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1

Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on plant diversity and community structure of a sacred grove in Meghalaya, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on plant diversity and community attributes of a sacred grove (montane subtropical forest) at Swer in the East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya in northeast India. The undisturbed, moderately disturbed and highly disturbed stands were identified within the sacred grove on the basis of canopy cover, light interception and tree (cbh =

B. P. Mishra; O. P. Tripathi; R. S. Tripathi; H. N. Pandey

2004-01-01

2

Developing a correlation index and U disequilibrium factor for the exploratory boreholes in Wahkut block of West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).  

PubMed

With the objective to affirm the apparent uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for the non-cored as well as those boreholes with poor core recovery in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya, a systematic study between the in situ measured ?-ray logs under field conditions and laboratory analyzed core assay under controlled conditions has been carried out. The study area spans 2 sqkm having 33 cored and 39 non-cored boreholes with a cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 m. On this available cored borehole database, simultaneous uranium ore zone continuity, both for in situ ?-ray logs and radiometric core assay, was evaluated with the experimental parameters of 1.0m ore zone thickness at 0.010% eU(3)O(8) cut off grade. A population of 18 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) across the 15 cored boreholes gave a grade thickness continuity index of 0.92 with a moderately strong relationship between the radiometric core assay and the in situ ?-ray logs. After validation of an in situ uranium ore zone, study boreholes were examined for their uranium disequilibrium status by fitting regression equations for the radiometric U(3)O(8)(?/?) and spectrometric radium measurements, done on the borehole core samples. A parent favoring uranium disequilibrium was observed in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, with a log normal distribution. An average uranium disequilibrium factor 1.46 ± 0.245 was estimated for the 19 study boreholes, across the block. PMID:23202436

Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod

2013-02-01

3

Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.  

PubMed

The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education. PMID:23758496

War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

2013-01-01

4

Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya, Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Environmental status and diarrhea is regarded as a complex and multidimensional topic. Diarrhea is one of the main water-borne diseases considered to be endemic in many regions of the world and brings the major health threats to the world populations, both in tropical and subtropical poor countries. The state Meghalaya situated in the North-Eastern India is an upland landmass bound by seven districts surrounded within by different tribes. The population is predominantly rural, with 81.41% of the population belongs merely to the scheduled tribes. The state offers a wide range of disease environments, dominated by communicable diseases (35.68%), and diarrhea is one of the water-borne diseases that alter the society of the state. Various factors like poor environmental sanitation, unavailability of safe drinking water, seasonal rainfall, infected foods, infection through fomites, flies, cockroaches, etc. are the main culprit that led to the cause of diarrhea in the state. The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethnobiological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. In this review, the information regarding the traditional method of utilization of 58 plant species that are used to treat and cure diarrhea and dysentery are enlisted briefly. PMID:22279372

Laloo, Damiki; Hemalatha, Siva

2011-01-01

5

Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity of woody species was investigated in Ialong and Raliangsacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India. These grovesrepresent the climax subtropical broad-leaved forest of the area. A total of 738individuals belonging to 82 species, 59 genera and 39 families was identified ina 0.5 ha plot of the Ialong sacred grove, whereas the same area in theRaliang sacred

K. Upadhaya; H. N. Pandey; P. S. Law; R. S. Tripathi

2003-01-01

6

Life form composition and stratification of montane humid forests in Meghalaya, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life form composition and stratification was studied in five protected patches of humid montane forest in Jaintia hills of Meghalaya, northeast India. A total of 546 vascular plants recorded from the five stands were distributed in five major life-forms, exhibited dominance of phanerophytes (44-51%) in the community followed by chamaephytes (11-17%), epiphytes (11-16%), lianas (7-16%), geophytes (4-12%) and therophytes (2-9%).

S. ALEMMEREN JAMIR; K. UPADHAYA; H. N. PANDEY

7

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

2009-05-01

8

Diversity and population characteristics of woody species in subtropical humid forests exposed to cultural disturbances in Meghalaya, Northeast, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbances of mild in- tensity on diversity and phytosociological attributes of tree species in two subtropical forest stands, represented by Ialong and Raliang sacred groves in Jaintia hills of Meghalaya, northeast India. A total of 159 woody species (? 5 cm dbh) of 107 genera was identified in the

K. UPADHAYA; H. N. PANDEY; P. S. LAW; R. S. TRIPATHI

9

Environmental effects of Deccan volcanism across the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in Meghalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Um Sohryngkew section of Meghalaya, NE India, located 800-1000 km from the Deccan volcanic province, is one of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) transitions worldwide with all defining and supporting criteria present: mass extinction of planktic foraminifera, first appearance of Danian species, ? 13C shift, Ir anomaly (12 ppb) and KTB red layer. The geochemical signature of the KTB layer indicates not only an extraterrestrial signal (Ni and all Platinum Group Elements (PGEs)) of a second impact that postdates Chicxulub, but also a significant component resulting from condensed sedimentation (P), redox fluctuations (As, Co, Fe, Pb, Zn, and to a lesser extent Ni and Cu) and volcanism. From the late Maastrichtian C29r into the early Danian, a humid climate prevailed (kaolinite: 40-60%, detrital minerals: 50-80%). During the latest Maastrichtian, periodic acid rains (carbonate dissolution; CIA index: 70-80) associated with pulsed Deccan eruptions and strong continental weathering resulted in mesotrophic waters. The resulting super-stressed environmental conditions led to the demise of nearly all planktic foraminiferal species and blooms (> 95%) of the disaster opportunist Guembelitria cretacea. These data reveal that detrimental marine conditions prevailed surrounding the Deccan volcanic province during the main phase of eruptions in C29r below the KTB. Ultimately these environmental conditions led to regionally early extinctions followed by global extinctions at the KTB.

Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Fleitmann, D.

2011-10-01

10

Daily intake of manganese by local population around Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India.  

PubMed

Present work is carried out adjacent to world's highest rainfall area Kylleng Pyndengsohiong (KP) Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India to establish the baseline value of manganese intake through dietary route by the local tribe population in view of proposed uranium mining. The locally available food items collected from villages surrounding the proposed uranium mining site at KP Mawthabah (Domiasiat) were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique. The manganese concentration in different food categories varies from 2.76-12.50 mg kg(-1) in cereals, 1.8-4.20 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables, 0.30-13.50 mg kg(-1) in non leafy vegetables, 0.50-15.30 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, 0.70-1.50 mg kg(-1) in fruits and 0.12-0.96 mg kg(-1) in flesh food. The mean dietary intake of Mn was found to be 3.83+/-0.25 mg d(-1) compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of 2-5 mg d(-1). The daily intake of Manganese by the local tribe population is comparable with the value (3.7 mg d(-1)) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for reference man and lower than the intake value observed for Indian and other Asian population. PMID:19193395

Gothankar, S S; Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2009-04-01

11

REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ?REE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ?REE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi Kumar

2014-12-01

12

Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, cyprinus carpio L. Inhabiting a polluted reservoir, umiam in meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

2014-10-01

13

Three new species of feather mite of the genus Proterothrix Gaud, 1968 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) from passerines in Meghalaya, North East India.  

PubMed

Three new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae Park & Atyeo, 1971 are described from passerines of the family Muscicapidae Fleming and Leiothrichidae Swainson in India (Meghalaya, East Jaintia Hills District): Proterothrix daberti n. sp. from the White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum (Hodgson), P. khahnarensis n. sp. from the Blue Whistling-Thrush Myophonus caeruleus (Scopoli) (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) and P. indica n. sp. from the Nepal Fulvetta Alcippe nipalensis (Hodgson) (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae). P. daberti and P. khahnarensis belong to the megacaula species group and differ from one another (and from the third species belonging to the group) in having a distinct ornamentation of dorsal shields in both sexes: with small ovate and circular lacunae in P. daberti and with big ovate lacunae in P. khahnarensis. Proterothrix indica belongs to the paradoxornis species complex (wolffi species group) and differs from the other four species of the complex in having the lateral margins of prodorsal shield with incisions extending to bases of setae se in both sexes. Males of this species have opisthosomal lobes with acute apices. PMID:25079815

Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chi?amera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D Khlur B; Adam, Costic?

2014-09-01

14

Variation in the orographic extreme rain events over the Meghalaya Hills in northeast India in the two halves of the twentieth century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily rainfall data for the twentieth century, from three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of the stability of the rain record at individual stations in northeast India. Only the coarsest possible view, i.e. comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. Using a more general approach, the number of Fourier transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the twentieth century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period. The detection of the latter periodicity indicates that the Madden-Julian oscillation plays an important role in the formation of extreme rainfall events over the Meghalaya Hills during extreme monsoon years.

Prokop, Pawe?; Walanus, Adam

2014-08-01

15

Changes in orographic extreme rain events over Meghalaya Hills in Northeast India in the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between large-scale circulation and the local topography plays a crucial role in determining the spatial distribution of rainfall over the Meghalaya Hills. The Meghalaya plateau forms the first orographic barrier for the humid southwest monsoon winds, on their way from the Bay of Bengal to the Himalayas. The annual rainfall distribution varies from 12,000 mm in Cherrapunji (1300 m a.s.l.) located at the southern edge of the plateau to 2200 mm in Shillong (1598 m a.s.l.) and only 1600 mm in Gauhati (54 m a.s.l.), located to the north in the Brahmaputra valley. The daily rainfall data for the 20th century, from these three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of stability of rain record at individual stations. Comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. The number of Fourier Transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the 20th century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of the 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period.

Prokop, Pawel; Walanus, Adam

2014-05-01

16

Soil erosion under a modified form of shifting cultivation system in the monsoonal climate of the Meghalaya Plateau (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil erosion rates were studied, in a small catchment under a modified form of shifting cultivation on the hilly Meghalaya Plateau, using the 137Cs and 210Pb techniques. Those methods allow assessing mid-term soil erosion for the last 50-150 years. The mass balance models were applied to calculate soil erosion for both radioisotopes. The estimated annual soil loss from cultivated fields and degraded grassland reached up to 79 t/ha/year and 0.5 t/ha/year respectively. Soil erosion and deposition patterns are much influenced by land use. Within the same land use category, soil erosion rates are strongly related to slope steepness. Both radioisotopes show similar deposition rates as well as similar maximum depth of deposition in the valley floor. This indicates acceleration of soil erosion in response to population growth in the last few decades.

Prokop, Pawel; Poreba, Grzegorz

2014-05-01

17

Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria are common components of phytoplankton communities in most freshwater ecosystems. Proliferations of cyanobacteria are often caused by high nutrient loading, and as such can serve as indicators of declining water quality. Massive industrialization in developing countries, like India, has polluted fresh water bodies, including wetlands. Many industries directly discard their effluents to nearby water sources without treatment. In the Sambalpur District of India effluents reach the reservoir of the worlds largest earthen dam i.e Hirakud Dam. This study examines cyanobacteria communities in the wetlands of Sambalpur District, Odisha, India, including areas subjected to industrial pollution. Result & Discussion The genera Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium were dominant genera of polluted wetlands of Sambalpur districts. A positive correlation was found between total cyanobacterial species and dissolved oxygen levels, but cyanobacterial diversity was inversely related to BOD, COD, TSS, and TDS. High dissolved oxygen content was also associated with regions of lower cyanobacteria biomass. Conclusion Cyanobacterial abundance was positively correlated to content of oxidisable organic matter, but negatively correlated to species diversity. Lower dissolved oxygen was correlated to decreased diversity and increased dominance by Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium species, observed in regions characterized by deteriorated water quality. PMID:23845058

2013-01-01

18

A new species of pterodectine feather mites (Acarina, Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in Meghalaya, India  

PubMed Central

Abstract The article describes a new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra Temminck, 1826 (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in India. Pedanodectes angustilobus sp. n. differs from all known Pedanodectes species by having opisthosomal lobes short, at base wider than long, roughly rounded apically in males, and strongly elongated and narrowed lobar region with wide terminal appendages in females. A key to species of the genus Pedanodectes is presented. PMID:25147445

Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chisamera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costica

2014-01-01

19

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

20

Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India—plants used in oral health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal

S. S. Hebbar; V. H. Harsha; V. Shripathi; G. R. Hegde

2004-01-01

21

Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed

Surinder Singh; Baldev Singh; Ajay Kumar

2003-01-01

22

Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan

2011-01-01

23

Data Envelopment Analysis of State and District Cooperative Banks in India: Exploratory Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of 30 State Cooperative Banks (SCBs) and 20 District Central Cooperative Banks (DCCBs) in India are examined during the period 2002-06. By using direct empirical method, the performance of SCBs and DCCBs is discussed. The self-efficiency of each SCB and DCCB in each state is measured using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The SCBs and DCCBs are peered into

N Ganesan

2009-01-01

24

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India. PMID:22629412

Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

2012-01-01

25

Assessment of essential newborn care services in secondary-level facilities from two districts of India.  

PubMed

India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts-two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (> 75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (< 50%). The findings underpin the need for improving the existing ENC services by making newborn care comers functional and enhancing skills of service providers to reduce neonatal mortality rate in India. PMID:24847602

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

2014-03-01

26

Assessment of Essential Newborn Care Services in Secondary-level Facilities from Two Districts of India  

PubMed Central

India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts?two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (>75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (<50%). The findings underpin the need for improving the existing ENC services by making newborn care corners functional and enhancing skills of service providers to reduce neonatal mortality rate in India. PMID:24847602

Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L.; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S.; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

2014-01-01

27

Wind energy potential assessment in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of wind energy and its characteristics at Kumta and Sirsi in Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka has been studied based on primary data collected at these sites for a period of 24 months. Wind regimes at Karwar (1952–1989), Honnavar (1939–1989) and Shirali (1974–1989) have also been analysed based on data collected from India Meteorological Department (IMD) of respective meterological

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian; N. V. Joshi

1997-01-01

28

Prevalence of hearing impairement in the district of Lucknow, India.  

PubMed

A multi-cluster study (survey) was carried out by department of ENT KG Medical University, Lucknow from July 2003 to August 2004 in rural and urban population of Lucknow district to estimate prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in the community. Data included audiological profile and basic ear examination that was analysed through EARFORM software program of WHO. Overall hearing impairment was seen in 15.14% of rural as opposed to 5.9% of urban population. A higher prevalence of disabling hearing impairment (DHI) in elderly and deafness in 0-10 years age group was seen. The prevalence of sensorineural deafness necessitating hearing aids was 20% in rural and 50% in urban areas respectively. The presence of DHI was seen in 1/2 urban subjects and 1/3rd of rural counterparts. The incidence of cerumen / debris was very common in both types of population and the need of surgery was much more amongst rural subjects indicating more advanced / dangerous ear disease. PMID:21941050

Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra; Shukla, Girish Kumar; Mishra, Subhash Chandra; Dwivedi, Raghav

2011-01-01

29

Prevalence of Goitre in School Children of Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Iodine is an essential micronutrient. A daily consumption of 100-150 micrograms of iodine is recommended for normal human growth and development. Rationale: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) can be easily prevented. Simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is consumption of iodated salt. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of Goitre among school children in Chamarajanagar district, India, and to estimate iodine in salt samples. Methodology: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years using PPS systematic sampling method. A total of 3757 children were selected for the study. Clinical examination of the thyroid was done and salt samples were collected for Iodine estimation. Data was analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The overall prevalence of Goitre was found to be 7.74% in Chamarajanagar district, India. It was higher in female children compared to male children. The difference was more evident in Grade II cases where 64.47% cases were females and 35.53% cases were males and it showed an increasing trend with age (Class1-4.8%, Class 6-10.9%, Class 7–17.6%). Conclusion: It was observed that IDD is endemic in the district with a prevalence of 7.74% among children of 6-12 years. Analysis of salt samples suggested that 28.42% samples had Iodine less than 15ppm. PMID:24551643

Zama, Syed Yunus; Ahmed, Mansoor; N., Vadiraja

2013-01-01

30

Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care.  

PubMed

The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries. PMID:15325728

Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

2004-10-01

31

Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-02-01

32

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD=0.14) and 0.88 (SD=0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the ‘best practice frontier’. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD=0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD=0.16). Conclusions Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals. PMID:24067734

Jat, Tej Ram; San Sebastian, Miguel

2013-01-01

33

Awareness regarding eye donation among stakeholders in Srikakulam district in South India  

PubMed Central

Background There is a huge need for the availability of transplantable donor corneas worldwide to reduce the burden of corneal blindness due to corneal opacity. Voluntary eye donation depends on the awareness levels of various stakeholders in the community. This study aimed to assess the awareness level regarding eye donation among various stakeholders in Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods 355 subjects were selected from the district using multi stage random sampling. A pre tested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding each individual’s awareness, knowledge, and perception regarding eye donation. Each response was scored individually and a total score was calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with willingness towards eye donation and increased awareness levels. Results Of the 355 subjects interviewed, 192 (54%) were male and 163 (46%) were female. The mean age of the stakeholders was 35.9 years (SD ±16.1) and all the study subjects were literate. Ninety-three percent of subjects were aware of the concept of eye donation. Knowledge levels were similar among the teaching community and persons engaged in social service, but lower among students (p?district in India. The services of stakeholders could be utilized, in conjunction with other community based eye donation counselors, to promote awareness regarding eye donation among the general population. PMID:24602240

2014-01-01

34

Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a distributed manner generating the required hydrological and biophysical variables to evaluate alternative water management

R. Singh; R. K. Jhorar; J. C. van Dam; R. A. Feddes

2006-01-01

35

Impact of the December 2004 tsunami on soil, groundwater and vegetation in the Nagapattinam District, India.  

PubMed

The tsunami of 26 December 2004 struck the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India. Sea water inundation from the tsunami caused salinization problems for soil and groundwater in coastal areas of the district, and also induced salt injuries in crops. To document the recovery of the agricultural environment from the tsunami, we conducted observations of the soil, groundwater, and vegetation. Soil electrical conductivity increased sharply after the tsunami, but returned to pre-tsunami levels the following year. Groundwater salinity returned to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. These rapid rates of recovery were due to the monsoon rainfall leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area. MODIS NDVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which starts from August to February. From these results, we conclude that the agricultural environment of the district has now fully recovered from the tsunami. Based on the results, we have also identified important management implications for soil, groundwater, and vegetation as follows: 1) due to the heavy monsoon rainfall and the high permeability of soils in this region, anthropogenic inputs like fertilizers should be applied carefully to minimize pollution, and the use of green manure is recommended; 2) areas that were contaminated by sea water extended up to 1000 m from the sea shore and over pumping of groundwater should be carefully avoided to prevent inducing sea water intrusion; and 3) data from a moderate resolution sensor of 250 m, such as MODIS, can be applied to impact assessment in widespread paddy field areas like the Nagapattinam District. PMID:19540650

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K

2009-07-01

36

Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p?district (stable malaria transmission) was strongly associated with peripheral parasitaemia (adjusted OR [aOR] 43.4; 95% CI, 5.6-335.2). Additional covariates associated with parasitaemia were moderate anaemia (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8-7.7), fever within the past week (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.6), and lack of formal education (aOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0-10.7). Similarly, analysis of DU participants revealed that moderate anaemia (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.4) and fever within the past week (aOR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4-13.9) were strongly associated with peripheral and/or placental parasitaemia. Malaria-related admissions were more frequent among pregnant women in Bastar, the district with greater malaria prevalence (51% vs. 11%, p?India. PMID:22882903

2012-01-01

37

Hydrogeochemistry of the Sarada river basin, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic hydrogeochemical survey has been carried out for understanding the sources of dissolved ions in the groundwaters of the area occupied by Sarada river basin, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Khondalites, charnockites and granite gneisses and calc-granulites of Precambrians and alluvial deposits of Quaternaries underlie the study area. Groundwaters are both fresh and brackish; the latter waters being a dominant. Most groundwaters are characterized by Na+:HCO{3/-} facies due to chemical weathering of the rocks. Enrichment of Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, NO{3/-} and F- in some groundwater samples is caused by seawater intrusion, locally accompanied by ion-exchange, and anthropogenic activities, resulting in an increase of brackish in the groundwaters. Based on the results of this hydrogeochemical study, suitable management measures are recommended to solve the water quality problems.

John Devadas, D.; Subba Rao, N.; Thirupathi Rao, B.; Srinivasa Rao, K. V.; Subrahmanyam, A.

2007-07-01

38

Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

2011-08-01

39

Dynamics of Forest Malaria Transmission in Balaghat District, Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. Findings Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend ?=? 663.55; P<0.0001). Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E) were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44%) and P. vivax (56%). Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T). An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. Conclusion These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions. PMID:24023900

Singh, Neeru; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Chand, Gyan; Mishra, Ashok K.; Shukla, Man M.; Mahulia, Man M.; Sharma, Ravendra K.

2013-01-01

40

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community. PMID:20109179

2010-01-01

41

The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme. PMID:23346389

Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S.; Hiremath, Jyoti M.; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

2012-01-01

42

Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

2014-01-01

43

The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TEX86 paleotemperature proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids derived from aquatic Crenarchaeota has been applied in a variety of marine and lacustrine systems. A recent study analyzing a suite of 50 globally distributed lakes for TEX86 discovered that this proxy does not appear to work in all lake systems and that the TEX86 correlates well with both annual and

B. Gertsch; G. Keller; T. Adatte; R. Garg; V. Prasad; Z. Berner; K. Ateequzzaman; D. Stueben

2008-01-01

44

An assessment of the radiological scenario around uranium mines in Singhbhum East district, Jharkhand, India.  

PubMed

The present work deals with the prevalent radiological scenario around uranium-mining sites in the Singhbhum East district of Jharkhand state, India. The concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) was estimated from 27 soil samples collected around three regions in the study area, namely Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U in Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions were found to be 128.6, 95.7 and 49.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Similarly for (232)Th and (40)K the activity concentrations were found to be 57.3, 78.4, 68.9 and 530, 425 and 615 Bq kg(-1) in the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively, which are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for some high values. The calculated gamma dose rate, obtained from the concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples, was compared with the observed dose rate in air. A good correlation (0.96) was observed between the calculated and the observed gamma dose rate. The annual outdoor effective dose rate was estimated and the values falls between 0.04-0.3, 0.07-0.3 and 0.07-.14 mSv y(-1) with mean values of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.11 mSv y(-1) for the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively. The terrestrial dose rates in all the three regions are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for a few high values in Greece, Rio Grande Do Norte (Brazil) and Kalpakkam (India). PMID:22155799

Tripathi, R M; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Lenka, P; Dubey, J S; Jha, V N; Puranik, V D

2012-07-01

45

Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: A vast majority of Indian population are engaged in agriculture. While pesticides help in increasing crop production, inappropriate pesticide storage practice and inadequate protective measures frequently causes accidental poisoning among farmers. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the pattern of pesticide use among farmers in a district of India with an attempt to identify the lacunae in their knowledge and awareness level on risks and hazards of pesticides use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, to address the study objective. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistical methods: Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Results: In the present study alpha-cypermethrin (46%) was the most commonly used pesticide followed by methyl parathion (25.6%), imidacloprid (16.4%), dichlorvos (7.8%) and phorate (4.2%). The farmers used to store pesticides mostly in cowshed (48.4%) followed by storeroom (29.6%). During spraying of pesticides, farmers experienced headache (29.8%) followed by nausea (26%), burning sensation in eyes (9.8%), cough (9.2%), muscle cramps (2%). Regarding the personal protective measures taken by the farmers for spraying, covering nose, mouth with cloth combined with bath after spraying was the most common practice (27%). When asked about suggested actions to be taken if anybody becomes sick following exposure to pesticides, 86% of farmers prefer consulting a doctor. Conclusion: The study suggested that farmers of Burdwan were exposed to highly hazardous, restricted and banned pesticides, with insufficient protection. In this situation, educational and training interventions on pesticide handling and safety precautions are urgently needed. PMID:25097405

Banerjee, Indranil; Tripathi, S. K.; Roy, A. Sinha; Sengupta, Parama

2014-01-01

46

Traditional Tribal Knowledge and Status of Some Rare and Endemic Medicinal Plants of North Cachar Hills District of Assam, Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey carried out in the district of North Cachar hills, Assam, North East India during the period of February 2006 – November 2006, has revealed 34 species of plants to be threatened in several parts of the country, and in the district itself. More than 6 species of plants are included in the red Data Book of Indian

Albert L. Sajem; Jayashree Rout; Minaram Nath

2008-01-01

47

Hydrochemical characteristics of coastal aquifers of Kadaladi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Kadaladi block of Ramanathapuram District, Tamilnadu, India were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrochemistry. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4, PO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and Cl > HCO3 > SO4 > NO3 > PO4. Na-Cl is the dominant hydrochemical facies of the study area. Interpretation of the hydrochemical data suggests that hydrochemistry of the study area is controlled by mixing of fresh water with relict saline water, ion-exchange processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. Above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone. Good quality groundwater is restricted to coastal sand dunes running parallel to the coast and it is important to conserve these dunes.

Sivasubramanian, P.; Balasubramanian, N.; Soundranayagam, John Prince; Chandrasekar, N.

2013-09-01

48

Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.  

PubMed

Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes. PMID:17101433

Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

2006-11-01

49

Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results. PMID:18509735

Rao, N Subba

2009-05-01

50

Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

2006-12-01

51

Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur district, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to identify the chemical processes that control the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur coastal village of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, south India. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3. The dominant water types are in the order of NaCl> mixed CaMgCl > CaHCO3 > CaNaHCO3. Water types (mixed CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl) suggest that the mixing of high salinity water caused from surface contamination sources such as irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater and septic tank effluents with existing water followed by ion exchange reaction processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone.

Senthilkumar, S.; Balasubramanian, N.; Gowtham, B.; Lawrence, J. F.

2014-11-01

52

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

53

The crater-facies kimberlite system of Tokapal, Bastar District, Chhattisgarh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of diamondiferous kimberlites in the Mainpur Kimberlite Field, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh in central India, encouraged investigation of similar bodies in other parts of the Bastar craton. The earlier known Tokapal ultramafic intrusive body, located beyond the 19-km milestone in Tokapal village along the Jagdalpur-Geedam road, was reinterpreted as crater-facies kimberlite. Its stratigraphic position in the Meso-Neoproterozoic intracratonic sedimentary Indravati basin makes it one of the oldest preserved crater-facies kimberlite systems. Ground and limited subsurface data (dug-, tube-wells and exploratory boreholes) have outlined an extensive surface area (>550 ha) of the kimberlite. The morphological and surface color features of this body on enhanced satellite images suggest that there is a central feeder surrounded by a collar and wide pyroclastic apron. Exploration drilling indicates that the central zone probably corresponds to a vent overlain by resedimented volcaniclastic (epiclastic) rocks that are surrounded by a 2-km-wide spread of pyroclastic rocks (lapilli tuff, tuff/ash beds and volcaniclastic breccia). Drill-holes also reveal that kimberlitic lapilli tuffs and tuffs are sandwiched between the Kanger and Jagdalpur Formations and also form sills within the sedimentary sequence of the Indravati basin. The lapilli tuffs are commonly well stratified and display slumping. Base surges and lava flows occur in the southern part of the Tokapal system. The geochemistry and petrology of the rock correspond to average Group I kimberlite with a moderate degree of contamination. However, the exposed rock is intensely weathered and altered with strong leaching of mobile elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). Layers of vesicular fine-grained glassy material represent kimberlitic lava flows. Tuffs containing juvenile lapilli with pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts are set in a talc-serpentine-carbonate matrix with locally abundant spinel and sphene. Garnet has not been observed, and phlogopite is very rare. Very limited microdiamond testing (two 18-kg samples) proved negative; however, the composition of chromite grains indicate crystallization in the diamond stability field.

Mainkar, Datta; Lehmann, Bernd; Haggerty, Stephen E.

2004-09-01

54

Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.  

PubMed

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

55

Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

1997-11-01

56

Assessment of doses and risk due to natural radionuclides in edible biota of Domiasiat, Meghalaya.  

PubMed

A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the edible biota Solanum nigrum, Carica papaya, Raphnus sativum and Phaseolus domesticus due to naturally available radionuclides (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th in the Domiasiat area in Meghalaya, India. The concentration of radionuclides in biota and corresponding soil was measured by the NaI(Tl) detector having a minimum detection limit (efficiency, 32.4%) and machine counting time of 3000 s. The obtained transfer factor for (40)K was 0.3061, 0.7163, 0.1988 and 0.1279, for (232)Th 0.0003, 2.22E-05, 2.71E-05 and 3.45E-05 and for (238)U 1.46E-05, 9.73E-05, 1.46E-05 and 3.11E-05 (ratio) in each biota, respectively. The detailed physiological and morphological study of the biota was carried out. The point source dose distribution (source?target) hypothesis was applied for the radiation absorbed fraction. The generated data were modelled using FASSET and obtained un-weighted total dose was 1.78E-04, 6.84E-03, 8.46E-03 and 1.73E-04 ?Gy h(-1), respectively, finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR data set for screening level dose risk assessment. PMID:22155750

Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, S S; Jha, S K

2012-07-01

57

Behavioral surveillance of premarital sex among never married young adults in a high HIV prevalence district in India.  

PubMed

In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15-24 years from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7-24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3% males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations with premarital sex for males were current use of alcohol and tobacco, and for females were not living with parents currently and being an income earner. These findings can inform HIV prevention efforts among young adults in India. PMID:20625924

Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, S G Prem; Dandona, Lalit

2011-01-01

58

Prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and severe visual impairment in a tribal district of Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background: We present the outcomes of a survey conducted in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. It was based on “Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness” methodology and conducted in 2009 in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: We examined persons of 50 years and older ages. Ophthalmic assistants noted the distant vision [best corrected vision (BCV) and as presented]. Ophthalmologist examined eyes of persons with vision less than 6/18. The principal cause of impairment in each eye and the most “preventable” or “treatable” cause were assigned. We calculated the prevalence rates of bilateral blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), and moderate visual impairment (MVI). Result: We examined 2,005/2,300 persons (response rate 87.2%). The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the BCV was 1.63% (95% CI 1.11–2.15), 5.93% (95% CI 4.96–6.90), and 14.6% (95% CI 13.2–16.1), respectively. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the presented vision was 1.87% (1.32–2.42), 6.72% (95% CI 5.70–7.74), and 19% (95% CI 17.4–20.6), respectively. Unoperated cataract was responsible for 77% of different visual disabilities. The coverage of existing cataract surgery service was 9.4%. Lack of knowledge about cataract surgery was the main cause of unoperated cataract among 41% of interviewed participants with cataract and SVI. Conclusion: Unoperated cataract was the main curable cause of visual disabilities in tribal population of India. Increasing awareness and offering cataract surgeries at affordable cost in the district would reduce visual disabilities. PMID:22279401

Dhake, Praful V.; Dole, Kuldeep; Khandekar, Rajiv; Deshpande, Madan

2011-01-01

59

Behavioral Surveillance of Premarital Sex Among Never Married Young Adults in a High HIV Prevalence District in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15–24 years from Guntur district of Andhra\\u000a Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7–24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2–7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3%\\u000a males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations\\u000a with premarital sex

G. Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona; S. G. Prem Kumar; Lalit Dandona

2011-01-01

60

Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

Bhattacharjee, D. S.

2011-01-01

61

Factors precipitating outbreaks of measles in district Kangra of North India: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, measles is the fifth killer disease among children under five years of age. Despite high immunization coverage in Himachal, outbreaks are occurring. Upon two outbreaks in a hilly district in North India, a case control study was conducted to identify factors contributing to outbreaks and to recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. Materials and Methods: Factors were reviewed under three heads: program related, health care providers, and beneficiaries related. Cold chain maintenance was determined and responses were compared between workers from study Shahpur and control Nagrota Bagwan blocks. All 69 mothers of age and sex matched children with measles were enrolled. A pre-designed pre-tested data collection instrument was used. For statistical analysis, the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (C.I.) among women of children exposed and unexposed to selected characteristics were calculated. Results: Poor cold chain maintenance and gaps in knowledge of health workers supplemented with beneficiary-related issues precipitated outbreaks in case area. Univariate analysis yielded strong statistical significance to 17 variables. Important statistically significant variables are educational status; OR 27.63 (C.I. 9.46-85.16); occupation; OR 0.35 (C.I. 0.16-0.75); income; OR 5.49 (C.I. 2.36-13.00); mode of transport to health care facility; OR 8.74 (C.I. 2.90-28.23); spread of illness from one person to another; OR 5.60 (95% C.I. 1.40-25.97); first help for sick child OR 2.12 (C.I. 1.00-4.50), and place of visit after recovery; OR 3.92 (C.I. 1.80-8.63). Multiple logistic regression yielded significant association with educational status, drinking water sources, and time taken to reach the nearest health facility. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high immunization coverage areas. We recommend 2nd dose opportunity for measles (MR) between 5 and 17 years; refresher trainings to workers; mobile access to health care facility, and Information Education Communication activities for social behavioral change in affected areas. PMID:23776768

Gupta, Surender Nikhil; Vidya, Ramachandran; Gupta, Naveen; Gupte, Mohan D

2011-01-01

62

Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011  

PubMed Central

India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts. PMID:23382167

Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poche, David; Poche, Richard

2013-01-01

63

How Ernakulam Became the First Fully Literate District of India = Comment l'Ernakulam devint le premier District entierement alphabete de l'Inde. Notes, Comments...No. 195.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lead Kindly Light" was an extensive campaign for the total eradication of illiteracy within 1 year in the Ernakulam District of India. A major sponsor was Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), the Science and Education Center of Kerala; responsibility for the project was later handed over to the National Literacy Mission (NLM). The project had…

Sivadas, S.

64

Successes and problems in family planning administration: experiences in two districts of Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The administrative organizations of the Ernakulam and Malappuram Districts' family planning programs during 1970-74 and the ways they dealt with typical problems of program organization are examined. Lack of personnel, poor staff morale, inadequate supplies, and political and religious opposition to various contraceptive methods, especially sterilization, existed to varying degrees in both districts' programs. The Ernakulam experience, involving mass sterilization camps that were part of an overall district development program, documents the effectiveness of a strong central leader. The Malappuram program illustrates, in contrast, the handicaps of poor areas where development programs were just beginning and administrative resources were overtaxed. PMID:877982

Valsan, E H

1977-06-01

65

Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the performance of irrigation system in Sirsa district, India: I. Current water management and its productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed ecohydrological modelling can provide a useful tool to evaluate the performance of irrigation systems at different spatial and temporal scales. Sirsa district, covering 4270 km2 in the western part of Haryana State (India), has been selected for a case study with typical problems of canal water scarcity, poor groundwater quality, rising and declining groundwater levels, and sub-optimal crop production.

R. Singh; J. G. Kroes; J. C. van Dam; R. A. Feddes

2006-01-01

66

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

67

Iodine nutritional status among neonates in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). According to WHO, if more than 3 % of the neonates have TSH levels of 5 mlU/l and more in a population, it indicates presence of iodine deficiency (ID). Iodine deficiency is an endemic health problem in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. The aim is to determine iodine nutrition status of neonates of Solan district. In Solan district, six hospitals/community health centers providing obstetric services and conducting more than 100 deliveries per annum were identified and enlisted. Two hospitals were selected keeping in view of operational feasibility. A total of 683 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. It was found that 63.2 % of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l indicating iodine deficiency in the Solan district. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Solan district, HP. PMID:24563104

Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika

2014-10-01

68

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

69

Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India  

PubMed Central

Background: Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim: To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects: Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ? 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion: Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness. PMID:24618491

Patil, Shailbala; Gogate, Parikshit; Vora, Siddharth; Ainapure, Sachin; Hingane, Ramkrishna N; Kulkarni, Anil N; Shammanna, B R

2014-01-01

70

Potential and Prospects of Solar Energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can meet a large variety of the small-scale decentralized energy needs of a region. The design of solar devices depends on the global and diffuse solar radiation data. Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa.

T. V. RAMACHANDRA; D. K. SUBRAMANIAN

1997-01-01

71

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

72

Insecticide Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Districts in India and Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the DDT and deltamethrin susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Leishmania donovani, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in two countries (India and Nepal) with different histories of insecticide exposure.MethodsStandard WHO testing procedures were applied using 4% DDT and 0.05% deltamethrin impregnated papers. The effect of the physiological status (fed and unfed) of females on the outcome of

Diwakar Singh Dinesh; Murari Lal Das; Albert Picado; Lalita Roy; Suman Rijal; Shri Prakash Singh; Pradeep Das; Marleen Boelaert; Marc Coosemans

2010-01-01

73

Poverty, Dietary Imbalance and Sickness among Casual Labourer Households in Shillong (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to bring out the case of poverty, undernourishment and health conditions of casual labourers in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya, India. A large section of the unskilled labourers work as casual workers. Casual labourers are those workers who work for a very short duration (for a few hours, a day or at most

SK Mishra; JW Lyngskor

2005-01-01

74

Heavy metal accumulation by three species of mosses in Shillong, North-Eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made of the accumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, and zinc in Plagiothecium denticulatum, Bryum argenteum and Sphagnum sp. in Shillong, Meghalaya State, Northeastern India. Samples of P. denticulatum and B. argenteum were collected inside Shillong city (urban) and its immediately adjacent outskirts (suburban), while Sphagnum sp. was collected from a suburban site only. Lead and copper levels

Abhik Gupta

1995-01-01

75

Correlates of Premarital Relationships Among Unmarried Youth in Pune District, Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Data are drawn from a community-based study of 15-24-year-olds in urban slum and rural settings in Pune District, Maharashtra. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations between youths' individual, peer and family factors and their experience of romantic relationships and physical intimacy, including intercourse. RESULTS: Among young men, 17-24% had had a romantic relationship, 20-26% had engaged in some

Mallika Alexander; Laila Garda; Savita Kanade; Shireen Jejeebhoy; Bela Ganatra

76

Geochemistry of soil around a fluoride contaminated area in Nayagarh District, Orissa, India: Factor analytical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride contamination in soil was studied in the vicinity of a hot spring in Nayagarh district of Orissa. Both bulk soil from 0 to 30 cm depth and profile soils from 0 to 90 cm depth were analyzed for total fluoride (Ft) and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable fluoride (Fca), major elements, pH, EC and Organic Carbon (OC). High concentrations of both Ft

S. Tripathy; M. K. Panigrahi; N. Kundu

2005-01-01

77

Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs to be implemented to control JE transmission. PMID:25027086

Mariappan, T.; Samuel, P. Philip; Thenmozhi, V.; Paramasivan, R.; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Tyagi, B.K.

2014-01-01

78

Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage.MethodsBaseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009.Results4712 FSW participated in the

B M Ramesh; Tara S H Beattie; Isac Shajy; Reynold Washington; Latta Jagannathan; Sushena Reza-Paul; James F Blanchard; Stephen Moses

2010-01-01

79

Pesticide residues in two frog species in a paddy agroecosystem in palakkad district, kerala, India.  

PubMed

Pesticides residues were quantified in 109 frogs comprising two species (Fejervarya limnocharis and Hoplobatrachus crassus) from organic and conventional paddy farms in Kerala, India. Seven frogs from conventional but none from the organic farms revealed deformities. Levels of total Organochlorines (OCs) (33.22 ng/g) and Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate-II (26.91/42.15 ng/g) in deformed F. limnocharis and H. crassus were significantly greater than in healthy frogs. Among OCs in healthy frogs, traces of ? (gamma)-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) (2.12 ng/g) were found only in F. limnocharis from organic farm. Among Organophosphates, Phorate (1.02 ng/g) and Quinalphos (2.62 ng/g) were present in traces in deformed F. limnocharis, while Parathion ethyl (1.02 ng/g) was detected in deformed H. crassus. The data indicate that the high level of pesticides may have contributed to the deformity of frogs. Therefore, an elaborative study will be essential to conserve amphibians in India. PMID:25173364

Kittusamy, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Chandrasekar; Kandan, Nambirajan; Subramanian, Muralidharan

2014-12-01

80

Study of radionuclide distribution around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site (Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district, India).  

PubMed

The activity concentration of primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K have been measured in the sand samples of Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district using gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity of 232Th, 238U and 40K are found to be 5787.1, 1082.9 Bq kg(-1) and BDL, respectively. The total average absorbed dose rate owing to the presence of 232Th, 238U and 40K is found to be 3900.4 nGy h(-1). The annual effective dose is 4.7 mSv y(-1) and the results are discussed in this paper. PMID:15755771

Malathi, J; Selvasekarapandian, S; Brahmanandhan, G M; Khanna, D; Meenakshisundaram, V; Mathiyarsu, R

2005-01-01

81

Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

2013-01-01

82

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

83

Trends in Choosing Place of Delivery and Assistance during Delivery in Nanded District, Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Delivery in a medical institution promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. Manyinitiatives under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) focus on increasing the institutional deliveries. This study describes the trends in choosing place of delivery in Nanded district at the end of the first phase of the mission. Key informants were interviewed to document the initiatives under NRHM implemented in the district. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 30 villages selected using one stage cluster-sampling method. A house-to-house survey was conducted in June 2009. A set of structured open-ended questionnaire was used for interviewing all women who had delivered during January 2004–May 2009. The outcomes studied were place of delivery and assistance during delivery. Analysis was done by calculating chi-square test and odds ratio. Interventions to improve the quality of health services and healthcare-seeking behaviour were implemented successfully in the district. The proportion of institutional deliveries increased from 42% in 2004 to 69% in 2009. A significant increase was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries [60% vs 45%; ?2=173.85, p<0.05, odds ratio (OR)=1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-1.97)] in the NRHM period compared to the pre-NRHM period. The deliveries in government institutions and in private institutions also showed a significant rise. The proportion of deliveries assisted by health personnel increased significantly during the NRHM period [62% vs 49%; ?2=149.39; p<0.05, OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.58-1.89] However, less than 10% of the deliveries in the home (range 2-9%) were assisted by health personnel throughout the study period. There was a wide geographic variation in place of delivery among the study villages. The results showed a significant increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries assisted by health personnel in the NRHM period. Since a less proportion of deliveries in the home is conducted by health personnel, the focus should be on increasing the institutional deliveries. Special and innovative interventions should be implemented in the villages with a less proportion of institutional deliveries. PMID:21528792

Dalvi, Shashank S.; Pergulwar, Chandrakant R.; Gite, Rahul N.; Wanje, Sudhir D.

2011-01-01

84

Trends in choosing place of delivery and assistance during delivery in Nanded district, Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Delivery in a medical institution promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. Many initiatives under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) focus on increasing the institutional deliveries. This study describes the trends in choosing place of delivery in Nanded district at the end of the first phase of the mission. Key informants were interviewed to document the initiatives under NRHM implemented in the district. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 30 villages selected using one stage cluster-sampling method. A house-to-house survey was conducted in June 2009. A set of structured open-ended questionnaire was used for interviewing all women who had delivered during January 2004-May 2009. The outcomes studied were place of delivery and assistance during delivery. Analysis was done by calculating chi-square test and odds ratio. Interventions to improve the quality of health services and healthcare-seeking behaviour were implemented successfully in the district. The proportion of institutional deliveries increased from 42% in 2004 to 69% in 2009. A significant increase was observed in the proportion of institutional deliveries [60% vs 45%; chi2 = 173.85, p < 0.05, odds ratio (OR) = 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-1.97)] in the NRHM period compared to the pre-NRHM period. The deliveries in government institutions and in private institutions also showed a significant rise. The proportion of deliveries assisted by health personnel increased significantly during the NRHM period [62% vs 49%; chi2 = 149.39; p < 0.05, OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.58-1.89]. However, less than 10% of the deliveries in the home (range 2-9%) were assisted by health personnel throughout the study period. There was a wide geographic variation in place of delivery among the study villages. The results showed a significant increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries and deliveries assisted by health personnel in the NRHM period. Since a less proportion of deliveries in the home is conducted by health personnel, the focus should be on increasing the institutional deliveries. Special and innovative interventions should be implemented in the villages with a less proportion of institutional deliveries. PMID:21528792

Pardeshi, Geeta S; Dalvi, Shashank S; Pergulwar, Chandrakant R; Gite, Rahul N; Wanje, Sudhir D

2011-02-01

85

Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. PMID:24911512

Coffey, Diane

2014-08-01

86

Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity. PMID:22899219

Badhan, K; Mehra, R

2012-11-01

87

DOTS-based tuberculosis treatment and control during civil conflict and an HIV epidemic, Churachandpur District, India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To pilot the WHO guidelines on DOTS for tuberculosis (TB) among displaced people affected by conflict in Churachandpur District, Manipur State, north-east India, which has endured an HIV epidemic, injecting drug use, civil unrest, high levels of TB, and poor TB treatment and prevention services for many years. METHODS: Prerequisites for TB control programmes were established. WHO guidelines and protocols were adapted for local use. Outreach workers were appointed from each ethnic group involved in the conflict, and training was conducted. Quality control and evaluation processes were introduced. FINDINGS: TB was diagnosed in 178 people between June and December 1998. Of the 170 with pulmonary disease, 85 were smear-positive. Successful outcomes were recorded in 91% of all patients and in 86% of smear-positive cases of pulmonary TB. The default rate and the mortality rate were low at 3% each. HIV positive serostatus was the only factor associated with a poor treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: TB treatment and control were possible in a conflict setting and WHO targets for cure were attainable. The factors associated with the success of the programme were strong local community support, the selection of outreach workers from each ethnic group to allow access to all areas and patients, the use of directly observed therapy three times a week instead of daily in the interest of increased safety, and the limiting of distances travelled by both outreach workers and patients. PMID:12132001

Rodger, Alison J.; Toole, Mike; Lalnuntluangi, Baby; Muana, V.; Deutschmann, Peter

2002-01-01

88

Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

2014-02-01

89

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: knowledge, attitude and practices of the inhabitants of the Kani forest tribal settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for control/prevention of CL is to create awareness among the community and ensure optimal utilization of interventions. First step in this direction would be to carry out a situation analysis on prevailing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of inhabitants. A study among 103 respondents from 10 Kani tribal settlements showed that though 39.8% of respondents recognized pictures of CL shown to them, but did not have any lay perceptions. There was absolutely no awareness on vector, transmission, risk factors and control measures. The role of sandflies in CL causation was not known to the residents and this prevented them from using any personal protection and adhering to control measures which in turn pose risk of spread of infection within settlements and to newer areas. CL has emerged as a challenging infection in this area and an urgent need for designing appropriate preventive measures and health education strategies is addressed in this article. PMID:25325998

Nandha, B; Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

2014-12-01

90

Geochemical characteristics of kimberlite rock of the Anantapur and Mahbubnagar districts, Andhra Pradesh, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of kimberlite rocks exposed in the Anantapur and Mahbubnagar districts and the reinterpretation of published data revealed considerable differences between kimberlites of Anantapur and Mahbubnagar. The kimberlites of Mahbubnagar show high concentrations of Ni, Cr, Co, Zr, Hf, Ta, Th and U and lower abundance of Rb, Sr and Ba relative to Anantapur. The relationships of Ni-Cr, Zr-Hf, Nb-Ta and Th-U show that the Mahbubnagar kimberlites are distinctly different from the Anantapur kimberlites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the Mahbubnagar kimberlites differ from that of typical kimberlite and lamproite. The Ce/Y vs Zr/Nb and Zr/Nb vs La/Yb plots suggest that the Mahbubnagar kimberlites formed by higher degrees of partial melting of the mantle source than that of Anantapur kimberlites.

Murthy, D. S. N.; Dayal, A. M.

2001-04-01

91

Evaluation of capacity-building program of district health managers in India: a contextualized theoretical framework.  

PubMed

Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30?months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff's perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context-mechanism-outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

Prashanth, N S; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2014-01-01

92

Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30?months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2014-01-01

93

Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluoride is a chemical element that has been shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body's fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth; however, low concentrations of fluoride intensify the risk of tooth decay. Fluoride can also be quite detrimental at higher concentrations at skeletal fluorosis. The Thoothukudi District is a hard rock and alluvial plain marked as one of the Fluoride-increase area in Tamilnadu due to occurrence of various rock types including fluoride-bearing minerals. The F- content of groundwater can thus originate from the dissolution of Fluoride-bearing minerals in the bed rock. Hundred representative groundwater samples from Thoothukudi District were collected during two different seasons. Samples were analysed for F-, other major cations and anions. The study area is chiefly composed of hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite, alluvio marine, fluvial marine and granite with small patches of quartzite and sandstone. Higher concentration of fluoride is observed during pre-monsoon (3.3 mg l-1) compared to the post-monsoon (2.4 mg l-1) due to the dilution effect. Spatial distribution and factor score show that higher concentrations of F- are noted in the north and central part of the study area owing to lithology. Bicarbonate is well correlated with F- which explains that both ions were derived from the weathering. While F- has a very weak correlation with pH which may be due to the increase of alkalinity resulting from the increase of carbonate and bicarbonate ions.

Singaraja, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Sarathidasan, J.

2014-09-01

94

Culture, industrialisation and multiple domains of employees' job satisfaction: a case for HR strategy redesign in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the link between cultural behavioural traits, the potential effect of industrialisation and multiple domains of job satisfaction, utilising survey data collected from public and private service sector employees in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya in the North East Region (NER) of India. Results from ordered probit regressions demonstrate a statistically significant impact of both, extrinsic and

Thomas Lange; Gail Pacheco; Vijay Kumar Shrotryia

2010-01-01

95

Status of iodine deficiency disorder in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a public health problem in Uttarakhand state. Objective: The present study was conducted in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the status of iodine deficiency amongst school age children (6-12 years). Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size (PPS) cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1807 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each child was conducted. Urine and Salt samples were collected from children. Results: The Total Goiter Rate (TGR) was found to be 13.2%. The proportion of children with Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) level <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and ?200 ?g/l was found to be nil, 6.0, 21.2, 34.2 and 38.5 percent, respectively. The median UIE level was 150 ?g/l. Only 46.7% of the salt samples had stipulated level of iodine of 15 ppm and more. Conclusion: The study population had mild degree of public health problem of iodine deficiency. PMID:24944942

Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R. M.; Jain, Vandana; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

2014-01-01

96

Arsenic occurrence and accumulation in soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic in the soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh (Ballia and Ghazipur) was estimated. Survey results revealed that arsenic in soil samples ranged from 5.40 to 15.43 parts per million (ppm). In water samples, it ranged from 43.75 to 620.75 parts per billion (ppb) which far exceeded the permissible limit of 10 ppb as recommended by the World Health Organization. Maximum concentration of arsenic in water was found in Haldi village of Ballia (620.75 ppb). However, mean arsenic concentration in water followed the order: Karkatpur (257.21 ppb) < Haldi (310.15 ppb) < Sohaon (346.94 ppb) < Dharmarpur (401.75 ppb). In case of soil, maximum arsenic was detected in soil of Sohaon (15.43 ppm). Mean arsenic levels in soils followed the order: Karkatpur (9.24 ppm) < Haldi (9.82 ppm) < Dharmarpur (11.32 ppm) < Sohaon (14.08 ppm). Arsenic levels were higher in soils collected from 15-30 cm depth than 0-15 cm from the soil surface. PMID:23054284

Srivastava, Saumya; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

2013-06-01

97

A study of relapse after MDT in a district in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to estimate the magnitude of the problem of relapse and to identify factors responsible for relapse in leprosy units that were delivering MDT in Purulia District of West Bengal. From records patients were classified as "Relapse" or "Not relapse". "Not relapse" patients were selected by simple random sampling from the Surveillance Register and were matched according to age, sex, and the leprosy control unit. 128 cases ("Relapse") and 128 controls ("Not relapse") were interviewed in the clinic using a pre-tested questionnaire. Details of methods to identify and confirm relapse were circulated to all reporting units for ensuring uniformity and reliability. NGOs covered 42% of the population, while the State Government covered the remaining. The patients had been followed up after completion of treatment for a period of two years in PB leprosy and for five years in MB leprosy. The study revealed that the relapse rate was 1.71/1000 person-years for original PB cases and 0.76/1000 person-years for original MB cases. The study also showed that history of contact with an active leprosy patient and irregular treatment led more PB cases to relapse than control cases. All patients with an initial BI of 3+ relapsed with a BI of 1+ or 2+. PMID:15253389

Haldar, A; Mahapatra, B S; Mundle, M; Haldar, S; Saha, A K

2003-01-01

98

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

99

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program. PMID:22956993

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

100

X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

2014-12-01

101

Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

2012-07-01

102

Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?district level in relation to HIV intervention programs and the degree of urbanization. These findings could be used to enhance program planning to further reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:24885786

2014-01-01

103

Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

2014-06-01

104

Power imbalance and consumerism in the doctor-patient relationship: health care providers' experiences of patient encounters in a rural district in India.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore health care providers' experiences and perceptions of their encounters with male and female patients in a rural district in India with special reference to tuberculosis (TB) care. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 22 health care providers, 17 men and 5 women, from the public and private health care sectors. Findings reveal that doctors adopted an authoritarian as well as a consumerist approach in the medical encounter, indicating that power imbalances in the doctor-patient relationship are negotiable and subject to change. Gender was identified as an influencing factor of the doctor's dominance. A patient-centered approach, acknowledging patients' own experiences and shared decision making, is called for and should be included in TB control activities. This seems to be especially important for female patients, whose voices were not heard in the medical encounter. PMID:17038755

Fochsen, Grethe; Deshpande, Kirti; Thorson, Anna

2006-11-01

105

Socio-Economic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Multi-Morbidity among the Rural Elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha (India)  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-morbidity among elderly is increasingly recognized as a major public health challenge in most of the developing countries. However, information on the size of population suffering from multi-morbidity and socio-economic differentials of multi-morbidity is scarce. The objectives of this paper are twofold; first, to assess the prevalence of various chronic conditions and morbidity among rural elderly and second, to examine the socio-economic and demographic factors that have a significant effect on the morbidity. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been done using multi-stage random sampling procedure that was conducted among elderly (60+ years) in Bargarh District of Odisha during October 2011-February 2012. The survey was conducted among 310 respondents including 153 males and 157 females. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the pattern of multi-morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the adjusted effect of various socio-economic and demographic covariates of multi-morbidity. Results The overall prevalence of multi-morbidity is 57% among rural elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha. The most common diseases in rural areas are: Arthritis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), High Blood Pressure and Cataract. Results from the logistic regression analyses show that age, state of economic independence and life style indicators are the most important measured predictors of multi-morbidity. Unlike earlier studies, wealth index and education have a marginal impact on multi-morbidity rate. Moreover, the occurrence of multi-morbidity is higher for elderly males compared to their female counterparts, though the difference is not significant. Conclusion The high prevalence of morbidity observed in the present study suggests that there is an urgent need to develop geriatric health care services in a developing country like India. Any effort to reorganize primary care for elderly people should also consider the high prevalence of multi-morbidity among rural elderly in India. PMID:24902041

Banjare, Pallavi; Pradhan, Jalandhar

2014-01-01

106

Anti-development or identity crisis? Misreading civil society in Meghalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the complex relationship between civil society and development in Asia by examining the role of ethnic identity in anti-development movements. Local and transnational movements by civil society actors against dams, mines, and deforestation have gained increased attention in academia and activist circles in the last decade, often used as evidence in arguments that development as part of

Duncan McDuie-Ra

2007-01-01

107

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

108

Socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural features of prior and anticipated influenza vaccine uptake in urban and rural Pune district, India: a mixed-methods case study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ensuring production capacity of efficacious vaccines for pandemic preparedness alone may not be sufficient for effective influenza control. Community willingness to accept the vaccine is also critical. Population acceptance must therefore be recognised as a major determinant of vaccine effectiveness, and the social, cultural and economic determinants of population acceptance require study for effective policy and action. Pune is a focus of pandemic influenza in India. The experience of the 2009/2010 pandemic in Pune, capacity for vaccine production and experience with vaccine use provide a unique opportunity to address key questions about an effective vaccine intervention strategy for influenza control in India. This study will examine the socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural determinants of anticipated acceptance of influenza vaccines among the urban and rural populations of Pune district. Additionally, community ideas about seasonal influenza and its distinction from pandemic influenza will be investigated. Proposed research also considers the influence of health professionals, policy makers and media professionals on the awareness, preference and use of influenza vaccines. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study including urban and rural community surveys, in-depth interviews with health professionals, case studies at two hospitals where suspected influenza cases were referred during the pandemic and in-depth interviews with media professionals and public health policy makers. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the ethics review committees of the Maharashtra Association of Anthropological Sciences and the WHO, and by the Ethics Commission of Basel, Switzerland. The proposed research will provide a better understanding of communication and education needs for vaccine action for influenza control in India and other low-income and middle-income countries. The findings and the approach for health social science research will have implications for containment of pandemic influenza in other settings and for effective vaccine action planning for other vaccines. PMID:23408082

Kudale, Abhay; Purohit, Vidula Shridhar; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

2013-01-01

109

Delineation of Deccan Trap outcrop extensions using satellite remote sensing techniques in Lalitpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual interpretation and digital image analysis of remotely-sensed data of parts of the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh have enabled the identification of an area having scattered remnants of Deccan Trap basic volcanic rocks occurring in the form of mesas associated with its weathered derivatives, laterite and typical black cotton soil. The lithology of the borehole data from the

J. Krishnamurthy

1990-01-01

110

Digital processing of Landsat TM data for wasteland mapping in parts of Aligarh District (Uttar Pradesh), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the spatial distribution of different wasteland categories forms a basic component in the large-scale reclamation and utilization programmes of these degraded lands. To evaluate the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data in wasteland mapping, an attempt was made in this study to delineate and map various kinds of wastelands, in parts of Aligarh District (Uttar Pradesh) by

S. K. SAHA; M. KUDRAT; S. K. BHAN

1990-01-01

111

Arsenic Contamination of Ground Water and its Health Impact on Population of District of Nadia, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 ?g/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 ?g/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people. PMID:20922118

Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha; Ghosh, Aloke; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghosh, Nilima; Saha, Chandan; Mazumder, Rathindra Nath Guha

2010-01-01

112

Rapid situation & response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone AILA in India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Cyclone AILA hit Indian States on eastern coast on May 25, 2009. An investigation was conducted to examine if AILA was responsible for increased reporting of diarrhoea cases from the district of East-Medinipur in West Bengal. Identifying causative organisms for diarrhoea and assessing their antibiotic susceptibility profile were other objectives. Methods: Rapid situation and response assessment technique was employed to triangulate primary and secondary data collected through field visits. Prescription audit was also conducted. Results: Significantly increased occurrence of diarrhoea was observed in June 2009 in two subdivisions namely Haldia and Egra (OR 1.6 and 1.3 respectively; 95% CI 1.52-1.65 and 1.21-1.32 P<0.001) considering 2007 as baseline. Vibrio cholerae grew from 54 per cent of the stool samples (21/39; 17 V. cholerae O1-Ogawa and 4 non-O1-non-O139), confirming a community outbreak of cholera. Shigella flexneri 3a was isolated from 5 per cent stool specimens. Increased rate of admission in treatment centres due to diarrhoea in the whole district coincided with the formation of cyclone and showed over two-fold rise compared to the admission recorded 6 days ago. Haldia subdivision had the highest attack rate of 9 per 1000 in the month of June, 2009 whereas for the whole district it was 5 per 1000 in the same month. All the isolates of V. cholerae were resistant to ampicillin and furazolidone and sensitive to norfloxacin and azithromycin. Interpretation & conclusions: Pre-AILA changes in the environment, AILA and seasonality of diarrhoea in the study district interplayed towards increased occurrence of diarrhoea. Continuous tracking of ‘seasonality of diarrhoea in the community with vulnerability assessment of potential hosts’, ‘antibiotic sensitivity profile of the causative microorganisms’, and ‘prescription practice of physicians’ would help appropriate disaster management. PMID:21537092

Panda, Samiran; Pati, Kamala Kanta; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Koley, Hemanta; Pahari, Sobha; Nair, G. Balakrish

2011-01-01

113

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

1997-01-01

114

A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6?×?10(6) to 8.2?×?10(6)?colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p?>?0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918

Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

2013-07-01

115

Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study of Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation is variable from place to place. Assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Quality of groundwater in a 398 km2 Peddavanka watershed of a semi-arid region of south India is evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The middle Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup and Kurnool Group of rocks underlie most of the watershed. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of quartzite, limestone, and shale. Seventy-six water samples were collected from open-wells and bore-holes. Water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (summer). The quality assessment is made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, total hardness as CaCO3, TDS, EC, and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated. According to Gibbs‘ ratio samples in both seasons fall in the rock dominance field. The overall quality of waters in the study area in post-monsoon season is high for all constituents ruling out pollution from extraneous sources.

Gowd, S. Srinivasa

2005-09-01

116

Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions. PMID:22431185

Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

2012-12-01

117

Factors affecting treatment-seeking for febrile illness in a malaria endemic block in Boudh district, Orissa, India: policy implications for malaria control  

PubMed Central

Background Orissa state in eastern India accounts for the highest malaria burden to the nation. However, evidences are limited on its treatment-seeking behaviour in the state. We assessed the treatment-seeking behaviour towards febrile illness in a malaria endemic district in Orissa. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out during the high malaria transmission season of 2006 in Boudh district. Respondents (n = 300) who had fever with chills within two weeks prior to the day of data collection were selected through a multi-stage sampling and interviewed with a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Malaria treatment providers (n = 23) were interviewed in the district to gather their insights on factors associated with prompt and effective treatment through a semi-structured and open-ended interview guideline. Results Majority of respondents (n = 281) sought some sort of treatment e.g. government health facility (35.7%), less qualified providers (31.3%), and community level health workers and volunteers (24.3%). The single most common reason (66.9%) for choosing a provider was proximity. Over a half (55.7%) sought treatment from appropriate providers within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Respondents under five years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.84-4.80, P = 0.012), belonging to scheduled tribe community (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.07, P = 0.022) and visiting a provider more than five kilometers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.83, P = 0.026) were more likely to have delayed or inappropriate treatment. Interviews with the providers indicated that patients' lack of trust in community volunteers providing treatment led to inappropriate treatment-seeking from the less qualified providers. The reasons for the lack of trust included drug side effects, suspicions about drug quality, stock-outs of drugs and inappropriate attitude of the provider. Conclusion Large-scale involvement of less qualified providers is suggested in the malaria control programme as volunteers after appropriate capacity development since the community has more trust in them. This should be supported by uninterrupted supply of drugs to the community volunteers, and involvement of the community-based organizations and volunteers in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of malaria control services. There is also a need for continuous and rigorous impact evaluations of the program to make necessary modifications, scale up and to prevent drug resistance. PMID:21192825

2010-01-01

118

Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( C?) of fracture datasets of each domain. The C? is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

2014-04-01

119

Determinants of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion in a jointly determined framework: evidence from a country-wide, district-level household survey in India.  

PubMed

This study provides evidence on the principal determinants of pregnancy and abortion in India using a large country-wide district-level data set (DLHS 2007). The paper provides an economic framework for the analysis of pregnancy and abortion. The study distinguishes between induced and spontaneous abortion and compares the effects of their determinants. The results show that there are wide differences between induced and spontaneous abortions in terms of the sign and magnitude of the estimated effects of several of their determinants, most notably wealth, the woman's age and her desire for children. The study makes a methodological contribution by proposing a trivariate probit estimation framework that recognizes the joint dependence of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion, and provides evidence in support of this joint dependence. The study reports an inverted U-shaped effect of a woman's age on her pregnancy and both forms of abortion. The turning point in each case is quite robust to the estimation framework. A significant effect of contextual variables, at the village level, constructed from the individual responses, on a woman's pregnancy is found. The effects are weaker in the case of induced abortion, and insignificant in the case of spontaneous abortion. The results are shown to be fairly robust. This paper extends the literature on the relation between son preference and fertility by examining the link between mother's son preference and desire for more children with abortion rates. PMID:23866167

Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

2014-07-01

120

Sickle cell haemoglobin, thalassaemia and G-6-PD enzyme deficiency genes in Garasiya tribe inhabited malaria endemic areas of Sirohi District, Rajasthan (India).  

PubMed

Venous blood samples of 368 apparently healthy and unrelated adult individuals (both male and female) belonging to a primitive tribe, Garasiya inhabitating malaria hyperendemic areas of Sirohi district, Rajasthan (India) were investigated by standard and recommended techniques for evidence of erythrocyte genetic disorders; sickle cell haemoglobin, beta-thalassaemia syndromes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) enzyme deficiency (Gd). Sickle cell genes encountered in 23 (6.25%) Garasiya tribals. Of these, 22 (5.97%) showed heterozygous sickle cell gene(Hb-AS or trait) and one (0.27%) homozygous form (Hb-SS or sickle cell disease). beta-thalassaemia syndromes were observed in 30 (8.15%) subjects; 28 (7.60%) beta-thalassaemia traits (beta-thal.) and 2 (0.54%) HbS-thalassaemia (HbS-thal.). Gd was found in 56 (15.21%) subjects. Except these mutant genes no other erythrocyte abnormal genes were encountered in Garasiya tribe. A high incidence or prevalence of these red cell mutant genes in relation to malaria is discussed in the present communication. PMID:19886170

Choubisa, S L

2009-03-01

121

Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

2014-01-01

122

Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns) belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done. PMID:24498812

Sharma, Pankaj; Patti, Pooja; Agnihotry, Ajeet

2013-05-15

123

Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study. PMID:24159547

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

2013-01-01

124

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

1997-01-01

125

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

126

Observed variability and trends in extreme temperature indices and rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India—a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trends and variability in extreme temperature indices and its impact on rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India, which is part of the middle Indo-Gangetic Basin. Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was employed for detection of trend and Sen slope was determined to quantify the magnitude of such trends. We have analyzed 10 extreme temperature indices for monthly and seasonally. The influence of extreme temperature indices on rice-wheat productivity was determined using correlation analysis. As far as Patna is concerned, if the number of cool days during September ?10, the rice productivity will increase due to the availability of sufficient duration to fill up the grain. However, higher warm days during all the months except June will affect the productivity. A significant negative correlation was noticed between maximum value of minimum temperature during September and rice productivity. Highly significant positive correlation was noticed between number of cool days during September with rice productivity while it was highly significant negative correlation in the case of number of warm days during the same month. As far as Samastipur is concerned, a negative correlation was noticed between wheat productivity and maximum value of maximum temperature (TXx) during February, but not statistically significant. The higher temperature may affect the kernel weight and thereby yield. It is seen that a critical value of TXx ?29.2 °C will be harmful to wheat crop during February. A significant positive correlation of number of cool nights with wheat productivity also supports the above relationship. The critical values of extreme temperature indices during rice and wheat growing months provide an indicator to assess the vulnerability of rice-wheat productivity to temperature for Patna and Samastipur districts and there is a need to prepare an adaptive strategy and also develop thermo-insensitive rice-wheat high yielding varieties suitable for this region to sustain rice-wheat productivity under projected climate change situation.

Subash, N.; Singh, S. S.; Priya, Neha

2013-01-01

127

NS1 Antigen Capture ELISA an Effective Method for Diagnosis of Early Dengue Infection - Report of an Outbreak at Angul District, Odisha, India  

PubMed Central

Background: An outbreak of dengue infection occurred in Angul district of Odisha in the month of August & September, 2011. The study was undertaken to detect NS1 antigen positivity among the study population, to compare IgM capture ELISA with NS1 antigen detection for diagnosis of dengue and to identify the predominant genotype of Dengue virus responsible for the outbreak. Materials and Methods: Total 1020 serum samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of dengue from the outbreak. All were subjected for NS1 antigen detection, 92 were selected based on their clinical severity of illness (fever, rash, bleeding manifestation, arthralgia) for further study of IgM ELISA and platelet count and 148 NS1 positive samples were selected from different Blocks of Anugul district for RT-PCR at NIV, Pune, India. Results: Five hundred and thirteen (50.2%) samples were positive for NS1 antigen (highly significant p-value <0.0001, C.I - 95%) with 88% positivity during 1-5 days. The NS1 Ag positivity was peaked to 86.9% on days 3 to 5 (Sensitivity & NPV - 100% each) & declined to 6.2% during 6-10 days with a low sensitivity of 7.14% but 100% specificity & PPV. However, the IgM antibody positivity was 81.2% on days 6 to 10 and 87.5% after 10 days (Sensitivity- 100%, Specificity-13.33%,PPV-7.14% & NPV - 100%). RT-PCR resulted 32.4% positivity (6- DEN1, 39 - DEN 2 & 3- DEN 3) among which 20% were in IgM +ve & 68% in IgM -ve cases. Conclusion: Therefore, early diagnosis of dengue could be mainly by NS1 antigen detection whereas Ig M ELISA is a better tool during the later stage of infection &RT-PCR is more effective in IgM -ve cases.The predominant genotype responsible for the outbreak was found to be DEN-2.

Mahapatra, Dharitri; Sarangi, Gitanjali; Paty, Bimoch Projna; Das, Padma; Chayani, Nirupama

2014-01-01

128

Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster  

PubMed Central

Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

2011-01-01

129

Mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: Recent experiences from a district of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) and Albendazole is the most cost-effective strategy to control lymphatic filariasis (LF). Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to assess the coverage and the compliance of MDA, to elicit factors that influenced compliance, to document side-effects reported and to assess the awareness of the community regarding the disease and MDA program in Bankura district, West Bengal after 2012 round of MDA. Multistage cluster sampling method was adopted. Total four clusters; three villages and one urban municipality ward were selected. In each cluster, minimum 30 families were randomly selected and the head or any responsible family member was interviewed using a pre-designed, pre-tested schedule after taking written informed consent. Data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Results: Total eligible population was 683 among which 98.8% received both the drugs. About 5% of the recipients took none of the drugs. More than two-thirds of the families took unsupervised dose. Drug compliance rate was significantly lower in urban (90.7%) than in the rural clusters (95.7%) (z = 2.46, P < 0.05). Effective coverage rate was significantly lower in urban than in the rural clusters (87.4% vs. 95.3%; z = 3.57, P < 0.01). Coverage compliance gap was higher in urban (5.7%) than in rural cluster (3.9%). Fear of side-effects was the main reason for non-compliance. Reported side-effects were few, mild, and transient. Around 60% of the surveyed families were aware about the MDA program whereas, 67% of them heard about LF. Only 41% families were provided information, education, and communication in last 15 days before MDA. Major sources of information for the surveyed families were leaflets (20.3%) and poster (9.8%). Conclusions: Widespread rural urban variation in performance status, poor social mobilization activities, lack of supervised dosing, and lack of knowledge of the community about the disease and the program are the major areas of concern. PMID:23961445

Ghosh, Santanu; Samanta, Amrita; Kole, Seshadri

2013-01-01

130

A Study on Ground Water Resource Management in Gondwana Formations in Western Part of West Godavari District Andhra Pradesh India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater source forms nearly fifty percent of the total irrigation in the country. With green revolution, there has been an increasing demand for water for agricultural and this led to overexploitation of groundwater resources in many parts of the state and the study area is not an exception. With the success of groundwater exploration and development through deep tube wells in the study area, the farmers plunged into hectic activity of tapping groundwater. The present study was taken up to assess to groundwater recharge and draft in the area and to suggest remedial measures to redress overexploitation condition. The study area is underlain by a vide range of geological formations from Archean to Tertiary age. Crystallines consist of two-tier setting of aquifers with weathered and fracture zones. The Gondwana formations with Sandstone, shale and clay zones form unconfined to confined aquifer system. Deccan trap basalt occurs subsurface in some parts. Crystalline aquifers are exploited through borewells with a depth range of 29 to 101.5 m. Static water levels range in depth from 2.5 and 19.27 m bgl. Their yields range from 2.53 to 19.27 m3/hr. Sedimentary aquifers are exploited through tube wells with a depth range of 18 to 293 m and static water levels range from 2.1m agl to 48.0 m bgl. Yields of the wells vary form 1.3 to 67 m3 /hr. Groundwater is lifted by monoblock pumpsets of 5 HP in some places but mostly by submersible pumpsets with 5 to 12.5 HP. The tube wells are subjected to pumping from 5 to 18 hours per day depending on availability of electricity (power supply). They are operated form 90 days to throughout the year in different places. Groundwater development in the study area shows a steady increase since 1960 with number of tube wells uniformly increasing in each decade, from an initial figure of 592 wells in 1960 to 17,173 tube wells in 2002. Crop pattern was shifted from dry crops to paddy and sugar cane as major crops and irrigated dry crops like maize, tobacco, palm oil, garden crops in minor extent and coconut was planted in large extents. Piezometric surface shows uniform gradient over the entire area indicating hydraulic continuity between different geological formations. The water budgeting was computed by using norms recommended by GEC (Ground Water Estimation Committee) of CGWB 1997, Govt. of India. For the present study, June 2000 to May 2001 period is taken as groundwater year. Groundwater recharge is calculated (formation wise) by rainfall infiltration and water table fluctuation methods, and recharge from other sources reservoirs, tanks, canals, irrigation water returns etc. the total recharge comes to be 626 MCM. Groundwater draft for irrigation and domestic purposes is found to be 994.96 MCM. Groundwater balance shows overdraft by 364.15 MCM. Well density is increased from <1/Sq. km in 60s to >30/Sq.km in 2000. Piezometric surface profiles in N-S direction also show a drop from 1960 to 2000 year by 44m. Taking into consideration, the mined water during 1990-2000, the overdraft comes to 704 MCM i.e. 70.4 MCM/year. Groundwater draft in the study area is found to be 2.85 times more than the actual requirement (342 MCM) of the crops in the area due to highly permeable sandy soils. In view of the alarming imbalance in the groundwater recharge and draft, some management practices are suggested to restore the original groundwater condition which includes proper well spacing, artificial recharge, change of cropping pattern and irrigation methods to suit to the local conditions. Quality of groundwater is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes.

Singara, S.

2006-05-01

131

Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India  

PubMed Central

Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years) and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas. PMID:24470926

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyam; Naik, Praveen Kumar

2012-01-01

132

Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India.  

PubMed

Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years) and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas. PMID:24470926

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyam; Naik, Praveen Kumar

2012-01-01

133

Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking,

Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Badal Kumar Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Uttam Kumar Chowdhury; Dilip Lodh; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Gautam Kumar Basu; Subhash Chandra Mukherjee; Kshitish Chandra Saha; Dipankar Chakraborti

2003-01-01

134

Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Central India, an area where chloroquine has been replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

India contributes greatly to the global incidence of malaria. The factors influencing malaria in India are highly diverse and vary greatly from the epidemiological setting of any other country. Central India is the most vulnerable area to malaria in India. This study was carried out in three community health centres in Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Dindori District is

Neeru Singh; Man M. Shukla; Gyan Chand; Praveen K. Bharti; Mrigendra P. Singh; Mohan K. Shukla; Rajiv K. Mehra; Ravendra K. Sharma; Aditya P. Dash

2011-01-01

135

Integration of capacity factors analysis risk methodology and Ostrom's social ecological system assessment framework to assess and improve domestic water infrastructure in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 50 years, both financing and socio- economic considerations in South India have shifted heavily towards improving urban infrastructure, causing rural services to be left behind. A recent report released by WHO and UNICEF states that over 884 million people, 84% of whom live in rural areas, use \\

Siddhartha Pailla; Garrick Louis

2011-01-01

136

Youth-friendly services in two rural districts of West Bengal and Jharkhand, India: definite progress, a long way to go  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a continuing challenge to reach rural youth in India with sexual and reproductive health services. Drawing on a large survey among 6,572 young people aged 15–24 and 264 rural health providers accessed by them in rural West Bengal and Jharkhand, we witnessed a long-awaited response to national efforts to promote birth spacing. That 31% of young, married women

Martine Collumbien; Manasee Mishra; Charlotte Blackmore

2011-01-01

137

Analysis of Gender Disparity in Meghalaya by Various Types of Composite Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjugation of women in certain spheres of life is very common in the patriarchal societies and it has a long history. In India, women have little social or economic independence. They are treated inequitably at home as much as at the workplace outside. Perhaps, it is so for the Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. However, Meghlaya, a state in North

SK Mishra

2007-01-01

138

Morphotaxonomic studies to identify the members of the Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) species complex in riverine villages of District Sonepat, Haryana State, India.  

PubMed

Anopheles subpictus was reported to be a complex of four sibling species provisionally designated as species A, B, C and D. Present studies in District Sonepat, Haryana have revealed the sympatricity of species A, C and D based on the reported distinct morphotaxanomical identification characters in different life stages of the mosquito. Studies on field collected adult mosquitoes and isofemale progeny did not show variations in the prevalence of sibling species and also showed a possibility of use of a single reported morphological character in a given life stage for the identification of the members of this complex. PMID:16295684

Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Kumar, Ram; Nanda, Nutan; Subbarao, Sarala K

2004-03-01

139

Genetic analyses of ribosomal loci of Anopheles minimus species from north east India.  

PubMed

Anopheles minimus is one of the major vectors for transmission of malaria disease in north eastern (NE) region of India. The minimus species complex of Minimus subgroup of Myzomyia series of anophelines were studied in malaria affected states--Assam and Arunachal Pradesh (AP) of NE India. Ribosomal DNA markers--second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and third domain (D3) of 28S gene were used to characterize An. minimus species. Sequence homogeneity was observed in D3 sequences of An.minimus specimens throughout both the states. However, a transversion in ITS2 sequence of single specimen collected from Assam-Meghalaya border areas illustrates possibility of intra population polymorphism in ITS2 sequence within the geographical region. PMID:24189686

Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Topno, R; Chowdhury, P; Baishya, M; Prakash, A; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mahanta, J

2013-09-01

140

Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda  

PubMed Central

Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care, locally-situated interventions could be more easily planned to provide appropriate and acceptable mental health care in LMICs. PMID:25089962

Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

2014-01-01

141

Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients. Comparison of LED Fluorescent Microscopy and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in a District Hospital in India  

PubMed Central

HIV-related tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the World Health Organization has endorsed the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients from developing countries, but information about the use of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is scarce. In this study, we compared the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) auramine fluorescent microscopy and the Xpert assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients in a district hospital of India. Although at higher cost, Xpert outperformed LED fluorescent microscopy in all type of specimens, especially in cerebrospinal fluid where the number of positive results was increased 11 times. Pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, pus, and stool specimens also yielded positive results with the Xpert assay. When collecting two additional early-morning sputum samples, the increase of the number of positive results with the Xpert assay was lower than previously reported for HIV infected patients. Rifampicin resistance was observed in 2.2% of the cases. The results of this study show that the Xpert assay can dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and other types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis of HIV infected patients. PMID:22966426

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Azcona, Jose M.; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K.; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

142

A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health. PMID:24516739

Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

2014-01-01

143

Prevalence, molecular fingerprinting and drug resistance profile of enterovirulent Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging yaks of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Of 273 samples (rectal swab) collected from free-ranging yaks of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh, 42 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), six enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and 27 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains were isolated. All the STEC and EPEC strains were further investigated for respective stx variants (for STEC only) and additional putative virulence factors. The 27 ETEC strains were also screened for characteristic enterotoxin gene(s) and colonization factors. Occurrence of ETEC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the diarrheic yaks and yaks of less than 1 year of age. Majority of enterovirulent E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Dendrogram, constructed with molecular fingerprinting profiles obtained from RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus) PCR, placed the isolates in different clusters irrespective of their serotypes, virulence gene and drug resistance pattern. Collectively, the study indicates that yaks, being a potential reservoir of multidrug resistant STEC and EPEC, may represent significant risk to public health in this region. Higher recovery of ETEC isolates from yaks with diarrhea points out that ETEC may be a major determinant for repeated occurrence of diarrhea in yaks. PMID:22228494

Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Lodh, Chandan; Sarkar, Mihir; Ghosh, Monoj K; Bera, Asit K; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Mondal, Dipak K; Baruah, Kishore K

2012-06-01

144

Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of any life support system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study was confined to the coastal belt of Alappuzha district, which lies in the coastal lowland division of Kerala. Groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purpose were examined by various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride. These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purpose by comparing with the WHO and Indian standards. TDS, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and permeability index were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The sample analysis reveals that the groundwater is not entirely fit for drinking with respect to pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Cl-. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Based on TDS and SAR almost all samples are suitable for irrigation purpose except a few locations, which show values beyond the permissible limits. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant water type in the study area. The sequence of the abundance of the major cations and anions is Ca > Na > Mg > K = HCO3 > Cl > SO4. Based on the total hardness and TDS, 96 % of groundwater samples are found suitable for drinking purpose.

Sarath Prasanth, S. V.; Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gangadhar, K.

2012-09-01

145

Psychosocial Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy at Udupi District, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Background: Life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) on antiretroviral therapy has appreciably increased. However, psychosocial challenges pose a great threat to their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to determine psychosocial factors influencing health-related quality of life of PLHA on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling to select 226 PLHA at District hospital. Demographic information was collected using a semistructured questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed using WHOQOL-HIV Bref. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, CAGE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used. One-way ANOVA was applied. Results: There was a significant difference in mean quality of life score with respect to level of anxiety in the physical (P < 0.001), psychological (P < 0.001), level of independence (P < 0.001), social relationships (P = 0.047), environment (P < 0.001), and spirituality domain (P < 0.001). Significant difference in mean quality of life score was observed with respect to level of depression in physical (P = 0.003), psychological (P = 0.036), level of independence (P = 0.017), social relationships (P = 0.019), and spirituality (P = 0.001). Friend support was positively associated with HRQOL in physical (P < 0.001), psychological (P < 0.001), level of independence (P = 0.013), social relationships (P < 0.001), environment (0.001), and spirituality domain (0.026). Family support was positively associated with HRQOL in physical (P = 0.001), psychological (P = 0.001), level of independence (P = 0.040), social relationships (P = 0.008), environment (0.001), and spirituality domain (0.026). A significant difference was observed with respect to affiliation to social organization in social relationships domain (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Psychosocial challenges including anxiety, depression, and social support impact upon all domains of HRQOL of PLHA. PMID:24627748

Peter, Emanuel; Kamath, Ramachandra; Andrews, Teddy; Hegde, Belle Monappa

2014-01-01

146

The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future changes in water quantity and quality. For disaster risk assessment, the goal is to identify the intersection of potential mass movement and flood hazards, with exposed people, resources, and assets. Base level information is required on glacier area and volume, mass balance, glacial lake distribution, surface topography, information on snow cover, duration, and snow water equivalent, and gauge measurements on river and stream flows. Where instrumental data is lacking, information of past hydrological regimes and evidence of mass movement can be derived from documentary records (archival reports), from geological indicators (i.e. palaeofloods: sedimentary and biological records over centennial to millennial scales), and from botanical sources (i.e. dendrogeomorphology). The adaptive capacity to face the challenges associated with a changing cryosphere in the Kullu district will require economic, political, and knowledge capacity to plan, prepare, and respond to issues of water quantity and quality, and disaster risk associated with mass movement and flood hazard. Socio-economic information to be assessed includes economic metrics, literacy rates, and population demographic factors such as gender, age, and religion. These same factors largely determine a communities capacity to anticipate, respond to, and recover from disasters.

Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

2014-05-01

147

Innovation District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

148

Cytotaxonomic evidence for the presence of Anopheles nivipes in India.  

PubMed

Anopheles philippinensis mosquitoes were collected from 5 states in India: Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and Nagaland. Half-gravid females were examined for variations in wing venation using the presector dark mark on vein I and polytene chromosomes derived from ovarian nurse cells. Polytene chromosomes were examined for diagnostic inversions, t on chromosome arm 2 and I on arm 5. Based on wing characteristics, both An. philippinensis and An. nivipes were identified. Polytene chromosome examinations revealed that all specimens from these 2 populations had 2t; 51 inversion genotype, a diagnostic character for An. nivipes. The wing character was not diagnostic; therefore, it was concluded that all the specimens examined were actually An. nivipes and not An. philippinensis. Further, the X chromosome was of x+b type, that is, the standard arrangement with reference to the inversion b, reported in the An. nivipes population in Thailand. This is the 1st report that unequivocally establishes the occurrence of An. nivipes in India and also shows that the adult wing character is not reliable in distinguishing An. philippinensis from An. nivipes, as has been observed in Thailand. PMID:10901629

Subbarao, S K; Kumar, K V; Nanda, N; Nagpal, B N; Dev, V; Sharma, V P

2000-06-01

149

Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India  

PubMed Central

Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

2011-01-01

150

Compatible poliomyelitis cases in India during 2000.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases and to assess the programmatic implications of clusters of such cases in India. METHODS: We described the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases, identified clusters of compatible cases (two or more in the same district or neighbouring districts within two months), and examined their relationship to wild poliovirus cases. FINDINGS: There were 362 compatible cases in 2000. The incidence of compatible cases was higher in districts with laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases than in districts without laboratory-confirmed cases. Of 580 districts, 96 reported one compatible case and 72 reported two or more compatible cases. Among these 168 districts with at least one compatible case, 123 had internal or cross- border clusters of compatible cases. In 27 districts with clusters of compatible cases, no wild poliovirus was isolated either in the same district or in neighbouring districts. Three of these 27 districts presented laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases during 2001. CONCLUSION: Most clusters of compatible cases occurred in districts identified as areas with continuing wild poliovirus transmission and where mopping-up vaccination campaigns were carried out. As certification nears, areas with compatible poliomyelitis cases should be investigated and deficiencies in surveillance should be corrected in order to ensure that certification is justified. PMID:12640469

Kohler, Kathryn A.; Hlady, W. Gary; Banerjee, Kaushik; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Francis, Paul; Durrani, Sunita; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Sutter, Roland W.

2003-01-01

151

Fiscal Decentralization in China and India: Competitive, Cooperative or Market Preserving Federalism?  

E-print Network

village enterprises have been very active, is contrasted with that of India,village enterprises have been very active, is contrasted with that of India,India Type State+national capital territory+union territory District+municipal corporation Block+municipality Village

Singh, Nirvikar

2007-01-01

152

Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. Methods First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or ? 50% of FSWs respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compare exposure by district categories, vulnerability factors and intermediate outcomes associated with exposure. Results Reported exposure, evaluated on basis of having received any of three core services, was higher in Solo (75%) compared with Minor (66%) districts. Logistic regression showed that FSWs in solo districts were more likely to be exposed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.86) compared with FSWs in Minor districts. Multivariate analysis in Solo districts revealed that FSW with ?15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Conclusions Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA. PMID:20167734

Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

2010-01-01

153

Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes.MethodsFirst round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider,

Lakshmi Ramakrishnan; Abhishek Gautam; Prabuddhagopal Goswami; Srinivasan Kallam; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar; Banadakoppa M Ramesh; Guy Morineau; Bitra George; Ramesh S Paranjape

2010-01-01

154

Dynamics of distinct intraseasonal oscillation in summer monsoon rainfall over the Meghalaya-Bangladesh-western Myanmar region: covariability between the tropics and mid-latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed spatiotemporal structures for the submonthly-scale (7-25 days) intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in summer monsoon rainfall and atmospheric circulation were investigated in South Asia using high-quality rainfall and reanalysis datasets. The Meghalaya-Bangladesh-coast of the western Myanmar (MBWM) region is the predominant area of submonthly-scale ISO in the Asian monsoon regions. The distinct rainfall ISO is caused by a remarkable alternation of low-level zonal wind between westerly and easterly flows around the Gangetic Plain on the same timescales. In the active ISO phase of the MBWM, a strong low-level westerly/southwesterly flows around the plain and a center of cyclonic vorticity appears over Bangladesh. Hence, a local southerly flows toward the Meghalaya Plateau and there is strong southwesterly flow towards the coast along southeastern Bangladesh and western Myanmar, resulting in an increase in orographic rainfall. Rainfall also increases over the lowland area of the MBWM due to the low-level convergence in the boundary layer under the strong cyclonic circulation. The submonthly-scale low-level wind fluctuation around the MBWM is caused by a westward moving n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER) wave. When the anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly related to the ER wave approaches the Bay of Bengal from the western Pacific, humid westerly/southwesterly (easterly/southeasterly) flows enhance around the Gangetic Plain on the northern fringe of the anticyclone (cyclone) and in turn promote (reduce) rainfall in the MBWM. Simultaneously, robust circulation signals are observed over the mid-latitudes. In the active phase, cyclonic anomalies appear over and around the TP, having barotropic vertical structure and also contributing to the enhancement of low-level westerly flow around the Gangetic Plain. In the upper troposphere, an anticyclonic anomaly is also observed upstream of the cyclonic anomaly over the TP, having wavetrain structure. The mid-latitude circulation around the TP likely helps to induce the distinct ISO there in conjunction with the equatorial waves. Thus, the distinct ISO in the MBWM is strongly enhanced locally (~500 km) by the terrain features, although the atmospheric circulation causing the ISO has a horizontal scale of ~6,000 km or more, extending across the whole Asian monsoon system from the tropics to mid-latitudes.

Fujinami, Hatsuki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Morimoto, Akihito

2014-10-01

155

Railways and Market Integration in British India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researchers have suggested that the extensive railway system built in India after 1853 created a unified goods market. Using panel data on district wheat prices from 1860-1920, we test whether the wheat market was integrated at that time. Employing panel unit root tests, we find strong evidence for market integration. We measure the contribution of railroads to that integration

Tahir Andrabi; Michael Kuehlwein

156

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

157

Assessment of iodine deficiency in Kottayam district, Kerala State: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine is one of the essential micro-elements required for normal human growth and development. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are an important public health problem in India. There has been no data on the prevalence of IDD from the Kottayam district, India and hence, the present pilot study was conducted in the year 1999 to assess whether iodine deficiency existed in

Umesh Kapil; PR Jayakumar; Preeti Singh; Bhawna Aneja; Priyali Pathak

2002-01-01

158

Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set  

PubMed Central

The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K?=?1 to K?=?20 were tested and population K?=?3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K?=?5 and K?=?4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a valuable resource for future genomic studies and crop improvement strategies. PMID:25412256

Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

2014-01-01

159

Shifts in Cropping System and Its Effect on Human Nutrition: Case Study from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than twenty cropping systems are practiced in India. Rice-wheat and rice-rice are the major cropping systems practiced in an estimated 120 districts and 50 districts of the country, respectively. The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan) is the creation of the agricultural green revolution. Higher production of

P. K. Kataki

2002-01-01

160

On the waterfront: water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a south India canal irrigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The

P. P. Mollinga

1998-01-01

161

Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience-a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference. PMID:25416966

Raghu, V

2015-01-01

162

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

2013-01-01

163

Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

2009-01-01

164

The district heating renaissance  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the expanding market for district heating and cooling systems as part of independent cogeneration systems. The topics of the article include expanding systems, future potential, government help, cogeneration, district cooling expanding, absorption chilling, indoor air quality, and institutional barriers to the expanding market. The article also includes a sidebar on Denmark's district heating systems.

Seeley, R.S.

1992-09-01

165

Data-Driven Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

LaFee, Scott

2002-01-01

166

DOING BUSINESS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking

RODNEY SEBASTIAN; ASHVIN PARAMESWARAN; FAIZAL YAHYA

2006-01-01

167

India: Extending Primary Education through Non-Formal Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent community-oriented, evening education project for illiterate children residing in the rural Pune district of India is described and evaluated. Discussed are project organizations, requirement and training of staff, curriculum content, classroom equipment, course materials, and literacy results. (JA)

Naik, Chitra

1983-01-01

168

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01

169

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

170

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

171

Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

172

Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

2014-08-01

173

Girl prostitution in India.  

PubMed

This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

Mukhopadhyay, K K

1995-01-01

174

Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.  

PubMed

In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776

Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

2014-04-01

175

HEALTH, TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN INDIAN DISTRICTS  

PubMed Central

We investigate whether better population health may impact economic performance through improvements in technical efficiency in agricultural production. Using district-level data from India, we employ a random-coefficients approach to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function, computing overall and input-specific technical efficiencies for each district. We then model health (district infant mortality rate) as a determinant of (in)efficiency in a second stage, controlling for a range of other socioeconomic variables. In the preferred specifications, we find that decreases in the infant mortality rate are associated with substantively and statistically significant increases in overall technical efficiency, and that a good portion of this association is likely due to improvements in the efficiency of labor use.

Venkataramani, Atheendar S.; Shanmugam, K.R.; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2014-01-01

176

It Takes a District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Fontana (California) Unified School District's No Child Left Behind Act implementation plan, focusing on the use of project charts. Illustrates the project chart function with examples from Title I and Title X. (PKP)

Rosen, Karolee

2003-01-01

177

The Sudbury Mining District  

E-print Network

In this paper will be given a brief history of the Sudbury Mining district and something of the geology and ore deposits of the same; also, a description of the mining and metallurgical methods used by the Canadian Copper ...

Bedell, Frank G.

1906-06-01

178

Cryptosporidiosis, whether it is more prevalent in Southern India.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium species is identified as an important cause of morbidity in children and adults. Prevalence rate as reported from various studies in India is much lower when compared to developed word. Present study was designed to analyze the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Stool samples from 306 patients suffering with gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A higher prevalence (25%) was found when compared to reports from north east and western India. Cryptosporidium was prevalent in 35-36% of adults, 17% of children and 20% of infants. PMID:25250236

Manocha, Harmesh; Dua, Seema; Chander, Yogesh; Tailang, Megha

2014-07-01

179

Cryptosporidiosis, whether it is more prevalent in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium species is identified as an important cause of morbidity in children and adults. Prevalence rate as reported from various studies in India is much lower when compared to developed word. Present study was designed to analyze the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Stool samples from 306 patients suffering with gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A higher prevalence (25%) was found when compared to reports from north east and western India. Cryptosporidium was prevalent in 35-36% of adults, 17% of children and 20% of infants.

Manocha, Harmesh; Dua, Seema; Chander, Yogesh; Tailang, Megha

2014-01-01

180

Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.  

PubMed

Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the contributing factor in accumulating genetic distinctiveness in BBTV-Umiam which need further characterization. PMID:24468493

Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

2014-04-01

181

Real Wages of Casual Labourers in Shillong (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation into the real wage rates of casual labourers in Shillong, the capital city of Meghalaya. First, trends in nominal wages during 1997-2000 have been studied. Then the consumption expenditure of casual labourers on wage goods is analysed and finally, changes in prices of wage goods and the cost of living have been investigated during the

SK Mishra; JW Lyngskor

2003-01-01

182

Hydroelectric resource assessment in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of power available at a given site is decided by the volumetric flow of water and the hydraulic head or water pressure. In hydro schemes, the turbines that drive the electricity generators are directly powered either from a reservoir or the `run of the river'. The large schemes may include a water storage reservoir providing daily or seasonal

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian; N. V. Joshi

1999-01-01

183

Attitude Towards Premarital Sex among Rural College Youth in Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the risky sexual behaviour, misconceptions and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual health among\\u000a rural youth in India. In order to understand these aspects, quantitative data were collected among 1,500 rural college students\\u000a (800 male and 700 female) in the age group 15–24 years in the Thane district of Maharashtra, India, during 2004. Analysis\\u000a of variance and regression

Mohan Ghule; Donta Balaiah; Beena Joshi

2007-01-01

184

Two new species of Amemboa Esaki (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Amemboa mahananda sp. nov. and Amemboa bifurcata sp. nov. are described from Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Darjeeling district and from Kalikhola, in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, and compared with all allied species. A species checklist of the genus Amemboa Esaki, 1925  and Amemboides Polhemus & Andersen, 1984 from India and their distribution in India and elsewhere is provided. Amemboa kumari (Distant, 1910) is reported for the first time from West Bengal and Amemboa dentata Polhemus & Andersen, 1984 is newly recorded from Himachal Pradesh. PMID:24871522

Basu, Srimoyee; Subramanian, K A; Polhemus, Dan A

2014-01-01

185

Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

186

Religion and the economics of fertility in south India  

E-print Network

) School for religious teaching (Urdu) Hindu epic poem about the 'great war' between two sets of cousins, the Pandavas and the Kauravas of Hastinapura (Sanskrit) Dower paid to the bride under the Islamic marriage contract (Arabic) Unit of measurement... by religion in India. 5 This issue has not been dealt with in detail by the Indian Census, which only in 1995 made public demographic information by religion, but which mainly restricts itself to state- and district-level comparisons. The demographic...

Iyer, Sriya

2000-03-14

187

Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the current diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India.Design: Cross-sectional study with household as the unit of randomization.Setting: National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau collected information in the rural areas of the nine States.Methods: In each State, 120 villages were selected from eight districts. From each of the selected villages, 20 households (HHs) were selected from five

K Venkaiah; K Damayanti; MU Nayak; K Vijayaraghavan

2002-01-01

188

Heat pumps in district heating and district cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and...

M. Havskjold

1993-01-01

189

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

190

Victoria India Doctoral Scholarships  

E-print Network

the opportunity to work with top researchers and supervisors, use cutting- edge research infrastructure.studymelbourne.vic.gov.au/hindi/scholarships The Australia India Institute is managing theVictoria India Doctoral Scholarships with funding from the, medicine, the social sciences and humanities, business studies, education and the arts. Victoria

Liley, David

191

Competitiveness and trade potential of India’s dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has become the world’s largest milk producer but its dairy industry lacks market access. This paper determines how world dairy policy reforms would affect dairy production and trade in India and the competitiveness of its dairy industry. We measure nominal protection coefficient for India’s dairy products to determine level and change in competitiveness between 1975 and 2001. We estimate

Manitra Rakotoarisoa; Ashok Gulati

2006-01-01

192

Skewed sex ratios and criminal victimization in India.  

PubMed

Although substantial research has explored the causes of India's excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women's empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921

South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita

2014-06-01

193

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

194

Reykjavik District Heating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reykjavik, Iceland, utilizes natural geothermal resources as the heat input for its district heating system. This system served about 8,700 of the 10,000 residences in 1970. The water used is non-corrosive, allowing the use of standard pipe and fittings. ...

J. Zoega, G. Kristinsson

1970-01-01

195

Problems of Affluent School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

McLoone, Eugene P.

196

Remote sensing of coastal geomorphology to understand river migration in the Thengapatnam area, southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study the geomorphic processes that control river migration in the Thengapatnam coastal tract bordering the Arabian Sea in the Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Satellite image data were used to identify the geomorphic units. An attempt was made to interpret geological evidence indicative of migration of the Kuzhithura river channel. In addition,

Aparna S. Bhaskar; R. B. Binoj Kumar

2011-01-01

197

Childbirth practices in rural Rajasthan, India: implications for neonatal health and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rural community of Rajasthan in north India, we explored family, community and provider practices during labor and childbirth, which are likely to influence newborn health outcomes. A range of qualitative data-gathering methods was applied in two rural clusters of Udaipur district. This paper reports on the key findings from eight direct observations of labor and childbirth at home

S D Iyengar; K Iyengar; J C Martines; K Dashora; K K Deora

2008-01-01

198

Analysis of survey data investigating the malarial endemicity of a mixed tribal population of Bihar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A section of the mixed tribal population of the Singhbhum district , Bihar, India is declared malaria epidemic zone. The tribal population of several generation is known to be suffering from malaria. A survey based on cr oss- sectional data analysis, was conducted on the mixed tribal populatio n for one month. The purpose of this study was to investigate

T. K. Basu; S. Ganguly; S. K. Sarkar; R. Arnab

1998-01-01

199

The social context of risk and protection amongst young people and women in Churachandpur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reports on two community-based studies of the social context of risk and protection among youth and the impact of AIDS on women and their families in Manipur in Northeast India. The studies were conducted in Churachandpur town and surrounding districts with largely tribal popu lations. The state of Manipur has a high prevalence of HIV, which is mostly

S. M. Gifforda; N. Suanching; J. Tusing; V. L. Muana

200

Wives without husbands: Gendered vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections among previously married women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using population-based and family structural data from a high HIV-prevalence district of Southern India, this paper considers four suggested social scenarios used to explain the positive correlation between HIV prevalence and previously married status among Indian women: (1) infection from and then bereavement of an infected husband; (2) abandonment after husbands learn of their wives' HIV status; (3) economic instability

Kimberly Walters; Rakhi Dandona; Lawrence C. Walters; Vemu Lakshmi; Lalit Dandona; John A. Schneider

2012-01-01

201

Determinants of participation of women in a cervical cancer visual screening trial in rural south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a single round of screening of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) on cervical cancer incidence and mortality is investigated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in south India. Women aged 30–59 years in 113 clusters in Dindigul District were randomized to VIA screening by nurses (57 clusters, 48,225 eligible women) and to a control group (56

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Rajamanickam Rajkumar; Silvina Arrossi; Rajapandian Theresa; Pulikattil Okkaru Esmy; Cédric Mahé; Richard Muwonge; Donald Maxwell Parkin; Jacob Cherian

2003-01-01

202

Status of Iodine Nutriture and Salt Iodization in Union Territory of Pondicherry, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiency of iodine causes a wide spectrum of disabilities including the implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school age children. The present study was conducted to assess the status of iodine nutriture and salt iodization in the entire Union Territory of Pondicherry, India. The study was conducted in all the four districts of Pondicherry. In each

2002-01-01

203

Persistence of iodine deficiency in a Gangetic floo d- prone area, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, India revoked the ban on production and sa le of non-iodised salt. We conducted a study in th e north 24 parganas district in the state of West Bengal to ass ess the prevalence of goitre, status of urinary iod ine excretion (UIE) level and to estimate iodine content of salts at the household level. We surveyed 363

Tapas Kumar; Sen MAE; Akhil Bandhu Biswas; Indranil Chakrabarty; Dilip Kumar; Ramachandran Ramakrishnan; Punnaih Manickam

204

Information Sources and Communication Channels Related to Farm Practice Adoption in Central India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's main purpose was to identify and describe the roles played by various information sources and communication channels used by Sehore farmers in the adoption of four improved agricultural practices in U.P. District of India. A sample of randomly picked 200 farmers was interviewed by questionnaire. Of the five information sources studied,…

Sharma, D. K.; Leagans, J. Paul

205

Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

2014-01-01

206

Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the wealth of medicinal plants used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Apatani have traditionally settled in seven villages in the Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region of India. The present study has resulted in the documentation of 158 medicinal plant species used by the Apatani group of

Chandra Prakash Kala

2005-01-01

207

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

208

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

209

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

210

Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)

2007-03-23

211

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

212

Translating Terror in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's ambiguous position in relation to U.S. hegemony is reflected in the Indian media's response to the 9-11 attacks and the U.S. bombing of Afghanistan. Historically, not only has India been one of the most vocal third world critics of U.S. economic and political influence, it has also played a strategic military and economic role among the world's democra- cies.

Paula Chakravartty

2002-01-01

213

Looking ahead in India.  

PubMed

India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system. PMID:12340887

Gupte, P

1986-03-01

214

Two new species of Pleciobates (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha: Gerridae) from India, with a key to the species of Pleciobates.  

PubMed

Two new species of water striders in the genus Pleciobates are described from India and compared with allied species. Pleciobates bengalensis Jehamalar, Basu & Zettel sp. nov. is described from the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal and Pleciobates expositus Jehamalar, Chandra & Zettel sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Gerridae) is described from the Dhubri District, Assam. A key to the species of Pleciobates and a distribution map of the species of Pleciobates from India are provided. For the first time the genitalia of Pleciobates females are described in detail. PMID:25283668

Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash; Zettel, Herbert; Basu, Srimoyee; Barman, Bijita; Gupta, Susmita; Subramanian, K A

2014-01-01

215

The national leprosy eradication programme in India.  

PubMed

India has the largest leprosy problem in the world, with an estimated 4 million patients. The number of registered cases in the country was 2.4 million by June 1990, and the number of new cases detected during 1989-1990, 0.47 million. The disease prevalence varies widely from state to state and even among districts within states--8 of the 26 states contribute to 90% of all the registered cases. The country has a high priority for leprosy and the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) aims to arrest the disease among all known cases in the country by the turn of the century through a strategy which includes multidrug therapy (MDT), early case detection, health education and rehabilitation. The specialized leprosy infrastructure in the country has a total of about 8,500 establishments including 719 leprosy control units, 244 district leprosy units and 49 training centres. By June 1990, 130 districts with 2.15 million patients had come under MDT. It is planned to cover 196 districts by 1992, ensuring coverage for 90% of the patients in the country. The country spends approximately 600 million rupees (US$ 33.3 million) per year on NLEP. In addition, a number of bilateral and international agencies including nongovernmental organizations participate in the programme. WHO supports the NLEP through technical inputs, monitoring and evaluation, and training. Plans to integrate leprosy control within primary health care, particularly after completion of the intensive phase of MDT, are being developed. Operational and technical constraints are constantly reviewed in order to find optimal solutions. PMID:2068822

Mittal, B N

1991-01-01

216

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

217

Research District Seeing Growth  

SciTech Connect

Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

Madison, Alison L.

2012-05-13

218

Evaluation of GVI-based indices for drought early warning in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is the major disaster, which occurs in some part of India every year due to monsoon variability. India has established satellite based National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS), at National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space since 1987. NADAMS provides near real time monitoring and early warning of drought conditions at National level using NOAA AVHRR and at regional level using IRS WiFS and AWiFS data. ISRO-NASA-NOAA science cooperation project has been initiated during 2005 for development of satellite based decision support drought monitor system in India. Initially, the evaluation of GVI based indices for drought early warning in India was taken up. The study was carried out over five small regions each covering part of a district and over five large regions each covering few districts in each state of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states and the result of the study is presented in this paper. The weekly GVI based indices such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for the period from 1991-2004 over 5 small regions covering part of districts namely Banaskantha district of Gujarat state to represent Bajra crop, Surendra nagar district of Gujarat state to represent Cotton crop, Nasik district of Maharashtra to represent Bajra crop, Bhandara district to represent Rice crop and Akola district of Maharastra to represent Jowar crop was selected. The weekly GVI based indices over 5 large regions with larger database from 1981 to 2004 covering few districts of Rajasthan state to represent winter wheat and few districts of Maharashtra state to represent Jowar, Rice and Cotton crops were selected. The comparison of seasonal average VCI, TCI and VHI with the corresponding crops yield over 5 small regions indicate better regression coefficient for VHI than VCI or TCI. The comparison over 5 large regions covering larger data base from 1982-2004 indicate better regression coefficient for VCI than VHI or TCI. Results of the study suggests over smaller region, the VCI and TCI combined VHI indices relates better with crop yields, whereas over larger region, the VCI itself relates better with crop yields than with TCI or the VCI and TCI combined VHI.

Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Kogan, Felix N.

2006-12-01

219

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

220

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

221

INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

Dhandapani Alagiri

2007-01-01

222

India: Why Fiscal Adjustment Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

India?s growth performance has been impressive over the past two decades. But its sustainability has been in question, first with the 1991 fiscal balance-of-payments crisis, and then again after 1997?98, when fiscal deficits returned to the 10 percent of GDP range and government debt grew further. Pinto and Zahir analyze the deterioration in India?s public finances and present evidence suggesting

Brian Pinto; Farah Zahir

2004-01-01

223

Managing India's environment  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this country. Second, the government has neither the funds nor the legal and political authority to remedy serious enforcement gaps in the states. However, at the same time, India's distinctive cultural and political context could offer creative economic, administrative, and judicial strategies for environmental protection. This paper discusses these different factors that are involved in managing India's environment. 34 references, 1 table.

Jasanoff, S.

1986-10-01

224

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Districts shall consist of the following: (1) District 1 consists of Tulare, Kern, San Bernardino, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District...

2012-01-01

225

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey...

2011-01-01

226

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey...

2010-01-01

227

7 CFR 916.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include all of the production area lying south of the northern boundaries of the counties of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino. (d) District 4...

2011-01-01

228

Districts Refashion Teacher Base Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A handful of districts, some with the approval of their local teachers' unions, are experimenting with alternatives to the fundamental components that govern teachers' base-pay raises. Ranging from a long-standing plan in Eagle County, Colorado, to a contract ratified earlier this year by teachers in the Pittsburgh district, the systems tie raises…

Sawchuk, Stephen

2010-01-01

229

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

230

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

231

Compensation of School District Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently considerable attention has been focused on the inadequacy of presently used methods of compensating school district personnel. The increasing incidence of teacher strikes in many school districts has established the need for an effective alternative to the inherent rigidity of the commonly used fixed step salary schedule. The purpose of this study is to propose one such alternative that

James E. Bruno

1971-01-01

232

Intra-District Inequalities, II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on intra-district inequalities is necessary for determining if changes in state financing formulas have affected inequitable distributions of educational resources within school districts and between classrooms in individual schools. Material inequalities in per pupil expenditures based on race were outlawed by the Hobsen vs Hansen court…

Weinberg, Meyer

1980-01-01

233

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

234

PV opportunities in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

1996-01-01

235

Patterns of drug use in the public sector primary health centers of Bhopal district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study drug use in public sector out-patient centers in Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh Province, India. This study was\\u000a conducted as part of the provincial health Department’s efforts to develop a state drug policy. It was intended to inform\\u000a policy elements concerned with the promotion of rational drug use. Method Health facilities studied included the functioning 9 primary health

Ayesha De Costa; Shekhawat Bhartiya; Amani Eltayb; Sunil Nandeswar; Vinod K. Diwan

2008-01-01

236

Trend in Annual Risk of Tuberculous Infection in North India  

PubMed Central

Setting Six selected districts in Northern India. Objectives To find out the trend in Annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) in north India. Study Design Two rounds of community level surveys were conducted during 2000–2001 and 2009–10 respectively. Representative samples of children 1–9 years of age were tuberculin tested and maximum transverse diameter of induration was recorded in mm at about 72 hours. ARTI was computed from the estimated Prevalence of infection using mirror-image technique and anti-mode method. Results ARTI was found to decline from 1.9% (confidence interval: 1.7–2.1) at round I to 1.1% (confidence interval: 0.8–1.3) at round II at the rate of 8% per year during the intervening period. Conclusion A significant reduction in the risk of tuberculous infection among children was observed between two rounds of surveys carried out at an interval of about 9 years. PMID:23300568

Chopra, Kamal; Chadha, Vineet K.; Ramachandra, Jitendra; Aggarwal, Nishi

2012-01-01

237

Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India: A vanishing disease!  

PubMed Central

Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India was a common medical problem in the coastal districts of south India, especially the Kerala State. The clinical and autopsy studies have shown left and right ventricular apical fibrosis, with varying degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents with severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents very high systemic venous pressure and congestive cardiac failure. Surgical management improved the natural history of the disease to some extent. Various infectious and toxic factors were postulated regarding its aetiology. During the last few years, incidence of the disease has decreased considerably. The only explanation identified is the significant improvement in the living standards of the people with the corresponding decline in the childhood malnutrition, infections, worm infestation and associated eosinophilia. PMID:23287119

Vijayaraghavan, G.; Sivasankaran, S.

2012-01-01

238

India and Intercultural Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In combination with the intercultural philosophical orientation developed in India, the concept of an intercultural aesthetics\\u000a prepares the way for well-founded comparison and a new dialogue among different aesthetic traditions of the world. And it\\u000a unmasks the myth of the total purity of a culture.

Ram Adhar Mall

239

The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.

1998-01-01

240

Women's Work in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

1983-01-01

241

Clinical Psychology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Psychology in India has seen steady development since its inception in the early 1900s. With clinical psychology developing as an independent profession, clinical psychologists have been functioning in various roles, offering a wide range of services in consultation, training, research, and private practice on multidisciplinary teams as well as in independent practice. This paper focuses on the historical roots

P. S. D. V. Prasadarao; Paulomi Matam Sudhir

2001-01-01

242

Landslide Studies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATUS OF NATURAL HAZARDS India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is estimated that about

Y. P. SHARDA

243

Capital flows to India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on various aspects of capital flows to India and their policy implications. The sections have been arranged as follows: Section I provides a historical backdrop to the evolution of capital inflows. Section II analyses their trend, magnitude and composition. Section III examines the management of capital inflows and their implications for the conduct of monetary and exchange

Rakesh Mohan

244

Vocationalising Education in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

245

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

246

Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

247

The Domestication of Geopolitics: Buddhist-Muslim Conflict and the Policing of Marriage and the Body in Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper approaches intimacy as a site of geopolitical practice. What happens when the body is the territory through which geopolitical strategies are played out? In the Leh district of India's Jammu and Kashmir state Buddhist\\/Muslim conflict is articulated at the site of the body and geopolitical strategies impinge on personal decisions. Over the past century religious identity has increasingly

Sara H. Smith

2009-01-01

248

Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal—India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tubewell water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by

T. Uchino; T. Roychowdhury; M. Ando; H. Tokunaga

2006-01-01

249

Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination Programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: Reshaping the Case Finding\\/Case Management Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to estimate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) burden in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and document care- seeking behaviour for VL to provide baseline information for monitoring the VL elimination program and identify options for improved case finding and management. Design: A cross-sectional study using cluster sampling (clusters being villages) of 4 VL endemic districts was used in order to

Dinesh Mondal; Shri Prakash Singh; Narendra Kumar; Anand Joshi; Shyam Sundar; Pradeep Das; Hirve Siddhivinayak; Axel Kroeger; Marleen Boelaert

2009-01-01

250

Effect of air and noise pollution on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along

Dulal C. Saha; Pratap K. Padhy

2011-01-01

251

Taxonomy and affinity of Early Mesoproterozoic megascopic helically coiled and related fossils from the Rohtas Formation, the Vindhyan Supergroup, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well preserved assemblage of compressed, straight, circular to sinuously coiled megascopic and helical carbonaceous fossils and other varied megascopic morphoforms are known from the Early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Formation, Semri Group within Vindhyan Supergroup exposed in Katni district of central India. These megascopic remains are preserved as impressions, compressions, partially mineralized remains, and\\/or epi-relief. Some of the forms are typical

Mukund Sharma; Yogmaya Shukla

2009-01-01

252

Gender Differences in Body Mass Index in Rural India Are Determined by SocioEconomic Factors and Lifestyle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the nutritional status of women in 6 villages of the Pune district of Maharashtra, India, found young women to have a significantly lower BMI than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness and to explore the behavior in men and women that might

Mary Barker; Ginny Chorghade; Sarah Crozier; Sam Leary; Caroline Fall

253

Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

254

Increasing access to safe abortion services in rural India: experiences with medical abortion in a primary health center  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTo increase access to safe abortion in rural India, the feasibility and acceptability of mifepristone–misoprostol abortion was assessed in a typical government run primary health center (PHC) in Nagpur district, Maharashtra State, that does not offer surgical abortion services and must refer off-site for emergency and backup services.

Shuchita Mundle; Batya Elul; Abhijeet Anand; Shveta Kalyanwala; Suresh Ughade

2007-01-01

255

Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.  

PubMed

Two taxa, Hericium yumthangense (Russulales, Agaricomycotina) and Mycoleptodonoides sharmae (Polyporales, Agaricomycotina) are described as new to science from the Shingba Rhododendron sanctuary located in the northern district of Sikkim, India. Macro- and micromorphological characters are described and illustrated for both species, which are compared with allied taxa. ITS rDNA sequences supported H. yumthangense as a rather isolated species within Hericium, the species complexes of which were not resolved due to low interspecific sequence divergence. In the case of M. sharmae, 28S rDNA (D1/D2) data rendered this poorly known genus among well-known taxa of the core-polyporoid clade. PMID:24563842

Das, Kanad; Stalpers, Joost A; Stielow, J Benjamin

2013-12-01

256

Improving health services in India: a different perspective.  

PubMed

Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves. PMID:18607033

Schweitzer, Julian

2008-01-01

257

Acute malnutrition and under-5 mortality, northeastern part of India.  

PubMed

We assessed the prevalence of childhood acute malnutrition and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in Darbhanga district, India, using a two-stage 49-cluster household survey. A total of 1379 households comprising 8473 people were interviewed. During a 90-day recall period, U5MR was 0.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-1.4] per 10,000 per day. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among 1405 children aged 6-59 months was 15.4% (NCHS) and 19.4% (2006 WHO references). This survey suggests that in Darbhanga district, the population is in a borderline food crisis with few food resources. Appropriate strategies should be developed to improve the overall nutritional and health status of children. PMID:21098554

Espié, Emmanuelle; Pujol, Carme Roure; Masferrer, Maria; Saint-Sauveur, Jean-François; Urrutia, Pedro Pablo Palma; Grais, Rebecca F

2011-10-01

258

RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over 80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India.  

E-print Network

RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over £80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India. 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 Upcoming themes, innovation focused UK-India funded projects with significant industry involvement in the areas of: bioenergy

Berzins, M.

259

KT transition in Deccan Traps of central India marks major marine Seaway across India  

E-print Network

K­T transition in Deccan Traps of central India marks major marine Seaway across India G. Keller a (Uttarakhand), India d Geological Survey of India, Central Region, Seminary Hills, Nagpur 440 006, India e, Panjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh-160014, India g Department of Geology, Mohanlal Sukhadia

Keller, Gerta

260

A new species of Tangius from north India (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tangius indicus sp. n. (Batrisitae: Batrisini) is described and illustrated from the Indian States of Meghalaya (Khasi Hills, type locality) and West Bengal (Darjeeling). Specimens of the new species are similar to those of the recently described T. glabellus Yin & Li from Tibet, Southwest China, and can be separated only by minor differences of the male features. PMID:24223485

Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

261

Quality Circles for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the applicability of quality circles in schools. Examines elements of a successful quality circle program, the decision to have such a program, establishing quality circles, potential problems, and the use of quality circles in school districts. (CT)

Zahra, Shaker A.; And Others

1985-01-01

262

District heating campaign in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-09-01

263

Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories  

E-print Network

Demand for water is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected. The Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas are carrying out a number of successful programs in the areas of education and public awareness, technical assistance...

Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

1999-09-06

264

Emerging & re-emerging bacterial pathogens in India.  

PubMed

In spite of major successes against infectious diseases in the 20th century, new infectious diseases have emerged and old ones re-emerged in recent decades in different parts of the world. A brief survey of emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases of public health importance in India is presented in this paper. Plague re-appeared in two outbreaks in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1994, indicating a breakdown of the public health measures that had prevented its occurrence for several decades. Leptospirosis appears to be on the increase in Kerala, Tamilnadu and the Andamans during the last 2 decades, probably due to increased farming and inadequate rodent control. It is suggested that melioidosis due to the soil organism Burkholderia pseudomallei may be prevalent in many parts of India, but is under-diagnosed and under-reported. Since 1991, a completely new choleragenic Vibrio cholerae, designated 0139 has emerged in southern India and spread to other parts of India and to neighbouring countries, setting in motion the 8th cholera pandemic. Animal anthrax is very common in many parts of India, but human anthrax is recognised in only certain limited locations. In the Chittoor and North Arcot districts, its prevalence had increased in recent years. Since 1990, a multi-drug resistant variety of typhoid fever had been prevalent in many parts of India, caused by Salmonella typhi resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection seems to be widely prevalent in hospitals in many regions in India, and its prevalence seems to be on the rise. These pathogens pose new threats to public health, and call for appropriate responses. Microbiological expertise and epidemiological surveillance are deficient in the health care and public health systems in India; therefore even infections and diseases that have been under control elsewhere remain prevalent in the country, but are also under-diagnosed and under-reported. Without improving microbiological expertise and application as well as epidemiological skills and practices, emerging and re-emerging diseases may not be recognised, identified or intercepted in their early stages. PMID:8926026

John, T J

1996-01-01

265

INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION Application Instructions for  

E-print Network

INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION #12;Application Instructions for Doing Business in Emerging Markets: India this course and visiting India. 3. Complete one SUNY Academic Reference Request Forms and have the form

Suzuki, Masatsugu

266

Severe Flooding in India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

2002-01-01

267

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

268

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15

269

Occupational health in India.  

PubMed

The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world. PMID:12028949

Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R

2002-01-01

270

Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01

271

Research fellowships in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve long-term (6 to 10 months) and nine short-term (2 to 3 months) research awards are being offered for 1983-84 by the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture. The fellowship program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the United States and India and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the two countries. Scholars and professionals with limited or no experience in India are encouraged to apply.The fellowship, without restriction to field, is for $1200 to $1500 per month, depending on academic/professional achievement and seniority; $350 per month is payable in dollars, with the balance paid in rupees. There is also an allowance for books and study/travel in India and for international travel. In addition, long-term fellows receive international travel allowances for dependents; a dependent allowance of $100-$250 per month in rupees; and a supplementary research allowance up to 34,000 rupees.

272

Child maltreatment in India.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

2013-11-01

273

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

274

Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

2003-01-01

275

Medicine in South India.  

PubMed

A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

McHenry, M M

1978-10-01

276

Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

2014-05-01

277

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

278

78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...

2013-06-21

279

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

280

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

281

Status of airborne spores and pollen in a coir factory in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of airborne fungal spores and pollen grains in the indoor and outdoor environments of a coir factory in Thiruvananthapuram\\u000a district of Kerala state, India was studied using the Burkard Personal Sampler and the Andersen 2-stage Sampler for 2 years\\u000a (September 1997 to August 1999). The concentration of pollen grains was remarkably lower than that of fungal spores (ratio

T. S. Nayar; Thripthi Krishna Mohan; P. S. Jothish

2007-01-01

282

Prevalence of hysterectomy among rural and urban women with and without health insurance in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings on hysterectomy prevalence from a 2010 cross-sectional household survey of 2,214 rural and 1,641 urban, insured and uninsured women in low-income households in Ahmedabad city and district in Gujarat, India. The study investigated why hysterectomy was a leading reason for use of health insurance by women insured by SEWA, a women's organisation that operates a community-based

Sapna Desai; Tara Sinha; Ajay Mahal

2011-01-01

283

Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods Of the 13 clusters chosen for the study, seven were randomised to three rounds of oral visual inspection by trained health workers at 3-year intervals and six to a control group during 1996-2004, in Trivandrum district, Kerala, India. Healthy participants aged 35 years and older were eligible for the study. Screen-positive people were referred for clinical examination by doctors,

R Sankaranarayanan; G Thomas MDS; Kunnambath Ramadas; Gigi Thomas; Richard Muwonge; Somanathan Thara; Babu Mathew; Balakrishnan Rajan

2005-01-01

284

Groundwater Pollution Around an Industrial Area in the Coastal Stretch of Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial\\u000a area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and\\u000a suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and

Pradeep K. Naik; Biranchi N. Dehury; Arun N. Tiwari

2007-01-01

285

Rural infrastucture, the settlement system, and development of the regional economy in Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Arcot, a rural district of Tamil Nadu, India, has been the site of extensive research on whether economic growth induced by the introduction of the green revolution has widened inequities between the well-to-do and the poor. Data indicate that not only landless laborers and small-scale farmers in this area have benefited, but also small businesses and services. Using that

Sudhir Wanmali

1992-01-01

286

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996–1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998–1999). District level consumption of coal\\/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors

M. Shekar Reddy; Chandra Venkataraman

2002-01-01

287

India's Approaching Expeditionary Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The country of India continues to straddle the crossroads of East and West, much as it has done throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. As the world's fastest growing population with an enormous capitalist appetite, India finds itself a strategic partner ...

C. R. Liermann

2008-01-01

288

Teaching about India. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although world history and global studies programs in U.S. public schools have expanded in recent years, teaching about India and South Asia has remained insufficient. As a result, students often develop cultural misunderstandings and false stereotypes. India, as a focus of study, provides students with the opportunity to examine an ancient…

Morrow, S. Rex

289

Preschool and Playway in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the tension between formal and nonformal approaches to preschool education in India, through discussion of the preschool program of the Government of India's Integrated Child Development Services that targets disadvantaged children and private nursery schools operating on a commercial basis. Asserts that although a nonformal approach is…

Prochner, Larry

2002-01-01

290

Urban transport crisis in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian cities face a transport crisis characterized by levels of congestion, noise, pollution, traffic fatalities and injuries, and inequity far exceeding those in most European and North American cities. India's transport crisis has been exacerbated by the extremely rapid growth of India's largest cities in a context of low incomes, limited and outdated transport infrastructure, rampant suburban sprawl, sharply rising

John Pucher; Nisha Korattyswaropam; Neha Mittal; Neenu Ittyerah

2005-01-01

291

Environment and Culture in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

Leuthold, David

292

Female Political Leadership in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a recognition and exploration of alternative accounts of female political leadership in India, other than dynastic succession. It explores the varied paths to power which female political leaders in India have followed in the past two decades within the changing institutional environment of electoral politics. The paper argues that gender is an important factor of the path

Carole Spary

2007-01-01

293

Energy Use in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, and especially rural India is considered as a partially closed energy ecosystem and gives a great variety and quantity of statistics to illustrate the energy flow. These data include the energy consumption and expenditure for many forms of human (men, women and children) activity. This is presented in relation to the total energy-flow picture involving all types of energy

Roger Revelle

1976-01-01

294

Science and Technology in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

Rao, J. S.

1985-01-01

295

India and the Green Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

Hilden, Clark G.

296

Passages From India, Vol. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your Way;…

Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

297

Passages from India, Vol. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

298

Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

Dalal, Ajit K.

2011-01-01

299

Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

300

Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India  

PubMed Central

Background To identify levels of physical inactivity and smoking and examine their relationships to health among older people in India. Methods In 2010, Longitudinal Aging Study in India researchers interviewed 1,683 older adults in randomly sampled households with members aged???45 years in eight stratified districts in four states (90.9% response rate). We first used descriptive analyses to characterize older people in poor and good health. Differences between groups were established using chi-squared and t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed to determine whether physical inactivity and smoking led to poor health while controlling for district of residence, caste, age, gender, marital status, and educational level. Regression analyses were also used to identify significant relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Larger proportions of older people in poor health were smokers (26.1% vs. 16.9%; p???0.001) and physically inactive (vigorous activities: 88.7% vs. 70.7%, p???0.001; moderate activities: 67.1% vs. 57.1%, p???0.01). Smoking (p???0.05) and lack of vigorous physical activity (p???0.001) increased the likelihood of poor health. Low educational level was significantly related to smoking and the lack of moderate physical activity (both p???0.001). Female gender decreased the likelihood of smoking. Male gender increased the likelihood of vigorous physical activity but decreased the likelihood of moderate physical activity. Conclusions Smoking and physical inactivity have important impacts on the health of older people in India. Policy attention is needed to improve these modifiable health behaviors. PMID:24884852

2014-01-01

301

Congressional District Visits in August  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

Hoover, Fushcia

2014-08-01

302

Emergence of drug resistance in India.  

PubMed

Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium malaria is an emerging problem globally. In India resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to choloroquine, the cheapest and the most used drug was first reported in the year 1973 from Diphu of Karbi-Anglong district in Assam state. Systematic monitoring of drug resistance is being undertaken in the country from 1978 by the Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) through its 13 Pf monitoring teams. The findings of these drug resistance studies has helped the programme for the revision of the drug policy and update it from time to time thereby facilitating appropriate measures for not only individual cases but also to contain and prevent further spread of resistant foci. This article summarises therapeutic efficacy studies conducted by the Pf monitoring teams in the country between 2001 and 2007 related to efficacy of chloroquine and other antimalarials drugs. As per the results available, the efficacy of chloroquine for treating uncomplicated falciparum at most of the study sites is much lower than the desired cut off levels of 10% (83% studies have shown treatment failure more than 10%). Total of 4273, 168 and 137 P. falciparum cases have been tested against chloroquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and ACT(AS+SP) combination. During the period under report, 85 new chloroquine resistant PHCs/foci from 64 districts were qualified warranting change of drug policy as per the national guidelines. These studies show that chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum is widespread in the country. To combat the drug resistant in malaria, the use of combination therapy ie, artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine has been recommended for treatment of all confirmed P. falciparum cases in all the qualified areas as per the criteria laid down in National Drug Policy on malaria. PMID:19552104

Arora, Usha; Sonal, G S; Dhillon, G P S; Thakor, Hitendrasinh G

2008-10-01

303

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

college, or school district, Defendants, and Case 2:06-cv-15024-DML-RSW Document 39 Filed 12/19/2006 Page to defendant the constitutionality" of the ballot initiative. Mot. to Case 2:06-cv-15024-DML-RSW Document 39

Shyy, Wei

304

WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis  

E-print Network

, Mumbai, MH 400018, India In 2012, for the first time in the history of India, the country has seen nationwide public protests against improper waste management - from the northernmost state Jammu and Kashmir. Since July 2000, Thiruvananthapuram has been transporting about 80% of the 310 tonnes per day of waste

305

ANSAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: Gurgaon, India  

E-print Network

ANSAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: Gurgaon, India About: Ansal Institute of Technology (AIT in the heart of northern India. Students can easily travel to the nearby cities of Agra (Taj Mahal), Jaipur accommodation in Gurgaon, contact: admissions@aitgurgaon.org Fun Facts about India Chess was invented in India

Duchowski, Andrew T.

306

The Socioeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Participation in India's Health Insurance Scheme for the Poor  

PubMed Central

The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was introduced in 2008 in India, is a social health insurance scheme that aims to improve healthcare access and provide financial risk protection to the poor. In this study, we analyse the determinants of participation and enrolment in the scheme at the level of districts. We used official data on RSBY enrolment, socioeconomic data from the District Level Household Survey 2007–2008, and additional state-level information on fiscal health, political affiliation, and quality of governance. Results from multivariate probit and OLS analyses suggest that political and institutional factors are among the strongest determinants explaining the variation in participation and enrolment in RSBY. In particular, districts in state governments that are politically affiliated with the opposition or neutral parties at the centre are more likely to participate in RSBY, and have higher levels of enrolment. Districts in states with a lower quality of governance, a pre-existing state-level health insurance scheme, or with a lower level of fiscal deficit as compared to GDP, are significantly less likely to participate, or have lower enrolment rates. Among socioeconomic factors, we find some evidence of weak or imprecise targeting. Districts with a higher share of socioeconomically backward castes are less likely to participate, and their enrolment rates are also lower. Finally, districts with more non-poor households may be more likely to participate, although with lower enrolment rates. PMID:23805211

Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2013-01-01

307

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2011-01-01

308

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake...

2013-01-01

309

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2013-01-01

310

7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.  

...areas of the State of California: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

2014-01-01

311

Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

The participation of irrigation districts (IDs) in surface water transfers from agriculture-to-municipal uses is studied by examining IDs’ economic and political behavior, comparing their performance with non-districts (non-IDs), and analyzing...

Ghimire, Narishwar

2013-04-11

312

7 CFR 989.22 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.22 District. District means any one of...

2011-01-01

313

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2010-01-01

314

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

2011-01-01

315

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San Benito, Monterey, Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

316

36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seashore District shall include all those portions of the towns of Provincetown, Truro, Wellfleet, Eastham, Orleans and Chatham lying within the exterior boundaries of the Cape Cod National Seashore. (b) Zoning bylaws for the Seashore District...

2010-07-01

317

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

...Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County, Calaveras County...California District includes and consists of San Bernardino County, Orange County, San Diego County, Imperial County, Riverside...

2014-01-01

318

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae, A. Ranne, T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

319

7 CFR 906.16 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.16 District. District means any of the...

2010-01-01

320

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2013-01-01

321

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2012-01-01

322

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2014-01-01

323

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2010-01-01

324

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District No. 3: The counties...Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, Wheeler, and Harney in the State of...

2011-01-01

325

7 CFR 953.11 - District.  

...in the State of Virginia. District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in the State of Virginia. District No. 4. Northampton, Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Chowan, Perquimans,...

2014-01-01

326

Restructuring Industrial Districts, Scaling Up Regional Development  

E-print Network

421 Restructuring Industrial Districts, Scaling Up Regional Development: A Study of the Wenzhou, industrial diversification, and spatial restructuring. Firms in Wenzhou have gone through localization industrial districts (MIDs). However, with China's changing institutional environment and intensifying

Wei, Yehua Dennis

327

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2014-01-01

328

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2012-01-01

329

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2011-01-01

330

7 CFR 930.6 - District.  

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means...

2014-01-01

331

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2013-01-01

332

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2011-01-01

333

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

334

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2013-01-01

335

India`s low-tech energy success  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

Sampat, P.

1995-11-01

336

Holocene aridification of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

2012-02-01

337

Updated January 2014 District Coordinators  

E-print Network

, Saginaw, MI 48607 e-mail: eastd@msu.edu Tamara Harris: (877) 643-9885 harri756@msu.edu Toll Free: (877 102, Port Huron, MI 48060 e-mail: bixlerj@msu.edu Tamara Harris: (877) 643-9885 harri756@msu.edu Toll ­ Serving Macomb, Oakland, Wayne Marie Ruemenapp MSU Extension District 11, 28115 Meadowbrook, Novi, MI

338

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

339

Sharpening a District's Leadership Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create an integrated board self-assessment and superintendent evaluation process, district leaders must develop a school leadership model by adopting a coherent governance model. At the same time, they must also develop goals at the appropriate level that ensure quality governance of a school system. In the second of a two-part series, the…

Namit, Chuck

2008-01-01

340

Alternatives to School District Consolidation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has become both a solution for small, rural school districts and a contentious policy fraught with numerous difficulties. Despite concerns about limited curricula and higher operating expenses, there is no generalizable evidence that students educated in rural settings underachieve or have deficient social skills. Recent research has…

Berliner, Bethann

1990-01-01

341

Competition with Charters Motivates Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

2013-01-01

342

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

343

How Can We Fund Charter Districts? The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore funding issues related to charter districts. It begins with definitions of charter school and charter district. It continues with a brief discussion of public-school finance and some of the policy issues associated with distributing state funds to school districts, allowing school districts to generate…

Augenblick, John; Sharp, Jennifer

344

District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

2014-01-01

345

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

346

School District Cash Management. Program Audit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

347

District Learning Tied to Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

348

Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

1998-01-01

349

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E, plus the area of Adams...County not included in the East or South Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The...

2011-01-01

350

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E, plus the area of Adams...County not included in the East or South Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The...

2012-01-01

351

School District Effects and Efficiency. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes efforts to develop indices of student achievement, school district effort, and school district efficiency. The challenge was to develop measures that are simple to understand, yet allow comparison among districts that are not distorted by socioeconomic differences. Measures were developed for average student achievement,…

Swanson, Austin D.; Engert, Frank

352

School Choice for the Poor? The Limits of Marketisation of Primary Education in Rural India. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…

Harma, Joanna

2010-01-01

353

Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

2012-01-01

354

Research on antidepressants in India  

PubMed Central

Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

2010-01-01

355

The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

Dell, Karen

2009-01-01

356

Prospects for better nutrition in India.  

PubMed

Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production. PMID:25384721

Sankar, Rajan; van den Briel, Tina

2014-11-01

357

Do antenatal care interventions improve neonatal survival in India?  

PubMed

Although antenatal care (ANC) interventions have been in place for a long time, there is hardly any systematic evidence on the association between ANC interventions and neonatal mortality in India. The present study attempts to investigate the association between ANC interventions and neonatal mortality in India using data from the District Level Household Survey conducted in India during 2007-8. The ANC interventions included in the analysis are at least four antenatal visits, consumption of 90 or more iron-folic acid (IFA) tablets, and uptake of two or more tetanus toxoid (TT) injections. We have used discrete-time logistic regression models to investigate the association between ANC interventions and neonatal mortality. Risk of neonatal mortality was significantly lower for infants of mothers who availed four or more antenatal visits [odds ratio (OR): 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.81], consumed 90 or more IFA tablets (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73-0.99), received two or more TT injections (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). When we analysed different combinations of antenatal visits, IFA supplementation and TT injections, TT injections provided the main protective effect-the risk of neonatal mortality was significantly lower in newborns of women who received two or more TT injections but did not consume 90 or more IFA tablets (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60-0.78), or who received two or more TT injections but did not avail four or more antenatal visits (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66-0.86). In the statistical model, 6% (95% CI: 4-8%) of the neonatal deaths in India could be attributed to a lack of at least two TT injections during pregnancy. Indian public health programmes must ensure that every pregnant woman receives two or more TT injections during antenatal visits. PMID:24038077

Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Alagarajan, Manoj

2014-10-01

358

Energy conservation in India`s commercial air conditioned buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. In the 1980s, India`s GDP grew at a rate of 5.3 percent annually. As the economy grows and incomes rise, the demands for more air conditioned buildings is expected to place greater stress on already precarious energy supplies. The average annual rate of growth of electricity consumption in the commercial sector in the 1989 to 1992 period was close to nine percent as compared to 5.5 percent in the industrial sector - a fact that makes today`s energy use planning decisions even more important. India is already experiencing an energy shortage, and these commercial and industrial growth rates are accelerating the demand for energy. With these facts in mind, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began it`s Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities both for the supply of energy and for its efficient end-use. A specific task under the end-use component was to look a high energy-use sectors, such as the air conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that can improve energy utilization. This paper presents results from pre-investment surveys in this sector which were conducted at four facilities in 1995.

Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C.

1997-06-01

359

Biotechnology in India.  

PubMed

Conventional biotechnology based industries are already established economic activities in India. Facilities have also been set up for the production of restriction endonucleases, oligonucleotides, culture media, plastic wares, micro pipettes etc., However recombinant biotechnology products are still at the research stage and market demand is met through imports. The bulk of the R & D resources for product development are currently being provided by the Government, which has also taken steps to develop trained man power, set up the infrastructure for research, and has organised demonstration projects for faster dissemination of research results to industry. The consumption of biotech products will rise from Rs. 18.74 billion in 1992 to Rs. 55.47 billion in 2000 and the expected additional investment is anticipated to be Rs. 14 billion during the next 8 years. PMID:7764132

Ghosh, P K

1993-01-01

360

(Coal utilization in India)  

SciTech Connect

Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

Krishnan, R.P.

1991-01-15

361

Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-12-01

362

India's demographic snapshot, 1991.  

PubMed

Having presented the provisional results of the 1991 Census of India in tabular form, the author discusses the policy implication of the data. During the 1981-91 decade, India witnesses a 160.99 net increase in population, which brought the country's total population to an estimated 844.32 million. The annual growth rated during the decade was 2.1%. The author explains that these alarming population figures reflect the failure of the government's population program. The author warns that unless the Planning Commission develops new strategies, the upcoming 5-year plans. The author explains that the failure of family planning is due primarily to the low literacy rate -- especially the female literacy rate is 29% (and 25% among rural women). The author also discusses the problems of urbanization and the work force. During the past decade, cities grew at a somewhat slower rate than in previous decades, meaning that the absorptive capacity of the cities has gone down. Nonetheless, the urban population grew by 58 million during 10-year period. The urban infrastructure is virtually collapsing, with 30-50% of the urban population living in slums. The data also reveals the structural stagnation of the economy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for about 2/3 of the work force, registered only slight decreases during the decade, signifying a marginal shift from agriculture to nonagricultural activity. Furthermore, population growth has aggravated the unemployment problem. Finally, the author addresses the issue of the sex ratio (females/1000 males), which declined from 934 in 1981 to 929 in 1991, which indicates a continued prejudice against women. PMID:12317108

Bose, A

1991-12-01

363

Nutritive values of wild edible fruits, berries, nuts, roots and spices consumed by the Khasi tribes of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen wild edible berries, fruits, roots, and nuts consumed by the Khasi tribe of Meghalaya were botanically identified and analyzed for their nutrient contents in terms of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins. The study revealed that Coix lachryma jobi, a nut, was rich in protein (13.3 g %), Zanthoxylum acanthopodium a spice, rich in fat (20.9 g %), and Solanum indicum

D. Agrahar-Murugkar; G. Subbulakshmi

2005-01-01

364

Women and Power in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes preparation and implementation of a data analysis and card-sorting activity to help junior high and high school students use categories on a continuum to determine the power, status, and roles of men and women in India. (CK)

Finken, Helen

1979-01-01

365

Tackling antibiotic resistance in India.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are major causes of mortality in India. This is aggravated by the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) both in the community and in hospitals. Due to the emergence of resistance to all effective antibiotics in nosocomial pathogens, the situation calls for emergency measures to tackle AMR in India. India has huge challenges in tackling AMR, ranging from lack of surveillance mechanisms for monitoring AMR and use; effective hospital control policies; sanitation and non-human use of antimicrobial. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Govt. of India has taken initiatives to tackle AMR. Extensive guidelines have been drafted and a model worksheet has been developed as a roadmap to tackle AMR. PMID:25353717

Wattal, Chand; Goel, Neeraj

2014-12-01

366

The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history  

PubMed Central

Background In India very few of those who need mental health care receive it, despite efforts of the 1982 National Mental Health Programme and its district-level component the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) to improve mental health care coverage. Aims To explore and unpack the political, cultural and other historical reasons for the DMHP’s failures and successes since 1947 (post-independence era), which may highlight issues for today’s current primary mental health care policy and programme. Methods Oral history interviews and documentary sourcing were conducted in 2010–11 with policy makers, programme managers and observers who had been active in the creation of the NMHP and DMHP. Results The results suggest that the widely held perception that the DMHP has failed is not entirely justified, insofar that major hurdles to the implementation of the plan have impacted on mental health coverage in primary care, rather than faults with the plan itself. These hurdles have been political neglect, inadequate leadership at central, state and district levels, inaccessible funding and improperly implemented delivery of services (including poor training, motivation and retention of staff) at district and community levels. Conclusion At this important juncture as the 12th Five Year Plan is in preparation, this historical paper suggests that though the model may be improved, the most important changes would be to encourage central and state governments to implement better technical support, access to funds and to rethink the programme leadership at national, state and district levels. PMID:25089154

2014-01-01

367

Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India  

E-print Network

Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India: Some reflections on the use of instructionist and learner-centred activities K. Meenakshi Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India the language and hence many Chinese students opt to pursue their higher education in India or in any other

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

368

Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia  

E-print Network

Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia Douwe J. J and where India­Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or be- fore 52 Ma remains a long and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory

Utrecht, Universiteit

369

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

370

India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

Doeksen, Peggy

371

Regional-scale stable isotopic signatures of recharge and deep groundwater in the arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Samples of deep groundwater, river water and rainwater were collected for d18O and d2H analyses from an area of 22,000 km2 in the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India, in order to examine groundwater recharge. A plot of d18O versus d2H of groundwater falls subparallel to the constructed local meteoric water line (d2H = 7.2 d18O + 7.7), suggesting

Abhijit Mukherjee; Alan E. Fryar; Harold D. Rowe

2007-01-01

372

Tree row spacing affected agronomic and economic performance of Eucalyptus -based agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 × 2 m spacing currently used for eucalyptus plantations in the state of Andhra Pradesh, southern India does not permit\\u000a intercropping from the second year. This discourages small landholders who need regular income from taking up eucalyptus plantations\\u000a and benefiting from the expanding market for pulpwood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam\\u000a district (Andhra Pradesh) for over 4 years from

J. V. N. S. Prasad; G. R. Korwar; K. V. Rao; U. K. Mandal; C. A. R. Rao; G. R. Rao; Y. S. Ramakrishna; B. Venkateswarlu; S. N. Rao; H. D. Kulkarni; M. R. Rao

2010-01-01

373

Stigma as experienced by women accessing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV services in Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Karnataka, India only one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis at delivery in 2007 through the state government's prevention of parent-to-child HIV transmission (PPTCT) program. The current qualitative study explored the role of HIV-associated stigma as a barrier to access PPTCT services in the rural northern Karnataka district of Bagalkot using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with

Lisa Rahangdale; Pradeep Banandur; Amita Sreenivas; Janet M. Turan; Reynold Washington; Craig R. Cohen

2010-01-01

374

Decriminalising homosexuality in India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

Misra, Geetanjali

2009-11-01

375

Actinobacteriological research in India.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are important sources of compounds for drug discovery and have attracted considerable pharmaceutical, chemical, agricultural and industrial interests. Actinobacteriological research is still in its infancy in India. Early work on actinobacteria started in the 20th century and mostly focused on studying the diversity, identification and screening for antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. Exploration of diverse habitats for the isolation of actinobacteria, have yielded till date 23 novel species. Screening of actinobacteria for antagonistic activity, has led to the discovery of four novel antibiotics. Research on enzymes mostly covered lipases, amylases, proteases, endoglucanases, a-galactosidases, pectin lyases, xylanases, L-asparaginases, L-glutaminase and cellulases. Research on exploiting actinobacteria for other purposes such as production of enzyme inhibitors, single cell protein, bioemulsifier and biosurfactants is still in the experimental stage. This review compiles the work done in last few years, with an emphasis on actinobacterial diversity and bioprospecting for pharmaceutically important compounds like antibiotics, enzymes and other important applications. The chemical creativity and biotechnological potential of Indian actinobacterial strains are yet to be fully explored. A national strategy is required consistent with the opportunities provided by CBD-Nagoya protocol. PMID:24228382

Velho-Pereira, Sonashia; Kamat, Nandkumar M

2013-08-01

376

Quantifying the Dimensions of Water Crisis in India: Spatial Water Deficits and Storage Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is facing threats of mounting water resources crisis with growing concerns on the reliable supply of water for various agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability, limited storage infrastructure to buffer the variations, and increasing consumptive uses across the country exacerbates the situation further. In this study, a detailed quantitative assessment of the water availability and storage requirements for India is presented. Considering the climate variability over a century time scale and the current water demands, Potential Storage Index (PSI) is developed for all districts in India using the sequent peak algorithm. The Potential Storage Index highlights the districts with high water stress, thus identifying the regions where water demand management or new storage infrastructure is needed. Preliminary analysis shows that the regions under high stress are the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and depleted groundwater aquifers. The sensitivity of the model and applications to irrigated and rainfed crop management are presented. The results of the analysis are further used to assess differential vulnerability of particular sectors within the nation which can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions.

Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

377

Ecosystem function in a Khasi village of the desertified Cherrapunji area in northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Village ecosystem function of the Khasis in Meghalaya was studied. The land has been desertified around Cherrapunji as the\\u000a traditional slash and burn agriculture (jhum) has been replaced by plantation systems. Apart from mixed plantations with areca\\u000a nut, orange, jackfruit, bay leaf, black pepper and betel leaf, broom grass, thatch grass and bamboo are also raised in the\\u000a village. All

A K Gangwar; P S Ramakrishnan

1989-01-01

378

District nurse clinics: accountability and practice.  

PubMed

The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics. PMID:23370845

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2013-02-01

379

Got Web? Investing in a District Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

Swann, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

380

Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.  

PubMed

Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

2014-07-01

381

Congressional District Data for the 93d Congress. A Computer Profile. Washington, Districts 1-7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reports present separate computer generated statistical profiles for congressional districts of the 93d Congress. They include selected data on demographic, economic, and housing characteristics for the states and congressional districts. Data are pre...

1972-01-01

382

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Colorado,  

E-print Network

OMAHA, NE, DISTRICT This district comprises portions of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South. Antelope Creek, Lincoln, NE ..................... 26-2 4. Bear Creek Lake, CO.................................. 26-3 5. Big Sioux River & Skunk Creek, Sioux Falls, SD ......................................... 26

US Army Corps of Engineers

383

77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

2012-04-10

384

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

385

India Politics by Other Means: Attacks Against Christians in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Human Rights Watch study examines a recent upsurge in inter-religious violence directed at Christians in India, largely by right-wing Hindu organizations, collectively known as the sangh parivar. According to Human Rights Watch, such actions are designed "to promote and exploit communal tensions to stay in power," a strategy "supported at the local level by militant groups who operate with impunity." The report provides a cultural and political context for the violence, reports on the violence itself and its areas of concentration, recommendations to the government of India as well as to the international community, and a discussion of relevant international law.

Narula, Smita.

386

Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija

2011-01-01

387

Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural India, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors affecting it. Therefore, this study attempt to examine individual, household, and community level factors affecting neonatal mortality in rural India. Data and methods. We analysed information on 171,529 singleton live births using the data from the most recent round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007–08. Principal component analysis was used to create an asset index. Two-level logistic regression was performed to analyse the factors associated with neonatal deaths in rural India. Results. The odds of neonatal death were lower for neonates born to mothers with secondary level education (O R = 0.60, p = 0.01) compared to those born to illiterate mothers. A progressive reduction in the odds occurred as the level of fathers’ education increased. The odds of neonatal death were lower for infants born to unemployed mothers (O R = 0.89, p = 0.00) compared to those who worked as agricultural worker/farmer/laborer. The odds decreased if neonates belonged to Scheduled Tribes (O R = 0.72, p = 0.00) or ‘Others’ caste group (O R = 0.87, p = 0.04) and to the households with access to improved sanitation (O R = 0.87, p = 0.02), pucca house (O R = 0.87, p = 0.03) and electricity (O R = 0.84, p = 0.00). The odds were higher for male infants (O R = 1.21, p = 0.00) and whose mother experienced delivery complications (O R = 1.20, p = 0.00). Infants whose mothers received two tetanus toxoid injections (O R = 0.65, p = 0.00) were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Children of higher birth order were less likely to die compared to first birth order. Conclusion. Ensuring the consumption of an adequate quantity of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections by pregnant mothers, targeting vulnerable groups like young, first time and Scheduled Caste mothers, and improving overall household environment by increasing access to improved toilets, electricity, and pucca houses could also contribute to further reductions in neonatal mortality in rural India. Any public health interventions aimed at reducing neonatal death in rural India should consider these factors. PMID:23734339

Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit

2013-01-01

388

Severe Neurotoxic Envenoming and Cardiac Complications after the Bite of a 'Sind Krait' (Bungarus cf. sindanus) in Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

We report a case of severe envenoming with unusual complications and two anecdotal cases of fatalities following proven 17-scale-row ‘Sind krait’ (Bungarus cf. sindanus) bites on people sleeping in temporary huts at construction sites in Pune District, Maharashtra, India. A 25-yr-old male developed progressive neuromuscular paralysis, abdominal pain and autonomic disturbances complicated by four prolonged episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia requiring defibrillation, and followed by pulmonary edema secondary to impaired left ventricular systolic function and hyperfusion. There was no response to antivenom; mechanical ventilation was required for six days. Only one other case of fatal envenoming likely caused by this species had been reported previously in India. The distribution of B. sindanus sensu lato from eastern Afghanistan to India overlaps with that of the superficially very similar common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). Thus, B. cf. sindanus envenoming may be common but routinely overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:23264729

Pillai, Lalitha V.; Ambike, Dhananjay; Husainy, Saifuddin; Khaire, Anil; Captain, Ashok; Kuch, Ulrich

2012-01-01

389

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders -India  

E-print Network

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders - India From deliverable 3.4 March 2011 A View of Europe: Perspectives from Indian Immigrants Meenakshi THAPAN (Univ. of New Dehli, India) & Maitrayee DEKA (Univ. of New Dehli, India) halshs-00638263,version1-4Nov2011 #12;Abstract This EuroBroadMap working paper explores

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Status of solar desalination in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work was motivated by the increasing awareness of the need for enhancing water supplies schemes in arid lands featuring an appropriate technology for solar energy use in the desalination field in India. The fresh water crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity at different times of the year. India's rapidly rising population

T. V. Arjunan; H. ?. Aybar; N. Nedunchezhian

2009-01-01

391

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

392

University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste  

E-print Network

, water purifiers, water distillers, water ionizer, water coolers, counter top ultra violet waterUniversity of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste Testing University of the District of Columbia Date: May 2005 Prepared for the DC Water Resources Research Institute

District of Columbia, University of the

393

One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

Dombrowski, Richard J.

394

Inter-District Cooperation: Salvation of the Small School District. New Regionalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its least complex form, a cooperative can be an informal agreement between two or more school districts to cooperatively accomplish some task. As a cooperative gets more formalized and organized, with its own staff, its operations become more removed the control of its constituents and member districts. The local school district's primary…

Hartman, Luther E.

395

Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

Espinosa, Ruben W.

2010-01-01

396

Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

2003-01-01

397

Model for sexual health found in India's West Bengal.  

PubMed

This article briefly identifies and describes a successful sexual health program, which was piloted in West Bengel state in India. The Indian National AIDS Control Organization established a model intervention project for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Calcutta. The project is funded for 1994-99 by the United Kingdom's Department of International Development. The project includes 8 interventions among brothel-based prostitutes, clients, and vulnerable groups, such as street children and homosexuals. There are 12 sites around Calcutta's "red light" district area of Sonagachi. During October 1996-June 1997, the project reached 150,000 individuals. Almost 650 peer educators were trained. 15,000 people were counseled for STDs. 6000 people were treated for STDs. The program distributed 1.3 million condoms. The project focus shifted from small interventions to empowerment and gender issues, on negotiating skills with clients, and training and capacity building. Success is attributed to the selection of brothel-based prostitutes, rather than free agent prostitutes who operate from hotels, lodges, and residential areas. The project plans to address the needs of sex workers who are free agents. The project has expanded to 4 other states. The future expansion of this project as well as AIDS prevention and control projects in India is uncertain. Currently programs are dependent on health program funding from multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. However, the greater challenge is not funding, but the powerful crime syndicates that run the massive prostitution industry in cities such as Bombay. PMID:9454057

Kumar, S

1998-01-01

398

Phlebotomus argentipes seasonal patterns in India and Nepal.  

PubMed

The current control of Phebotomus argentipes (Annandale and Brunetti), the vector of Leishmania donovani (Laveran and Mesnil), on the Indian subcontinent is base on indoor residual spraying. The efficacy of this method depends, among other factors, on the timing and number of spraying rounds, which depend on the P. argentipes seasonality. To describe P. argentipes' seasonal patterns, six visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic villages, three in Muzaffarpur and three in Sunsari districts in India and Nepal, respectively, were selected based on accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster with the highest P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 15-16 mo using Center for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. Minimum and maximum temperature and rainfall data for the months January 2006 through December 2007 were collected from the nearest available weather stations. Backwards stepwise regression was used to generate the minimal adequate model for explaining the monthly variation in P. argentipes populations. The seasonality of P. argentipes is similar in India and Nepal, with two annual density peaks around May and October. Monthly P. argentipes density is positively associated with temperature and negatively associated with rainfall in both study sites. The multivariate climate model explained 57% of the monthly vectorial abundance. Vector control programs against P. argentipes (i.e., indoor residual spraying) should take into account the seasonal described here when implementing and monitoring interventions. Monitoring simple meteorological variables (i.e., temperature, rainfall) may allow prediction of VL epidemics on the Indian subcontinent. PMID:20380311

Picado, Albert; Das, Murari Lal; Kumar, Vijay; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Rijal, Suman; Singh, Shri P; Das, Pradeep; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive

2010-03-01

399

Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

2012-12-01

400

Neonatal nursing: an unmet challenge in India.  

PubMed

Nurses comprise a key component to maternal and newborn health care delivery, including the care of 'at-risk' or sick newborns. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of services rely heavily on adequate numbers of highly skilled neonatal nurses. Currently, in India, a significant shortage of trained nurses in the field of newborn care is contributing to poor neonatal outcomes. Specifically, nurses caring for newborns lack the competency and experience needed to ensure optimal care. This deficiency has been linked to a lack of expert faculty, standardized training and minimal or no exposures to newborn clinical care areas during pre service education. Moreover, in addition to a lack of operational research in the area, nurses who provide care for newborns are often faced with numerous system related issues that impede their ability to provide optimal care. Most notably, frequent changes of work place, poor wages, and lack of continuing education, skill maintenance, recognition, and collaborative team culture further compromise the nursing care. All these lead to poor motivation and competency. To meet this challenge, it is essential that emphasis be placed on the identification and support of nursing faculty with expertise in newborn and neonatal care who are able to ensure that nurses receive standardized education for pre-service, in-service and ongoing care. In addition, importance should be placed on encouraging newborn nursing research as well as on governmental increases in salary compensation. Lastly, given the shortage of physicians to take care of sick neonates in remote areas, the creation of a cadre of Neonatal nurse practitioner/ advanced practice nurses would be an invaluable solution in developing countries. Furthermore, centralized oversight of newborn education and training would be best served, if responsibility was placed with Reproductive maternal newborn child health (RMNCH) workers and district level officers. PMID:25278279

Kalyan, Geetanjli; Vatsa, Manju

2014-11-01

401

Curriculum Project: India. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This elementary-level thematic unit on India was designed to serve as a stepping stone toward the goal of mutual respect among children of different backgrounds. This unit may take one to four weeks depending on the class time. To expand children's awareness of the Indian culture, many hands-on activities are included. This unit was developed with…

Johnson, Norma L.

402

HIV in India: the Jogini culture.  

PubMed

Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

Borick, Joseph

2014-01-01

403

Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts. PMID:22256792

Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

2012-05-01

404

City Districts Embracing K-8 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with school districts' K-8 configurations. Cincinnati, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York, and Philadelphia are among the districts making the change, driven by a small body of research and a rising pile of anecdotes suggesting that K-8 configurations help academic performance, decrease discipline problems, enhance parent…

Gewertz, Catherine

2004-01-01

405

School District Reorganization: A Qualified Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circumstances preceding and following the 1984 merger of two small school districts in North Central New York State contained cooperation, controversy, and disharmony. The school districts had enough similarities--in their rural, agricultural base, in the pride and loyalty with which many residents viewed their schools, in the central role…

Canter, Gary

406

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

407

Implementing Clinical Supervision: A District Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Avondale School District's approach to incorporating clinical supervision within the teacher evaluation process. The development of major teacher appraisal systems, their underlying philosophies, and their characteristics are reviewed. In addition, specific processes and training activities used to develop a district model…

Blake, Norine; DeMont, Roger A.

408

Making Use of District and School Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how districts can better use their extensive student databases and other existing data to explore questions of interest. School districts are required to maintain a wealth of student information in electronic data systems and other formats. The meaningfulness of the data depends to a large degree on whether they can understand…

Parke, Carol S.

2012-01-01

409

District internationalisation and trans-local development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast rise of ‘made in China’ in international markets has raised concern among industrial districts in Italy and elsewhere. The challenge comes from a rich variety of factors of development, including local entrepreneurial and public resources. Building on results of fieldwork research on specialised towns and industrial clusters in Guangdong (China), and on investigations of Italian industrial districts, we

Marco Bellandi; Annalisa Caloffi

2008-01-01

410

Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

2012-01-01

411

District Heating System, City of Caliente, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140 exp 0 F water availa...

T. Karlsson

1984-01-01

412

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and…

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

413

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

414

Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

Jacobson, Linda

2008-01-01

415

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

416

Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

2002-01-01

417

Transportation in the Millard School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to increasing costs for bus service, the Millard School District in Nebraska has instituted a successful plan whereby students pay partially for bus service by purchasing coupon books. While elementary students more than one mile away are still bused at district expense, junior high students more than two miles away must pay the partial cost…

Bosse, Jerry

418

Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

2012-01-01

419

Rural Districts Bolster Choices with Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All schools can benefit from giving students the option of online learning, but for many rural schools, online learning is a lifeline. In the past two years, Lane Education Service District in Oregon, USA, has developed online resources for 14 Lane County school districts, which vary in size from 170 students to as many as 17,000. Many of the…

Brown, Don

2012-01-01

420

School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

2009-01-01

421

District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

2010-01-01

422

Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

McDaniel, Gwenn

2010-01-01

423

Assessment of citrus crop condition in Umling block of Ri-Bhoi district using RS and GIS technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orange orchards of Meghalaya are small in size and are found together with other plants on the slopes of hills. It is also\\u000a reported that the productivity of orchards is declining in some parts of the state. Therefore in this study, we have attempted\\u000a to map areas prone to citrus productivity decline based on the integrated effect of soil erosion,

Pratibha Thakuria Das; Liagi Tajo; Jonali Goswami

2009-01-01

424

Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

425

Spent fuel management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian nuclear story is different from the rest of the nuclear power producing countries largely due to the unique nuclear energy path the country has chosen. The issues regarding the resultant spent nuclear fuel are also accordingly different. Based on the ideology of self?dependence, India adopted a three?stage nuclear energy program which envisages reprocessing spent fuel aimed at the

M. P. Ram Mohan; Veena Aggarwal

2009-01-01

426

Second Trimester Abortions in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services.

Suchitra S Dalvie

2008-01-01

427

Networked Distance Education in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has made remarkable progress in the area of networking. An education network is being developed to provide mass training and resource-based learning. The development of networked education in India is highlighted and a model is suggested for the virtual classroom. (Author/AEF)

Sharma, R. C.

1999-01-01

428

Assessing External Sustainability in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the solvency and sustainability of India's external imbalances and analyzes the optimality of its capital flows. We use three approaches: an intertemporal model of the current account that allows for capital controls; a composite model of macroeconomic indicators that yields probabilities of future balance of payments crises; and scenarios that examine the path of the current account

Tim Callen; Paul Cashin

1999-01-01

429

Marriage in India: Clinical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers some of the common issues with which marital couples in India struggle. These issues arise from the way that Indian families are typically structured and the rules that govern family relationships. Ideas from the social constructionist and contextual approaches are suggested as helpful interventions.

Shobna Sonpar

2005-01-01

430

China, India demand cushions prices  

SciTech Connect

Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

Boyle, M.

2006-11-15

431

Understanding Child Rights in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

2011-01-01

432

MW 723 Religions of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embree, Ainslie ed.. Sources of Indian Tradition, 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988. 941 pages. Wolpert, Stanley. A New History of India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 484 pages Bhagavad Gita, Juan Mascaro, ed. New York: Penguin, 1962. 122 pages. Dhammapada, Irving Babbitt, ed. New York: New Directions, 1965. 61 pages. Terry C. Muck. The Mysterious Beyond:

Terry C. Muck

2004-01-01

433

Assessment of Special Care Newborn Units in India  

PubMed Central

The neonatal mortality rate in India is high and stagnant. Special Care Newborn Units (SCNUs) have been set up to provide quality level II newborn-care services in several district hospitals to meet this challenge. The units are located in some remotest districts where the burden of neonatal deaths is high, and access to special newborn care is poor. The study was conducted to assess the functioning of SCNUs in eight rural districts of India. The evaluation was based on an analysis of secondary data from the eight units that had been functioning for at least one year. A cross-sectional survey was also conducted to assess the availability of human resources, equipment, and quality care. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the inputs (resources) and outcomes (morbidity and mortality). The rate of mortality among admitted neonates was taken as the key outcome variable to assess the performance of the units. Chi-square test was used for analyzing the trend of case-fatality rate over a period of 3-5 years considering the first year of operationalization as the base. Correlation coefficients were estimated to understand the possible association of case-fatality rate with factors, such as bed:doctor ratio, bed:nurse ratio, average duration of stay, and bed occupancy rate, and the asepsis score was determined. The rates of admission increased from a median of 16.7 per 100 deliveries in 2008 to 19.5 per 100 deliveries in 2009. The case-fatality rate reduced from 4% to 40% within one year of their functioning. Proportional mortality due to sepsis and low birthweight (LBW) declined significantly over two years (LBW <2.5 kg). The major reasons for admission and the major causes of deaths were birth asphyxia, sepsis, and LBW/prematurity. The units had a varying nurse:bed ratio (1:0.5-1:1.3). The bed occupancy rate ranged from 28% to 155% (median 103%), and the average duration of stay ranged from two days to 15 days (median 4.75 days). Repair and maintenance of equipment were a major concern. It is possible to set up and manage quality SCNUs and improve the survival of newborns with LBW and sepsis in developing countries, although several challenges relating to human resources, maintenance of equipment, and maintenance of asepsis remain. PMID:22106756

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay; Mohan, Pavitra

2011-01-01

434

Schistura phamhringi, a new stone loach from Chindwin Basin in Manipur, India (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).  

PubMed

Schistura phamhringi, new stone loach, is described from Dutah Stream, tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin basin), near Larong Village, Chandel District, Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique combination of characters: 6-7 black saddles, each continued on both flanks forming broad diamond-shaped black bars with narrow ventral margin; bars superimposed on a grey stripe along lateral line; upper lip with numerous melanophores; black basicaudal bar arc-shaped; complete lateral line; and prominent oar-like suborbital flap on male. PMID:24869534

Shangningam, Bungdon; Lokeshwor, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

2014-01-01

435

Firing Costs and Flexibility: Evidence from Firms' Employment Responses to Shocks in India*  

PubMed Central

A key prediction of dynamic labor demand models is that firing restrictions attenuate firms’ employment responses to economic fluctuations. We provide the first direct test of this prediction using data from India. We exploit the fact that rainfall fluctuations, through their effects on agricultural productivity, generate variation in local demand within districts over time. Consistent with the theory, we find that industrial employment is more sensitive to shocks where labor regulation is less restrictive. Our results are robust to controlling for endogenous firm placement and vary across factory size in a pattern consistent with institutional features of Indian labor law. PMID:24357882

Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Chari, A. V.; Sharma, Siddharth

2013-01-01

436

Clinical Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Expanded Voluntary HIV Testing in India  

PubMed Central

Background Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), most of the estimated 2.3 to 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals in India remain undiagnosed. The questions of whom to test for HIV and at what frequency remain unclear. Methods We used a simulation model of HIV testing and treatment to examine alternative HIV screening strategies: 1) current practice, 2) one-time, 3) every five years, and 4) annually; and we applied these strategies to three population scenarios: 1) the general Indian population (“national population”), i.e. base case (HIV prevalence 0.29%; incidence 0.032/100 person-years [PY]); 2) high-prevalence districts (HIV prevalence 0.8%; incidence 0.088/100 PY), and 3) high-risk groups (HIV prevalence 5.0%; incidence 0.552/100 PY). Cohort characteristics reflected Indians reporting for HIV testing, with a median age of 35 years, 66% men, and a mean CD4 count of 305 cells/µl. The cost of a rapid HIV test was $3.33. Outcomes included life expectancy, HIV-related direct medical costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and secondary transmission benefits. The threshold for “cost-effective” was defined as 3x the annual per capita GDP of India ($3,900/year of life saved [YLS]), or for “very cost-effective” was <1x the annual per capita GDP ($1,300/YLS). Results Compared to current practice, one-time screening was very cost-effective in the national population (ICER: $1,100/YLS), high-prevalence districts (ICER: $800/YLS), and high-risk groups (ICER: $800/YLS). Screening every five years in the national population (ICER: $1,900/YLS) and annual screening in high-prevalence districts (ICER: $1,900/YLS) and high-risk groups (ICER: $1,800/YLS) were also cost-effective. Results were most sensitive to costs of care and linkage-to-care. Conclusions In India, voluntary HIV screening of the national population every five years offers substantial clinical benefit and is cost-effective. Annual screening is cost-effective among high-risk groups and in high-prevalence districts nationally. Routine HIV screening in India should be implemented. PMID:23741348

Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Nakamura, Yoriko M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Losina, Elena; Swaminathan, Soumya; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

437

New perspectives of malaria control in India under World Bank Project.  

PubMed

The World Bank has been assisting Government of India (GoI) for a number of years with development of effective health services for the control of vector borne diseases (VBDs). An Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) under financial assistance from Bank was implemented in selected tribal states and districts from 1997 to 2005. While most of the project districts did report a decline in malaria incidence, the Implementation Completion Report (ICR) highlighted the need for major reform. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria, which accounts for almost all malaria related mortality, has been increasing in India and there is widespread resistance to chloroquine. The needed reform would require, first and foremost, updating of policy on malaria case management in public and private sectors. Also needed are innovative approaches for promoting the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and strengthening institutions at the district and state levels for effective implementation of new policies. Several important changes in the policy on diagnosis and treatment of malaria are being implemented in this new project. The most important of these are: Use of artesunate combination therapy (ACT) as the first line treatment for all confirmed Pf malaria cases, introduction of rapid diagnostic kits for quick diagnosis of Pf cases, promotion of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) in vulnerable population. Supervision and monitoring will be strengthened by deployment of Malarial/Kala azar Technical Supervisors (MTS/KTS) and VBD consultants at district level. The project has also envisaged two important components like Environment Management Plan (EMP) for safe use of insecticides and materials and Vulnerable Community Plan (VCP) for the benefit of underprivileged population. PMID:20509472

Das Gupta, R K; Thakor, Hitendrasinh G; Sonal, G S; Dhillon, G P S

2009-12-01

438

V E N T U R A B A S I N GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1  

E-print Network

City Amedee Coso Desert Hot Springs Salton Sea Heber Brawley (Abd.) Mesquite (Abd.) East Mesa . STATE, Director . Barstow . Palm Springs . .Desert Hot Springs . El Centro .Needles DIVISION OF OIL, GAS DISTRICT 3 DISTRICT 6 DISTRICT 5 DISTRICT 4 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT 1 GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT

439

Coryphoid Palm Leaf Fossils from the Maastrichtian–Danian of Central India with Remarks on Phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae)  

PubMed Central

Premise of research A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon. Methodology A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian–Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae. Pivotal results Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents. Conclusions The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian–Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate. PMID:25394208

Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Dilcher, David L.

2014-01-01

440

Moorhead district heating. Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Moorhead district heating project is to develop a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system that would be owned and operated by the City of Moorhead. The district heating system planned for Moorhead would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers for their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. Phase II provides the information required for the City of Moorhead to make the decision to obtain financial commitment and build the district heating system. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the district heating system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment, development of business plans for construction and operation of the system assumption and rationale documented, and an analysis of the financial impact of alternative economic assumptions. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed. Appendices present information on building conversions (Moorhead State University and Concordia College); heating alternatives for Moorhead State University; an environmental assessment; some district heating communications; and a comparison of alternative technologies to district heating in Moorhead. (MCW)

Sundberg, R.E.

1981-01-01

441

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

442

Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

2010-01-01

443

India’s contribution to the British balance of payments, 1757–1812  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East India Company’s “regulated” trade monopoly more effectively served Britain’s national interest during the French wars than might be inferred from contemporary complaints and recent scholarship. The Board of Control’s assessment of India’s importance to the British balance of payments in the 1780s was well informed and was borne out by subsequent developments. British net inflows from India remained

Javier Cuenca-Esteban

2007-01-01

444

Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: a technical study for U.S.-India cooperation  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INDIA: A TECHNICAL STUDY FOR U.S.?INDIA COOPERATION A Dissertation by TARAKNATH WODDI VENKAT KRISHNA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2007 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INDIA: A TECHNICAL STUDY FOR U.S.?INDIA COOPERATION A Dissertation by TARAKNATH WODDI VENKAT KRISHNA...

Woddi, Taraknath Venkat Krishna

2009-05-15

445

Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: a technical study for U.S.-India cooperation  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INDIA: A TECHNICAL STUDY FOR U.S.–INDIA COOPERATION A Dissertation by TARAKNATH WODDI VENKAT KRISHNA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2007 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INDIA: A TECHNICAL STUDY FOR U.S.–INDIA COOPERATION A Dissertation by TARAKNATH WODDI VENKAT KRISHNA...

Woddi, Taraknath Venkat Krishna

2008-10-10

446

India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

: India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future () Dr. Thadathil significant improvements in the India-Japan partnership reflected in all sectors, including science innovation". Considering the growing, multi-faceted partnership betweenJapanandIndia

Ejiri, Shinji

447

India mental health country profile.  

PubMed

India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this, development of mental health services has been linked with general health services and primary health care. Training opportunities for various kinds of mental health personnel are gradually increasing in various academic institutions in the country and recently, there has been a major initiative in the growth of private psychiatric services to fill a vacuum that the public mental health services have been slow to address. A number of non-governmental organizations have also initiated activities related to rehabilitation programmes, human rights of mentally ill people, and school mental health programmes. Despite all these efforts and progress, a lot has still to be done towards all aspects of mental health care in India in respect of training, research, and provision of clinical services to promote mental health in all sections of society. PMID:15276945

Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

2004-01-01

448

Primary cutaneous zygomycosis in India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous zygomycosis remains underdiagnosed despite being frequently encountered. Delay in the diagnosis contributes to delay in treatment, and a resultant high morbidity and mortality. A retrospective analysis of the reported cases of cutaneous zygomycosis from India was made using various search engines and cross-referencing from available manuscripts. A total of 42 publications from India on the topic were identified, since the first reported case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis by Veliath et al. (1976). There are 130 described cases of cutaneous zygomycosis with an overall mortality of 35 %. The commonest zygomycete identified was Apophysomyces elegans, and the commonest predisposing factor was breach of the skin. Surprisingly, diabetes was reported only in 36 cases (27.69 %). It is important to be aware of this unusual but fatal infection in order to manage it properly and have a good outcome. PMID:24293901

Kaushik, Robin

2012-12-01

449

India's archive of past massive erosional events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami event devastated a number of major coastal regions in South Asia, including the Tamil Nadu coast of India. In many areas on the east coast of India, distinct deposits of tsunami sands drape the landscape and overlie the muddy deposits of the coastal plain. Using erosional, as well as depositional features of the 2004 tsunami as proxy for past events, we present new subsurface evidence of past erosional events along the south-east coast of India.

Nair, R. R.

2009-12-01

450

Sports tourism and adventure sports in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

DefinitionSports tourism means to travel for the sake of either viewing or participating in sports event staying a part from their usual environment.IntroductionSports tourism in India has scored a high place for its self in Indian tourism industry. Sports tourism is broadly define by the adventure sports and game in India. There are indeed several destination in India offering sports

Ashwani Saini

2010-01-01

451

Insect Tolerant Cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the 13 “biotech mega-countries” in the world, growing Bt cotton commercially since 2002 (http:\\/\\/www.isaaa.org\\/). Bollgard® hybrids were approved for commercial release in 2002, followed by Bollgard II® hybrids in 2006; these were followed\\u000a by Bt cotton hybrids with two other events. In this chapter, we discuss insect pests in cotton and insecticide resistance\\u000a in major cotton

S. Parimi; B. R. Char; R. K. Goravale; C. B. Chaporkar

452

Climate change, zoonoses and India.  

PubMed

Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review. PMID:22435190

Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

2011-12-01

453

Women and philanthropy in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's philanthropy has deep roots in India. A historical survey shows that despite their generally low socio-economic status,\\u000a Indian women made significant contributions to social progress even while outside the formal power and profit structure. This\\u000a article also analyses the role of religion, custom, caste and class, political and social movements, and the legal and political\\u000a structure in motivating and

Sundar Pushpa

1996-01-01

454

School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

Tallman, Mark

2012-01-01

455

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524  

E-print Network

NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PO BOX 131 CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524 208-843-2931 PHONE AVENUE, SUITE 1100 PORTLAND, OREGON 97204-1348 FROM: NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT PROJECTS DATE: 10/4/06 Dear Council Members: The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District

456

An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

2012-01-01

457

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction...Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District...junction of the Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward...

2011-01-01

458

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Glenn. (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito...

2010-01-01

459

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St. Johns,...

2010-01-01

460

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

...include the County of St. Lucie and that part of the Counties of Brevard, Indian River, Martin, and Palm Beach described as lying within Regulation Area II, and County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus...

2014-01-01