Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra; Shukla, Girish Kumar; Mishra, Subhash Chandra; Dwivedi, Raghav

38

Matching services with local preferences: managing primary education services in a rural district of India.  

PubMed

India's poorest households have particularly little access to education. Urgent reforms are therefore needed to improve the universal availability of quality basic services and universal access to those services. At least 32 million children in India are estimated to not be enrolled and attending school. These children must be brought into schools in order to meet the goal of Universal Elementary Education (UEE). Widespread support exists for the decentralization of public services due to the equity and efficiency benefits associated with it. In particular, decentralization is seen to facilitate the matching of services with local preferences, increasing the chances of meeting policy goals. This approach is explored in the context of research conducted in a village of Raichur district, where poor households' preferences with regard to school timing are analyzed. Sections consider the equity and efficiency merits of decentralization, the agenda for improving education service delivery in India, users' relationship to the education system in Raichur district, how preferences are revealed, whose preferences are important in the conflict between local and policy perspectives, preference heterogeneity in the village context, and whether aspects of education services can be selectively decentralized. PMID:12349044

Subrahmanian, R

1999-02-01

39

Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts  

PubMed Central

Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors – including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability – a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more light on this important issue.

Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

2013-01-01

40

Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.  

PubMed

Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors - including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability - a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more light on this important issue. PMID:24066070

Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

2013-09-16

41

Assessment of groundwater quality in Virudhunagar district (India): a statistical approach.  

PubMed

The present work was undertaken to analyze the various water quality parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, Cl-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ and study the WQI in bore well and dug well water samples. 30 water samples were collected from different localities of Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu (India). The results were compared with the values stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and European Economic Community (EEC) for drinking water quality. The present study showed the overall water quality of Virudhunagar district is poor and unsuitable for drinking purpose which recommends the use of indigenous technologies, to make water fit for drinking purpose. PMID:21391396

Muthulakshmi, L; Ramu, A; Kannan, N

2010-07-01

42

Trace-element study of manganese ores of the Barbil area, Keonjhar district Orissa, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to study the distribution pattern and concentration trends of eight significant metallic trace elements in the manganese ores of a few opencast workings of Barbil, Keonjhar district, Orissa, India. Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Sr, Mo, and V are the trace elements that were chemically determined from 60 samples of manganese ores collected from the study area. Since the mean concentrations of most of the trace elements concerned in the Barbil manganese ores are generally lower than those found in the manganese ores known to be volcanogenic origin, the manganese was probably derived from some nonvolcanogenic terrestrial rock source.

Ajmal, M.

1990-05-01

43

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis.  

PubMed

Background: Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods: Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results: TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD?=?0.14) and 0.88 (SD?=?0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the 'best practice frontier'. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD?=?0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD?=?0.16). Conclusions: Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals. PMID:24067734

Jat, Tej Ram; Sebastian, Miguel San

2013-09-24

44

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD=0.14) and 0.88 (SD=0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the ‘best practice frontier’. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD=0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD=0.16). Conclusions Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals.

Jat, Tej Ram; San Sebastian, Miguel

2013-01-01

45

Nutritional Status Adiposity and Body Composition of Oraon and Sarak Females in Ranchi District, India—A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oraon and the Sarak are two distinct ethnic groups with respect to their own religion, culture, language, and food habits, and they live in similar environmental conditions in Ranchi District in Jharkhand, India. Age differences in anthropometric and body composition measurements and nutritional status of adult (?18 years) female Oraons (N = 216) and Sarak (N = 110) were

Sudip Datta Banik

2011-01-01

46

Domestic and Environmental Factors of Chikungunya-affected Families in Thiruvananthapuram (Rural) District of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural) of Kerala. Settings and design:This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural) district during November 2007. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural) district during November 2007 Materials and Methods: Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers.These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area.The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method). Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%). The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic) analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.01 (6.06-14.60)], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38)], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64)], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58)] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.

Anish, TS; Vijayakumar, K; Leela, Itty Amma KR

2011-01-01

47

Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p?district (stable malaria transmission) was strongly associated with peripheral parasitaemia (adjusted OR [aOR] 43.4; 95% CI, 5.6-335.2). Additional covariates associated with parasitaemia were moderate anaemia (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8-7.7), fever within the past week (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.6), and lack of formal education (aOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0-10.7). Similarly, analysis of DU participants revealed that moderate anaemia (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.4) and fever within the past week (aOR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4-13.9) were strongly associated with peripheral and/or placental parasitaemia. Malaria-related admissions were more frequent among pregnant women in Bastar, the district with greater malaria prevalence (51% vs. 11%, p?India.

2012-01-01

48

Dynamics of Forest Malaria Transmission in Balaghat District, Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. Findings Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend ?=? 663.55; P<0.0001). Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E) were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44%) and P. vivax (56%). Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T). An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. Conclusion These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions.

Singh, Neeru; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Chand, Gyan; Mishra, Ashok K.; Shukla, Man M.; Mahulia, Man M.; Sharma, Ravendra K.

2013-01-01

49

Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Chikungunya in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

After about three decades, Chikungunya infection has re-emerged in India and the first cases were reported in December, 2005. The outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. Although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. The clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the Chikungunya outbreak situation in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which started in December 2005, revealed that it is under control. However, preventive efforts need to continue and disease surveillance for early detection of potential outbreaks further strengthening. Given the significantly high House Index, all the three study areas remain at significant risk of outbreaks in the future if appropriate control measures are not put in place. Community support and participation is also crucial for the prevention of future outbreaks and improving the health and well being of population in the districts.

Jain, SK; Kadri, SM; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Lal, S; Katyal, RK

2007-01-01

50

Visceral leishmaniasis clinical management in endemic districts of India, Nepal, and bangladesh.  

PubMed

Background. National VL Elimination Programs in India, Nepal and Bangladesh face challenges as home-based Miltefosine treatment is introduced. Objectives. To study constraints of VL management in endemic districts within context of national elimination programs before and after intervention. Methods. Ninety-two and 41 newly diagnosed VL patients were interviewed for clinical and provider experience in 2009 before and in 2010 after intervention (district training and improved supply of diagnostics and drugs). Providers were assessed for adherence to treatment guidelines. Facilities and doctor-patient consultations were observed to assess quality of care. Results. Miltefosine use increased from 33% to 59% except in Nepal where amphotericin was better available. Incorrect dosage and treatment interruptions were rare. Advice on potential side effects was uncommon but improved significantly in 2010. Physicians did not rule out pregnancy prior to starting Miltefosine. Fever measurement or spleen palpation was infrequently done in Bangladesh but improved after intervention (from 23% to 47%). Physician awareness of renal or liver toxicity as Miltefosine side effects was lower in Bangladesh. Bio-chemical monitoring was uncommon. Patient satisfaction with services remained low for ease of access or time provider spent with patient. Health facilities were better stocked with rK39 kits and Miltefosine in 2010. PMID:22649459

Banjara, Megha Raj; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Kumar, Narendra; Kansal, Sangeeta; Huda, M Mamun; Das, Pradeep; Rijal, Suman; Gurung, Chitra Kumar; Malaviya, Paritosh; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Mondal, Dinesh

2012-05-09

51

Phylogenetic evidence of multiple introduction of H5N1 virus in Malda district of West Bengal, India in 2008.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus were reported in 15 districts of West Bengal State in India in early 2008 and subsequent re-occurrence in 5 districts in December, 2008 to May, 2009. We have sequenced complete genome of 12 viruses isolated from early 2008 outbreak and from recurrent outbreak and determined the phylogenetic relationship between the viruses isolated from the two outbreaks. One of the virus isolated in early 2008 from Malda district (A/chicken/West Bengal/81760/2008) clustered with Korean and Russian isolates of 2006 in European-Middle Eastern-African (EMA) 3 sub-lineage of sub-clade 2.2, whereas other viruses showed close genetic relationship with 2007-2009 isolates of Bangladesh. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 protein expression might be completely abolished due to mutated start codon ((95)ATG(97)?(95)ACG(97)) in this isolate but in all other isolates it was completely expressed. Hence, we conclude that there were two separate introductions of H5N1 viruses in Malda district and this H5N1 virus was not epidemiologically dominant as the viruses isolated subsequently from the same district and region did not share close relationship with this virus. The failure of this virus to spread to adjoining areas suggests that the culling and disposal operations initiated by Government of India were effective. PMID:20864277

Tosh, C; Nagarajan, S; Murugkar, H V; Jain, R; Behera, P; Katare, M; Kulkarni, D D; Dubey, S C

2010-09-22

52

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the\\u000a tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their\\u000a primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma\\u000a biodiversity

Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N. Devanna

2011-01-01

53

Agricultural Activities Influence Nitrate and Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Groundwater of an Intensively Cultivated District in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N) and fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of\\u000a its agricultural activities. Three hundred and forty two groundwater samples were collected from different types of wells\\u000a with varying depths and analyzed for pH, EC, NO3–N load and F content. Database on predominant cropping system,

Manik Chandra Kundu; Biswapati Mandal

2009-01-01

54

The potential impacts of sea level rise along the coastal zone of Kanyakumari District in Tamilnadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change associated with sea level rise (SLR) is one of the major environmental concerns of today. This paper presents\\u000a an assessment of the impacts of sea level rise on the coastal zone of Kanyakumari District in Tamilnadu, India. Digital Elevation\\u000a Model (DEM) combined with overlay techniques in GIS are used in determining the inundation zones along the coastal region.

Usha Natesan; Anitha Parthasarathy

2010-01-01

55

Baseline studies of radon\\/thoron concentration levels in and around the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies conducted by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD) of Hyderabad, India had established the presence of higher concentrations of uranium in Lambapur and Peddagattu areas of Nalgonda district, AP, India and it was estimated that it could be a viable source for commercial extraction. The envisaged extraction process involves dispersion of radioactive particulate matter into atmosphere. Environmental

K. Vinay Kumar Reddy; B. Sreenivasa Reddy; M. Sreenath Reddy; Ch. Gopal Reddy; P. Yadagiri Reddy; K. Rama Reddy

2003-01-01

56

Visual Impairment among Weaving Communities in Prakasam District in South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in weaving communities in Prakasam district in South India state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods Using Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) methodology, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to select 3000 participants aged ?40 years. Visual Acuity (VA) was assessed using a tumbling E chart and ocular examinations were performed by trained Para medical ophthalmic personnel. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (VI) was defined as presenting VA <6/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 respectively. VI included blindness and moderate VI. Results 2848 of 3000 enumerated subjects (94.0%) participated. 39% were in 40–49 years age group and 11.8% were aged ?70 years, 55% were women and nearly half of them had no formal education. 400 (14%; 95% CI: 12.8–15.3) subjects had VI, including blindness in 131 (4.6%; 95% CI: 3.8–5.4) and moderate VI in 269 (9.4%; 95% CI: 8.3–10.5) individuals. On applying multiple logistic regression, VI was significantly associated with older age and no formal education. Though the odds of having VI were higher in females, it was of borderline statistical significance (p?=?0.06). Refractive error was the leading cause of all VI followed by cataract (56%). However, refractive errors were the leading cause of moderate VI (73.2%) and cataract was the leading cause of blindness (62.6%). ‘Cannot afford the cost of services’ was the leading barrier for utilization of eye care services (47%). Conclusions There is a significant burden of VI in weaving communities in Andhra Pradesh, India most of which is avoidable. With this information as baseline, services need to be streamlined to address this burden.

Marmamula, Srinivas; Narsaiah, Saggam; Shekhar, Konegari; Khanna, Rohit C.

2013-01-01

57

Increasing incidence of malaria in Kurseong, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India, 2000-2004.  

PubMed

In Kurseong, Darjeeling District, India, malaria caused concern but insufficient information was available. We analysed surveillance data to estimate the burden of malaria and to examine trends. Confirmed malaria reports were reviewed and climatic records were collected. The annual parasite incidence (API; number of cases/population) and the annual blood examination rate (ABER; number of slides examined/population) were calculated to assess case detection activities, and the slide positivity rate (SPR; number of slides positive/total number examined) was calculated to assess transmission trends. The API increased from 2 to 7.8 per 1000 population between 2000 and 2004 (no deaths), with a high incidence among all age groups. Two foothill areas with forests and slow-moving streams accounted for 88% of the 697 cases in 2004. The average 2000-2004 ABER was 4.8%, below the 10% examination target of the National Anti-Malaria Programme. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum increased from 62% in 2000 to 77% in 2004. More than 50% of P. falciparum in the area were chloroquine resistant. The SPR increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 11.9% in 2004 and peaked during monsoons. Annual rainfall increased from 2000 to 2003. Malaria transmission increased, with an increasing proportion of P. falciparum in a context of resistance to chloroquine. We recommend increasing case detection and using artemisinin-based combination therapy to treat P. falciparum malaria. PMID:18786685

Sharma, Puran K; Ramakrishnan, R; Hutin, Yvan J F; Gupte, M D

2008-09-10

58

Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

2006-12-01

59

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

60

Nitrate pollution in groundwater in some rural areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Intake of water with high concentration of nitrate is a major problem in many countries as it affects health of humans. The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the causes for higher nitrate concentration in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from 46 representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The nitrate concentration was analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration recorded during the sampling period was 879.65 mg/L and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. Taking into consideration 45 mg/L of nitrate as the maximum permissible limit for drinking water set by BIS, it was found that 13.78% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond the limit. Overall, wells present in agricultural fields had nitrate levels within permissible limits when compared to those groundwater samples from wells present in settlements which are used for domestic purpose. This indicates that the high nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area is due to poor sanitation facilities and leaching from indiscriminate dumping of animal waste. PMID:23741859

Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

2012-01-01

61

Longitudinal epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in a rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and related risk factors for coronary heart diseases and hypertension in the rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat (India). The observations from the first five years of this ongoing project (May 1987-May 1992) are described in this paper. Out of an initial sample of 750 individuals in the age group 30-62 years, who were selected by stratified random sampling, 714 persons (males = 429; females = 285) were actually studied, after excluding those suffering from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Initially, all the included subjects were examined clinically and appropriate laboratory investigations were done. A detailed socio-economic history was also obtained. Subsequently all of them were followed up and biannual clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. Cases of CHD were diagnosed according to the recommendations of the New York Heart Association. The overall five-year incidence of CHD was 25.17 per thousand persons. The incidence in males was 3 times higher than in females. More males suffered from myocardial infarction (MI), while in the females the incidence of sudden death was higher (33.3%). The average yearly mortality rate due to CHD was 2.46 per thousand persons. CHD was significantly associated with increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), smoking, and family history of heart disease, and was weakly associated with body weight (p = 0.06). PMID:9008839

Trivedi, D H; Sharma, V; Pandya, H; Arya, R K; Mehta, R; Bansal, R K; Sharma, A; Gandhi, S P

1996-01-01

62

Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes. PMID:19295094

Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

2008-04-01

63

Chemical analysis of groundwater of Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar (India).  

PubMed

The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from hundred handpumps in five villages of the Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar, India indicates that the water samples in the area were slightly alkaline and the concentration of total hardness and heavy metal like arsenic were above the drinking water specifications as prescribed by World Health Organization (1999) and ISI (2003); whereas other chemical parameters were well within the permissible limit. The results of the present study suggest that the groundwater sources under investigation were suitable for domestic purposes including drinking except for arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in most of the handpumps analyzed was high, and that might be attributed to the excessive withdrawal of the groundwater and changes in the geo-chemical environment of the Ganga river. Moreover, the Ganga River System itself carries high sediment bed loads which contain several trace elements, including arsenic. Some effective measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge techniques are urgently required and suggested for water quality management in this region. PMID:23505826

Singh, Amrita; Choudhary, Sunil K

2011-10-01

64

Disaster management for Nandira watershed district Angul (Orissa) India, using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS.  

PubMed

NALCO--the largest exporter of aluminium in India has a power plant of 720 MW capacity in Nandira watershed in Angul district of Orissa. The power plant utilises local coal to generate thermal power and disposes of large amount of ash which accumulates in slurry form at nearby two ash ponds. These ash ponds were breached on 31 December 2000, causing ash accumulation for entire regime of the Nandira river. An attempt has been made towards preparation of recovery and rehabilitation plan for NALCO using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS. Indian remote sensing satellite data for pre-breach condition 12 December 2000, during breach event 31 December 2000 and post-breach condition 4 and 6 January 2001 has been digitally analysed for Nandira watershed. The satellite data of coarse spatial resolution provides the absence and presence of fresh sediment deposition along Nandira watershed and Brahmani river pertaining to pre-breach and post-breach conditions respectively on regional scales. The temporal comparison of fine resolution has clearly highlighted the aerial extent of damage caused by the disaster for entire watershed on local scales. The GIS has helped in demarcation of freshly accumulated ash at interval of 500 m along the river length as well as in delineation of maximum ash accumulation across the river width. The study has clearly demonstrated the use of temporal Remote Sensing data in conjunction with GIS for disaster management in terms of recovery and rehabilitation plan preparation of the Nandira watershed. PMID:15932001

Gupta, P K; Singh, A P

2005-05-01

65

Oral hygiene and periodontal status of teenagers with special needs in the district of Nalgonda, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and periodontal status among 14-17-year-old visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled and physically challenged and normal teenagers in the district of Nalgonda, South India. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty teenagers in the age group of 14-17 years, constituting visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled, physically challenged and normal teenagers, were studied. Oral hygiene status and periodontal status were assessed using clinical indices and compared. Results: Among the five groups chosen for the study, the intellectually disabled group had the highest plaque scores and poor oral hygiene. The visually impaired and deaf and dumb had better oral hygiene compared with other disability groups. Physically handicapped showed higher loss of attachment scores and deleterious and parafunctional habits. Normal teenagers had good oral hygiene and lower plaque scores. Oral health status relied basically on proper use of oral hygiene aids and training of the groups by their care takers. Conclusion: Disabled groups showed poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of periodontal disease, which may be attributed to the lack of coordination, understanding, physical disability or muscular limitations. Hence, more attention needs to be given to the dental needs of these individuals through ultimate, accurate and appropriate prevention, detection and treatment.

Ameer, Nazia; Palaparthi, Rajababu; Neerudu, Madhukar; Palakuru, Sunil Kumar; Singam, Harinath Reddy; Durvasula, Satyanarayana

2012-01-01

66

Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.  

PubMed

Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes. PMID:17101433

Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

2006-11-01

67

Fluoride contamination in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Serious problems are faced in several parts of the world due to the presence of high concentration of fluoride in drinking water which causes dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. Nalgonda district in Andhra Pradesh, India is one such region where high concentration of fluoride is present in groundwater. Since there are no major studies in the recent past, the present study was carried out to understand the present status of groundwater quality in Nalgonda and also to assess the possible causes for high concentration of fluoride in groundwater. Samples from 45 wells were collected once every 2 months and analyzed for fluoride concentration using an ion chromatograph. The fluoride concentration in groundwater of this region ranged from 0.1 to 8.8 mg/l with a mean of 1.3 mg/l. About 52% of the samples collected were suitable for human consumption. However, 18% of the samples were having less than the required limit of 0.6 mg/l, and 30% of the samples possessed high concentration of fluoride, i.e., above 1.5 mg/l. Weathering of rocks and evaporation of groundwater are responsible for high fluoride concentration in groundwater of this area apart from anthropogenic activities including irrigation which accelerates weathering of rocks. PMID:20174864

Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

2010-02-20

68

Powdery mildew on Sechium edule in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribal communities in north-east India commonly growSechium edule for its edible immature fruits, starchy roots, tender shoots and leaves. Severe powdery mildew symptoms were observed on\\u000a the leaves ofS. edule. Based on the morphological characters the pathogen was identified as an anamorph ofPodosphaera xanthii. This is the first report of this organism causing powdery mildew onS. edule in Meghalaya, India.

P. BaiswarA; S. ChandraA; S. V. NgachanA

2008-01-01

69

Risk factors for malaria deaths in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India: evidence for further action  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, a cluster of malaria deaths in the highly endemic Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India, led to assignment of additional resources. Malaria deaths decreased, but continued to occur. A study was conducted to identify the risk factors for residual malaria deaths. Methods Malaria death was defined as a death from fever with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum among residents of Jalpaiguri during 2007–2008. For each case, three age-, sex- and locality-matched controls were recruited among microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria patients cured during the same period. Clinical and treatment information was abstracted from records. Information about knowledge about malaria, presence of bed nets and DDT spraying was collected through interviews of the close relatives of study subjects. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated using multivariate methods. Results 51 malaria deaths were matched with 153 controls, which did not differ by age (median: 35 versus 36 years) and proportion of males (63% versus 63%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with survivors, malaria deaths were more likely to have been admitted with already existing complications [OR = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6–10)], treated at a private facility (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.2–12), received treatment after 48 hours of fever onset (OR = 14, 95% CI = 2.9–64), received chloroquine (OR = 13.3, 95% CI = 3.7–47). Households of the deceased were also more likely to miss bed nets (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.9–24) and DDT spraying (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.8–31). Conclusion Elimination of malaria deaths will require education of providers for prompt referral before complications, engagement of the private sector, community awareness for early treatment as well as scaled-up use of bed nets use and DDT. Use of newer generation anti-malarials must to be generalized.

Sarkar, Jagannath; Murhekar, Manoj V; Shah, Naman K; van Hutin, Y

2009-01-01

70

Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority of groundwater samples can be considered suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:21870214

Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

2011-08-27

71

Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India, is selected to discuss the impact of seasonal variation of groundwater quality on irrigation and human health, where the agriculture is the main livelihood of rural people and the groundwater is the main source for irrigation and drinking. Granite gneisses associated with schists and charnockites of the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlie the area. Groundwater samples collected seasonally, pre- and post-monsoons, during three years from forty wells in the area were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, NO{3/-}and F-. The chemical relationships in Piper’s diagram, Chebotarev’s genetic classification and Gibbs’s diagram suggest that the groundwaters mainly belong to non-carbonate alkali type and Cl- group, and are controlled by evaporation-dominance, respectively, due to the influence of semi-arid climate, gentle slope, sluggish drainage conditions, greater water rock interaction, and anthropogenic activities. A comparison of the groundwater quality in relation to drinking water quality standards proves that most of the water samples are not suitable for drinking, especially in post-monsoon period. US Salinity Laboratory’s and Wilcox’s diagrams, and %Na+ used for evaluating the water quality for irrigation suggest that the majority of the groundwater samples are not good for irrigation in post-monsoon compared to that in pre-monsoon. These conditions are caused due to leaching of salts from the overlying materials by infiltrating recharge waters. A management plan is suggested for sustainable development of the area.

Subba Rao, N.

2006-01-01

72

Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

1997-11-01

73

Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.  

PubMed

The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various water quality constituents. The hydrochemical and bacteriological data was analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 10% of the samples, alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 30% of the samples, and total hardness values exceed the desirable limit of 300 mg/L in 15% of the samples. However, no sample crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride. The concentration of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride are well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The bacteriological analysis of the samples does not show any sign of bacterial contamination in hand pump and tube-well water samples. However, in the case of spring water samples, six samples exceed the permissible limit of ten coliforms per 100 ml of sample. It is recommended that water drawn from such sources should be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic applications. Among the metal ions, the concentration of iron and lead exceeds the permissible limit at one location whereas the concentration of nickel exceeds the permissible limit in 60 and 32.5% of the samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that majority of the samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO(3) hydrochemical facies. PMID:19543995

Jain, C K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhadra, A

2009-06-20

74

Behavioral surveillance of premarital sex among never married young adults in a high HIV prevalence district in India.  

PubMed

In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15-24 years from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7-24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3% males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations with premarital sex for males were current use of alcohol and tobacco, and for females were not living with parents currently and being an income earner. These findings can inform HIV prevention efforts among young adults in India. PMID:20625924

Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, S G Prem; Dandona, Lalit

2011-01-01

75

Folk-lore medicines for jaundice from Coimbatore and palghat districts of Tamil Nadu and kerala, India.  

PubMed

Ethno-botanical explorations with regard to the folk-lore medicine in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and Palghat district of Kerala for jaundice was carried out. Out of twenty remedies thus gathered two are found to be new reports and a few others have got interesting combination. The specimens are identified at Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore and deposited in the Herbarium of Ethnobiology department of International Institute of Ayurveda, Coimbatore. Two newly reported plants for Jaundice namely Alysicarpus vaginalis DC. and Justicia tranquebariensis L. f, have been taken for phytochemical screening and pharmacological studies. The botanical name of the plant, local name, Sanskrit name and the part of the plant employed are given in table I. PMID:22557611

Sankaranarayanan, A S

1988-01-01

76

Behavioral Surveillance of Premarital Sex Among Never Married Young Adults in a High HIV Prevalence District in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15–24 years from Guntur district of Andhra\\u000a Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7–24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2–7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3%\\u000a males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations\\u000a with premarital sex

G. Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona; S. G. Prem Kumar; Lalit Dandona

2011-01-01

77

Factors precipitating outbreaks of measles in district Kangra of North India: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, measles is the fifth killer disease among children under five years of age. Despite high immunization coverage in Himachal, outbreaks are occurring. Upon two outbreaks in a hilly district in North India, a case control study was conducted to identify factors contributing to outbreaks and to recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. Materials and Methods: Factors were reviewed under three heads: program related, health care providers, and beneficiaries related. Cold chain maintenance was determined and responses were compared between workers from study Shahpur and control Nagrota Bagwan blocks. All 69 mothers of age and sex matched children with measles were enrolled. A pre-designed pre-tested data collection instrument was used. For statistical analysis, the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (C.I.) among women of children exposed and unexposed to selected characteristics were calculated. Results: Poor cold chain maintenance and gaps in knowledge of health workers supplemented with beneficiary-related issues precipitated outbreaks in case area. Univariate analysis yielded strong statistical significance to 17 variables. Important statistically significant variables are educational status; OR 27.63 (C.I. 9.46-85.16); occupation; OR 0.35 (C.I. 0.16-0.75); income; OR 5.49 (C.I. 2.36-13.00); mode of transport to health care facility; OR 8.74 (C.I. 2.90-28.23); spread of illness from one person to another; OR 5.60 (95% C.I. 1.40-25.97); first help for sick child OR 2.12 (C.I. 1.00-4.50), and place of visit after recovery; OR 3.92 (C.I. 1.80-8.63). Multiple logistic regression yielded significant association with educational status, drinking water sources, and time taken to reach the nearest health facility. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high immunization coverage areas. We recommend 2nd dose opportunity for measles (MR) between 5 and 17 years; refresher trainings to workers; mobile access to health care facility, and Information Education Communication activities for social behavioral change in affected areas.

Gupta, Surender Nikhil; Vidya, Ramachandran; Gupta, Naveen; Gupte, Mohan D

2011-01-01

78

Persistent foci of falciparum malaria among tribes over two decades in Koraput district of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of Odisha State that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the India’s total. Control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. Hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities. Methods Prevalence of malaria was assessed through a sample blood survey (SBS) in seven randomly selected community health centres (CHCs). Individuals of all age groups in the villages selected (one in each subcentre) were screened for malaria infection. Both thick and thin smears were prepared from blood samples collected by finger prick, stained and examined for malaria parasites searching 100 fields in each smear. The results of a blood survey (n?=?10,733) carried out, as a part of another study, during 1986–87 covering a population of 17,722 spread in 37 villages of Koraput district were compared with the current survey results. Software SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Result During the current study, blood survey was done in 135 villages screening 12,045 individuals (16.1% of the total population) and among them, 1,983 (16.5%) were found positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum was the major malaria parasite species accounted for 89.1% (1,767) of the total positives; Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae accounted for 9.3% (184) and 0.2% (5), respectively. Gametocytes were found in 7.7% (n?=?152) of the positive cases. The majority of parasite carriers (78.9%) were afebrile. The 1986–87 blood survey showed that of 10,733 people screened, 833 (7.8%) were positive for malaria parasites, 714 (85.7%) with P. falciparum, 86 (10.3%) with P. vivax, 12 (1.4%) with P. malariae and 21 (2.5%) with mixed infections. Conclusion The results of the current study indicated a rising trend in transmission of malaria in Koraput district compared to the situation during 1986–87 and indicated the necessity for a focused and reinforced approach for the control of the disease by improving people’s access to diagnosis and treatment and ensuring implementation of the intervention measures with adequate coverage and compliance.

2013-01-01

79

Fluoride hazard and assessment of groundwater quality in the semi-arid Upper Panda River basin, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 9000 inhabitants in the Panda River basin, Sonbhadhra District, Uttar Pradesh, India, are vulnerable to a “silent” dental and skeletal fluorosis from groundwater consumption. The fluoride source and seasonal groundwater quality variation were studied by collecting 65 groundwater samples in the Upper Panda River basin. Major rock types are phyllites and granite gneissic rocks. Fluoride concentrations are in the

N. Janardhana Raju; Sangita Dey; Wolfgang Gossel; Peter Wycisk

2012-01-01

80

Coverage and awareness of and compliance with mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

India adopted WHO's strategy of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. The present study attempted to assess the coverage and awareness of and compliance with MDA for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Burdwan district of India, following MDA round in July 2010. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the four randomly-selected clusters in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, India, covering 603 individuals from 154 households, using a predesigned pretested schedule. The drug distribution coverage, compliance, and effective coverage were 48.76%, 70.07%, and 34.16% respectively. Only 41.4% of the study population was aware of the MDA activity. This evaluation study noted that MDA is restricted to tablet distribution only. There is an urgent need to improve compliance with drug intake through strengthening of the awareness programme involving both government health workers and community volunteers. PMID:23930334

Roy, Rabindra Nath; Sarkar, Aditya Prasad; Misra, Raghunath; Chakroborty, Amitava; Mondal, Tusar Kanti; Bag, Kanad

2013-06-01

81

Origin and Evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite Rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower ...

D. R. Rao B. L. Narayana

1988-01-01

82

Diversity and seasonal densities of vector anophelines in relation to forest fringe malaria in district Sonitpur, Assam (India).  

PubMed

The prevalence and bionomics of known Indian malaria vector anophelines was studied in three forest fringe villages in Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Anopheles philippinensis/nivipes (36.8%) and An. annularis (25.6%) were the most abundant of the seven vector anopheline species recorded. Densities of vector anophelines in general were high during monsoon season and low during winter months. An. dirus s.l. was the most anthropophagic (91.6%) of all the species collected whereas, An. annularis, An. fluviatilis s.l. and An. varuna were predominantly zoophagic. The highest and the lowest slide positivity rates (SPR) was recorded during monsoon (36%) and winter (12.5%) seasons, respectively. SPR was positively correlated with vector anopheline densities (r = 0.902), which itself was found to be correlated with mean minimum temperature and relative humidity (RH). PMID:23024492

Das, N G; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Talukdar, P K; Baruah, Indra

2011-07-13

83

India's JSY cash transfer program for maternal health: Who participates and who doesn't - a report from Ujjain district  

PubMed Central

Background India launched a national conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), aimed at reducing maternal mortality by promoting institutional delivery in 2005. It provides a cash incentive to women who give birth in public health facilities. This paper studies the extent of program uptake, reasons for participation/non participation, factors associated with non uptake of the program, and the role played by a program volunteer, accredited social health activist (ASHA), among mothers in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among women giving birth in 30 villages in Ujjain district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 418 women who delivered in 2009. Socio-demographic and pregnancy related characteristics, role of the ASHA during delivery, receipt of the incentive, and reasons for place of delivery were collected. Multinomial regression analysis was used to identify predictors for the outcome variables; program delivery, private facility delivery, or a home delivery. Results The majority of deliveries (318/418; 76%) took place within the JSY program; 81% of all mothers below poverty line delivered in the program. Ninety percent of the women had prior knowledge of the program. Most program mothers reported receiving the cash incentive within two weeks of delivery. The ASHA's influence on the mother's decision on where to deliver appeared limited. Women who were uneducated, multiparious or lacked prior knowledge of the JSY program were significantly more likely to deliver at home. Conclusion In this study, a large proportion of women delivered under the program. Most mothers reporting timely receipt of the cash transfer. Nevertheless, there is still a subset of mothers delivering at home, who do not or cannot access emergency obstetric care under the program and remain at risk of maternal death.

2012-01-01

84

Lead, arsenic, fluoride, and iron contamination of drinking water in the tea garden belt of Darrang district, Assam, India.  

PubMed

Drinking water quality with respect to lead, iron, fluoride, and arsenic has been carried out in and around tea gardens of Darrang district of Assam, India. The district lies between 26 degrees 25(') and 26 degrees 55(') northern latitude and 91 degrees 45(') and 91 degrees 20(') east longitude and covers an area of 3,465.30 km(2). Twenty-five different sampling stations were selected for the study. Iron, lead, and arsenic were analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200, while fluoride was measured by the SPADNS method using a UV-VIS spectrometer, Shimadzu 1240 model. The study revealed that the water sources in the area are heavily polluted with lead. Statistical analysis of the data is presented to determine the distribution pattern, localization of data, and other related information. Statistical observations imply non-uniform distribution of the studied parameters with a long asymmetric tail either on the right or left side of the median. PMID:19809882

Borah, Kamala Kanta; Bhuyan, Bhabajit; Sarma, Hari Prasad

2009-10-07

85

Seasonal Variation in Heavy Metals Concentration in Road Side Soil of District Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of physicochemical properties and concentration of the heavy metals in road side soil of Haridwar city in India was carried out during the three different seasons of a year. Soil samples were collected from six sites with varying traffic volume and driving style (stop vs. constant speed) and analyzed for five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni). Their

Prakash Chandra Joshi; Mahadev Semwal; Namita Joshi

2011-01-01

86

A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Punjab is the most cultivated state in India with the highest consumption of fertilizers. Patiala and Muktsar districts are two agricultural dominated districts of Punjab located in extreme south-east and south-west of the state. This paper highlights temporal variations of the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for irrigation and drinking purpose in these two districts. Water samples were collected in March and September 2003, representing the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Water samples were analysed for almost all major cations, anions, dissolved heavy metals and turbidity. Parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, total hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated on the basis of chemical data. A questionnaire was also used to investigate perception of villagers on taste and odour. Comparison of the concentration of the chemical constituents with WHO (world health organization) drinking water standards of 2004 and various classifications show that present status of groundwater in Patiala is better for irrigation and drinking purposes except for a few locations with a caution that it may deteriorate in near future. In Muktsar, groundwater is not suitable for drinking. Higher total hardness (TH) and total dissolved solids at numerous places indicate the unsuitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. Results obtained in this forms baseline data for the utility of groundwater. In terms of monsoon impact, Patiala groundwater shows dilution and flushing but Muktsar samples show excessive leaching of different chemical components into the groundwater leading to the enrichment of different anions and cations indicating pollution from extraneous sources. No clear correlation between the quality parameters studied here and perceived quality in terms of satisfactory taste response were obtained at electrical conductivity values higher than the threshold minimum acceptable value.

Kumar, Manish; Kumari, Kalpana; Ramanathan, Al.; Saxena, Rajinder

2007-11-01

87

Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

2008-01-01

88

Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara

Nagireddi Srinivasa Rao

2006-01-01

89

Domestic energy consumption patterns in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy planning of any region should be based on existing levels of energy consumption. Sectorwise disaggregated information of energy usage is developed for the Uttara Kannada District to assist in the regional energy planning exercise. This paper provides comparative analyses of village level domestic energy consumption patterns across coastal, interior, hilly and plain zones considering regional and seasonal variations. Cooking,

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian; N. V. Joshi; S. V. Gunaga; R. B. Harikantra

2000-01-01

90

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional

Chellaiah Muthu; Muniappan Ayyanar; Nagappan Raja; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2006-01-01

91

Vanadium bearing titaniferous magnetite ore bodies of Ganjang, Karbi-Anglong District, Northeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new occurrence of (syenite-hosted) Vanadium bearing titaniferous magnetite ore body has been reported from Ganjang (26°09?35?\\u000a N: 93°20? E), Karbi-Anglong, Northeastern India. The magnetite ore bodies have lumpy and sporadic occurrences within the host\\u000a syenite pluton intrusive into gneissic country rocks. Ore microscopic studies reveal that magnetite is often associated with\\u000a haematite and ilmenite depicting different textural patterns. Critical

Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; Jyotisankar Ray; Avik Dhang

2010-01-01

92

Iodine status and goiter prevalence after 40 years of salt iodisation in the Kangra District, India.  

PubMed

Thirty primary schools were selected in district Kangra utilizing the population proportionate to size cluster sampling methodology in the year 2004. A total of 6939 children were included in the study. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each child was conducted. On the spot casual urine sample and salt samples were collected from a 'sub set of' children included in the study. The Total goiter rate (TGR) was found to be 19.8%. The median Urinary iodine excretion level was 200 microg/l and only 64% of the salt samples had the stipulated level of iodine. The findings of the present study revealed that current iodine status of population is adequate, however, TGR showed mild iodine deficiency (chronic) and there is a need of continued monitoring the quality of iodised salt provided to the beneficiaries under the Universal salt iodisation programme in order to achieve the goal of elimination of Iodine deficiency disorders from district Kangra. PMID:17337824

Kapil, Umesh; Sharma, T D; Singh, Preeti

2007-02-01

93

Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk. PMID:17286178

Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

2007-02-08

94

Culture, industrialisation and multiple domains of employees' job satisfaction: a case for HR strategy redesign in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the link between cultural behavioural traits, the potential effect of industrialisation and multiple domains of job satisfaction, utilising survey data collected from public and private service sector employees in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya in the North East Region (NER) of India. Results from ordered probit regressions demonstrate a statistically significant impact of both, extrinsic and

Thomas Lange; Gail Pacheco; Vijay Kumar Shrotryia

2010-01-01

95

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

96

A study on hydrochemical characteristics of surface and sub-surface water in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemical investigations are carried out in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, South India in order to assess\\u000a its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. The water samples (surface water = 16; groundwater = 12) were\\u000a analyzed for various physicochemical attributes like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl?), bicarbonate (HCO3\\u000a ?), sulfate (SO4\\u000a 2?),

M. V. Prasanna; S. Chidambaram; T. V. Gireesh; T. V. Jabir Ali

2011-01-01

97

Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage.MethodsBaseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009.Results4712 FSW participated in the

B M Ramesh; Tara S H Beattie; Isac Shajy; Reynold Washington; Latta Jagannathan; Sushena Reza-Paul; James F Blanchard; Stephen Moses

2010-01-01

98

Effectiveness of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination in the prevention of leprosy: a population-based case–control study in Yavatmal District, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To estimate the effectiveness of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination in the prevention of leprosy.Study design. Population-based case–control study.Methods. The study was carried out in Yavatmal District, Maharashtra, India. It included 364 cases of leprosy (diagnosed by the World Health Organization's criteria), born since 1962, that were detected during a leprosy survey conducted by the Government of Maharashtra in

S. P. Zodpey; N. N. Ambadekar; A. Thakur

2005-01-01

99

Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe2O3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al2O3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe2O3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al2O3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements.The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

2011-11-01

100

Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16). PMID:22048925

Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

2011-11-03

101

An outbreak of pertussis in Sarli Circle of Kurung-kumey district, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

An outbreak of suspected pertussis occurred in Sarli circle of Kurung-kumey district of Arunachal Pradesh in 2007. We investigated this outbreak to confirm the etiology, estimate the magnitude and identify reasons for its occurrence. Twenty-six deaths were reported from the circle. We identified 72 case-patients meeting the case definition of suspected pertussis. The overall attack rate was 30%. None of the under-five children surveyed had received any vaccine in the past. It is essential to establish facilities for conducting routine immunization in Sarli and organizing special campaign in the area to vaccinate all under-fives with full course of vaccines. PMID:19671950

Takum, T; Gara, D; Tagyung, H; Murhekar, M V

2009-07-01

102

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

103

Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.  

PubMed

The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region. PMID:23636597

Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

2013-05-01

104

Oral Health of Pre-School Aged Children in Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India- A Peek into their Mother's Attitude  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mothers are directly responsible for the dental health of their children and play a major role in shaping the dental health behaviors of their children. They also play an important role in preventing oral diseases in them. Objective: To assess the level of attitude of mothers in relation to their pre-school aged children, which in turn can influence the level of oral health. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 312 mothers, selected randomly from eight blocks of Dhanbad district, Jharkhand, India. They were administered with a structured questionnaire on attitude, by an interviewer. Results: The overall data indicated that the attitude of mothers about oral health in their pre-school children increased as their age increased which was not statistically significant (p>.066). Mothers who had less than higher secondary school education and belonged to socio-economically lower groups had poor knowledge of oral health which was statistically significant (p<.001). Conclusion: Mothers should be motivated so that their attitude about their child’s oral health is enhanced which in turn would improve their oral health related quality of life.

Kumar, Gunjan; Singh, Dhirendra Kumar; Jalaluddin, Md.; Dileep, C.L.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat

2013-01-01

105

Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Based on the previous national oral health survey in India, some variation was observed in oral health status and behavior between the urban and rural population. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the dental caries experience in deciduous dentition of 6-year-old urban and rural schoolchildren of Udaipur district and to evaluate the influence of socio behavioral characteristics on dental caries experience. Materials and Methods: A combination of multi stage and cluster sampling procedure was executed to collect a representative sample of 875, 6-year-old school children. Clinical examination for caries was conducted using dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index. Socio - demographic information was collected prior to clinical examination in addition to information on oral health behavior by personal interviews. Results: Only 7.8% children reported of brushing their teeth twice or more than twice daily. Rural children visited the dentist less often than the urban children (P < 0.05). Greater proportion of boys (62.2%) experienced caries than girls (55.1%), decayed component constituted a major contribution for dmft. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the influence of gender, urbanization, tooth brushing frequency, dental visits, parent's education and occupation on caries occurrence. Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent's occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

Tadakamadla, Santhosh Kumar; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

2012-01-01

106

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

2009-10-01

107

Geochemical studies of granitic rocks of Kallur area, Manvi Taluk, Raichur district, Karnataka (India).  

PubMed

The geochemical data is much widely used in establishing the overall chemical relation existing between the different rock types with their parentage. A major impetus for this shift comes not only from the need to understand and quantify better the spatial and temporal evolution, with emphasis on the younger greenstone belts (Kallur copper formations), but also from the recognition that such knowledge could form the basis for the sustainable development of our natural resources. In addition, the recurrence of natural hazards has reinforced the need to learn more about the mechanics and to develop predictive modeling with advanced technical tools. This paper is emphasizing on Granodiorites of Kallur area of Manvi Taluk, Raichur District to substantiate the classical approaches of exploration and data gathering through quantitative methods of data processing and interpretation. The trilinear diagram indicates that the granites are rich in Potash and Soda. This clearly indicates that Granites are fairly rich in K2O than Na2O. PMID:22324155

Raghavendra, N R; Reddy, R Purushottam; Nijagunappa, R

2011-01-01

108

Heavy metal concentration in the coastal wetlands of Thiruvananthapuram district, southern India.  

PubMed

Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the surficial sediments of the four coastal wetlands, viz. Poovar, Poonthura, Akkulam-Veli and Kadinamkulam-Anjengo-Akathumuri of Thiruvananthapuram are presented in this study. Further the statistical tools like contamination factor (CF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) are used to assess the heavy metal pollution. Among the wetlands, Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli were polluted by the heavy metals, as very high values are observed for Pb and Cu indicating high build up of these metals in the sediments. The highest value of CF can be attributed to anthropogenic inputs mainly from urban domestic sewage and land run-off. Based on the value of CF, PLI and Igeo, the Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli wetlands are identified as potential 'hot spots' in the district. PMID:21114121

Arunkumar, K S; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

2010-04-01

109

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

110

Groundwater hydrochemistry of a sugarcane cultivation belt in parts of Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kali-Hindon is a watershed in the most productive central Ganga plain of India. The whole area is a fertile track with sugarcane being the principal crop. Systematic sampling was carried out to assess the source of dissolved ions, impact of sugar factories and the quality of groundwater. Thirty-six samples were collected covering an area of 395 km2. The quality of groundwater is suitable for irrigational purposes but is rich in SO4 which is not best for human consumption. Graphical treatment of major ion chemistry helps identify six chemical types of groundwater. All possible species such as Na Cl, K Cl, Na HCO3, Na SO4, Ca HCO3, Mg HCO3, Ca SO4 and Mg SO4 are likely to occur in the groundwater system. The most conspicuous change in chemistry of groundwater is relative enrichment of SO4. The interpretation of data reveals that SO4 has not been acquired through water rock interaction. The source of SO4 is anthropogenic. Sugar factories alone are responsible for this potential environmental hazard.

Umar, R.; Khan, M. Muqtada A.; Absar, A.

2006-04-01

111

Malaria outbreak in a non endemic tribal block of Balasore district, Orissa, India during summer season.  

PubMed

A focal outbreak of malaria at Sialimal sub-centre of Balasore district of Orissa was reported during the month of March, 2010. Three villages of the above block were affected. Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar has conducted an entomological survey and a central clinic simultaneously, with door to door household survey to identify the fever cases. Within a span of 18 days around 172 fever cases were reported with Slide Positivity Rate (SPR) of 24.4% and Pf % of 81%. The malaria epidemiological data of the sub-centre area for last three years indicates that the area is non endemic for malaria (API was 0.81). Entomological survey revealed the presence of three known vectors of malaria i.e. Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles subpictus (local vector). Per Man Hour Density (PMHD) of these three species were 4.2, 2.8 and 10.8 respectively. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in two An. culicifacies, in one An. annularis and in one An. subpictus. Larval density of Anopheline mosquitoes per dip ranged between 12 to 20. The vectors were found to be resistant to DDT but susceptible to synthetic pyrethroid. With this finding necessary remedial measures were taken by the government to curtail the transmission. PMID:22735850

Mahapatra, N; Marai, N; Dhal, K; Nayak, R N; Panigrahi, B K; Mallick, G; Ranjit, M; Kar, S K; Kerketta, A S

2012-06-01

112

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas.

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

113

Prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in a District of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18 +/- 1.59 servings) and rural (1.78 +/- 1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-03-01

114

Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.  

PubMed

The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 ?mhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+?+ NO-?-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture. PMID:20169406

Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

2010-02-19

115

Alkaline rocks of Samchampi-Samteran, District Karbi-Anglong, Assam, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Samchampi-Samteran alkaline igneous complex (SAC) is a near circular, plug-like body approximately 12 km2 area and is emplaced into the Precambrian gneissic terrain of the Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The host rocks, which are exposed in immediate vicinity of the intrusion, comprise granite gneiss, migmatite, granodiorite, amphibolite, pegmatite and quartz veins. The SAC is composed of a wide variety of lithologies identified as syenitic fenite, magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock, alkali pyroxenite, ijolite-melteigite, carbonatite, nepheline syenite with leucocratic and mesocratic variants, phonolite, volcanic tuff, phosphatic rock and chert breccia. The magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock was generated as a cumulus phase owing to the partitioning of Ti, Fe at a shallow level magma chamber (not evolved DI = O1). The highly alkaline hydrous fluid activity indicated by the presence of strongly alkalic minerals in carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks suggests that the composition of original melt was more alkalic than those now found and represent a silica undersaturated ultramafic rock of carbonated olivine-poor nephelinite which splits with falling temperature into two immiscible fractions—one ultimately crystallises as alkali pyroxenite/ijolite and the other as carbonatite. The spatial distribution of varied lithotypes of SAC and their genetic relationships suggests that the silicate and carbonate melts, produced through liquid immiscibility, during ascent generated into an array of lithotypes and also reaction with the country rocks by alkali emanations produced fenitic aureoles (nephelinisation process). Isotopic studies (?18O and ?13C) on carbonatites of Samchampi have indicated that the ?13C of the source magma is related to contamination from recycled carbon.

Nag, S.; Sengupta, S. K.; Gaur, R. K.; Absar, A.

1999-03-01

116

Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments. PMID:18682406

Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N

2008-08-04

117

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program.

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

118

Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India  

PubMed Central

The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio ‘a’, anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C’ were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio ‘a’ were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C’ were highly variable characters (CV > 12%).

Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

2013-01-01

119

Factors associated with maternal healthcare services utilization in nine high focus states in India: a multilevel analysis based on 14 385 communities in 292 districts.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Studies have often ignored examining the role of community- and district-level factors in the utilization of maternity healthcare services, particularly in Indian contexts. The Social Determinants of Health framework emphasizes the role of governance and government policies, the measures for which are rarely incorporated in single-level individual analysis. This study examines factors associated with maternal healthcare utilization in nine high focus states in India, which shares more than half of the total maternal deaths in the country; accounting for individual-, household-, community- and district-level characteristics. METHODS The required data are extracted from the third round of the nationally representative District Level Household and Facility Survey conducted during 2007-08. Multilevel analyses were applied to three maternity outcomes, namely, four or more antenatal care visits, skilled birth attendance and post-natal care after birth.Findings Results show that along with individual-/household-level factors, community and district-level factors influence the pattern of utilization of maternal healthcare services significantly. At the community level, the odds of maternal healthcare utilization were lower in rural areas and in communities with a high concentration of poor and illiterate women. Moreover, the average population coverage of primary health centres (PHCs), availability of labour room in PHC and percentage of registered pregnancies were significant factors at the district level that influenced the use of maternity care services. The study also found a strong association between the extent of previous use of maternal healthcare and its effect on subsequent usage patterns. CONCLUSION This study highlights the role of strengthening public health infrastructure at district level in the study area, and promoting awareness about available healthcare services and subsidized schemes in the community. To reach out to rural and underprivileged communities and to apply a participatory approach from the programme officials are issues to delve into. PMID:23783832

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Lucky

2013-06-18

120

Investigation of geo-spatial hotspots for the occurrence of tuberculosis in Almora district, India, using GIS and spatial scan statistic  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization has declared tuberculosis a global emergency in 1993. It has been estimated that one third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. The emergence of TB/HIV co-infection poses an additional challenge for the control of tuberculosis throughout the world. The World Health Organization is supporting many developing countries to eradicate tuberculosis. It is an agony that one fifth of the tuberculosis patients worldwide are in India. The eradication of tuberculosis is the greatest public health challenge for this developing country. The aim of the present population based study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis is to test a large set of tuberculosis cases for the presence of statistically significant geographical clusters. A spatial scan statistic is used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis. Results Significant (p < 0.05 for primary clusters and p < 0.1 for secondary clusters) high rate spatial and space-time clusters were identified in three areas of the district. Conclusion There is sufficient evidence about the existence of statistically significant tuberculosis clusters in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India. The spatial scan statistics methodology used in this study has a potential use in surveillance of tuberculosis for detecting the true clusters of the disease.

Tiwari, Neeraj; Adhikari, CMS; Tewari, Ajoy; Kandpal, Vineeta

2006-01-01

121

Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the performance of irrigation system in Sirsa district, India: I. Current water management and its productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed ecohydrological modelling can provide a useful tool to evaluate the performance of irrigation systems at different spatial and temporal scales. Sirsa district, covering 4270 km2 in the western part of Haryana State (India), has been selected for a case study with typical problems of canal water scarcity, poor groundwater quality, rising and declining groundwater levels, and sub-optimal crop production. The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP including detailed crop growth simulations was extended in a distributed manner to quantify the required hydrological and biophysical variables for all combinations of weather crop soil irrigation in the study area. Field experiments, satellite images and existing geographical data were used to aggregate the representative input parameters of all so-called homogeneous ‘simulation units’ and their boundary conditions. The simulated mean annual evapotranspiration (689 mm) over the entire Sirsa district was 15% lower as compared to the mean annual evapotranspiration (809 mm) estimated by independent remote sensing approach. The simulated water and salt limited crop yields showed a good correspondence with the independent crop yields data obtained from remote sensing, field measurements and statistical records. The performance of Sirsa district during the agricultural year 2001 2002 was evaluated in terms of water productivity, net groundwater recharge and salt build-up. Factors responsible for low water productivity in Sirsa district include a high percentage of soil evaporation into evapotranspiration (17 54%, highest for rice), percolation from fields and seepage losses from the conveyance system (34 43% of the total canal inflow). The study also revealed a large variation of net groundwater recharge and salt build-up over different canal commands, which threatens the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Sirsa district.

Singh, R.; Kroes, J. G.; van Dam, J. C.; Feddes, R. A.

2006-10-01

122

Effective smoke-free policies in achieving a high level of compliance with smoke-free law: experiences from a district of North India.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Compliance survey of smoke-free law is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. They also help policy makers to take action where strengthening measures are required. India has a comprehensive tobacco control law known as Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA 2003) which prohibits smoking in public places and requires display of 'No smoking' signages with proper specifications at conspicuous points. However, its implementation and enforcement are still a matter of concern. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the level of compliance with smoke-free law in public places of a district of North India. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted in the months of November-December 2011 in district SAS Nagar Mohali of North India. The public places including hotels/restaurants/bars/shopping malls, government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities and transit stations were surveyed. The study tool was adapted from the guide on 'Assessing compliance with smoke-free law' developed jointly by the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. RESULTS: The overall compliance rate towards section 4 of COTPA was 92.3%. No active smoking was observed in 94.2% of the public places. In 90% of the public places 'No Smoking' signage were displayed as per COTPA. Health and educational institutions had maximum compliance with the smoke-free law while transit sites showed the least compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to the smoke-free law was high in the study. PMID:23322311

Goel, Sonu; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Singh, Rana J; Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-15

123

Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (?2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ? 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ? 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment.

Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

2010-01-01

124

India.  

PubMed

This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its levels are too high. The official policy of the government to reduce fertility levels has been in existence since 1951. Since independence the major flow of immigration has been from the neighboring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The government considers the level and trend of immigration to be insignificant and satisfactory. There has continued to be a stream of emigration from the country since the 1950s, but this movement has not been large enough to be considered demographically significant. The government has expressed concern about the distribution of population within the national territory. It is particularly aware of the uneven development and the resultant economic disparities between and within regions. PMID:12264934

1982-10-01

125

Potentilla fulgens (Family Rosaceae), a medicinal plant of north-east India: a natural anthelmintic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida and the trematode, Gastrothylax crumenifer were exposed to the ethanolic root peel extract of Potentilla fulgens, an antiparasitic local medicinal plant of Meghalaya, India, to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant. The parasites\\u000a were incubated in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg crude alcoholic extract per ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at

Bishnupada Roy; Ananta Swargiary; D. Syiem; V. Tandon

2010-01-01

126

Undernutrition among adult Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: relationship with educational status and food habit.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 1203 adult (> 18 years of age) Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition and the relationship of educational level and food habit with undernutrition. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) computed following the standard equation. A BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was classified as undernutrition or chronic energy deficiency (CED) as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The public health problem of low BMI in this population was classified according to the WHO criteria. Educational status was coded as: no formal education, 1-8 years of schooling and > 8 years of schooling. Food habit was recorded as vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The mean ages of males and females were (39.6 +/- 15.0 years) and (39.6 +/- 15.0 years), respectively. There were significant (p < 0.001) sex differences in mean height and weight; both sexes had a similar BMI. The overall (sex combined) prevalence of undernutrition was 27.7%. The frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among females (31.7%) compared to males (23.6%). According to the WHO classification of low BMI, the prevalence of CED was high (20-39%) indicating a serious situation. There existed a significant (p < 0.001) relationship between the level of formal education and nutritional status. Overall, the frequencies of CED (43.5%) were much higher than overweight (7.0%) among subjects with no formal education. The frequencies of CED and overweight among subjects with 1-8 years of formal education were 25.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Similarly, significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of CED were found among subjects with no formal education in both sexes (males = 39.5%; females = 45.6%) compared to the presence of overweight (males = 1.8%; females = 9.8%). Sex-combined frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among vegetarians (48.3%) compared with non-vegetarians (25.5%). The respective frequencies of overweight were 1.7% and 12.8%. This significant (p < 0.001) trend existed in both sexes with 46.9% male and 49.3% female vegetarians having CED. The corresponding figures for overweight among vegetarians were 0.0% and 2.9%, respectively. The rates of CED were significantly (p < 0.001) lower among non-vegetarians (males = 21.5%; females = 29.6%). Non-vegetarians had significantly higher rates of overweight in both males (8.7%) and females (16.9%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that both educational status as well as food habit had significant effect on BMI in both sexes. In general, the educational status had a stronger impact (males: t = 6.356, females: t = 5.017) than food habit (males: t = 3.373; females: t = 2.763) on BMI. This significant impact remained even after controlling for the effect of age. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that adult Bengalees of Dearah were under serious nutritional stress indicating a public health problem. In addition, a strong inverse relationship existed between educational level and CED. Moreover, vegetarianism was significantly associated with CED. Urgent public health measures are required, particularly among females, to reduce the high prevalence of CED in this population. Similar studies should be conducted in other parts of West Bengal before any general conclusions can be inferred about the relationship between educational status, food habit and CED in the state. PMID:19739463

Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Sadhukhan, Sanjay; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

2009-06-01

127

Anti-development or identity crisis? Misreading civil society in Meghalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the complex relationship between civil society and development in Asia by examining the role of ethnic identity in anti-development movements. Local and transnational movements by civil society actors against dams, mines, and deforestation have gained increased attention in academia and activist circles in the last decade, often used as evidence in arguments that development as part of

Duncan McDuie-Ra

2007-01-01

128

The Constraints on Civil Society beyond the State: Gender-based Insecurity in Meghalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of civil society is vital for politicizing, contesting, and addressing human insecurity, yet there is very little\\u000a analysis of the ability of civil society actors to do so. Recent critical approaches to the concept have questioned the tendency\\u000a to view civil society as an unequivocal good, yet the majority of these critiques still focus on civil society at

Duncan McDuie-Ra

2007-01-01

129

Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

2012-01-01

130

Socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural features of prior and anticipated influenza vaccine uptake in urban and rural Pune district, India: a mixed-methods case study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ensuring production capacity of efficacious vaccines for pandemic preparedness alone may not be sufficient for effective influenza control. Community willingness to accept the vaccine is also critical. Population acceptance must therefore be recognised as a major determinant of vaccine effectiveness, and the social, cultural and economic determinants of population acceptance require study for effective policy and action. Pune is a focus of pandemic influenza in India. The experience of the 2009/2010 pandemic in Pune, capacity for vaccine production and experience with vaccine use provide a unique opportunity to address key questions about an effective vaccine intervention strategy for influenza control in India. This study will examine the socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural determinants of anticipated acceptance of influenza vaccines among the urban and rural populations of Pune district. Additionally, community ideas about seasonal influenza and its distinction from pandemic influenza will be investigated. Proposed research also considers the influence of health professionals, policy makers and media professionals on the awareness, preference and use of influenza vaccines. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study including urban and rural community surveys, in-depth interviews with health professionals, case studies at two hospitals where suspected influenza cases were referred during the pandemic and in-depth interviews with media professionals and public health policy makers. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the ethics review committees of the Maharashtra Association of Anthropological Sciences and the WHO, and by the Ethics Commission of Basel, Switzerland. The proposed research will provide a better understanding of communication and education needs for vaccine action for influenza control in India and other low-income and middle-income countries. The findings and the approach for health social science research will have implications for containment of pandemic influenza in other settings and for effective vaccine action planning for other vaccines.

Kudale, Abhay; Purohit, Vidula Shridhar; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

2013-01-01

131

Assessment of the potential hazards of nitrate contamination in surface and groundwater in a heavily fertilized and intensively cultivated district of India.  

PubMed

We made an inventory of nitrate (NO3-N) enrichment in surface and groundwater systems in the Hooghly district of India owing to intensive farming with high fertilizer doses as a function of quantity of fertilizers use, soil characteristics, types of crop grown, depth of groundwater sampling and also N-load in soil profiles. Water samples were collected from different sources at 412 odd sites spread over in 17 blocks of the district along with representative soil profiles. On average, the study area had high clay and NO3-N in soil profiles with an increasing and decreasing trends along depth, respectively. The NO3-N content both in surface and groundwater varied from 0.01 microg mL(-1) to 4.56 microg mL(-1), being well below the threshold limit of 10 microg mL(-1) fixed by WHO for drinking purpose. The content decreased with increasing depth of wells (r = -0.39**) and clay content of soil profiles (r = -0.31**). It, however, increased with increasing rate of fertilizer application (r = 0.72**), NO3-N load in soil profiles (r = 0.85**) and was higher in areas where shallow--rather than deep-rooted crops are grown. Results indicated even under fairly high quantity of fertilizer use, groundwater of the study area is safe for drinking purpose. PMID:18074235

Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati; Sarkar, Dibyendu

2007-12-12

132

Statistical approach for the assessment of water pollution around industrial areas: A case study from Patancheru, Medak district, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial effluents, surface waters, and subsurface groundwaters were sampled in and around the Patancheru industrial area of Nakkavagu basin, India and analysed. The parameters such as TDS, BOD, COD, and abundances of elements such as Cu, As, Se, F, Fe, are 5 to 10 times more than the permissible limits. These pollutants are contaminating the groundwaters at a faster rate

K. Shivkumar; G. Biksham

1995-01-01

133

Achieving meaningful public participation in the environmental assessment of hydro development: case studies from Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uttarakhand, India has great potential for hydro development because of its mountainous environment and fast flowing rivers. While growth in the hydro sector could facilitate industrial development and improve social well-being in the state, it could also have severe negative impacts on social-ecological systems. Using a qualitative methodology involving a review of documents, field observations, and over 100 interviews with

Alan Diduck; John Sinclair; Dinesh Pratap; Glen Hostetler

2007-01-01

134

A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh,

Rasha Dabash; Jyoti Vajpayee; Martha Jacob; Ilana Dzuba; Nisha Lal; Jan Bradley; LB Prasad

2005-01-01

135

Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 ?g/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.

Chandwani, Haresh Rameshkumar; Shroff, Bhavesh Dahyabhai

2012-01-01

136

Programmatic and beneficiary-related factors for low vaccination coverage in Papum Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Vaccination coverage in Papum Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh was observed to be low. We evaluated the universal immunization programme (UIP) through survey of health facilities in the district and collected data about inputs and processes for childhood vaccination, cold-chain maintenance, supervision and monitoring. Using cluster sampling methodology, we selected 697 children aged 12-23 months from 41 clusters and interviewed their mothers to collect information about vaccination status, socio-demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices. Only 50% health facilities in the district were conducting fixed-day immunizations. Of the children surveyed, 55% were fully vaccinated. Mothers who were informed about next due date by health workers, possessed immunization card, attended antenatal clinics, or who delivered in hospital were likely to complete the vaccination schedule of their children. In order to increase the vaccination coverage, all health facilities in the district need to be made functional for conducting immunization. Educating health workers to remind mothers about due date of vaccination will also help increasing the vaccination coverage. PMID:20881003

Takum, Tana; Padung, D; Joshua, Vasna; Manickam, P; Murhekar, Manoj V

2010-09-29

137

Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India  

PubMed Central

Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and geographically suitable risk-reduction programmes, apply of such spatial analysis tools should suit a vital constituent in epidemiology research and risk evaluation of kala-azar.

2013-01-01

138

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

139

Emergency Flood Relief Response in Satkhira District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2000, floodwater from West Bengal in India severely affected nine southwestern (Bangladesh-Indian border areas) districts in Bangladesh. The worst affected district was Satkhira, which was inundated by up to 8 feet of water. The flash floodin...

2000-01-01

140

A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6?×?10(6) to 8.2?×?10(6)?colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p?>?0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918

Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

2012-11-01

141

A clinical and molecular study of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in three districts of central and eastern India  

PubMed Central

Background Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is recommended throughout India as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of India. The objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of AS + SP in three diverse sites. Methods The study was undertaken in three high endemic sites of central and eastern India. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and followed for 28 days. Molecular genotyping was conducted for merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) to differentiate between re-infection and recrudescence and for the dhfr and dhps genes to monitor antifolate drug resistance. Results In all, 149 patients were enrolled at the three sites. The crude cure rates were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% in Ranchi, Keonjhar, and West Garo Hills respectively. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% at all sites. In dhfr, 27% of isolates had triple mutations, while 46% isolates were double-mutants. The most prevalent mutation was S108N followed by C59R. 164 L mutation was observed in 43/126 (34%) isolates. In dhps, most (76%) of the isolates were wild-type. Only 2.5% (2/80) isolates showed double mutation. dhfr-dhps two locus mutation were observed in 16% (13/80) isolates. Parasite clearance time was not related with antifolate mutations. Conclusions AS + SP combination therapy remained effective against falciparum malaria despite common mutations promoting resistance to antifolate drugs. Although the prevalence of double and triple mutations in dhfr was high, the prevalence of dhfr-dhps two locus mutations were low. Even isolates with dhfr triple and dhfr-dhps two locus mutations achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response.

2013-01-01

142

Treatment Outcome and Mortality at One and Half Year Follow-Up of HIV Infected TB Patients Under TB Control Programme in a District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of data from India on the impact of HIV related immunosuppression in response to TB treatment and mortality among HIV infected TB patients. We assessed the TB treatment outcome and mortality in a cohort of HIV infected TB patients treated with intermittent short course chemotherapy under TB control programme in a high HIV prevalent district of south India. Methodology/ Findings Among 3798 TB patients registered for treatment in Mysore district from July 2007 to June 2008, 281 HIV infected patients formed the study group. The socio-demographic and treatment related data of these patients was obtained from TB and HIV programme records and patient interviews 19 months after TB treatment initiation by field investigators. Treatment success rate of 281 patients was 75% while in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases it was 62%, attributable to defaults (16%) and deaths (19%). Only 2 patients had treatment failure. Overall, 83 (30%) patients were reported dead; 26 while on treatment and 57 after TB treatment. Association of treatment related factors with treatment outcome and survival status was studied through logistic regression analysis. Factors significantly associated with ‘unfavourable outcome’ were disease classification as Pulmonary [aOR-1.96, CI (1.02–3.77)], type of patient as retreatment [aOR-4.78, CI (2.12–10.76)], and non initiation of ART [aOR-4.90, CI (1.85–12.96)]. Factors associated with ‘Death’ were non initiation of ART [aOR-2.80, CI (1.15–6.81)] and CPT [aOR-3.46, CI (1.47–8.14)]. Conclusion Despite the treatment success of 75% the high mortality (30%) in the study group is a matter of concern and needs immediate intervention. Non initiation of ART has emerged as a high risk factor for unfavourable treatment outcome and mortality. These findings underscore the importance of expanding and improving delivery of ART services as a priority and reconsideration of the programme guidelines for ART initiation in HIV infected TB patients.

Vijay, Sophia; Kumar, Prahlad; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Narayan Rao, Saroja Vadigepalli; Vaidyanathan, Preetish

2011-01-01

143

Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study of Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation is variable from place to place. Assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Quality of groundwater in a 398 km2 Peddavanka watershed of a semi-arid region of south India is evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The middle Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup and Kurnool Group of rocks underlie most of the watershed. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of quartzite, limestone, and shale. Seventy-six water samples were collected from open-wells and bore-holes. Water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (summer). The quality assessment is made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, total hardness as CaCO3, TDS, EC, and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated. According to Gibbs‘ ratio samples in both seasons fall in the rock dominance field. The overall quality of waters in the study area in post-monsoon season is high for all constituents ruling out pollution from extraneous sources.

Gowd, S. Srinivasa

2005-09-01

144

Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi pluton, Sonbhadra district, Mahakoshal mobile belt, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole around the Late Paleoproterozoic Jhirgadandi pluton in the eastern part of Parsoi Formation of Mahakoshal terrain, central India represents three distinct metamorphic zones, characterized by definite mineral assemblages. The contact-metamorphic event produced the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages Bt + Qtz + Alb + Sil ± Cd ± Grt ± Mus ± Kfs in the metapelites of inner aureole, Bt + Qtz + And + Mus + Kfs + Plag ± Cd ± Chl in middle aureole and Chl + Mus + Bt ± And + Alb + Qtz ± Ep + Mt ± tourmaline in the outer aureole. The estimated P-T conditions based on detailed geothermobarometric calculations in the thermal metamorphosed rocks are 690°C/3.4 kbar, 580 ± 15°C and 487 ± 30°C in inner aureole, middle aureole and outer aureole, respectively. The variation in metamorphic condition suggests that the shallow crustal level emplacement of Jhirgadandi pluton is responsible for the overprinting of contact metamorphic assemblages (M2) in the low grade metapelites (regional metamorphism M1) of Mahakoshal Group.

Singh, S. P.; Srivastava, Anand K.; Kumar, Gopendra; Dwivedi, S. B.

2013-06-01

145

Land use/land cover change and urban expansion during 1983-2008 in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban settlements in developing countries are, at present, growing five times as fast as those in developed countries. This paper presents the urban expansion and land use/land cover changes in the fast urbanizing coastal area of the Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka state, South India, during the years 1983-2008 as a case study. Six Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite images were used in the present work. Supervised classification was carried out using maximum likelihood algorithm. The overall accuracy of the classification varied from 79% to 86.6%, and the kappa statistics varied from 0.761 to 0.850. The results indicate that the urban/built-up area in the study area has almost tripled during the study period. During the same time, the population has increased by 215%. The major driving forces for the urbanization were the enhanced economic activity due to the port and industrialization in the area. The urban/built-up area is projected to increase to 381 km2 and the population in the study area is expected to reach 2.68 million by the year 2028. Urban growth prediction helps urban planners and policymakers provide better infrastructure services to a huge number of new urban residents.

Bhagyanagar, Rajagopal; Kawal, Babita M.; Dwarakish, Gowdagere S.; Surathkal, Shrihari

2012-01-01

146

Survey and Census of Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the Adjoining Areas of Cachar District, Assam, India.  

PubMed

A detailed survey of Hoolock hoolock was carried out in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district of southern Assam, India, from July 2010 to December 2011. About 150 km(2) of the area was covered. In direct sighting, groups and individuals were counted in 7 localities (39.7 km(2)). Only 3.96 km(2) of the actual forest area were occupied by these gibbons. Nine family groups and a solitary subadult, 33 individuals in all, made up the total count. Of these, adult males and females comprised 54.5% of the population while the subadults, juveniles and infants comprised 27.3, 12.1 and 6.1%, respectively. Each family group's home range was 0.31-0.51 km(2). Of the 7 localities, only 1 had more than 1 family group. Habitat destruction and diverse threats to the hoolock gibbon in this area are examined in this paper. PMID:23816919

Islam, Mofidul; Choudhury, Parthankar; Bhattacharjee, P C

2013-06-29

147

Outcome of Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Treated in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Malappuram District, Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Settings Kerala State, India has reported the greatest dual burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Malappuram district in Kerala has monitored and recorded DM status and its control from 2010 under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). Objectives To assess, under programme conditions, comprehensiveness of recording DM status among TB cases and the TB treatment outcomes among DM patients (disaggregated by glycemic control) and compare with-non DM patients. Design This retrospective record review included 3,116TB patients from April 2010 to September 2011.DM was defined as per international guidelines and TB treatment outcomes were categorized as favourable(cured and treatment completed) and unfavourable(death, default, failure and transfer out). Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals(CI) were calculated to assess the risk of unfavourable outcomes. Results DM status was recorded in 90% of TB cases and 667 (24%) had DM. 17% of DM patients and 23% of patients with unknown DM status had unfavourable outcomes but this difference was not statistically significant. Unadjusted RR for poor glycemic control or unknown control status for unfavourable outcome were (2.00; 95% CI 0.97–4.13) and (2.14; 95% CI 1.11–4.13). Conclusion This study could not confirm an adverse association between DM or its control during treatment and the course of response to TB treatment.DM screening in TB cases and recording of DM care needs to be improved to enable more conclusive evidence.

KV, Nandakumar; Duraisamy, Karthickeyan; Balakrishnan, Shibu; M, Sunilkumar; S, Jaya Sankar; Sagili, Karuna D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; MV, Ajay Kumar; Enarson, Donald A.

2013-01-01

148

A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Methods Children ?16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. Results The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3–50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9% 95% CI: 11.6–26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7% 95% CI: 2.9–12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1% 95% CI: 2.4–11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Discussion Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

2012-01-01

149

Isolation and characterization of oil degrading bacteria from oil contaminated soils of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Oil contaminated soils were collected from oil grinding mill, automobile service stations, and restaurant waste dumping sites of Vellore district for the isolation of oil degrading bacteria. Out of 78 Colony Forming Units, only 16 were found to be potent bacteria. 8 biggest clear zone forming bacteria on trybutyrin plates were studied for their colony morphology and the most potential oil degrader bacteria was then chosen for microbial and biochemical assay. The study showed the most prospective bacteria were Bacillus subtilis with the dimension of 3.45 microm x 0.2 microm. This "microbial oil-destroyer" produces extracellular lipase which utilizes oil, and hence it can be used for the self remediation of lipid contaminated soils and water bodies. PMID:21114118

Rajan, Anand Prem

2010-04-01

150

A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors.  

PubMed

An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of abandoned wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of abandoned wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection. PMID:20003288

Sharma, Puran K; Ramanchandran, Ramakrishnan; Hutin, Yvan J; Sharma, Raju; Gupte, Mohan D

2009-12-10

151

A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of abandoned wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of abandoned wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection.

2009-01-01

152

The Coexistence of Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Disability in Children Aged 3-18 Years in the Barwani District, India  

PubMed Central

Background. The coexistence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID) is common. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID in Barwani, India. Method. A total of 262 children with ID were evaluated for psychiatric disorders using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Psychiatric disorders appeared in study participants at the following rates: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6.5%; autism, 4.2%; anxiety, 2.7%; bipolar disorder, 1.1%; delusional disorder, 0.8%; depression, 2.3%; obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.8%; schizophrenia, 1.9%; enuresis, 10.3%; epilepsy, 23.7%; and behavioral problems, 80.9%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was statistically higher in severely intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 49) than mildly intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 50). Conclusions. There is a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID when their IQ ? 49 compared with ID children whose IQ ? 50.

2013-01-01

153

Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study.

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

2013-01-01

154

Antitumour activity of some plants from Meghalaya and Mizoram against murine ascites Dalton's lymphoma.  

PubMed

Total five plants, three from Mizoram (Dillenia pentagyna, Ageratum conyzoides, Blumea lanceolaria) and two from Meghalaya (Potentilla fulgens, Taxus baccata) were studied for their antitumour activity against murine ascites Dalton's lymphoma (DL) in vivo. Only three plants showed the different magnitude of antitumour activity. Out of these three plants, the antitumour activity was maximally observed with the methanol extract of the stem bark of D. pentagyna as compared to the aqueous extract of the roots of A. conyzoides and aqueous extract of the root of P. fulgens. An increase in glutathione levels in Dalton's lymphoma cells was observed during tumour growth. Changes in glutathione and protein levels were also investigated in the liver and Dalton's lymphoma cells of tumour-bearing mice following the treatment with the extract of D. pentagyna which showed the highest antitumour activity as compared to the other two plant extracts. Glutathione in the liver and DL cells of treated tumour-bearing mice was found to be decreased. The protein concentration in liver and DL cells decreased mainly at 96 hr of treatment. It may be concluded that the natural product of D. pentagyna promises to be more active against Dalton's lymphoma than others and the decrease in glutathione level may be one of the important steps in resulting this antitumour effect. PMID:15511001

Rosangkima, G; Prasad, S B

2004-10-01

155

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

156

Factors Associated with Morbidities Among Infants in Three Sub Centre Areas of Belgaum District of South India: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health status of infants is a sensitive indicator of development and factors influencing it need to be better understood. Objectives: This study was conducted to search for factors associated with morbidity among infants and to find out their influence on weight gain during infancy. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was undertaken in south India from November 2004 till April 2006. A birth cohort of all children born during first 6 months of the study period were assessed at enrollment and followed up monthly till they attained 1 year of age. Results: Incidence of morbidity among infants was found to be least among those exclusively breast fed (EBF) for 6 months and most when EBF for less than 6 months (P = 0.045). It was also more when infants were weaned with a combination of animal milk, formula milk, semi-solids and solid diet and least when weaned only with semi-solids and solids (P = 0.018). Diarrheal episodes were more in infants who were bottle-fed (P < 0.001). Weight gain between 6th and 12th month of infancy was found to be significantly affected by various morbidities (P = 0.001). Incidence of morbidities was less among preterm babies and more among partially immunized (P < 0.001) babies with birth order ? 3 (P = 0.012), babies of mothers with low socio-economic and educational status. Delayed milestones during infancy was seen more in babies with history of birth asphyxia (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Several factors influenced incidence of morbidities and these morbidities had a negative effect on weight gain. Hence these factors need to be addressed to promote better child health.

Joseph, Nitin; Naik, Vijaya A; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Mallapur, Mahesh; Kotian, Shashidhar M

2013-01-01

157

Observed variability and trends in extreme temperature indices and rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India—a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trends and variability in extreme temperature indices and its impact on rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India, which is part of the middle Indo-Gangetic Basin. Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was employed for detection of trend and Sen slope was determined to quantify the magnitude of such trends. We have analyzed 10 extreme temperature indices for monthly and seasonally. The influence of extreme temperature indices on rice-wheat productivity was determined using correlation analysis. As far as Patna is concerned, if the number of cool days during September ?10, the rice productivity will increase due to the availability of sufficient duration to fill up the grain. However, higher warm days during all the months except June will affect the productivity. A significant negative correlation was noticed between maximum value of minimum temperature during September and rice productivity. Highly significant positive correlation was noticed between number of cool days during September with rice productivity while it was highly significant negative correlation in the case of number of warm days during the same month. As far as Samastipur is concerned, a negative correlation was noticed between wheat productivity and maximum value of maximum temperature (TXx) during February, but not statistically significant. The higher temperature may affect the kernel weight and thereby yield. It is seen that a critical value of TXx ?29.2 °C will be harmful to wheat crop during February. A significant positive correlation of number of cool nights with wheat productivity also supports the above relationship. The critical values of extreme temperature indices during rice and wheat growing months provide an indicator to assess the vulnerability of rice-wheat productivity to temperature for Patna and Samastipur districts and there is a need to prepare an adaptive strategy and also develop thermo-insensitive rice-wheat high yielding varieties suitable for this region to sustain rice-wheat productivity under projected climate change situation.

Subash, N.; Singh, S. S.; Priya, Neha

2013-01-01

158

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

159

Limited access to iodized salt among the poor and disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (> or = 15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of < or = US$ 10 (PR: 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8). Those who heard and were aware of the risk of iodine-deficiency disorders and of the benefit of iodized salt were more likely to use appropriate salt (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Those who were aware of the ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of > or = 15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population. PMID:20824980

Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

2010-08-01

160

Hydrochemistry and evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in the Markandeya River basin, Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India.  

PubMed

Markandeya River basin stretches geographically from 15°56' to 16°08' N latitude and 74°37' to 74°58' E longitude, positioned in the midst of Belgaum district, in the northern part of Karnataka. Since the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation in India is variable from place to place, groundwater quality in the Markandeya River basin was evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes by collecting 47 open and bore-well samples during the post-monsoon period of 2008. The quality assessment was made by estimating pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, and alkalinity besides major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), F-, and NO3-). Based on these analyses, irrigation quality parameters like, sodium absorption ratio, %Na, residual sodium carbonate, residual sodium bicarbonate, chlorinity index, soluble sodium percentage, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelley's ratio, magnesium hazard/ratio, index of base exchange, and exchangeable sodium ratio were calculated. According to Gibbs' ratio, majority of water samples fall in the rock dominance field. The groundwater samples were categorized as normal chloride (95.75%), normal sulfate (95.75%), and normal bicarbonate (61.70%) water types based on Cl, SO4, and HCO3 concentrations. Based on the permeability index, majority of the samples belongs to classes 1 and 2, suggesting the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. The negative index of base exchange indicates the existence of chloro-alkaline disequilibrium (indirect base exchange reaction) existing in majority of the samples (68.08%) from the study area. PMID:20237840

Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K; Angami, Mhasizonuo

2010-03-17

161

Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in tsunami survivors of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Context: In this study, we assessed the relation of possible risk factors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the survivors of December 2004 tsunami in Kanyakumari district. Materials and Methods: We identified cases (n=158) and controls (n=141) by screening a random sample of 485 tsunami survivors from June 2005 to October 2005 using a validated tool, “Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R),” for symptoms suggestive of PTSD. Subjects whose score was equal to or above the 70th percentile (total score 48) were cases and those who had score below or equal to 30th percentile (total score 33) were controls. Analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences to find the risk factors of PTSD among various pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PTSD was related to female gender [odds ratio (OR) 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.26-12.39], age 40 years and above (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.63), injury to self (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.55-5.67), injury to family members (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.15), residence in urban area (area of maximum destruction) (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.35-8.41) and death of close relatives (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.91-7.68). Absence of fear of recurrence of tsunami (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60), satisfaction of services received (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92) and counseling services received more than three times (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) had protective effect against PTSD. Conclusions: There is an association of pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors with PTSD, which demands specific interventions at all phases of disaster, with a special focus on vulnerable groups.

Pyari, T. T.; Kutty, Raman V.; Sarma, P. S.

2012-01-01

162

Cambial activity and annual rhythm of xylem production of elephant apple tree ( Dillenia indica Linn.) in relation to phenology and climatic factor growing in sub-tropical wet forest of northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationship between phenological events, climatic factors, periodicity of cambial activity and seasonal production\\u000a of xylem was examined in Dillenia indica L. (Dilleniaceae) growing in sub-tropical wet forest of Meghalaya state, India. The reactivation of cambial activity was\\u000a seen in the first week of May, 15 days after sprouting of new leaves and buds. The activity of cambium and xylem

N. Venugopal; M. G. Liangkuwang

2007-01-01

163

Some Aspects of the Suitability of High Yielding Rice and Bajra Varieties for the Small Farm, Thanjavur and Mehsana Districts, India. (IN-633.18-S346).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to evaluate farmers' response to the new rice and bajra varieties, the Indian Institute of Management at Ahmedabad undertook an intensive study of two districts--Mehsana District in Gujarat for a study of hybrid bajra, and Thanjavur District in T...

M. G. G. Schulter R. W. Longhurst

1972-01-01

164

Risk of Financing Agriculture in the North-Eastern Hill Region of India with Special Reference to Meghalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study pertains to the economic issues of risk and uncertainties associated with financing hill agriculture from the twin angles of risk of farmers to utilize the credit and of bankers to disburse the agricultural loan. The issues discussed are: first, why the financial institutions are reluctant to lend agricultural advances? Second, whether the farm income or rate of return

Subhasis Mandal; K. K. Datta; Suchitra Mohanty; B. K. Mahapatra

2005-01-01

165

Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages. PMID:22684811

Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

2012-06-12

166

Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

2010-07-23

167

Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Central India, an area where chloroquine has been replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

India contributes greatly to the global incidence of malaria. The factors influencing malaria in India are highly diverse and vary greatly from the epidemiological setting of any other country. Central India is the most vulnerable area to malaria in India. This study was carried out in three community health centres in Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Dindori District is

Neeru Singh; Man M. Shukla; Gyan Chand; Praveen K. Bharti; Mrigendra P. Singh; Mohan K. Shukla; Rajiv K. Mehra; Ravendra K. Sharma; Aditya P. Dash

2011-01-01

168

Morbidity profile of paediatric inpatents at a community health centre and a nearby [correction of near by] district hospital in northern India.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to ascertain the morbidity profile among children by retrospective review of inpatient data of children admitted to Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP), Ballabgarh, a model CHC and Badshah Khan (B.K.) hospital, Faridabad, a district hospital over a period of one year. Diarrhea and pneumonia comprised 64% of all admissions at the model CHC and 30% at the district hospital. Thalassemics requiring blood transfusion formed 21% of inpatients at the district hospital. Common paediatric ailments can be managed appropriately at CHC level, provided the infrastructure as recommended by Indian Public Health sandards for CHC under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is available. The blood bank or blood storage facility at a CHC is desirable. PMID:18240477

Verma, S; Rai, S K; Kant, S; Choudhury, K

169

Initial Observation on Impact of Changing Climate on NTFP Resources and Livelihood Opportunities in Sheopur District of Madhya Pradesh (Central India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though India has emerged, both economically and politically, as one of the global players, still it is the home of third of the world's poor country where forests sustain the survival of millions of population. This paper narrate a case which amplify the scientific and economic evidences by demonstrating the risk of climate impact to most vulnerable primitive tribal group

Prodyut Bhattacharya; Ram Prasad

2009-01-01

170

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water using multivariate statistical techniques in an industrial area: A case study from Patancheru, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of different multivariate statistical approaches for the interpretation of data obtained during a monitoring programme of surface and groundwater in Patancheru industrial town near Hyderabad (India) is presented in this study. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields

Aradhi K. Krishna; M. Satyanarayanan; Pradip K. Govil

2009-01-01

171

From Where Are Tuberculosis Patients Accessing Treatment in India? Results from a Cross-Sectional Community Based Survey of 30 Districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) notification in India by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) provides information on TB patients registered for treatment from the programme. There is limited information about the proportion of patients treated for TB outside RNTCP and where these patients access their treatment.ObjectivesTo estimate the proportion of patients accessing TB treatment outside the RNTCP and to identify their

Srinath Satyanarayana; Sreenivas Achutan Nair; Sarabjit Singh Chadha; Roopa Shivashankar; Geetanjali Sharma; Subhash Yadav; Subrat Mohanty; Vishnuvardhan Kamineni; Nevin Charles Wilson; Anthony David Harries; Puneet Kumar Dewan

2011-01-01

172

Resource Constraints in the North Eastern States A Comparative Study of Meghalaya and Nagaland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The north eastern states of India have, of late, developed a ‘dependency syndrome’—as is evident from an explosive cycle of public expenditure growth in most of the states of the region—coupled with an increasing demand for grants-in-aid and other central assistance to bridge the gap of large budgetary deficits. The inadequacy in generating their own sources of revenue to meet

Biswambhara Mishra; P Srinivasa Suresh

2006-01-01

173

Genetic diversity of hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency, and ABO and Rhesus blood groups in two isolates of a primitive Kharia Tribe in Sundargarh District of Northwestern Orissa, India.  

PubMed

Tribal communities constitute about 8.2% of the total population of India. Their health needs are even larger than elsewhere in India; this study investigates the genetic diversity in relation to hemoglobinopathies, G6PD deficiency and, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in two sects, i.e. Dudh (converted Christian) and Dhelki (Hinduised) Kharia, a primitive tribe in Sundargarh district of Orissa in Central-Eastern India. A randomized screening of 767 Kharia tribals (377 males and 390 females) belonging to all age groups and both sexes was done. Laboratory analysis was carried out following the standard methodology and techniques. Contrasting differences were observed in the frequency of hematological genetic disorders such as ?-thalassemia, sickle cell, hemoglobin E, G6PD deficiency, ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups between the two subgroups. Dudh Kharia had no hemoglobin variant allele other than the high prevalence of ?-thalassemia trait (8.1%), whereas, their counterpart Dhelki Kharia had the high prevalence of sickle cell allele (12.4%), hemoglobin E allele (3.2%), and ?-thalassemia allele (4.0%). Frequency distribution of hemoglobin variants between Dudh and Dhelki Kharia tribe was statistically highly significant (p?

Balgir, R S

2010-09-01

174

IMPROVING BACKYARD POULTRY-KEEPING: A CASE STUDY FROM INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project has been investigating the production problems facing backyard poultry-keepers in two locations in rural India, Udaipur District in Rajasthan and Trichy District in Tamil Nadu, and seeking to work with poultry- keepers to address some of them. Backyard poultry-keeping is a significant livelihood activity for many poor rural families in India, and for women in particular. A

Dinesh Shindey; L. R. Singh; A. Natarajan; K. Anitha

175

Effect of skill on work productivity and physical body dimensions of the Oraon tea garden labourers of the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Skill is one of the factors influencing labour productivity of manual labour. The present study aims to find out the possible relationship between skill and productivity and between skill and physical body dimension among the tea garden labourers of Northern West Bengal, India. Skill was measured by indigenously devised test protocols developed only for this purpose. Productivity or labour output was measured in terms of amount of tea leaves (in weight) plucked in a day by an individual. Physical body dimension was recorded in terms of a list of anthropometric traits. The results show an inconsistent relationship between skill and productive output and a non-significant relationship between skill and physical body dimensions. However, there are some trends that skill is high in younger individuals and low skill in females is associated with relatively high fat accumulation in the body. PMID:16402595

Roy, Subrata K; Mozumdar, Arupendra; Kar, Sujata

2005-12-01

176

Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of any life support system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study was confined to the coastal belt of Alappuzha district, which lies in the coastal lowland division of Kerala. Groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purpose were examined by various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride. These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purpose by comparing with the WHO and Indian standards. TDS, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and permeability index were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The sample analysis reveals that the groundwater is not entirely fit for drinking with respect to pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Cl-. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Based on TDS and SAR almost all samples are suitable for irrigation purpose except a few locations, which show values beyond the permissible limits. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant water type in the study area. The sequence of the abundance of the major cations and anions is Ca > Na > Mg > K = HCO3 > Cl > SO4. Based on the total hardness and TDS, 96 % of groundwater samples are found suitable for drinking purpose.

Sarath Prasanth, S. V.; Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gangadhar, K.

2012-09-01

177

Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda. PMID:23892716

Raghu, V

2013-07-30

178

Prevalence, molecular fingerprinting and drug resistance profile of enterovirulent Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging yaks of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Of 273 samples (rectal swab) collected from free-ranging yaks of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh, 42 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), six enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and 27 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains were isolated. All the STEC and EPEC strains were further investigated for respective stx variants (for STEC only) and additional putative virulence factors. The 27 ETEC strains were also screened for characteristic enterotoxin gene(s) and colonization factors. Occurrence of ETEC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the diarrheic yaks and yaks of less than 1 year of age. Majority of enterovirulent E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Dendrogram, constructed with molecular fingerprinting profiles obtained from RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus) PCR, placed the isolates in different clusters irrespective of their serotypes, virulence gene and drug resistance pattern. Collectively, the study indicates that yaks, being a potential reservoir of multidrug resistant STEC and EPEC, may represent significant risk to public health in this region. Higher recovery of ETEC isolates from yaks with diarrhea points out that ETEC may be a major determinant for repeated occurrence of diarrhea in yaks. PMID:22228494

Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Lodh, Chandan; Sarkar, Mihir; Ghosh, Monoj K; Bera, Asit K; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Mondal, Dipak K; Baruah, Kishore K

2012-01-07

179

Fluoride incidence in groundwater in an area of Peninsular India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater samples were collected from Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The district is mainly underlain by Peninsular Gneisses of Archaean age. The samples were analysed for fluoride (F -) along with other chemical parameters. The results suggest that the main sources of F - in groundwater in the district are the country rocks, in which fluorine is strongly absorbed in

N. Subba Rao; D. John Devadas

2003-01-01

180

Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Prasanna, M. V.; Vasanthavihar, M.; Peter, John; Anandhan, P.

2008-02-01

181

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2011-01-06

182

Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows seasonal fluctuations and these spatial patterns of physical and chemical constituents are useful in deciding water use strategies for various purposes.

Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

2007-09-01

183

Geothermal district heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

1982-06-01

184

Geothermal district heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01

185

Geothermal district heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating\\/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

G. S. Budney; F. Childs

1982-01-01

186

Is the HIV burden in India being overestimated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The HIV burden estimate for India has a very wide plausibility range. A recent population-based study in a south Indian district demonstrated that the official method used in India to estimate HIV burden in the population, which directly extrapolates annual sentinel surveillance data from large public sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, led to a 2–3 times

Lalit Dandona; Vemu Lakshmi; G Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona

2006-01-01

187

Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes.MethodsFirst round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider,

Lakshmi Ramakrishnan; Abhishek Gautam; Prabuddhagopal Goswami; Srinivasan Kallam; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar; Banadakoppa M Ramesh; Guy Morineau; Bitra George; Ramesh S Paranjape

2010-01-01

188

Geothermal District Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling...

G. S. Budney F. Childs

1982-01-01

189

A Study on Healthcare Infrastructure for Children in KarnatakaA District-wise Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this article is to take stock of the overall healthcare infrastructure for children in the district hospitals in the state of Karnataka. Governmental healthcare initiative in India can be traced back to the year 1951. Interestingly, India was the only country in the world to launch a Family Planning Programme intended to reduce population growth. This

C. M. Lakshmana

2010-01-01

190

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display a

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

191

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

: What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

192

Greater India  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

2005-01-01

193

Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in District Bharatpur, Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a public health problem in India. A ban on the sale of uniodised salt for household consumption has been introduced in Rajasthan State since 1992. The presen study was conducted in the district of Bharatpur, Rajasthan with the objective to assess the prevalence of iodine disorders in school children as no data is available on

Umesh Kapil; Preeti Singh; Priyali Pathak; Charan Singh

194

Rural Infrastructure, the Settlement System, and Development of the Regional Economy in Southern India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study couples economic theory on consumer behavior with geographic theory on spatial organization to provide insight on rural infrastructure policy in the North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu, India. It finds that available and accessible services help ...

S. Wanmali

1992-01-01

195

Live fencing practices in the tribal dominated eastern ghats of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live fencing, an age old and traditional agroforestry practice, remains relatively less understood and least documented at least in India. Exploratory surveys conducted in the northern part of the Eastern ghat region of India covering five districts of three states (Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chhatisgarh), indicated that traditional farmers have vast knowledge about their live fencing practices and the species

P. R. Choudhury; P. Rai; R. Sitaram

2005-01-01

196

Verbal autopsy of 80,000 adult deaths in Tamilnadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Registration of the fact of death is almost complete in the city of Chennai and not so in the rural Villupuram district in Tamilnadu, India. The cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate in developing countries like India. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult (aged ? 25 yrs) deaths in the

Vendhan Gajalakshmi; Richard Peto

2004-01-01

197

Got Water? Social Divisions and Access to Public Goods in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data for 436 rural districts from the 2001 Census of India to examine whether different aspects of social divisions help explain the wide variation in access to tap water across rural India. Studies linking social fragmentation to public goods usually aggregate different types of fragmentation into one index. In contrast, we use disaggregated measures of social fragmentation to

Divya Balasubramaniam; Santanu Chatterjee; David B. Mustard

2011-01-01

198

Got Water? Social Divisions and Access to Public Goods in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data for 436 rural districts from the 2001 Census of India to examine whether different aspects of social divisions help explain the wide variation in access to tap water across rural India. Studies linking social fragmentation to public goods usually aggregate different types of fragmentation into one index. In contrast, we use disaggregated measures of social fragmentation to

Divya Balasubramaniam; Santanu Chatterjee; David B. Mustard

2009-01-01

199

Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton is accused of being responsible for an increase of farmer suicides in India. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of evidence on Bt cotton and farmer suicides. Available data show no evidence of a ‘resurgence’ of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India. Nevertheless, in specific districts and years, Bt

Guillaume Gruère; Debdatta Sengupta

2011-01-01

200

Phylogenetic analysis of recent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates from Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease of pigs, is endemic in India. As there is no information concerning the accurate genetic typing of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates in India, 16 CSF viruses isolated during 2005–2007 from domestic pigs in different districts of Assam were typed in 5? UTR (150 nucleotides). To confirm the genetic typing

Dilip Kumar Sarma; Niranjan Mishra; Stefan Vilcek; Katherukamem Rajukumar; Sthita Pragnya Behera; Ram Kumar Nema; Pooja Dubey; Shiv Chandra Dubey

2011-01-01

201

Education and cancer incidence in a rural population in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Population-based studies describing the association between education and cancer incidence has not yet been reported from India. Methods: Information on the educational attainment of 4417 cancer cases aged 14 years and above, diagnosed during 2003–2006 in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India, was obtained from the Dindigul Ambilikkai Cancer Registry, which registers invasive cancer cases by active methods from 102

Rajaraman Swaminathan; Ramanujam Selvakumaran; Jissa Vinodha; Jaques Ferlay; Catherine Sauvaget; Pulikattil Okkuru Esmy; Viswanathan Shanta; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

2009-01-01

202

Vulnerability and Coping to Disasters: A Study of Household Behaviour in Flood Prone Region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to understand the various risks faced by households living in disaster prone regions of rural India and specifically examine the effectiveness of coping mechanisms adopted by households living in these areas to hedge against the risks. The study area (districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India) is highly susceptible to floods with a major flood occurring every ten

Unmesh Patnaik

2010-01-01

203

Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

2009-01-01

204

Mineralogical study of some arsenic contaminated soils of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five arsenic affected soil profiles, one each from Ghentugachhi and Gotera village of Chakdah block, Gayeshpur, Kalyani block, Nadia district; Ramnagar village of Baruipur block and Sonarpur mouza of Sonarpur block of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India covering the soils of Typic Haplustepts, Typic Endoaquepts, Vertic Haplustepts and Aquic Haplustepts respectively have been studied for their detail

A. K. Ghosh; D. Sarkar; P. Bhattacharyya; U. K. Maurya; D. C. Nayak

2006-01-01

205

Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified…

Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

2009-01-01

206

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

207

Comparative efficacies of artemisinin combination therapies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes in tea gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India.  

PubMed

In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I(51)R(59)N(108), with pfdhps, G(437) and/or E(540). The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. PMID:22314538

Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K; Ray, Krishnangshu; Maji, Ardhendu K

2012-02-06

208

Rationalization of milk procurement, processing and marketing in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental efforts for animal production systems in India started with organized milk procurement, processing and marketing. Most rural areas around Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka state are covered by an organized dairy development program. Parallel to this organized sector, the unorganized (informal) dairy sector also functions with different strategies. This study compared the cost of procurement\\/distribution of the organized

John De Boer; J. Sitaramaswamy

1995-01-01

209

Economic Development, Gender Inequality, and Demographic Outcomes: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality, and female disadvantage in child survival in India, using a district-level panel data set linking 1981 and 1991 censuses. The results question the dominant view that variables directly related to women's agency (specifically, the female literacy rate and the female labor force participation rate) have played the crucial roles here. Instead,

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

210

Economic Development, Gender Inequality and Demographic Outcomes: Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the determinants of fertility, child mortality and female disadvantage in child survival in India, using a district-level panel data set linking 1981 and 1991 censuses. The results of the paper, inter alia, question the dominant view in this area which asserts that it is variables directly relating to women’s agency (specifically, the female literacy rate and the

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

2004-01-01

211

Heavy metal content of black teas from south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea is the most popular beverage in the world. Since tea contains several essential nutrients, drinking of tea is considered beneficial for human health. The presence of heavy metals in trace level in tea has received special attention because they are directly related to health. A basket survey was conducted in the tea districts of south India to generate a

Subbiah Seenivasan; Natarajan Manikandan; Narayanan Nair Muraleedharan; Rajagopal Selvasundaram

2008-01-01

212

Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.Design Paired cluster randomised controlled trial designed to detect a 50% reduction in incidence of Leishmania donovani infection.Setting Villages in Muzaffarpur district in India and Saptari, Sunsari, and Morang districts in Nepal.Participants 13 intervention and

Albert Picado; Shri Prakash Singh; Suman Rijal; Shyam Sundar; Bart Ostyn; François Chappuis; Surendra Uranw; Kamlesh Gidwani; Basudha Khanal; Madhukar Rai; Ishwari Sharma Paudel; Murari Lal Das; Rajiv Kumar; Pankaj Srivastava; Jean Claude Dujardin; Veerle Vanlerberghe; Elisabeth Wreford Andersen; Clive Richard Davies; Marleen Boelaert

2010-01-01

213

School District Energy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

214

Do School Districts Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school…

Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

2013-01-01

215

District energy growth  

SciTech Connect

Utility competition is heating up as utilities focus attention back to district energy after turning away from it for decades after World War II. Utilities are re-entering the district energy business by forming non-regulated district energy subsidiaries. Trigen Energy Corp., as the largest commercial owner and operator of community district energy systems in North America, defines the district heating and cooling (DHC) growth trend of systems being taken over, upgraded and expanded. These trends gather momentum with the economic attractions that have propelled DHC for the past decade and more. With DHC, a building owner worries less about maintenance and can operate with a smaller workforce for maintenance. Heating and cooling systems operate more reliably. Trigen`s Trenton plant, producing electricity, heating and cooling, recovers 66 percent of input energy - more than double the efficiency of conventional electric generation. Yet, it produces less than one-half the pollutants of conventional generation.

Seeley, R.S.

1995-11-01

216

Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of\\u000a central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources\\u000a of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as\\u000a a function of various physicochemical and

Prashant N. Rajankar; Dilip H. Tambekar; Satish R. Wate

2011-01-01

217

Deccan Volcanism, Climate Change and the KT Mass Extinction across India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan Trap eruptions occurred over a relatively short time period coinciding with the KT mass extinction. Here we present results based multiproxies data from intertrappean sediments located at Anjar, Kutch, western India, Jhilmili, Madhya Pradesh, central India, and Rajahmundry, SE India. We compare these results with a KT sequence in Meghalya, NE India, about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province. Intertrappean sediments at Anjar consist mainly of lacustrine sediments and exhibit at least three PGE anomalies with high Pd contents but only one with a significant Ir enrichment. The presence of dinosaurs eggshells and bone fragments above the Ir anomaly implies an upper Maastrichtian age for these sediments. Thus, the PGE anomalies do not coincide with the KT boundary, nor are they of cosmic origin because normalized PGE values suggest a flood basalt origin. Clay minerals consist mainly of smectite and palygorskite and reflect semi-arid conditions, probably linked to higher surface temperatures on a young volcanic landscape subjected to effusive volcanic activity. In the Rajhamundry area, two Deccan basalt flows, known as the Rajahmundry traps, mark the most extensive lava flows extending 1000 km across the Indian continent. The sediments directly overlying the lower trap contain the earliest Danian planktic foraminifera of zones P0-P1a and mark the initial evolution in the aftermath of the KT mass extinction. The upper trap was deposited during zone P1b corresponding to the lower part of magnetic polarity C29n. Sedimentological, mineralogical data reveal that deposition occurred in a shallow estuarine to inner neritic environment with periods of subaerial deposition marked by paleosoils. Clay minerals consist exclusively of smectite, typical of vertisoil developed under semi-arid conditions. Outcrop correlation reveals an incised valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT boundary at or close to the lower trap basalt in C29R and the upper trap near the C29R/C29N transition. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial, semi-humid to arid environments. But a short aquatic interval (<60 ky) of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow coastal marine conditions with brackish marine ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval close to the KT boundary. Similar to Rajahamundry, clays from paleosoils consist exclusively of smectite and indicate semi-arid conditions. In Meghalaya to the northeast, the K-T transition consists of Upper Cretaceous sediments dominated by sandstone, shale, sandy shale and rare coal layers, which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental reliefs. The KTB is characterized by major PGE anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). Contrary to the sections located in the Deccan traps area, dominant kaolinite in clay mineral assemblages indicates high humidity and high runoff, which is likely linked with increased warming (greenhouse effect) due to Deccan activity on the mainland. The contemporaneous semi-arid climate conditions that are observed in the Deccan Traps province are not observed in Meghalaya and therefore appear to be restricted to areas of volcanic activity.

Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.; Silvia, G.; Annachiara, B.; Brian, G.; Sunil, B.

2008-12-01

218

Systems for hazards identification in high mountain areas: An example from the Kullu District, western Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated\\u000a and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some\\u000a of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been

James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

2004-01-01

219

A comparative analysis of some aspects of the training and visit system of agricultural extension in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article utilises recent farm survey data to assess the performance of the Training and Visit Extension system in one district in the state of Haryana (India) compared to a neighbouring district covered by an older extension system. The data show a significantly higher level of village?level extension activity in the area covered by Training and Visit Extension, and this

Gershon Feder; Roger Slade

1986-01-01

220

Towards patient-centered health services in India--a scale to measure patient perceptions of quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. (i) To develop a reliable and valid scale to measure in-patient and outpatient perceptions of quality in India and (ii) to identify aspects of perceived quality which have large effects on patient satisfaction. Design. Cross-sectional survey of health facilities and patients at clinics. Setting. Primary health centers, community health centers, district hospitals, and female district hospitals in the state

KRISHNA DIPANKAR RAO; DAVID H. PETERS; KAREN BANDEEN-ROCHE

2006-01-01

221

Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Himalayan Environmental Studies and Conservation Organization, Dehradun 248 001, India Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this

K. Shivanna; K. Tirumalesh; J. Noble; T. B. Joseph; Gursharan Singh; A. P. Joshi; V. S. Khati

222

District Office Code  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... GEORGIA 20000--20599, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 20600--21999, MARYLAND 22000--24699, VIRGINIA 24700--26899, WEST VIRGINIA, BLT. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

223

Geothermal district G1  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

Not Available

1988-12-01

224

What does it mean to empower informationally the local government!—designing an information system for a district level development administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An information system that empowers information agents having a stake in the development of a district government is discussed in this research. It analyses the case of a district administration in India who has implemented a browser based system. This system has information asymmetry and organisational capture as its goals; and it employs a few structural elements such as an

Parthasarathi Banerjee

2001-01-01

225

Disaster Response in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is prone to natural and man-made disasters. The number has been increasing every year because of the mixture of various factors such as adverse weather, population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. How the Republic of India organizes for ...

J. G. Turbiville P. Singh W. W. Mendel

2000-01-01

226

Meet India's Urban Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to be a culminating activity after seventh grade social studies students have studied India, this week-long lesson features autobiographical sketches of six teenagers from India. The lesson has three objectives: (1) to provide actual life stories of teenagers as a springboard for further research about the customs and culture of India;…

Scott, Gail

227

The India Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

2012-01-01

228

Diversity and cercarial shedding of malaco fauna collected from water bodies of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on the occurrence of snails in the water bodies of five selected sites i.e., Khed, Chiplun, Ratnagiri, Parchuri and Gimvi of district Ratnagiri, Maharashtra (India) was made during April–May 2006. The study revealed occurrence of nine species of snails viz., Indoplanorbis exustus, Lymnaea luteola, L. acuminata, Paludomus obesus, Ferrissia tenuis, Thiara (Melanoides) tuberculata, Bellamya bengalensis, B. dissimilis and

N. Pemola Devi; R. K. Jauhari

2008-01-01

229

Methane emissions in India: Sub-regional and sectoral trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and latest country specific emission factors to estimate Indian methane emissions at sectoral and district level for the years 1990, 1995, 2005 and 2008. The estimates show that while methane emissions have increased steadily over past two decades, their share in India’s aggregate GHG emissions has declined from 31% in 1985 to 27% in 2008 mainly due to relatively higher growth CO2 emissions from the fossil fuels. The estimates for the year 2008 show that: i) agriculture sector, which employed two-thirds of India’s population and contributed 17% of GDP, accounted for 23% of India’s GHG emissions ii) 83% of country’s methane emissions are contributed by enteric fermentation, manure use and rice production, and iii) methane emissions from urban solid waste are steadily rising over the past two decades; their share in aggregate methane emissions has reached 8%. Resting on the disaggregated emissions estimates, the paper argues for using geographical and sectoral flexibilities to develop a roadmap for mitigation of methane emissions for India.

Garg, Amit; Kankal, Bhushan; Shukla, P. R.

2011-09-01

230

India transformed: parsing India's “new” foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the collapse of the old economic order in India a dozen years ago, the outmoded methods New Delhi had employed for four decades to engage the world were no longer tenable. C. Raja Mohan, one of India's leading strategic thinkers, has traced the remarkable transformation in

Robert Hathaway

2003-01-01

231

Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India  

PubMed Central

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance.

CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

2010-01-01

232

Kinship institutions and sex ratios in India.  

PubMed

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

Chakraborty, Tanika; Kim, Sukkoo

2010-11-01

233

Public health in India: issues and challenges.  

PubMed

Health is determined not only by medical care but also by determinants outside the medical sector. Public health approach is to deal with all these determinants of health which requires multi sectoral collaboration and inter-disciplinary coordination. Although there have been major improvements in public health since 1950s, India is passing through demographic and environmental transition which is adding to burden of diseases. There is triple burden of diseases, viz. communicable, non-communicable and emerging infectious diseases. This high burden of disease, disability and death can only be addressed through an effective public health system. However, the growth of public health in India has been very slow due to low public expenditure on health, very few public health institutes in India and inadequate national standards for public health education. Recent years have seen efforts towards strengthening public health in India in the form of launch of NRHM, upgradation of health care infrastructure as per IPHS, initiation of more public health courses in some medical colleges and public health institutions and strengthening of public health functional capacity of states and districts under IDSP. PMID:21941042

Chauhan, L S

234

Ethanoveterinary Studies Amoung Farmers in Dindigul District Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The codified medical systems include Ayurveda, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa and Unani systems of medicine, with their sophisticated theoretical foundations. The vast knowledge in the codified traditions has been documented in tens of thousands of medical manuscripts. It is not commonly known that these systems cover all basic aspects and branches of medicine, from general medicine to specialised fields like

V. Balakrishnan; J. Philip Robinson; A. Manickasamy; K. C. Ravindran

235

Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected

R. Chakrabarti; A. R. Basu; J. Peterson; S. Misra

2004-01-01

236

India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster

2009-01-01

237

Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.  

PubMed

Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking. PMID:23505824

Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

2011-10-01

238

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...920.31: (a) District 1 shall include Butte, Sutter, and Yuba Counties. (b) District 2 shall include Tulare County. (c) District 3 shall include all counties within the production area not included in Districts 1 and...

2013-01-01

239

Competency: District Views from Southern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)|

Tyo, John

1979-01-01

240

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

241

Rightsizing a School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

2012-01-01

242

District-Level Downsizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

243

Districts Shun Stimulus Bids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2010-01-01

244

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

245

School District Spending.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

246

The District of Columbia's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The District of Columbia's Firearms Control Regulations Act of 1975 went into effect on 24 September 1976. It was the outgrowth of three more restrictive legislative proposals that had been introduced in 1975 and had two legislative objectives: (1) to reduce the potential of firearms- related crimes and (2) to monitor more effectively firearms' trafficking. In July 1980, the U.S.

Edward D. Jones

1981-01-01

247

A District's Journey to Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

Keeling, Mary

2009-01-01

248

FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE,…

Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

249

A District's Journey to Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

Keeling, Mary

2009-01-01

250

Potentilla fulgens (Family Rosaceae), a medicinal plant of north-east India: a natural anthelmintic?  

PubMed

The cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida and the trematode, Gastrothylax crumenifer were exposed to the ethanolic root peel extract of Potentilla fulgens, an antiparasitic local medicinal plant of Meghalaya, India, to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant. The parasites were incubated in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg crude alcoholic extract per ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at a temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Paralysis and death were observed at 2.00 ± 0.05 and 2.80 ± 0.06 h for the cestode and 1.21 ± 0.06 and 2.18 ± 0.04 h for the trematode parasites at the highest test concentration of the plant extract. The commercial anthelmintic, Praziquantel (PZQ) showed higher activity at the tested concentration (0.02 mg/ml). To further investigate the efficacy of the plant extract, vital tegumental enzymes of the parasite viz. Acid phosphatase (AcPase), Alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) and Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were studied. Quantitatively, the total enzyme activity of AcPase, AlkPase and ATPase was found to be reduced significantly by 69.20, 66.43 and 29.63% for R. echinobothrida and 47.96, 51.79 and 42.63% for G. crumenifer, respectively compared to the respective controls; histochemical study also showed reduction in the visible staining of the enzymes. The reference drug, PZQ also showed more or less similar effect like that of the plant extract. The result suggests that phytochemicals of P. fulgens have anthelmintic potential. PMID:21966126

Roy, Bishnupada; Swargiary, Ananta; Syiem, D; Tandon, V

2010-12-07

251

India’s middlemen: connecting by corrupting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of India’s corruption involves middlemen: go-betweens who bring citizens’ cases to the attention of state officials,\\u000a producing results – for a price. Citizens pay bribes, often for benefits for which they already qualify, and much (but not\\u000a all) of that money is passed on to officials by the middleman. On its face such arrangements would seem to benefit no

Jyoti Khanna; Michael Johnston

2007-01-01

252

Can India’s “literate” read?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a close look at India’s literacy rate by exploring whether the officially “literate” can read and at what\\u000a level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was\\u000a the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which

Brij Kothari; Tathagata Bandyopadhyay

2010-01-01

253

Religion and intensity of inbreeding in Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative random sample of 11,628 rural couples and 8,998 urban couples from North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu in South India are under follow up since 1969 in a study of inbreeding eflFects. This paper describes the level of inbreeding and its relationship to religion of the couples. Wright's F for autosomal genes in the rural and urban areas

P. S. S. Sundar Rao

1983-01-01

254

Ethnobiological notes on some tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 171 plant species used by the Nishis, the Hill M iris, the Sulungs, and the Apatanis of Lower Subansiri district\\u000a of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India; 12 animal species used by the Nishis were identified. Of the total plant species\\u000a recorded 38% of the total were leafy vegetables and 28% were edible fruits. Others were used for

A. K. Gangwar; P. S. Ramakrishnan

1990-01-01

255

Fungal diseases of fish in Nanak Sagar, Naini Tal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight zoosporic fungi viz.,Achlya debaryana, A. flagellata, A. klebsiana, Aphanomyces laevis, Saprolegnia diclina, S. ferax, S. parasitica, andPythium sp. were isolated from a large number of adult fishes of the speciesMastacembelus armatus, Mystus vitatus, Nandus nandus, Tor putitora andT. tor of Nanak Sagar reservoir in Naini Tal district, India. Species of the parasites and the hosts were different in their

R. D. Khulbe; Chandra Joshi; G. S. Bisht

1995-01-01

256

Tamil market: a spoken dialog system for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design process, results, and observations from a pilot user study for Tamil Market, a speech-driven agricultural query system, conducted in community centers in rural India. The primary users were rural villagers of varying degrees of literacy from three districts of Tamil Nadu. Preliminary findings from a Wizard-of-Oz field study show that rural villagers are

Madelaine Plauché; Madhu Prabaker

2006-01-01

257

Sexually transmitted infections in tribal populations of central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 17 tribal villages of the Kundam block of the Jabalpur district\\u000a of India. Individuals with sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes were enumerated and the specimens were collected for\\u000a the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, bacterial vaginosis and syphilis\\u000a sero-reactivity were diagnosed by standard microbiological techniques. Chlamydia infection was

V. G. Rao; A. Anvikar; D. Savargaonkar; J. Bhat

2009-01-01

258

Duffy blood group determinants and malaria in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fiftyeight Muria Gond subjects from Bastar district in Central India and 97 subjects from Delhi were typed\\u000a for Duffy blood group determinants, and their blood examined for malaria antibodies as well as for presence of malarial parasites.\\u000a We found the Duffy-negative phenotype in high prevalence among Muria Gonds, while in Delhi no subject was observed to be

Ishwar C. Verma; Archna Thakur

1993-01-01

259

Policing terrorism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policing terrorism in India is fraught with difficulty. India is a large, heterogeneous democracy that is surrounded by countries\\u000a experiencing their own intense problems with terrorism. The legal structure, inherited from the colonial past, is struggling\\u000a to cope with the demands placed upon it by a country of 1.1 billion. India is a federation and this also complicates the structures

Sandy Gordon

2008-01-01

260

Flood Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flood problems in India, regional variabilityof the problem, present status of the ongoing management measures, their effectiveness and futureneeds in flood management are covered. Flood problems in India are presented by four zonesof flooding, viz. (a) Brahmaputra River Basin, (b) Ganga River Basin, (c) North-WestRivers Basin, and (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin. Some special problems,related

P. K. Mohapatra; R. D. Singh

2003-01-01

261

Understanding India's Climate Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's total GHG emissions was 1,866 MtCO2e compared with China's total emissions at 7,234 MtCO2e; India's per-capita GHG emissions was 1.7 MtCO2e compared with China's per-capita emissions at 5.5 MtCO2e. 3 Furthermore, India has declared that its per capita emissions will never exceed those of the developed countries. 4 This paper discusses four key factors that help explain India's current

Noriko Fujiwara; Christian Egenhofer

2010-01-01

262

Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

2012-07-05

263

Postcards from India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…

Sahni, Urvashi

1999-01-01

264

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

265

India and Asean  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 29 years of operation, the Association of South?east Asian Nations is the most successful experiment in Third World regionalism. Yet it was only in December 1995 that India became a full dialogue partner of the grouping. Initially ambivalent, India's enthusiasm grew from 1971 onwards but its political stance in the region, particularly over Cambodia, delivered a set?back to the

Kripa Sridharan

1996-01-01

266

Nutrition transition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this review is to examine the demographic and nutrition transition in India in relation to its contribution to the emerging epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in this country. Setting: India, the country as a whole and its different states with a population exceeding 1 billion in 2001. Subjects: The review examines demographic changes in the

Prakash S Shetty

2002-01-01

267

Scientific ballooning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the scientific ballooning activities in India is presented in this paper. The capabilities of the National Balloon Facility (NBF) at Hyderabad in India which designs, fabricates and launches balloons as well as provides tracking and data acquisition facilities, are described. A summary of the successful balloon flights carried out in last four years for scientific experiments, is

P. C. Agrawal; S. Sreenivasan; J. V. Subba Rao

2002-01-01

268

GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of hybrid seeds in India has doubled the yield of foodgrains. The High Yielding Variety Seed Program (H.V.P.) has contributed to serious interregional disparities in agriculture. Surplus production of foodgrains is not the true measure of success of the Green Revolution; many areas in India remain unaffected by this program, and are still vulnerable to famines.

A. K. CHAKRAVARTI

1973-01-01

269

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

270

Information Sources and Communication Channels Related to Farm Practice Adoption in Central India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's main purpose was to identify and describe the roles played by various information sources and communication channels used by Sehore farmers in the adoption of four improved agricultural practices in U.P. District of India. A sample of randomly picked 200 farmers was interviewed by questionnaire. Of the five information sources studied,…

Sharma, D. K.; Leagans, J. Paul

271

Determinants of educational performance in India: Role of home and family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impacts of family and pupil characteristics on children's academic learning in primary schools in India. The present study focuses on the children who have dropped out before completing primary schooling. The study is based on a random sample of two hundred children from twenty villages in two districts in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south

Uday Desai

1991-01-01

272

Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the wealth of medicinal plants used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Apatani have traditionally settled in seven villages in the Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region of India. The present study has resulted in the documentation of 158 medicinal plant species used by the Apatani group of

Chandra Prakash Kala

2005-01-01

273

Landslide risk analysis between Giri and Tons Rivers in Himachal Himalaya (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area around Sataun in the Sirmur district of Himachal Pradesh, India (falling between the rivers Giri and Tons; both tributaries of the Yamuna River) was studied for landslide vulnerability on behalf of the inhabitants. The study was made using extensive remote sensing data (satellite and airborne). It is well supported by field evidence, demographic and infrastructural details and aided

Piyoosh Rautela; Ramesh Chandra Lakhera

2000-01-01

274

A permineralized species of mangrove fern Acrostichum L. from Deccan Intertrappean beds of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrostichum intertrappeum sp. nov., a permineralized aerial stem with helically arranged petioles and roots in organic connection, is described from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Nawargaon, District Wardha, Maharashtra, India and forms the first and the oldest record of its kind. The stem is covered with a thick ramentum of large multicellular scales and is characterized by a three angled

S. D. Bonde; K. P. N. Kumaran

2002-01-01

275

Daughter Elimination in Tamil Nadu, India: A Tale of Two Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disturbing feature of demographic trends in India is the sharp decline in the proportion of girls to boys. Most existing analyses of the Indian child sex ratio present a country wide picture and focus on trends across states. Such state level analyses may hide intra state variation. This paper uses district and village data on sex ratio at birth

Sharada Srinivasan; Arjun Singh Bedi

2008-01-01

276

FOREST MALARIA IN CHHINDWARA, MADHYA PRADESH, CENTRAL INDIA: A CASE STUDY IN A TRIBAL COMMUNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitologic and entomologic cross-sectional surveys were carried out duringan outbreak of malaria between December 1998 and August 2000 in forest villages near the Mohkhed Primary Health Center in the Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh in central India. In December 1998, surveys showed that more than 70% of the fever cases had malaria, with 87% of the malaria caused by Plasmodium

NEERU SINGH; A. K. MISHRA; M. M. SHUKLA; S. K. CHAND

277

Optimal crop planning and water resources allocation in a coastal groundwater basin, Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive rice cultivation in a coastal groundwater basin in Balasore district of Orissa province (eastern India) during monsoon and winter seasons has resulted in extensive pumping of groundwater by a network of shallow, mini-deep and deep tubewells. Particularly, shallow tubewell owners using centrifugal pumps are unable to lift groundwater during winter seasons due to rapid drawdown of groundwater table below

Laxmi Narayan Sethi; Sudhindra N. Panda; Manoj K. Nayak

2006-01-01

278

The social context of risk and protection amongst young people and women in Churachandpur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reports on two community-based studies of the social context of risk and protection among youth and the impact of AIDS on women and their families in Manipur in Northeast India. The studies were conducted in Churachandpur town and surrounding districts with largely tribal popu lations. The state of Manipur has a high prevalence of HIV, which is mostly

S. M. Gifforda; N. Suanching; J. Tusing; V. L. Muana

279

Optimization of protease activity of alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from an alkaline lake in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaliphilic bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter isolated from sediment samples of the alkaline Lonar lake situated in the Buldhana District of Maharashtra State, India, were studied for the production of protease activity. Among the 54 isolates obtained, Arthrobacter ramosus and Bacillus alcalophilus exhibited high protease activity using soyacake as a sole source of carbon

P. P Kanekar; S. S Nilegaonkar; S. S Sarnaik; A. S Kelkar

2002-01-01

280

Labor Mobility, Market Integration, and Wage Convergence in Late 19th Century India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use district-level wage and food price data for the period 1873 to 1906 to investigate the impact of improvements in transportation on the price of labor in late 19th century India. Falling transport costs could have promoted regional wage convergence by facilitating both labor mobility and interregional commodity trade. There is, however, only qualified evidence of wage convergence in

William J. Collins

1999-01-01

281

Wives without husbands: Gendered vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections among previously married women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using population-based and family structural data from a high HIV-prevalence district of Southern India, this paper considers four suggested social scenarios used to explain the positive correlation between HIV prevalence and previously married status among Indian women: (1) infection from and then bereavement of an infected husband; (2) abandonment after husbands learn of their wives' HIV status; (3) economic instability

Kimberly Walters; Rakhi Dandona; Lawrence C. Walters; Vemu Lakshmi; Lalit Dandona; John A. Schneider

2012-01-01

282

Information Sources and Communication Channels Related to Farm Practice Adoption in Central India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study's main purpose was to identify and describe the roles played by various information sources and communication channels used by Sehore farmers in the adoption of four improved agricultural practices in U.P. District of India. A sample of randomly picked 200 farmers was interviewed by questionnaire. Of the five information sources…

Sharma, D. K.; Leagans, J. Paul

283

Knowledge for Teacher Development in India: The Importance of "Local Knowledge" for In-Service Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need to enhance the relevance and quality of pre- and in-service teacher education in India has long been recognised in official commentaries. Despite the structural innovation of District Institutes of Education and Training to enhance systemic responsiveness to local contexts, training messages mediated through DIETs are largely not having…

Dyer, Caroline; Choksi, Archana; Awasty, Vinita; Iyer, Uma; Moyade, Renu; Nigam, Neerja; Purohit, Neetu; Shah, Swati; Sheth, Swati

2004-01-01

284

Knowledge for teacher development in India: the importance of ‘local knowledge’ for in-service education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to enhance the relevance and quality of pre- and in-service teacher education in India has long been recognised in official commentaries. Despite the structural innovation of District Institutes of Education and Training to enhance systemic responsiveness to local contexts, training messages mediated through DIETs are largely not having the expected impact on classroom processes. Using qualitative data generated

Caroline Dyer; Archana Choksi; Vinita Awasty; Uma Iyer; Renu Moyade; Neerja Nigam; Neetu Purohit; Swati Shah; Swati Sheth

2004-01-01

285

The Summary Index of Malaria Surveillance (SIMS): a stable index of malaria within India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria in India has been difficult to measure. Mortality and morbidity are not comprehensively reported, impeding efforts to track changes in disease burden. However, a set of blood measures has been collected regularly by the National Malaria Control Program in most districts since 1958. METHODS: Here, we use principal components analysis to combine these measures into a single index,

Alan A Cohen; Neeraj Dhingra; Raju M Jotkar; Peter S Rodriguez; Vinod P Sharma; Prabhat Jha

2010-01-01

286

Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the

Mahtab S. Bamji; P. V. V. S. Murthy; Livia Williams; M. Vishnu; Vardhana Rao

287

The political economy of the Maoist conflict in India : an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to a burgeoning literature that uses sub-national micro data to identify the causes of civil conflicts. In particular, we study the Maoist\\/Naxalite conflict in India by constructing a comprehensive district level database using conflict data from four different terrorism databases and combining it with socioeconomic and geography data from myriad sources. In addition to exploiting the within

Joseph Flavian Gomes

2012-01-01

288

Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke: A New Record for the Kalakad –Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke, a plant of the Scrophulariaceae that is often reported to be parasitic on the roots of crop plants, has been reported for the first time from the Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve forest, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India. The specimen was collected from the Kakachi forest range.

Muthiah Maridass

2008-01-01

289

India’s Interactions with East Asia: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

India’s relations with countries of East Asia reveal its growing profile in the region in economic, technological, diplomatic, political and military spheres. India’s Look East policy, initiated in 1992, is bearing fruit now, as seen in the region becoming the largest trading partner of India, enhanced bilateral and multilateral diplomatic interactions, and long-term commitments in the security (maritime, cyber and

Srikanth Kondapalli

2010-01-01

290

Farmers' Training and Functional Literacy. A Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical report of the Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh, India presents the research procedures and statistical analysis for the previously published non-technical report of the study. The main study objectives were to obtain qualitative and quantitative measurements of attainment and…

Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

291

Farmers' Training and Functional Literacy. A Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technical report of the Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh, India presents the research procedures and statistical analysis for the previously published non-technical report of the study. The main study objectives were to obtain qualitative and quantitative measurements of attainment and…

Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

292

Assessment of Current Status of Fluorosis in North-Western Districts of Tamil Nadu Using Community Index for Dental Fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the countries where hydrofluorosis is a major public health problem, affecting 18 of the 33 constituent States of the Country. Tamil Nadu is one of the Southern states having 10 of the 29 districts affected with fluorosis. Fluorosis is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water contamination. A cross sectional study was undertaken

R. Hari Kumar; A. L. Khandare; G. N. V. Brahmam; K. Venkiah; Gal Reddy; B. Sivakumar

293

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

294

The incidence of soft tissue sarcoma in Dakshina Kannada: study in a District Government Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We present a retrospective study depicting the incidence and outcome of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) in patients admitted in\\u000a a District Government Hospital situated in coastal belt of Southern India for a period of four and a half years. The hospital\\u000a is a district referral centre catering to rural and urban poor population of 1,900,000 people.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Histologically proven soft tissue

Ashish Gupta; Harish K. Rao; Soumya Gupta

2009-01-01

295

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

296

Viral hepatitis in India.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies. PMID:17100109

Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

297

Advancing vaccinology in India.  

PubMed

India's inaugural Advanced Vaccinology Course, hosted by the Child Health Foundation and the International Clinical Epidemiology Network, attracted approximately 55 EPI managers and privately-practicing physicians from across the country. The comprehensive course provided training in epidemiology, disease surveillance, and vaccine safety and regulation. Core lectures highlighted vaccination trends, challenges, and innovations specific to India; 'Breakout Sessions' and the 'State-of-the-Art Lecture Series' complemented core course material. Overall, the course aimed to provide an advanced education in classic and topical areas of vaccinology to ensure that India has the tools and skills required to safely manage and grow its national immunization program. PMID:22149704

O'Brien, Jennifer

2012-01-01

298

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2009-01-01

299

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2013-01-01

300

7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 1: The counties of Bonneville, Butte...District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham...District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining...designated counties in Idaho included in the...

2010-01-01

301

Minneapolis District-Heating Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish ...

T. K. Stovall R. J. Borkowski M. A. Karnitz S. Strom K. Linwick

1981-01-01

302

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

303

Presumptions against School District Secession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While political philosophers have paid a great deal of attention to providing a theory of secession for cases of nations breaking away from nation-states, little has been said about perhaps the most common type of secession--school district secession. I argue that while there is no principled prohibition against school district secession, there…

Murray, Dale

2009-01-01

304

New Soviet Military District Formed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifteen military districts into which the Soviet Union is divided have recently been increased by the addition of one more-a sixteenth. This is the Central Asian Military District, the territory of which was taken from the extremely expansive Turkesta...

1970-01-01

305

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

306

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

307

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

308

Arsenic-enriched groundwaters of India, Bangladesh and Taiwan—Comparison of hydrochemical characteristics and mobility constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater has become a major global environmental disaster. Groundwater samples were collected from 64 sites located in the districts of 24-Parganas (S), and Nadia in West Bengal, India (Bhagirathi sub-basin), and 51 sites located in the districts of Comilla, Noakhali, Magura, Brahman baria, Laxmipur, Munshiganj, Faridpur and Jhenaida in Bangladesh (Padma-Meghna sub-basin). Groundwater samples were also

Jyoti Prakash Maity; Bibhash Nath; Chien-Yen Chen; Prosun Bhattacharya; Ondra Sracek; Jochen Bundschuh; Sandeep Kar; Roger Thunvik; Debashis Chatterjee; Kazi Matin Ahmed; Gunnar Jacks; Arun B. Mukherjee; Jiin-Shuh Jean

2011-01-01

309

A PALAEOCENE MANGIFERA - LIKE LEAF FOSSIL FROM INDIA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbornsed leaf compression is described from the Upper Palaeocene sediments of the Tura Formation near Damalgiri, West Garo Hills, Meghalaya. The leaf form and venation is comparable with Mangifera of Anacardiaceae and named, Eomangiferophyllum damalgiriensis gen. et sp. nov. This was determinC{) only after an ex.tensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several ex.tant species of Mangifera. This

R. C. MEHROTRA; D. L. DILCHER; N. AWASTHI

310

Essential health information available for India in the public domain on the internet  

PubMed Central

Background Health information and statistics are important for planning, monitoring and improvement of the health of populations. However, the availability of health information in developing countries is often inadequate. This paper reviews the essential health information available readily in the public domain on the internet for India in order to broadly assess its adequacy and inform further development. Methods The essential sources of health-related information for India were reviewed. An extensive search of relevant websites and the PubMed literature database was conducted to identify the sources. For each essential source the periodicity of the data collection, the information it generates, the geographical level at which information is reported, and its availability in the public domain on the internet were assessed. Results The available information related to non-communicable diseases and injuries was poor. This is a significant gap as India is undergoing an epidemiological transition with these diseases/conditions accounting for a major proportion of disease burden. Information on infrastructure and human resources was primarily available for the public health sector, with almost none for the private sector which provides a large proportion of the health services in India. Majority of the information was available at the state level with almost negligible at the district level, which is a limitation for the practical implementation of health programmes at the district level under the proposed decentralisation of health services in India. Conclusion This broad review of the essential health information readily available in the public domain on the internet for India highlights that the significant gaps related to non-communicable diseases and injuries, private health sector and district level information need to be addressed to further develop an effective health information system in India.

Raban, Magdalena Z; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

2009-01-01

311

Groundwater quality in the lower Varuna River basin, Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower Varuna River basin in Varanasi district situated in the central Ganga plain is a highly productive agricultural\\u000a area, and is also one of the fast growing urban areas in India. The agricultural and urbanization activities have a lot of\\u000a impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. The river basin is underlain by Quaternary alluvial sediments consisting

N. Janardhana Raju; Prahlad Ram; Sangita Dey

2009-01-01

312

India: Demographics for Publishers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential demographic data and related information for India is provided specifically for the publishing industry. The\\u000a focus has been placed on the economics, education and computer industry in relation to the complex cultural factors of different\\u000a languages and religions. The role of India in relation to the other three BRIC countries or Brazil, China and Russia is explored.

Robert E. Baensch

2007-01-01

313

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

314

14C in a stalagmite from NE India: preliminary results of dating near the limit of radiocarbon time scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiocarbon time scale covers the last 50,000 years and is being used in many applications. Old records close to the dating limit that can provide additional information about 14C variability are rare. Stalagmite MAW-3 has been collected in 2006 from Mawmluh Cave, Meghalaya, NE India and subsequently U-series dated at Caltech. Stable isotopes (delC13 and delO18) were measured at the Geological Institute of the ETH Zurich. MAW-3 grew through a large part of Marine Isotope Stage 3 and stable isotope results clearly show millennial scale climatic fluctuations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events. U-series dating shows that our sample which grew during the time interval corresponding to the geomagnetic low intensity interval, called Laschamp Event at ca. 40 ka BP. Therefore, we test its usefulness for studies of potential 14C variability at the time. Samples for 14C dating were taken following the method of Hoffman et al. (2010). After preparation of a slab from the centre of the stalagmite small sub-samples for 14C and U-series analysis were cut with a wire saw. Samples containing ca. 10 mg of carbonate were dissolved in concentrated (85%) phosphoric acid and graphitized prior to AMS analysis at the ETH AMS facility. Preliminary results indicate that despite of the very high correction for the dead carbon fraction DCF (ca. 6000 14C yrs) and close proximity to the limit of the 14C dating method, we are still able to measure reliable 14C ages of this portion of MAW-3. We argue that, based on available results, fluctuations of DCF could be reconstructed. DCF changes show a correlation with stable isotope changes (delO18), i.e. precipitation patterns in the region.

Hajdas, I.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gierga, M.; Haug, G. H.; Adkins, J. F.; Biechele, C.; Bonani, G.; Maurer, M.; Wacker, L.

2012-04-01

315

Turbine modifications for district heating  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

1983-01-01

316

Open Educational Resources in India’s national development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As India marches rapidly towards an ambitious agenda of economic and social advancement, one of the greatest challenges it faces is to provide extensive access to quality higher education opportunities. An evident and expanding Open Education Resources movement offers great promise for meeting this challenge through initiatives that make quality tools, content and practice widely available. Accordingly, India’s National Knowledge

M. S. Vijay Kumar

2009-01-01

317

INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

Dhandapani Alagiri

2007-01-01

318

India's future: it's about jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and

Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

2007-01-01

319

Russia's Relations With India & Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

post-Soviet period. In the latter half of the 1990s, Moscow suggested a Russia-China-India strategic triangle as a counterweight to the USA. India had no interest in this idea. India and Russia probably did see each other as useful partners in verbally opposing US dominance, although India's relationship with the USA improved after the end of the Cold War. * Russo-Indian

Mark A Smith

320

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination inBangladesh andWestBengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninedistricts inWestBengal, India, and42districts inBangldesh have arsenic levels inground- water above theWorldHealth Oranization mxmumpermissible limit of50pg\\/L. Thearea andpopulation ofthe42districts inBangadesh andthe9districts inWestBengal are92,106 km2and79.9 million and38,865 kI2and42.7 million, respectively. Inourpreliminar study, wehave identified 985anenic-affected villags in69police stations\\/blocks ofnine arsenic-afFect- eddistricts inWestBengl. InBa esh, wehave identified 492affected villages in141police stations\\/blocks of42affected districts. Todate, wehave collected 10,991 water smples from 42 arsenic-affected

Bhajan K. Biswas; Tarit RoyChowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Gautam C. Basu; Chinta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Khitish C. Saha; Subhas K. Mukherjee; Sibtosh Roy; Saiful Kabir

2000-01-01

321

Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

Sanchez, Amanda Joy

2011-01-01

322

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

323

Impact of counselling on careseeking behaviour in families with sick children: cluster randomised trial in rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess whether training doctors in counselling improves careseeking behaviour in families with sick children. Design Pair matched, community randomised trial conducted in 12 primary health centres (six pairs). Doctors in intervention centres were trained in counselling, communication, and clinical skills, using the integrated management of childhood illness approach. Setting Rural district in Rajasthan, India. Participants Children aged under

Pavitra Mohan; Sharad D Iyengar; Jose Martines; Simon Cousens; Kalpana Sen

2004-01-01

324

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

325

Problematic Worms and Priapulid-like Fossils from the Nagaur Group, the Marwar Supergroup, Western Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worm-like problematic megafossils, comparable with priapulids, are reported from the Lower Cambrian Nagaur Formation of the Marwar Supergroup, Western Rajasthan, India. These fossils occur as positive epireliefs on the top surface of siliciclastic sandstone beds in the Dulmera area of Bikaner district, western Rajasthan. Occurrence of these structures is significant, as the fossil bearing strata also exhibit the preservation of

Purnima Srivastava

2012-01-01

326

Acrobeloides ishraqi sp. n. and Acrobeloides mushtaqi sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from chickpea rhizosphere, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of nematode in the genus Acrobeloides were found from rhizosphere of chickpea from Jhansi and Faizabad districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Acrobeloides ishraqi sp. n. and A. mushtaqi were identified and described on the basis of morphological observations. Measurement and morphological observation of different stages of A. ishraqi were taken and compared with known species of the

Rashid Pervez

2011-01-01

327

Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population

P Jambulingam; K Gunasekaran; SS Sahu; T Vijayakumar

2008-01-01

328

MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA IN ASSAM, INDIA: TIMING OF RECURRENCE AND ANTIMALARIAL DRUG CONCENTRATIONS IN WHOLE BLOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of 23 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the Sonapur primary health center in the Kamrup district of Assam, India to different antimalarials was investigated using the 28-day World Health Organization in vivo test. Whole blood concentrations of chloroquine, sulfadoxine, and quinine were determined at different intervals and at the time of parasites recrudescence after completion of treatment

VIRENDRA K. DUA; VAS DEV; S. PHOOKAN; N. C. GUPTA; V. P. SHARMA; S. K. SUBBARAO

329

Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process

Bharat K Pradhan; Hemant K Badola

2008-01-01

330

Trend in Annual Risk of Tuberculous Infection in North India  

PubMed Central

Setting Six selected districts in Northern India. Objectives To find out the trend in Annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) in north India. Study Design Two rounds of community level surveys were conducted during 2000–2001 and 2009–10 respectively. Representative samples of children 1–9 years of age were tuberculin tested and maximum transverse diameter of induration was recorded in mm at about 72 hours. ARTI was computed from the estimated Prevalence of infection using mirror-image technique and anti-mode method. Results ARTI was found to decline from 1.9% (confidence interval: 1.7–2.1) at round I to 1.1% (confidence interval: 0.8–1.3) at round II at the rate of 8% per year during the intervening period. Conclusion A significant reduction in the risk of tuberculous infection among children was observed between two rounds of surveys carried out at an interval of about 9 years.

Chopra, Kamal; Chadha, Vineet K.; Ramachandra, Jitendra; Aggarwal, Nishi

2012-01-01

331

India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

332

Bioethics activities in India.  

PubMed

The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees. PMID:17037690

Kumar, Nandini K

2006-01-01

333

Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

334

Urology in ancient India.  

PubMed

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

335

Administrative issues involved in disaster management in India.  

PubMed

India as a country is vulnerable to a number of disasters, from earthquakes to floods. Poor and weaker members of the society have always been more vulnerable to various types of disasters. Disasters result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality amongst the affected population. Damage to infrastructure and reduction in revenues from the affected region due to low yield add to the economic losses. Poor co-ordination at the local level, lack of early-warning systems, often very slow responses, paucity of trained dedicated clinicians, lack of search and rescue facilities and poor community empowerment are some of the factors, which have been contributing to poor response following disasters in the past. The first formal step towards development of policies relating to disaster care in India was the formulation of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) which was formulated initially by the Government of India for managing natural disasters only. However, this was subsequently amended to include man-made disasters as well. It sets the scene for formulating state and district level plans in all states to bring cohesiveness and a degree of uniform management in dealing with disasters. A National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted which aims to provide national guidelines and is headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is the highest decision-making body for the management of disasters in the country. The authority has the responsibility for co-ordinating response and post-disaster relief and rehabilitation. Each state is required to set up Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Committees for co-ordination and close supervision of activities and efforts related to the management of disasters. PMID:17162696

Kaur, Jagdish

2006-12-01

336

Screening performance of diabetes risk scores among Asians and whites in rural Kerala, India.  

PubMed

We compared the screening performance of risk scores for Asians and whites for diabetes, dysglycemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our subjects were 451 people aged 15 to 64 years who participated in a cohort study from May 2003 through September 2010 in a rural area of the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India. All outcome measures showed overlap in the range of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Asian and white diabetes risk scores (DRSs). Asian and white DRSs performed similarly in rural India. PMID:23517580

Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

2013-03-01

337

Improving health services in India: a different perspective.  

PubMed

Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves. PMID:18607033

Schweitzer, Julian

338

Buffalopox outbreak in humans and animals in Western Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

An outbreak of febrile illness with rash was reported in humans and buffaloes with pox lesions in some villages of Solapur and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra state, India. Detailed clinico-epidemiological investigations were done with collection of blood, vesicular fluid and scab from humans and animals. A total of 166 suspected human cases from Kasegaon village in Solapur district and 185 cases were reported from 21 different villages from Kolhapur district. The attack rate in humans in Kasegaon village was 6.6% while in Kolhapur district the attack rate for buffaloes was 11.7%. Pox-like lesions were associated with fever, malaise, pain at site of lesion and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy in the humans. Infected buffaloes had lesions on teats, udders, external ears and eyelids. Laboratory investigations included detection of Buffalopox virus (BPXV) by electron microscopy (EM), virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Presence of BPXV was confirmed in 7 human cases and one buffalo in Kasegaon and 14 human cases from Kolhapur. The virus was isolated from 3 clinical specimens and Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) particles could be observed in EM. Thus, BPXV was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak among both humans and buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ATI and C18L gene revealed that a single strain of virus is circulating in India. Re-emergence of OPXV like BPXV is a real danger and contingency planning is needed to define prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent or stop an epidemic. Considering the productivity losses caused by buffalopox infection and its zoonotic impact, the importance of control measures in reducing the economic and public health impact cannot be underestimated. PMID:21511350

Gurav, Yogesh K; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V; Sivaram, Aruna; Pore, Milind D; Basu, Atanu; Mourya, Devendra T; Mishra, Akhilesh C

2011-04-20

339

Psychiatric epidemiology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders from 9.5 to 370\\/1000 populations in India. This review critically evaluates the prevalence rate of mental disorders as reported in Indian epidemiological studies. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed and MEDLARS using search terms \\

Suresh Bada Math; C. R. Chandrashekar; Dinesh Bhugra

2007-01-01

340

Tiger Conservation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of the paper is to analyze the Indian Tiger Conservation program – Project Tiger. The circumstances that lead to and the conditions under which the program was launched are discussed. National Parks in India lead to a situation where the natives of the forest are deprived of their homes and livelihoods as an externality of conservation. These

Varun Khandelwal

2010-01-01

341

Understanding India's Services Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the factors behind the recent growth of India's services sector. The high growth of services output in the 1990s was mostly due to the rapid expansion of communication, banking, business services (including the IT sector) and community services. While factors such as a high income elasticity of demand for services, increasing input usage of services by other

James P. F. Gordon; Poonam Gupta

2004-01-01

342

Planting Trees in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

Oswald, James M.

343

Inclusive Education in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the few countries world over where the education of children with special needs doesn’t fall within the purview of human resource development ministry. It is generally the burden of the omnibus ministry of social justice and empowerment, the prime focus of which is rehabilitation, not education. In fact, till today it does not have education as

SanjeevKumar; KumarKhagendra

2007-01-01

344

Landslide Studies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATUS OF NATURAL HAZARDS India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is estimated that about

Y. P. SHARDA

345

The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.

1998-01-01

346

India's Cities in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)|

Bryjak, George J.

1984-01-01

347

Wind power for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of wind power for rural conditions in India is assessed. Early and current wind power and windmill development are surveyed, and wind measurements on record are mentioned. The relative economics of wind power and power taken from the grid (for areas where such power is accessible) are compared for rural electrification, with base prices for

S. K. Tewari

1977-01-01

348

Economic Change in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has become an increasingly important part of the global economic landscape over the past decade. Its economy has become more open to international trade, its workforce is growing strongly and the rate of investment has picked up following economic reforms. The strong growth of the Indian economy has also seen a significant deepening of the trade relationship between Australia

Adam Cagliarini; Mark Baker

2010-01-01

349

East India Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALLOW me to make yet another suggestion (in addition to those of P.L.S. and Prof. Newton), with regard to the disposal of the natural history collections at the India House. It seems to me to be one of the greatest popular delusions, that specimens of natural history necessarily require lofty halls and spacious galleries for their preservation and exhibition in

Alfred R. Wallace

1873-01-01

350

RE policy in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

While at a local level renewable energy success stories abound in India, at the national level, the RE gains seem almost unnoticeable. That is because most of these success stories are due to adoption of renewable energy products - mainly solar systems - by individual households. When it comes to exploiting renewable potential for setting up distributed generation projects that

Sunil Puri

2003-01-01

351

India's population in transition.  

PubMed

This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

Visaria, L; Visaria, P

1995-10-01

352

Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.  

PubMed

The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use. PMID:21063769

Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

2010-11-10

353

Female feticide in India.  

PubMed

Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society. PMID:20879612

Ahmad, Nehaluddin

2010-01-01

354

Southwest Florida Water Management District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

355

iGEON-India: International GEON Activities in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of its international activities, the Geosciences Network project (GEON, http:\\/\\/www.geongrid.org) has initiated collaborations with the University of Hyderabad, India. This effort called, iGEON-India, is funded by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum. The goal of the project is to promote the use of cyberinfrastructure at participating institutions in India to facilitate the sharing of geosciences data via GEON.

K. Subbarao; C. Baru; A. Agarwal; S. Chandra

2007-01-01

356

Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods Of the 13 clusters chosen for the study, seven were randomised to three rounds of oral visual inspection by trained health workers at 3-year intervals and six to a control group during 1996-2004, in Trivandrum district, Kerala, India. Healthy participants aged 35 years and older were eligible for the study. Screen-positive people were referred for clinical examination by doctors,

R Sankaranarayanan; G Thomas MDS; Kunnambath Ramadas; Gigi Thomas; Richard Muwonge; Somanathan Thara; Babu Mathew; Balakrishnan Rajan

2005-01-01

357

A survey of fodder plants in mid-altitude Himalayan rangelands of Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Himalayan rangelands, the crucial but by and large the neglected ecosystems, are an integral part of mountain farming systems.\\u000a The present investigation is based on the extensive survey and collection of mid-altitude range plants from Almora and Champawat\\u000a districts of Kumaun division in the Uttarakhand Himalaya in India, from September 2003 to June 2007. The rangelands studied\\u000a were oak types,

Vir Singh; R. D. Gaur; Babita Bohra

2008-01-01

358

Ethnobotanical flora used by four major tribes of Koraput, Odisha, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to chronicle the utilization pattern of a number of plant species by four major tribes inhabiting\\u000a in Koraput district of Odisha, India. Fifteen villages dominated by tribal communities, under five Community Development Blocks\\u000a were selected. A semi structured questionnaire was developed to bring together data on traditional crops and forest species\\u000a still used by

Smita MishraSusanta; Susanta Sekhar Chaudhury

359

Diversity and Sharing: A Local Version of Financial Crisis Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the weak financial and governing abilities of the state in many rural areas of India, SHGs have become one of the major means to financially manage the village-based issues. This paper examines the role of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in managing village-level financial and education crises in Jaldhaka, a 13-village compound in the mountainous Darjeeling District, West Bengal of

Sai Ma

360

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996–1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998–1999). District level consumption of coal\\/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors

M. Shekar Reddy; Chandra Venkataraman

2002-01-01

361

Studies on soil and plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana in West Midnapur, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a taxonomic survey from March 2004 to February 2006, a total of 46 species of soil and plant parasitic nematodes, associated\\u000a with banana plantations (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Kanthali) have been encountered from different localities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Of\\u000a these, 29 species belonging to 21 genera were recorded under the order Dorylaimida and 17

V. V. Gantait; A. Chatterjee; A. K. Sanyal; T. Bhattacharya

2009-01-01

362

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2013-01-01

363

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County, and Colusa County. (b) Central Sacramento Valley District includes and consists of Sutter County, Butte County, Yuba County, and Sierra County. (c) Sacramento River District includes and consists of Sacramento County,...

2013-01-01

364

7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false District conventions. 1210.401 Section 1210.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Nominating Procedures Producer and Handler Members § 1210.401 District conventions. (a) Except...

2012-01-01

365

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2013-01-01

366

Sharpening a District's Leadership Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create an integrated board self-assessment and superintendent evaluation process, district leaders must develop a school leadership model by adopting a coherent governance model. At the same time, they must also develop goals at the appropriate level that ensure quality governance of a school system. In the second of a two-part series, the…

Namit, Chuck

2008-01-01

367

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

368

Marketing Techniques for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

Lane, John J., Ed.

369

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

370

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

371

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

372

Nuclear power for district heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. The evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply, the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations, is described. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of

R. B. Lyon; R. O. Sochaski

1975-01-01

373

How Can We Fund Charter Districts? The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to explore funding issues related to charter districts. It begins with definitions of charter school and charter district. It continues with a brief discussion of public-school finance and some of the policy issues associated with distributing state funds to school districts, allowing school districts to generate…

Augenblick, John; Sharp, Jennifer

374

Epilepsy surgery in India.  

PubMed

Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

Singh, V P

2011-10-01

375

Epilepsy surgery in India  

PubMed Central

Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way – but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed.

Singh, V. P.

2011-01-01

376

Womens pay in English rural districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines hourly wage payments for women who live in the rural districts of England, both in terms of variability within such districts and in terms of comparisons with non-rural districts. Drawing on the Labour Force Surveys Local Annual Database, the paper argues that, once education, industry and occupation are taken into account, there is little to distinguish wage

Keith Hoggart; Shen Cheng

2006-01-01

377

Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

1982-01-01

378

Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

Cline, David S.

2011-01-01

379

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

380

Improving Student Learning Requires District Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can districts create systemic improvement--improvement that affects every classroom? A handful of Connecticut districts tried to find out and were supported by the Connecticut Center for School Change to do so. As part of the Systemic Instructional Improvement Program (SIIP), the districts have pursued strategies designed to yield large-scale…

Rothman, Robert

2009-01-01

381

India since independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography. Jonathan Cape, London, 1975. Vol. 1, 1889–1947, 362 pp. Vol. 2, 1947–1956, 318 pp. Preface, illustrations, maps, glossary, bibliography, biographical notes, index. Cloth: £15.Francine R. Frankel, India's Political Economy, 1947–1977: The Gradual Revolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1978. 582 pp. Tables, preface, bibliography, index. Paper: US$12.50.C. Subramanian, The New Strategy in Indian Agriculture:

A. D. Low

1983-01-01

382

Gender Equality In India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India has, since ancient times, held its women in high esteem. Hindus, who constitute the majority community, typically pray\\u000a to the goddess Saraswati for knowledge and learning, goddess Lakshmi for wealth and goddess Durga for the strength to fight\\u000a evil forces. Indian women have excelled in various walks of life, including as saints (Meera Bai) and warriors (Rani Jhansi\\u000a and

Harish C. Jain; C. S. Venkata Ratnam

383

Healthcare biotechnology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and\\u000a manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices.\\u000a Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been\\u000a commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding

L. M. Srivastava

2005-01-01

384

'Hellenistic India'1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst the influence of post-colonialism may be seen in many aspects of modern Classical studies, one area of study in which the issues raised by reassessment of Europe's colonial past is of particular resonance is that of Hellenistic-period (c. 323-31 BCE) Greek settlement in India and Central Asia. The history of these regions under Greek rule has often, consciously or

Rachel R. Mairs

385

Haiku in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has a rich variety of poetic forms. Some of these are as short as Japanese Haiku. Haiku has evoked deep interest in the Indian poetic world today. Not only have translations of Japanese Haiku been published in different Indian languages but many poets have written orginal Haiku-like poems. Any 17-syllable poem written in the 5-7-5 syllable pattern is called

Satya Bhushan VERMA

1992-01-01

386

HIV & smoking in India.  

PubMed

There are approximately 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in India - the young being particularly vulnerable. The prevalence of smoking has increased in India especially among rural, lower socio-economic and illiterate men. Studies have shown that HIV-infected smokers may be at additional risk for several infectious and non-infectious complications, including malignancies and cardiovascular events. Smoking alters immunological mechanisms and suppresses host defenses in the alveolar environment. HIV-infected smokers have also been found to have a poorer response to antiretroviral therapy and a higher risk of death. HIV-infected individuals who smoke could be at a greater risk for developing TB and subsequently suffer higher morbidity and mortality than those who do not smoke. Currently available smoking cessation interventions like physician's advice, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacological agents like bupropion and varenicline have had varying degrees of success. Smoking cessation intervention in the HIV-infected population might be more complex because of associated psychosocial problems like drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, etc. More research including clinical trials testing the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in HIV infected persons is required in India. In addition to public health measures like banning smoking in public places and raising tobacco tax, comprehensive guidelines for health workers can help address this problem. Counselling on smoking cessation should be one of the main components of primary care, especially in the management of HIV-infected persons. This review highlights the importance of smoking cessation among HIV-infected persons in India. PMID:19700796

Kumar, S Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Flanigan, Timothy; Mayer, K H; Niaura, Raymond

2009-07-01

387

Malnutrition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writer of this paper has made an inquiry into the determinants of the spatial differences in the distribution of malnutrition is six states of India, examined its consequences, and has suggested some measures.\\u000aIn Chapter I, the writer has defined the term malnutrition, recognized the problem and formulated the argument to study this phenomenon.\\u000aIn Chapter II, he has

Gurbhag Singh

1968-01-01

388

India's Multiple Revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States and the war in Afghanistan, world attention in the final months of 2001 focused with unprecedented intensity on the politics of South Asia. The region’s two principal states, India and Pakistan, despite their professed support for the U.S. actions against Osama bin Laden, his alQaeda terrorist network,

Sumit Ganguly

2002-01-01

389

Geographic pathology revisited: development of an atlas of cancer in India.  

PubMed

Information on 217,174 microscopically diagnosed cancers diagnosed in 2001-2002 was collected from pathology laboratories in 68 districts across India. Data collection took place primarily via the Internet. Average annual age-adjusted incidence rates for microscopically diagnosed cases (MAAR) by gender and site were calculated for each of the 593 districts in the country. The rates were compared to those from established population based cancer registries (PBCR). In 82 districts, the MAAR for 'all cancer sites' was above a "completeness" threshold of 36.2/100,000 (based on results of a rural PBCR). The results confirmed some known features of the geography of cancer in India, and brought to light new ones. Cancers of the mouth and tongue are particularly frequent in both genders in the southern states. Very high rates of nasopharynx cancer were found in the northeastern states (Nagaland, Manipur). There was clear geographic correlation between the rates of cervical and penile cancer, and a high rate of stomach and lung cancer (in both genders) in many districts of Mizoram State. The area of high risk for gallbladder cancer seems larger than suspected previously, involving a wide band of northern India. There is a belt of high incidence of thyroid cancer in females in southwest coastal districts. Other than identifying possible existence of high-risk areas of specific cancers, our study has recognized places where PBCR could be established. The study was remarkably cost-effective and the electronic data-capture methodology provides a model for health informatics in the setting of a developing country. PMID:15849747

Nandakumar, Ambakumar; Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Gangadharan, Paleth; Visweswara, Rudrapatna Narayanrao; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

2005-09-20

390

Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

2003-01-01

391

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

392

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  

PubMed

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-08-01

393

Medicine in South India  

PubMed Central

A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives.

McHenry, Malcolm M.

1978-01-01

394

MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses.

Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

2000-01-01

395

The Civil Services in India: Oxford India Short Introductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oxford India Short Introductions are concise, stimulating, and accessible guides to different aspects of India. Combining authoritative analysis, new ideas, and diverse perspectives, they discuss subjects which are topical yet enduring, as also emerging areas of study and debate. An efficient and competent bureaucracy is indispensable to any modern state. This short introduction identifies the importance of civil services

396

India Co2 Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

2010-12-01

397

India`s refining prospects linked to economic growth  

SciTech Connect

International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India`s appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government`s commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India`s refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends.

Lewis, E. [Lewis (Everett), Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-10

398

Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.  

PubMed

In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

2011-01-10

399

The Socioeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Participation in India's Health Insurance Scheme for the Poor  

PubMed Central

The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was introduced in 2008 in India, is a social health insurance scheme that aims to improve healthcare access and provide financial risk protection to the poor. In this study, we analyse the determinants of participation and enrolment in the scheme at the level of districts. We used official data on RSBY enrolment, socioeconomic data from the District Level Household Survey 2007–2008, and additional state-level information on fiscal health, political affiliation, and quality of governance. Results from multivariate probit and OLS analyses suggest that political and institutional factors are among the strongest determinants explaining the variation in participation and enrolment in RSBY. In particular, districts in state governments that are politically affiliated with the opposition or neutral parties at the centre are more likely to participate in RSBY, and have higher levels of enrolment. Districts in states with a lower quality of governance, a pre-existing state-level health insurance scheme, or with a lower level of fiscal deficit as compared to GDP, are significantly less likely to participate, or have lower enrolment rates. Among socioeconomic factors, we find some evidence of weak or imprecise targeting. Districts with a higher share of socioeconomically backward castes are less likely to participate, and their enrolment rates are also lower. Finally, districts with more non-poor households may be more likely to participate, although with lower enrolment rates.

Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2013-01-01

400

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis - A Baseline Survey In Central India  

PubMed Central

Background The present study provides an estimate of the prevalence of bacteriologially positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Jabalpur, a district in central India. Methodology/Principal Findings A community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Jabalpur District of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A stratified cluster sampling design was adopted to select the sample. All eligible individuals were questioned for pulmonary symptoms suggestive of TB disease. Two sputum samples were collected from all eligible individuals and were examined by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy and solid media culture methods. Of the 99,918 individuals eligible for screening, 95,071 (95.1%) individuals were screened. Of these, 7,916 (8.3%) were found to have symptoms and sputum was collected from 7,533 (95.2%) individuals. Overall prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was found to be 255.3 per 100,000 population (95% C.I: 195.3–315.4). Prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.001) amongst males (355.8; 95% C.I: 304.4–413.4) compared with females (109.0; 95% C.I: 81.2–143.3). Prevalence was also significantly higher in rural areas (348.9; 95% C.I: 292.6–412.8) as compared to the urban (153.9; 95% C.I: 123.2–190.1). Conclusions/Significance The TB situation in Jabalpur district, central India, is observed to be comparable to the TB situation at the national level (255.3 versus 249). There is however, a need to maintain and further strengthen TB control measures on a sustained and long term basis in the area to have a significant impact on the disease prevalence in the community.

Rao, Vikas G.; Bhat, Jyothi; Yadav, Rajiv; Gopalan, Gopi Punnathanathu; Nagamiah, Selvakumar; Bhondeley, Manoj Kumar; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Chadha, Vineet K.; Wares, Fraser

2012-01-01

401

Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for prevention of chikungunya outbreaks in future. Stakeholders should be more involved in outbreak management and future planning.

Nagpal, B.N.; Saxena, Rekha; Srivastava, Aruna; Singh, Neeru; Ghosh, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Alok Suman; Chand, S.K.; Ojha, V.P.; Mohanty, S.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Dasgupta, R.K.; Dhillon, G.P.S.; Dash, A.P.

2012-01-01

402

Unit cost of medical services at different hospitals in India.  

PubMed

Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010-11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1?=?INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country's hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes. PMID:23936088

Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2013-07-23

403

A Tale of Two Indias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

Sidhu, Jonathan

2007-01-01

404

Female Political Leadership in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a recognition and exploration of alternative accounts of female political leadership in India, other than dynastic succession. It explores the varied paths to power which female political leaders in India have followed in the past two decades within the changing institutional environment of electoral politics. The paper argues that gender is an important factor of the path

Carole Spary

2007-01-01

405

Power Sector Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming

Harbans L. Bajaj; D. Sharma

2006-01-01

406

History of rocketry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)

Gowarikar Vasant; B. N. Suresh

2009-01-01

407

The precambrian metallogeny of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on the Precambrian metallogeny of India are integrated in order to provide insights into its basic principles and to create a digital cartographic representation of the results obtained. The description of an electronic map of the Precambrian of India on a scale of 1: 5000000 is an example of the creation of a GIS-oriented database on the geology

S. I. Turchenko; A. B. Vrevsky; V. B. Dagelaisky

2009-01-01

408

Preschool and Playway in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a global trend towards formal approaches to preschool education. This article explores the tension between formal and non-formal approaches in the context of India, through a discussion of the preschool programme of the Government of India's Integrated Child Development Services that targets disadvantaged children, and private nursery schools that operate on a commercial basis. Although a non-formal approach

LARRY PROCHNER

2002-01-01

409

Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

Scott, Carolyn McPherson

410

Preschool and Playway in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the tension between formal and nonformal approaches to preschool education in India, through discussion of the preschool program of the Government of India's Integrated Child Development Services that targets disadvantaged children and private nursery schools operating on a commercial basis. Asserts that although a nonformal approach is…

Prochner, Larry

2002-01-01

411

Energy Use in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, and especially rural India is considered as a partially closed energy ecosystem and gives a great variety and quantity of statistics to illustrate the energy flow. These data include the energy consumption and expenditure for many forms of human (men, women and children) activity. This is presented in relation to the total energy-flow picture involving all types of energy

Roger Revelle

1976-01-01

412

Environment and Culture in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

Leuthold, David

413

Environment and Culture in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

Leuthold, David

414

Communalism and Separatism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rise and growth of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) with its sister organizations in Indian politics, the existence of the Muslim political elite's communal attitude, acceptance of liberalized economic policy by India and the rise in mutual suspicion and hostile attitude among both Muslims and Hindus, India may witness a violent civil war between Hindus and Muslims

Anurag Pandey

415

India's Future in the Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possibly critical event within India has gone largely unnoticed elsewhere: The Indian federal leg- islature has approved a bill mandating free public education for all citizens. Whether the bill is prop- erly or improperly implemented could play a nota- ble role in determining whether India becomes a global economic leader, and a global economic part- ner for the U.S.

Michelle Kaffenberger; Derek Scissors

416

Voice and Data Solutions (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

VDS Inc., based in California, US, was founded by three Indian entrepreneurs in January 2000. The company provided VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) solutions to wireless, wire line and cable service providers in the US, Europe, and recently, Asia. VDS India, based in Noida, India, was established in September 2000 as the offshore product development base of VDS Inc. The

Sumita Mishra; Rajen K. Gupta

2007-01-01

417

Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated…

Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

2012-01-01

418

Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

Svensson, Anna

419

School Choice for the Poor? The Limits of Marketisation of Primary Education in Rural India. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…

Harma, Joanna

2010-01-01

420

Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with

Pritha Ghosh; Mayukh Banerjee; Sujata De Chaudhuri; Rajdeep Chowdhury; Jayanta K Das; Angshuman Mukherjee; Ajoy K Sarkar; Lakshmikanta Mondal; Kalipada Baidya; Tanmoy Jyoti Sau; Apurba Banerjee; Arindam Basu; Keya Chaudhuri; Kunal Ray; Ashok K Giri

2007-01-01

421

Regeneration of Lasiurus sindicus in relation to grazing pressure and root-zone soil moisture in arid rangelands of western Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted in arid rangelands of Jaisalmer district in western Rajasthan, India, assessed the effect of root-zone soil moisture and grazing pressure on regenerative potential and fodder yields of Lasiurus sindicus (Sewan) grass. Uncontrolled grazing sig- nifi cantly reduced stand density of grass tussocks and their regeneration compared with sites subjected to controlled grazing or no grazing. The root-zone

R. S. MERTIA; R. PRASAD; B. K. KANDPAL

422

U.S.-India tensions  

SciTech Connect

Relations between India and the United States have improved considerably since the end of the Cold War, but they are still punctuated by controversies over nuclear nonproliferation. To a significant extent, these conflicts seem to be the result of persisting American beliefs that India is obstinate about the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, that India is vulnerable to technology-denying efforts, and that it can be equated with its neighbor, Pakistan. These perceptions take on added import because of the assumption by American policymakers that South Asia is the most most dangerous nuclear hot spot. Implicitly, India`s image also continues to be that of a revisionist state destined to be at odds with the United States, a status quo global power. These are misperceptions that deserve attention, as only four months remain for constructive dialogue before the NPT conference convenes to review the expiring 30-year-old treaty.

Ramanna, R. [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India); Ollapally, D.

1995-01-01

423

Central Utah Water Conservancy District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

2008-02-07

424

Power to the People of India: U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article argues that the proposed U.S.-India civilian nuclear cooperation has significant merit, promising tangible energy, economic, and security benefits to India, the United States and the wider international community. India's acute energy needs a...

M. Bucknam

2007-01-01

425

India Habitat Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

426

India’s Export Potential to the Gulf Cooperation Council: A Gravity Model Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores India’s export potential to the six-member countries of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) with which a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is currently under negotiation. Augmented gravity model is used to analyze India’s export flows, and the coefficients thus obtained are incorporated to predict India’s export potential to the GCC. The model is estimated using the Ordinary Least Square

Samir Ranjan Pradhan

2009-01-01

427

Safe motherhood and district health systems.  

PubMed

Although WHO and many countries are intensifying their efforts to improve the performance of district health systems, a lot remains to be done. The district is the most peripheral fully-organized unit of local government. As it is small enough for health staff to observe and understand major problems and developments, the district offers great opportunities for action on maternal mortality. A number of these potentials are elaborated. They include the availability of intersectoral mechanisms, a network of health facilities with at least a district hospital, the presence of non-governmental organizations, and other informal mechanisms that will enable "counting and accounting' of maternal deaths to be made. Reduction in maternal mortality is a good indication of improved performance of district health systems. It will be argued that the "district focus' is the way forward in the fight against maternal mortality. PMID:8909950

Tarimo, E

1996-10-01

428

Research on antidepressants in India  

PubMed Central

Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment.

Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

2010-01-01

429

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

430

HOW DOES THE DISTRICT LOOK FROM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to explore image-building strategies developed by industrial district firms and collective agents operating within local systems. As globalisation increases, the ability to project a positive, identity-congruent industrial district image may be a crucial competitive factor at an international level. Through in-depth interviews with Sassuolo district senior managers, together with secondary source information, we explore the ceramic tile

Gianluca Marchi; Elisa Martinelli

431

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

432

Growth and nutritional status of Khasi boys in Northeast India relating to exogamous marriages and socioeconomic classes.  

PubMed

The Khasis are one of the matrilineal tribes of Meghalaya in Northeast India. They belong to the Indo-Mongoloid racial stock, and speak the Monkhmer language of the Austro-Asiatic group. They have their own traditional religion (Niam Khasi), but about 65% of them have converted to Christianity. A few Khasi members have also embraced Islam through matrimonial relationship with immigrant Muslim males. The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,351 urban Khasi boys aged 3-18 years belonging to these three religious groups, with a view to understanding the effects of socioeconomic factors on growth and nutritional status, using anthropometric variables such as weight and height. The findings showed that about 60%, 29%, and 6% of these boys were below -2 Z-scores of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) references in respect of weight for age, height for age, and body mass index for age, respectively. The logistic regression coefficient (beta +/- standard error) indicated that the prevalence of low weight for age (below -2 Z-scores of the NCHS references) was positively associated with age (0.088 +/- 0.014, P<0.0001), while it was inversely associated with household income (-1.216 +/- 0.030, P<0.0001). Likewise, low height for age Z-score was negatively associated with household income (-1.056 +/- 0.130, P<0.0001), although such a relationship was not significant in the case of low body mass index for age (-0.169 +/- 0.229, P>0.05). There were also significant differences between religious groups in respect of anthropometric variables. Allowing for household income, the ANCOVA test indicated that Muslim Khasi boys, who were the offspring of intermarriages between Khasi females and immigrant Muslim males, were significantly heavier and taller than Christian and Niam Khasi boys almost across ages. From about 3-10 years of age, Muslim Khasi boys were, on average, comparable to the 5th and 25th percentiles of the NCHS references of height and weight, respectively. Although it looks as though genetic mechanisms like heterosis and/or gene flow might also be associated with the larger body size in Muslim boys, such a conjecture could only be substantiated or refuted by further studies concerning genetic and more socioeconomic data on both immigrant and nonimmigrant populations. PMID:12949836

Khongsdier, R; Mukherjee, Nandita

2003-10-01

433

Electoral Systems and District Magnitude: beyond the Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to the electoral formula, district magnitude is perhaps the most important component defining an electoral system. Since within most electoral systems districts vary in their magnitude, a central tendency is often used to characterize the district magnitude in a country: either the magnitude of the median district or the magnitude of the district electing the median legislator. In this

Orit Kedar

434

Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

Espinosa, Ruben W.

2010-01-01

435

U. S. India safeguards dispute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current U.S.-India dispute over nuclear safeguards is likely to be the single most important test of the Carter administration's anti-proliferation policies. The Carter administration wants India to accept comprehensive safeguards that would bar further production of nuclear explosives. The Desai government wants to maintain unsafeguarded facilities, in effect keeping the weapons option open. It has been a basic tenet

1978-01-01

436

The precambrian metallogeny of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on the Precambrian metallogeny of India are integrated in order to provide insights into its basic principles and\\u000a to create a digital cartographic representation of the results obtained. The description of an electronic map of the Precambrian\\u000a of India on a scale of 1: 5000000 is an example of the creation of a GIS-oriented database on the geology

S. I. Turchenko; A. B. Vrevsky; V. B. Dagelaisky

2009-01-01

437

Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan

2013-02-27

438

Renewable energy programmes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a strong industrial base and successful commercialisation of technologies in renewable energy, India is in a position today to offer state-of-the-art technology to other developing countries and is poised to play a leading role in the global movement towards sustainable energy development. India has a separate ministry to promote renewable energy sources, which has been named Ministry of Non-Conventional

S. Jebaraj; S. Iniyan

2006-01-01

439

India's demographic snapshot, 1991.  

PubMed

Having presented the provisional results of the 1991 Census of India in tabular form, the author discusses the policy implication of the data. During the 1981-91 decade, India witnesses a 160.99 net increase in population, which brought the country's total population to an estimated 844.32 million. The annual growth rated during the decade was 2.1%. The author explains that these alarming population figures reflect the failure of the government's population program. The author warns that unless the Planning Commission develops new strategies, the upcoming 5-year plans. The author explains that the failure of family planning is due primarily to the low literacy rate -- especially the female literacy rate is 29% (and 25% among rural women). The author also discusses the problems of urbanization and the work force. During the past decade, cities grew at a somewhat slower rate than in previous decades, meaning that the absorptive capacity of the cities has gone down. Nonetheless, the urban population grew by 58 million during 10-year period. The urban infrastructure is virtually collapsing, with 30-50% of the urban population living in slums. The data also reveals the structural stagnation of the economy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for about 2/3 of the work force, registered only slight decreases during the decade, signifying a marginal shift from agriculture to nonagricultural activity. Furthermore, population growth has aggravated the unemployment problem. Finally, the author addresses the issue of the sex ratio (females/1000 males), which declined from 934 in 1981 to 929 in 1991, which indicates a continued prejudice against women. PMID:12317108

Bose, A

1991-12-01

440

Challenges in India and Bhutan.  

PubMed

While India is making overall progress in maternal and child health and reproductive health (MCH/RH), all states are not moving ahead. In fact, it is the states with the larger populations which are lagging behind. Primary education, women's status, and literacy remain problematic. UNFPA has worked in India for a long time, helping to realize the decline in total fertility rate from 6 to 3.5 over the past 20-30 years. India's population, however, is still growing at the annual rate of 1.8%. UNFPA's program in India for the period 1997-2001 will stress women's health as a matter of overall reproductive health, a new approach in India which has long relied upon sterilization. Attention must be given to meeting the needs of the poor in India as the country continues to grow in size and wealth. While Bhutan's estimated population is just over 1 million, the annual population growth rate of 3.1% threatens development over the long term. With a mountainous terrain and a low resource base, Bhutan cannot sustain a high population growth rate. Significant improvements have been made and women's status is good, the infant mortality rate has been reduced, and the health infrastructure is not bad. UNFPA's 5-year program beginning in 1998 will mainly address RH, especially adolescent RH. PMID:12348248

Zaman, W

1997-12-01

441

Industrial location in post-reform India: patterns of inter-regional divergence and intra-regional convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where do new industrial investments locate, and what factors drive the industrial location decisions? Do these investments follow the model of ‘divergence followed by convergence’ suggested by the cumulative causation, agglomeration economies, and transport-costs approaches? These questions are examined with district-level data from India for the pre- and post-reform periods using: first, tables and maps of concentration and clustering, aggregated

Sanjoy Chakravorty

2003-01-01

442

Fluoride occurrence and mobilization in geo-environment of semi-arid Granite watershed in southern peninsular India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plausible forms of fluoride (F) responsible for the persistence of fluoride toxicity in ground water of a granitic terrain\\u000a of semi-arid region, which is the main source of drinking water, have been studied. The study area in Anantapur District of\\u000a Andhra Pradesh, India, is one of the chronic regions with excess fluoride in groundwater and the region is under transformation

Sakambari Padhi; D. Muralidharan

443

Characteristics of a rice beer (zutho) and a yeast isolated from the fermented product in Nagaland, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice beer, known locally as zutho was collected in the Kohima district in Nagaland, India, and subjected to analytical and microbiological characterization. Zutho was a whitish porridge-like slurry containing 5.0% (v\\/v) ethanol. Volatile esters and higher alcohols, such as ethyl acetate and 3-methylbutanol, were detected in this indigenous alcoholic beverage by gas chromatography. The pH and acidity of zutho were

Y. Teramoto; S. Yoshida; S. Ueda

2002-01-01

444

Evaluation of two commercial field test kits used for screening of groundwater for arsenic in Northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study two relatively new arsenic field kits, namely Wagtech Digital Arsenator (WFTK) and Chem-In Corp field test kit (CFTK) for arsenic were evaluated. The response of the two field test kits to known standards (Both As(III) and As(V)) is detailed. In addition around 157 arsenic-contaminated field samples obtained from various locations of Ballia and Kanpur districts, U.P., India

Nalini Sankararamakrishnan; Divya Chauhan; R. T. Nickson; R. M. Tripathi; L. Iyengar

2008-01-01

445

Screening for the sickle cell gene in Chhattisgarh state, India: an approach to a major public health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high\\u000a risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened\\u000a 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and\\u000a June

Pradeep K. Patra; Virander S. Chauhan; Prafulla K. Khodiar; Abdul R. Dalla; Graham R. Serjeant

2011-01-01

446

Soil Fertility Index, Soil Evaluation Factor, and Microbial Indices under Different Land Uses in Acidic Soil of Humid Subtropical India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the impact of land use on soil fertility in an Entisol in the Jalpaiguri District of humid subtropical India. The natural forest served as a control against which changes in soil properties were compared. Soil samples were collected from four different depths (0–25, 25–50, 50–75, and 75–100 cm) of soil from four land uses

Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; S. K. Reza; Biplab Sharma

2011-01-01

447

Hardships and health impacts on women due to traditional cooking fuels: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the inter-linkages of gender, energy use, health and hardships in the Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh in India. It brings out a gender-differentiated and age-differentiated picture of hardships and health impact on the use of traditional biofuels. The study is based on survey with questionnaires covering 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts where biomass

Jyoti Parikh

2011-01-01

448

24 CFR 3800.30 - Subpoena enforcement in district court.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Subpoena enforcement in district court. 3800.30 Section 3800.30...Subpoena enforcement in district court. In the case of contumacy of a witness or a...Secretary, the United States district court for the jurisdiction in which...

2013-04-01

449

75 FR 64368 - SBA North Florida District Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SBA North Florida District Advisory Council AGENCY: U...for the next meeting of the SBA North Florida District Advisory Council. The meeting...announces the meeting of the SBA North Florida District Advisory Council. The SBA...

2010-10-19

450

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5...THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...retain the present land management districts within the...

2011-04-01

451

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and…

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

452

School District Cash Management. Program Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school…

New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

453

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

454

District heating for the state of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Energy Agency is actively involved in implementing new hot water cogeneration district heating systems in Moorhead (POP 34,000), Red Wing (POP 13000), and St. Paul (POP 310,000). These projects have been funded by the Department of Energy, the State and the cities. The district heating systems designed will use coal and cogenerated thermal energy from existing electric generation

Sundberg

1981-01-01

455

Stress amongst district nurses: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating stress among district nurses in the north-west of England. Nurses completed questionnaires covering job satisfaction, mental health, stress, Type A behaviour, health behaviour, coping skills and demographic details. • A specific measure of stress was developed following in-depth interviews with primary care professionals, including district nurses. A total

USHA USHA; RANI ROUT; M Sc

456

Supporting Solo at the District Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years…

Woodard, Mary

2011-01-01

457

School District Drug and Alcohol Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marijuana and alcohol use by high school students has continued to increase through the latter part of the 1970's. To gain information on the extent of this problem in their area, a school district in rural western Pennsylvania approved a study of drug and alcohol usage by the school district's 2,200 students. For reasons of confidentiality, all…

Crabtree, Michael

458

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2013-01-01

459

Embedded agents for district heating management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the applicability of multi-agent systems as a control approach for district heating systems. The consumers, i.e., the heat exchange systems, in current district heating systems are purely reactive devices without communication capabilities. In this work, the possibilities of a new type of heat exchanger system that has an open software environment and communication capabilities are explored. Operators of

Paul Davidsson; Fredrik Wernstedt

2004-01-01

460

Embedded Agents for District Heating Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the applicability of multi-agent systems as a control approach for district heating systems. The consumers, i.e., the heat exchange systems, in current district heating systems are purely reactive devices without communication capabilities. In this work, the possibilities of a new type of heat exchanger system that has an open software environment and communication capabilities are explored. Operators of

Paul Davidsson; Fredrik Wernstedt

2004-01-01

461

School Turnarounds: The Essential Role of Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The inspiration for this book was a crucial observation: that if the school turnaround movement is to have widespread and lasting consequences, it will need to incorporate meaningful district involvement in its efforts. The result is a volume that considers school turnaround efforts at the district level, examining the evidence thus far and…

Zavadsky, Heather

2012-01-01

462

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

463

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

464

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

465

Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

Cokeley, Sandra

1996-01-01

466

Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

Nair, Prakash

467

District Office Leadership: Hero or Villain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For decades, school district offices, superintendents and school boards have been cast as "villains" in the drama of school reform and raising student achievement. This article presents research encompassing a different view of district leadership as the possible "hero" in these efforts. Recent studies by Harvard University (2007), Springboard…

Leon, Ronald

2008-01-01

468

National School District Partnership Survey. Statistical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a national survey that gathered information about the status of volunteer and partnership programs are presented in this report. Data were derived from a survey that was mailed to 1,532 school districts during March to August 1991. Out of 1,337 usable responses, 738 districts indicated the existence of partnerships during the 1989-90…

National Association of Partners in Education, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

469

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

470

Industrial Districts: Old Wine in New Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARRISON B. (1992) Industrial districts: old wine in new bottles?, Reg. Studies26, 469–483. According to the theory of industrial districts, a new wave of economic growth is being led in a number of regions in Europe, North America and East Asia by spatially concentrated networks of mostly small and medium sized enterprises, often using flexible production technology and characterized by

Bennett Harrison

1992-01-01

471

Transportation in the Millard School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to increasing costs for bus service, the Millard School District in Nebraska has instituted a successful plan whereby students pay partially for bus service by purchasing coupon books. While elementary students more than one mile away are still bused at district expense, junior high students more than two miles away must pay the partial cost…

Bosse, Jerry

472

The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others