Sample records for district meghalaya india

  1. Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushmitha Baskar; R. Baskar; Natuschka Lee; P. K. Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of\\u000a geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations\\u000a in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits\\u000a as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX

  2. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

    2008-12-01

    The TEX86 paleotemperature proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids derived from aquatic Crenarchaeota has been applied in a variety of marine and lacustrine systems. A recent study analyzing a suite of 50 globally distributed lakes for TEX86 discovered that this proxy does not appear to work in all lake systems and that the TEX86 correlates well with both annual and winter lake surface water temperature in those systems where it does appear to work. Besides this observed empirical relationship between TEX86 values and lake surface temperatures, very little is known about the ecology of the crenarchaeota in lakes. We combined both biogeochemical and molecular techniques in a multiyear study of Lake Superior using both sediment trap collection of settling particulate matter over the annual cycle and filtration of suspended particulate matter from lake water to create vertical profiles of crenarchaeotal cell numbers and lipid concentrations to investigate the spatial and temporal ecology of the lacustrine Crenarchaeota. Initial results show that the flux of the tetraether lipids is highly seasonal and mainly occurs during two time periods in winter and spring. The flux-weighted TEX86-derived temperatures from the sediment trap material agrees with the TEX86 temperature from a sediment core top from the sampling site and mixed water temperatures during the two periods of highest flux within the error of the method. Spatially, lipids used in TEX86 are found throughout the water column when the Lake Superior is isothermal, but mainly in the hypolimnion when the lake is stratified. During stratification tetraether lipids in the eplimnion appear to reflect a surface water temperature, while the more abundant tetraether lipids in the hypolimnion reflect a deep water temperature. These data suggest that the TEX86 in sediments of Lake Superior mainly reflect the water temperatures of times of highest lipid flux, mixed with a smaller portion of lipids that are mainly produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary, respectively. Dinocysts Damassadinium californicum, Carpatella cornuta, Kenleyia loph

  3. Daughter Preference and Contraceptive-use in Matrilineal Tribal Societies in Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons. PMID:23930347

  4. Environmental effects of Deccan volcanism across the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Fleitmann, D.

    2011-10-01

    The Um Sohryngkew section of Meghalaya, NE India, located 800-1000 km from the Deccan volcanic province, is one of the most complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) transitions worldwide with all defining and supporting criteria present: mass extinction of planktic foraminifera, first appearance of Danian species, ? 13C shift, Ir anomaly (12 ppb) and KTB red layer. The geochemical signature of the KTB layer indicates not only an extraterrestrial signal (Ni and all Platinum Group Elements (PGEs)) of a second impact that postdates Chicxulub, but also a significant component resulting from condensed sedimentation (P), redox fluctuations (As, Co, Fe, Pb, Zn, and to a lesser extent Ni and Cu) and volcanism. From the late Maastrichtian C29r into the early Danian, a humid climate prevailed (kaolinite: 40-60%, detrital minerals: 50-80%). During the latest Maastrichtian, periodic acid rains (carbonate dissolution; CIA index: 70-80) associated with pulsed Deccan eruptions and strong continental weathering resulted in mesotrophic waters. The resulting super-stressed environmental conditions led to the demise of nearly all planktic foraminiferal species and blooms (> 95%) of the disaster opportunist Guembelitria cretacea. These data reveal that detrimental marine conditions prevailed surrounding the Deccan volcanic province during the main phase of eruptions in C29r below the KTB. Ultimately these environmental conditions led to regionally early extinctions followed by global extinctions at the KTB.

  5. REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ?REE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ?REE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

  6. Morphogroups and small sized tests in Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) from the Late Maastrichtian succession of Meghalaya, India as indicators of biotic response to paleoenvironmental stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay K.

    2012-04-01

    Cretaceous-Paleocene shelf successions of Therriaghat and Mahadeo in Meghalaya, India preserve almost the whole of the Late Maastrichtian stage, in which the warm water Tethyan planktonic foraminifera Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) occurs in the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Zone (=Zone CF4) and Pseudoguembelina palpebra Zone (=Zone CF2) as five distinct morphogroups (A-E). Morphogroups A-C commonly occur in rocks representing the transgressive regime of the R. fructicosa Zone at Therriaghat whereas that of P. palpebra Zone was conducive for morphogroup D in the deeper shelf around Therriaghat and morphogroup E in the near shore shelf around Mahadeo. The absence of P. elegans in the Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Zone (=Zone CF3) is postulated due to tectonic cause whereas its absence in the Plummeritahantkeninoides Zone (=Zone CF1) was due to regression. Analysis of growth parameters including length, width, thickness and angle of flaring of the tests of the species reveal that morphogroups B and C are generally larger in size than the other morphogroups and the test length of the Meghalaya specimens is smallest over its world occurrences. Diverse morphogroups and small tests are unique in the species of Meghalaya; however, the cause of such unusual growth is difficult to explain. Due to development close to the tectonically active Deccan volcanic Province and the Assam-Arakan and Himalayan mobile belts, the Meghalaya shelf had unusual biotic stress due to volcanic eruption, sea level fluctuations induced by plate collision and climate warming and retreat of the neo-Tethys. During the biozones CF4 and CF2 when vigorous Deccan outbursts occurred, P. elegans developed diverse morphogroups and acquired small size tests to cope with the changed environments and possibly to increase its chances of avoiding by microspherule missiles.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes from Meghalaya, India against mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) from Meghalaya, India, namely Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly and Singh, and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) against the last instar larva of mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug, a serious pest of mustard and radish in India. The larvae of A. lugens proxima were exposed to 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs) concentration of each nematode species in Petri dishes. Percentage larval mortality and nematode reproduction in insect larvae was studied. The sawfly larvae were found to be susceptible to all the three EPNs tested, but the degree of susceptibility to infection varied from among nematode species. Based on LC50 value, H. indica was the most pathogenic species. Nevertheless, S. thermophilum and S. glaseri also showed a high insect mortality. This study also revealed that all the three test nematodes are also able to propagate in the host cadaver and produce first generation infective juveniles. However, H. indica produced significantly more number of IJs per insect larva than the other two nematode species. The progeny production was recorded to be the least in case of S. glaseri. In conclusion, our findings suggest that of the three indigenous EPNs studied, H. indica and S. thermophilum have good potential as biological control agents against mustard sawfly, A. lugens proxima. PMID:24082523

  8. Zn(II) and Cu(II) removal by Nostoc muscorum: a cyanobacterium isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Smita; Diengdoh, Omega L; Syiem, Mayashree B; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kiran, Mothe Gopi

    2015-03-01

    Nostoc muscorum was isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India, and its potential to remove Zn(II) and Cu(II) from media and the various biochemical alterations it undergoes during metal stress were studied. Metal uptake measured as a function of the ions removed by N. muscorum from media supplemented independently with 20 ?mol/L ZnSO4 and CuSO4 established the ability of this cyanobacterium to remove 66% of Zn(2+) and 71% of Cu(2+) within 24 h of contact time. Metal binding on the cell surface was found to be the primary mode of uptake, followed by internalization. Within 7 days of contact, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) mediated dissimilar effects on the organism. For instance, although chlorophyll a synthesis was increased by 12% in Zn(2+)-treated cells, it was reduced by 26% in Cu(2+)-treated cells. Total protein content remained unaltered in Zn(2+)-supplemented medium; however, a 15% reduction was noticed upon Cu(2+) exposure. Copper enhanced both photosynthesis and respiration by 15% and 19%, respectively; in contrast, photosynthesis was unchanged and respiration dropped by 11% upon Zn(2+) treatment. Inoculum age also influenced metal removal ability. Experiments in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosynthetic inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (an uncoupler), and exogenous ATP established that metal uptake was energy dependent, and photosynthesis contributed significantly towards the energy pool required to mediate metal removals. PMID:25670258

  9. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Nongkhlaw, Fenella Mary War; Joshi, S R

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA) production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC) gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degrada- tion were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultiva- tion and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. PMID:25720168

  10. Peer review among district health officers in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, V

    1989-09-01

    A management information system in Maharashtra State, India, was used to obtain primary health care performance data for review at monthly meetings of peers, including District Health Officers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and Multipurpose Workers. The meetings were conducted in a problem solving, educational atmosphere. The effect of this process was marked improvement in health worker motivation and performance. PMID:2572469

  11. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  12. Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria are common components of phytoplankton communities in most freshwater ecosystems. Proliferations of cyanobacteria are often caused by high nutrient loading, and as such can serve as indicators of declining water quality. Massive industrialization in developing countries, like India, has polluted fresh water bodies, including wetlands. Many industries directly discard their effluents to nearby water sources without treatment. In the Sambalpur District of India effluents reach the reservoir of the worlds largest earthen dam i.e Hirakud Dam. This study examines cyanobacteria communities in the wetlands of Sambalpur District, Odisha, India, including areas subjected to industrial pollution. Result & Discussion The genera Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium were dominant genera of polluted wetlands of Sambalpur districts. A positive correlation was found between total cyanobacterial species and dissolved oxygen levels, but cyanobacterial diversity was inversely related to BOD, COD, TSS, and TDS. High dissolved oxygen content was also associated with regions of lower cyanobacteria biomass. Conclusion Cyanobacterial abundance was positively correlated to content of oxidisable organic matter, but negatively correlated to species diversity. Lower dissolved oxygen was correlated to decreased diversity and increased dominance by Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium species, observed in regions characterized by deteriorated water quality. PMID:23845058

  13. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

  14. A new species of pterodectine feather mites (Acarina, Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chi?amera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costic?

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The article describes a new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra Temminck, 1826 (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in India. Pedanodectes angustilobus sp. n. differs from all known Pedanodectes species by having opisthosomal lobes short, at base wider than long, roughly rounded apically in males, and strongly elongated and narrowed lobar region with wide terminal appendages in females. A key to species of the genus Pedanodectes is presented. PMID:25147445

  15. Epidemiology of Malaria in Amritsar District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mridula; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Objective Malaria is today one of the major causes of human suffering, both in terms of increasing morbidity/mortality and stunting intellectual/ economic growth. In a developing country like India, it has devastating socioeconomic consequences. The present study was therefore carried out to study the epidemiology of malaria in Amritsar district. Methods Diagnosed cases of Malaria reported from 1st January to 31st December 2009 in the erstwhile District of Amritsar were collected from the District Epidemiologist of Amritsar and Taran Taaran and studied. A total of 314 patients were studied. Data was assessed, systematically compiled and statistically analyzed. Results Most (84%) of the malaria patients in our study were less than 45 years of age. Male patients (57%) outnumbered females (43%). The majority of patients with malaria (98%) were from rural areas and 68.5% of the studied patients belonged to upper lower socioeconomical class according to Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale. The majority (83%) of patients took treatment from Registered Medical Practitioners/quacks. Out of the total patients, only 14% used mosquito nets, 13% used repellents, and 7% had wire gauze doors in their homes Conclusion The people living in rural areas were found to be more vulnerable to malaria. The disease was found to be more prevalent among the lower socio economic strata and young population leading to considerable adverse effect on health and economy. Our study aims to stress the estimation of the true burden of malaria. PMID:24715945

  16. Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes against DDT in endemic Districts of North Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Kishore, K; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2004-03-01

    Susceptibility status of Indian kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes after DDT spray from endemic areas of Muzaffarpur and Vaishali district and unsprayed non-endemic area of Patna district, Bihar, India were compared. Higher Lc50 viz. 2.6% and 3.2% and LT50, values 51.0 and 69.0 minutes to 4% DDT were observed for P. argentipes of Muzaffarpur and Vaishali district, whereas P. argentipes of Patna district was 100% susceptible to same concentration, indicating increased tolerance in P. argentipes. It is concluded DDT resistant P. argentipes, particularly in endemic zone growing. The possible explanation could be long-term insecticidal pressure. PMID:16295685

  17. Forest dynamics in tropical rain forests of Uttara Kannada district in Western Ghats, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Bhat; M. B. Naik; S. G. Patagar; G. T. Hegde; Y. G. Kanade; G. N. Hegde; C. M. Shastri; D. M. Shetti; R. M. Furtado

    2000-01-01

    Species richness, tree and stem density, basal area and recruitment details were monitored for ten years (1984 to 1994) in eight one-hectare forest sites in evergreen and moist deciduous forest zones of the tropical rain forests in Uttara Kannada district of the Western Ghats in southern India. Changes in species richness and basal area were observed in majority of the

  18. Red cell enzyme deficiencies in the tribal population groups of the Bastar District, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Jindal, A

    1995-12-01

    A total of 958 blood samples from Muria, Maria, Bhattra and Halba from the Bastar District in Madhya Pradesh (India) was collected and analyzed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, pyruvate kinase, hexokinase, and adenylate kinase red cell enzyme deficiency using flourescent technique. The implications of findings of the presence of rare enzyme deficiencies are discussed. PMID:8579339

  19. Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

    This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

  20. Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan

    2011-01-01

    Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

  1. ‘She says herself, “I have no future”’: love, fate and territory in Leh District, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Smith

    2011-01-01

    How and to what extent can love and desire be managed as factors in geopolitical strategy? This research expands the subject matter of geopolitical analysis and uses feminist tactics to highlight the contingent and embodied practices through which geopolitical strategies materialize in seemingly unlikely venues. In the Leh District of India's Jammu and Kashmir State, political conflict between Buddhists and

  2. Culture and Classroom Reform: The Case of the District Primary Education Project, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Prema

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the international donor-supported District Primary Education Programme on the thinking and actions of 234 primary school teachers in South India was influenced by four cultural constructs: "openness to regulation,""sense of duty," and views on social hierarchy and knowledge acquisition. Teachers were receptive to new methods…

  3. Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-01-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

  4. Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India. PMID:22629412

  5. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipankar Das; Gautam Samanta; Badal Kumar Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Partha Pratim Chowdhury; Gautam Kumar Basu; Dipankar Chakraborti

    1996-01-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l-1 has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km2 with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are

  6. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  7. An epidemic of rotavirus diarrhoea in Jawhar Taluk, Thane district, Maharashtra, India, December 2000-January 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, S. D.; Ray, P. G.; Shinde, D. N.

    2004-01-01

    An epidemic of diarrhoea in Jawhar, a tribal area of Thane district, Maharashtra, India was investigated. Within a period of approximately 2 months 490 cases of acute diarrhoea were reported among children under 5 years of age, with a case fatality rate of 0.40%. Twenty-seven out of 39 (69.23%) rectal swabs/faecal specimens obtained from hospitalized paediatric patients up to 2 years of age from Jawhar were positive by ELISA for rotavirus. Of these, seven were in the age group of < or = 6 months. Seven ELISA-positive faecal specimens were positive for serotype G3 by RT PCR. Out of 15 serum samples collected from these patients, 12 showed the presence of rotavirus-specific IgM. Rotavirus appears to be the aetiological agent of this widespread outbreak in Jawhar, Thane district, Maharashtra state, India. PMID:15061509

  8. Geothermal studies at Tattapani Hot Spring area, Sarguja District, Central India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shanker; J. L. Thussu; J. M. Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Tattapani area, Sarguja district, M.P. (Madhya Pradesh), is one of the strongest thermal manifestations in central India, comprising several hot springs (50-98°C) in marshy land with a cumulative discharge of about 60 1\\/min, and hydrothermal incrustations over an area 0.10 km². Thermal activity is controlled by the ENE-WSW Tattapani fault and NE-SW cross faults. Tattapani fault also forms the southern

  9. Myocilin mutations among primary open angle glaucoma patients of Kanyakumari district, South India

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy; Anandan, Balakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma can be defined as optic neuropathy leading to irreversible blindness if not treated in time. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma. The myocilin (MYOC) gene has been found to mutate in both sporadic and familial cases of POAG worldwide. About 90% of these mutations have been seen to cluster at exon III of the gene. There are documented reports of mutations in the MYOC gene among POAG patients from different parts of India. The southernmost tip of the Indian subcontinent (Kanyakumari district) has remained isolated from all these studies. The aim of this study was to indicate or rule out the disease causative role of the MYOC gene mutations in these patients by screening the MYOC gene for mutations among POAG patients of the Kanyakumari district. Methods One hundred POAG patients from the Kanyakumari District of South India were recruited for the study. The MYOC gene was screened using the PCR-SSCP methodology followed by DNA sequencing. The sequences were analyzed using BLAST. Secondary structures of the amino acid sequences with a variation were predicted. Results Two probable disease-causing variations (mutations), Ser331Thr and Pro370Leu, were each observed in one patient apiece. Two polymorphisms, (Tyr347Tyr and Thr325Thr) were also observed in the patients. Ser331Thr is a novel conservative change while Pro370Leu is a widely reported mutation with an associated severe disease phenotype. Conclusions The presence of the mutations in the patients suggests the causative role of the MYOC gene among POAG patients in the Kanyakumari district of India. The mutation frequency of 2% corresponds well with the other reports from India and other countries. However, the mutation rate reported from a population in the eastern part of India was much higher. Screening of patients from different parts of India is essential to estimate the overall mutation frequency. More functional studies on the MYOC gene are required to elucidate the pathophysiology of POAG. PMID:17417611

  10. Geochemical and statistical evaluation of groundwater in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinam, Jayalakshmi Devi; Ramanathan, AL.; Singh, Gurmeet

    2012-04-01

    In order to identify the hydrogeochemical process controlling the quality of groundwater, an extensive study was carried out in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India. The objectives of the studies were to delineate the spatial and temporal variability in groundwater quality and understand its suitability for human uses. In the study area groundwater samples from 45 location have been collected during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for the major ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, F-, Fe and silica. The water quality of both districts was good for domestic and agricultural uses except for few samples. These saline samples were localized and were due to the inherent lithology of the study area. Three major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO3 type, mixed Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types in Imphal district and Ca-HCO3, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl type in Thoubal district) were identified. The mineral stability diagrams indicated that the groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite whereas Gibbs plot showed that the chemical composition of ground water in both districts is controlled by the natural weathering processes irrespective of seasons. Among the chemical weathering processes, silicate weathering was dominant. The results were supported by Wilcox plot and USSL diagrams. The study reflected the overall suitability of groundwater for anthropogenic use.

  11. Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Roman; Starkel, Leszek

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the detailed rainfall characteristics of 3 key areas located in the eastern monsoon India: the margin of Darjeeling Himalaya, the margin of Bhutanese Himalaya and the Cherrapunji region at the southern slope of Meghalaya Upland. All these areas are sensitive to changes but differ in annual rainfall totals (2000-4000 mm, 4000-6000 m and 6000-23,000 mm respectively) and in the frequency of extreme rainfalls. Therefore the response of geomorphic processes is different, also due to various human impact. In the Darjeeling Himalaya the thresholds may be passed 2-3 times in one century and the system may return to the former equilibrium. At the margin of western Bhutanese Himalaya in 1990s, the clustering of three events caused an acceleration in the transformation and formation of a new trend of evolution, especially in the piedmont zone. In the Cherrapunji of Meghalaya region in the natural conditions the effects of dozens of extreme rainfalls every year were checked by the dense vegetation cover. After deforestation and extensive land use the fertile soil was removed and either the exposed bedrock or armoured debris top layer protect the surface against degradation and facilitate only rapid overland flow. A new "sterile" system has been formed.

  12. Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors – including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability – a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more light on this important issue. PMID:24066070

  13. Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Surveillance, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Dhole, Tapan N.; Hossain, Shaikh Shah; Krishnan, Sampath K.

    2013-01-01

    In India, quality surveillance for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), including laboratory testing, is necessary for understanding the epidemiology and etiology of AES, planning interventions, and developing policy. We reviewed AES surveillance data for January 2011–June 2012 from Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were cleaned, incidence was determined, and demographic characteristics of cases and data quality were analyzed. A total of 812 AES case records were identified, of which 23% had illogical entries. AES incidence was highest among boys <6 years of age, and cases peaked during monsoon season. Records for laboratory results (available for Japanese encephalitis but not AES) and vaccination history were largely incomplete, so inferences about the epidemiology and etiology of AES could not be made. The low-quality AES/Japanese encephalitis surveillance data in this area provide little evidence to support development of prevention and control measures, estimate the effect of interventions, and avoid the waste of public health resources. PMID:23965505

  14. Chronic kidney disease in two coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India: role of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D V; Gunasekar, A

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in a few coastal regions of Srikakulam district and Chimakurthy mandal (~30-40 km away from the coast) in the Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Some medical experts and the local population have apprehensions that the drinking water is the sole reason for this disease in these areas. As the source of drinking water for these two regions is only groundwater, major ions and trace elements were measured on waters from different sources to identify the causative element(s), if any. Comparison of hydrochemical data of both the areas indicates that groundwater in Srikakulam coastal region is less mineralized than that of the Prakasham region, which may be due to geological, hydrological and climatic reasons. However, the concentrations of various inorganic chemicals are within the permissible limits of drinking water. Hence, for the inorganic chemicals to cause ill health, including CKD, is unlikely or is ruled out in the study areas. PMID:23475496

  15. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  16. Mapping private pharmacies and their characteristics in Ujjain district, Central India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In India, private pharmacies are ubiquitous yet critical establishments that facilitate community access to medicines. These are often the first points of treatment seeking in parts of India and other low income settings around the world. The characteristics of these pharmacies including their location, drug availability, human resources and infrastructure have not been studied before. Given the ubiquity and popularity of private pharmacies in India, such information would be useful to harness the potential of these pharmacies to deliver desirable public health outcomes, to facilitate regulation and to involve in initiatives pertaining to rational drug use. This study was a cross sectional survey that mapped private pharmacies in one district on a geographic information system and described relevant characteristics of these units. Methods This study of pharmacies was a part of larger cross sectional survey carried out to map all the health care providers in Ujjain district (population 1.9 million), Central India, on a geographic information system. Their location vis-à-vis formal providers of health services were studied. Other characteristics like human resources, infrastructure, clients and availability of tracer drugs were also surveyed. Results A total 475 private pharmacies were identified in the district. Three-quarter were in urban areas, where they were concentrated around physician practices. In rural areas, pharmacies were located along the main roads. A majority of pharmacies simultaneously retailed medicines from multiple systems of medicine. Tracer parenteral antibiotics and injectable steroids were available in 83.7% and 88.7% pharmacies respectively. The proportion of clients without prescription was 39.04%. Only 11.58% of staff had formal pharmacist qualifications. Power outages were a significant challenge. Conclusion This is the first mapping of pharmacies & their characteristics in India. It provides evidence of the urban dominance and close relationship between healthcare provider location and pharmacy location. The implications of this relationship are discussed. The study reports a lack of qualified staff in the presence of a high proportion of clients attending without a prescription. The study highlights the need for the better implementation of regulation. Besides facilitating regulation & partnerships, the data also provides a sampling frame for future interventional studies on these pharmacies. PMID:22204447

  17. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  19. Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

    2011-08-01

    Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

  20. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  1. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA. PMID:24832008

  2. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S.; Hiremath, Jyoti M.; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme. PMID:23346389

  3. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p?

  4. Prevalence of Gingivitis among Children of Urban and Rural Areas of Bhopal District, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venugopal; Bhambal, Ajay; Agrawal, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingivitis is inflammation of the soft tissue without apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Redness, oedema and bleeding on probing characterize this condition. Untreated cases may lead to a more complex and destructive entity known as chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are the main cause of tooth loss. Poor oral health has thus the potential of hampering the quality of life. So the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of gingivitis, among school-going children of urban and rural areas of Bhopal district, India. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 & 15 y old middle and high school government rural and urban school children of Bhopal district. It was conducted of a period of two months. 1100 Children were examined by using WHO (modified) oral health assessment form, Loe and Silness index was used for recording gingival status. For statistical analysis SPSS version 20 was used. The chi-square test was applied for categorical data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of gingivitis was 59% found. 584 (53.09 %) children had mild gingivitis,61(5.5%) children had moderate gingivitis. Conclusion: This indicates the need for community health activities and awareness program. PMID:25584317

  5. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  6. Indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao District, Assam, Northeastern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study addresses the use of zootherapy in the traditional healthcare system of the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao district, Assam, India. It sought to identify the different species used for zootherapeutic use with the detailed methods of usages to create awareness and contribute to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources. Method 15 Biate villages within the district of Dima Hasao were surveyed through semi-structured questionnaires and informal interviews. Detailed information on the uses of each animal was recorded. Species were identified using standard literature. Fidelity level (FL) was calculated to demonstrate the percentage of respondents claiming the use of a certain animal for the same major purposes. Result The study documents 34 species for the treatment of about 34 different ailments. The largest number of species reported was mammals with17 species. Maximum number of species has been reported for the treatment of diabetes and its high fidelity levels warrants in-depth studies to establish its pharmacological activity. The usages documented herein are unique to the Biate tribe. Very often, these animals are hunted and sold openly at the local markets in the lure of quick money. A 300 gm live Gekko gecko may fetch a sum of 2,50,000 Indian Rupees (INR), and smoked meat of Hoolock hoolock cost approximately 250–300 INR per kg. Animals are also hunted for its hide. The unrestricted hunting of species like Capricornis sumatraensis has almost wiped out the population within the district. Some species are also reared as pets while some are used for display as a sign of expertise in hunting. The present study has documented the usage of at least 15 animals listed in the IUCN Red List. Conclusion The study illustrates the in-depth knowledge of the Biate tribe on zootherapy. Systematic investigation to identify the active ingredient may lead to the development of new drugs, which would prompt protection of these valuable resources. PMID:23938109

  7. Spatiotemporal distribution of dengue vectors & identification of high risk zones in district Sonitpur, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Momi; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Kumar, Dharmendra; Gayan, Jyotsna; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay; Dutta, Prafulla

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue is an arboviral disease of public health importance in many parts of India and recently many cases have been reported from northeastern India. Aedes mosquitoes, which are the vectors of dengue, are widely prevalent in the region. A study was initiated in Sonitpur district of Assam to understand the spatiotemporal distribution and seasonal prevalence of dengue vectors and to identify the high risk zones. Methods: Ovitrap surveys were conducted in three randomly selected villages under each of the eight public health centres (PHC) in district Sonitpur of Assam, northeastern India during March 2011 - February 2012. Three risk zones (high, medium and low) were identified on the basis of per trap density of Aedes mosquitoes. Meteorological data were collected to study the temporal distribution of dengue vectors. Results: Aedes albopictus (99.3%) was the predominant dengue vector followed by Ae. aegypti (0.7%) recorded in the ovitraps. The highest vector density was observed during the post-monsoon (60.1 ± 18 per trap) while the lowest during the winter (7.6 ± 4.9 per trap) and the season-wise differences in the vector density were significant (P=0.005). Maximum temperature (correlation coefficient, r = 0.45) and minimum temperature (r = 0.408) showed the highest positive correlation with the vector density, whereas the number of rainy days showed high positive correlation (r = 0.185) than the total rainfall (r = 0.117). The high risk zone (Dekhiajuli, Behali, Bihaguri and Gohpur PHC) as indicated by the high larval densities of dengue vectors, 45.3 ± 18, 42.1 ± 22.3, 36.9 ± 29.1, 35.3 ± 22.6 per trap, respectively, was validated by dengue epidemiological data collected during 2012. Interpretation & conclusions: Yearlong monitoring of dengue vectors was done for the first time in this region. Monthly maximum temperature and the number of rainy days could be used for the prediction of larval density of Aedes mosquitoes. The identification high dengue risk zones would help in adopting targeted interventions for disease management in future. PMID:25297362

  8. Integrated Approach for Keshampet Watershed Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh, India - Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, S.

    2001-12-01

    The present study area deals with the application of Remote Sensing ( RS ) and Geographical Information Systems ( GIS ) techniques of keshempet watershed for suggesting the two treatment plans namely engineering and gully control work and biotech treatment measures for water resource development and catchment area treatment with a view to control soil erosion from the watershed as well to increase the ground water recharge. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 780 8' 30" and 780 13' E longitudes and 160 20' and 160 24' N latitudes in part of Mahbubnagar district, Anhdra Pradesh, India. The present study area occupies an area of 2870 ha. The satellite data used is IRS 1C PAN and LISS IV merged data, dated March 1997 and April 1997. GIS software used are ARC / INFO and ARCView. Land Use / Land Cover map , Hydrogeomorphology map and soil maps are prepared by interpreting the imagery visually and through intensive ground truth. The other relevant maps namely slope, drainage maps are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India toposheets. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land resources and their spatial distribution to assess the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop an action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams (14), mini percolation tanks ( 7 ), farm tanks ( 4 ), desiltation tanks ( 13 ) are proposed for the treatment plans. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic condition of the study area. In this research paper, a number of thematic layers and relevant data are presented.

  9. Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indranil; Tripathi, S. K.; Roy, A. Sinha; Sengupta, Parama

    2014-01-01

    Background: A vast majority of Indian population are engaged in agriculture. While pesticides help in increasing crop production, inappropriate pesticide storage practice and inadequate protective measures frequently causes accidental poisoning among farmers. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the pattern of pesticide use among farmers in a district of India with an attempt to identify the lacunae in their knowledge and awareness level on risks and hazards of pesticides use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, to address the study objective. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistical methods: Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Results: In the present study alpha-cypermethrin (46%) was the most commonly used pesticide followed by methyl parathion (25.6%), imidacloprid (16.4%), dichlorvos (7.8%) and phorate (4.2%). The farmers used to store pesticides mostly in cowshed (48.4%) followed by storeroom (29.6%). During spraying of pesticides, farmers experienced headache (29.8%) followed by nausea (26%), burning sensation in eyes (9.8%), cough (9.2%), muscle cramps (2%). Regarding the personal protective measures taken by the farmers for spraying, covering nose, mouth with cloth combined with bath after spraying was the most common practice (27%). When asked about suggested actions to be taken if anybody becomes sick following exposure to pesticides, 86% of farmers prefer consulting a doctor. Conclusion: The study suggested that farmers of Burdwan were exposed to highly hazardous, restricted and banned pesticides, with insufficient protection. In this situation, educational and training interventions on pesticide handling and safety precautions are urgently needed. PMID:25097405

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur District, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shri Prakash; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes. To understand the VL seasonality, annual and monthly variations of VL incidence and its relationship to meteorological variables, the numbers of VL cases reported in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008 were studied. Methods Annual VL incidence per 10,000 and the total number of annual VL cases reported at block Community Health Centres (CHC), Public Hospitals or Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008 as well as the monthly average of cases for 2000–08, 2000–04 and 2005–08 periods along with the monthly averages of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were plotted. VL Standardised Incidence Ratios per block were computed for the periods of 1990–1993, 1994–1998, 1999–2004 and 2005–2008 and month wise from 2002 to 2008. A negative binomial regression model was used to evaluate the association between meteorological variables and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008. Results A total of 68,358 VL cases were reported in Muzaffarpur district from 1990 to 2008, ranging from 1,2481 in 1992 to 1,161 in 2001. The blocks with the highest number of cases shifted from East (1990–98) to West (1999–2008). Monthly averages of cases ranged from 149 to 309, highest peak in March–April and another one in July. Monthly VL incidence was associated positively to rainfall and negatively to relative humidity and the numbers of VL cases in the previous month. Interpretation The number of cases reported to the public health sector allowed the describing of the spatial distribution and temporal variations in the Muzaffarpur from 1990 to 2008. However, to assess the actual VL burden, as well as the efficacy of the control measures applied in the district, reporting from private practices and NGOs should be encouraged. PMID:21394195

  11. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  12. Assessment of Internalized Stigma Among Patients With Mental Disorders in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    James, Tintu T; Kutty, V Raman

    2014-08-13

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of high internalized stigma of mental illness among patients attending community-based and psychiatric hospital-based care in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India and to examine the factors associated with high internalized stigma. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 290 patients, mean age 45 years, 38.2% and 61.8% female. A Malayalam version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness inventory was used for assessing internalized stigma. A multistage random sampling method was adopted. The prevalence of high internalized stigma was higher among patients from community-based care (44.7%) as compared with those from psychiatric hospital-based care (34.1%). Apart from treatment in community-based care, age ?45 years, unemployment, absence of long-term friendships, no hope of cure with medication, presence of other illnesses, and substance use were significantly associated with high internalized stigma. More than one third of the subjects had high internalized stigma. PMID:25122552

  13. Nitrate pollution in groundwater in some rural areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

    2012-01-01

    Intake of water with high concentration of nitrate is a major problem in many countries as it affects health of humans. The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the causes for higher nitrate concentration in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from 46 representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The nitrate concentration was analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration recorded during the sampling period was 879.65 mg/L and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. Taking into consideration 45 mg/L of nitrate as the maximum permissible limit for drinking water set by BIS, it was found that 13.78% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond the limit. Overall, wells present in agricultural fields had nitrate levels within permissible limits when compared to those groundwater samples from wells present in settlements which are used for domestic purpose. This indicates that the high nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area is due to poor sanitation facilities and leaching from indiscriminate dumping of animal waste. PMID:23741859

  14. Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur district, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Balasubramanian, N.; Gowtham, B.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-11-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the chemical processes that control the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur coastal village of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, south India. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3. The dominant water types are in the order of NaCl> mixed CaMgCl > CaHCO3 > CaNaHCO3. Water types (mixed CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl) suggest that the mixing of high salinity water caused from surface contamination sources such as irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater and septic tank effluents with existing water followed by ion exchange reaction processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among general public of Gorakhpur district, India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Mamta; Jain, Shikha; Maitin, Nitin; Gupta, Tulika; Maitin, Shipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and demographic correlates of tobacco use in the adult population. Method The sample selection was based on stratified random sampling technique selecting a total of 1635 persons from different parts of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The demographic details of participants along with prevalence of tobacco use were recorded. Results The prevalence of tobacco use among the subpopulation studied was 31.1% for males and 6.1 for females. Both smoking and chewing tobacco were found to be associated with various demographic parameters. The rural population showed a higher prevalence of tobacco use among both males and females; the male smoking prevalence was higher in the urban population (23.0%) than its rural counterpart (18.1%). Also the prevalence of tobacco use was directly proportionate to age increasing upto the age of approximately 60 years, then declined. Stepwise Regression analysis showed gender as the strongest predictor for smoking followed by area of residence, education and age. Whereas education was the most significant predictors for chewing tobacco, followed by gender and age. Conclusion The results of this study clearly indicate an association between tobacco prevalence and various demographic factors. To reduce the cancer burden, intervention measures to control tobacco use should specifically target those socio-demographic predictors of the subpopulation which are more susceptible to tobacco consumption.

  16. Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 ?g/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (?-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this intersection over granitic rock. The source of As affecting the Rajnandgaon district is located in granites that have pegmatitic intrusions likely generated by hydrothermal activity.

  17. High prescription of antimicrobials in a rural district hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Zachariah, Seeba; Thomas, Dixon

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends surveillance of antibiotic use as part of the strategy to fight against antimicrobial resistance. However, there is little information about the antibiotic consumption in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the antimicrobial consumption in a rural hospital in India Methods The study was performed in a district hospital situated in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. In accordance with WHO recommendations, we used the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology to measure the antibiotic use during one year (from 1st August 2011 to 1st August 2012). The antibiotic use was measured using DDDs/100 admissions and DDDs/100 patient-days for inpatients, and DDDs/100 visits for outpatients. Results During the study period, there were 15,735 admissions and 250,611 outpatient visits. Antibiotics were prescribed for 86% of inpatients and 12.5% of outpatients. Outpatient prescriptions accounted for 2/3 of the overall antibiotic consumption. For inpatients, the total antibiotic use was 222 DDDs/ 100 patient-days, 693 DDDs/ 100 admissions and the mean number of antibiotics prescribed was 1.8. For outpatients, the total antibiotic use was 86 DDDs/ 100 outpatient visits and the mean number of antibiotics prescribed was 1.2. The most common antibiotics prescribed were aminopenicillins and 3rd generation cephalosporins for inpatients, and tetracyclines and quinolones for outpatients. In a sample of patients with diarrhoea or upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), the proportion of patients who received antibiotics was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67-93) and 52% (95% CI, 43-62), respectively. Conclusion In this rural setting, the use of antimicrobials was extremely high, even in conditions with a predominantly viral aetiology such as diarrhoea or URTI. PMID:25035714

  18. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  19. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  20. A Qualitative Study on Working Experience of Rural Doctors in Malappuram District of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Vallikunnu, Vinod; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Harichandrakumar, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improving the working conditions of rural doctors is an important issue to increase the quality of health services to target groups. Objectives: To assess the working experience of rural doctors at primary health care level. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted among 30 medical officers from 21 primary health centers in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. In-depth interview was conducted, and content analysis was performed with the identification of themes based on the responses obtained. Results: There were 19 males and 11 females belonged to 25 to 55 years age group. About 70% (21) of them were graduates with MBBS qualification, and the rest were postgraduates. About 2/3rd of them (20) had experience of less than 5 years. They expressed difficulty in managing the work in stipulated time period. However, this had never affected their OP management in anyway. They told that higher authorities were supportive, but they faced some opposition from the public in implementation of national program. Few opined that the training received was grossly insufficient in running the administrative affairs of the health center. Most of them satisfied with physical infrastructure, but manpower including medical officers and supporting staff were not sufficient. Some opined that the age of retirement is too early and should be increased. They participated in Continuing Medical Education, but expressed that it's content should suit to primary health care level. Conclusion: This study highlighted their concern to patient care and time, field work, administrative work, infrastructure, professional development, and future prospects. Further large scale evaluation studies will explore the situational analysis of it. PMID:25161972

  1. Risk factors for malaria deaths in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India: evidence for further action

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jagannath; Murhekar, Manoj V; Shah, Naman K; van Hutin, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2006, a cluster of malaria deaths in the highly endemic Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India, led to assignment of additional resources. Malaria deaths decreased, but continued to occur. A study was conducted to identify the risk factors for residual malaria deaths. Methods Malaria death was defined as a death from fever with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum among residents of Jalpaiguri during 2007–2008. For each case, three age-, sex- and locality-matched controls were recruited among microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria patients cured during the same period. Clinical and treatment information was abstracted from records. Information about knowledge about malaria, presence of bed nets and DDT spraying was collected through interviews of the close relatives of study subjects. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated using multivariate methods. Results 51 malaria deaths were matched with 153 controls, which did not differ by age (median: 35 versus 36 years) and proportion of males (63% versus 63%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with survivors, malaria deaths were more likely to have been admitted with already existing complications [OR = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6–10)], treated at a private facility (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.2–12), received treatment after 48 hours of fever onset (OR = 14, 95% CI = 2.9–64), received chloroquine (OR = 13.3, 95% CI = 3.7–47). Households of the deceased were also more likely to miss bed nets (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.9–24) and DDT spraying (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.8–31). Conclusion Elimination of malaria deaths will require education of providers for prompt referral before complications, engagement of the private sector, community awareness for early treatment as well as scaled-up use of bed nets use and DDT. Use of newer generation anti-malarials must to be generalized. PMID:19527528

  2. Factors controlling the salinity in groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, N

    2008-03-01

    Groundwater chemistry has been studied to examine the associated hydrogeochemical processes operating for the development of salinity in the groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is underlain by charnockites and granitic gneisses associated with schists of the Precambrian Eastern Ghats. Groundwater is the main resource for irrigation besides drinking. Chemical parameters, pH, EC, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO(2-)3, HCO3-, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3-, F- and SiO2, are taken into account. Groundwater is of brackish type. Na+-Cl- facies dominates the groundwater. Examination of compositional relations and mineral saturation states shows that the ion exchange of Ca2+ for adsorbed Na+, evapotranspiration, dissolution of soil salts, dissolution of NaCl and CaSO4, and precipitation of CaCO3 are the dominant hydrogeochemical processes associated with the groundwater composition in the area. Evapotranspiration causes accumulation of salts in the soil/weathered zone. These salts reach the water table by leaching through infiltrating recharge water. A positive relation between depth to water table and TDS with season supports this inference. The effects of human activities, such as intensive and long-term irrigation, irrigation-return-flow, application of unlimited agricultural fertilizers and recycling of saline groundwater, act to further increase the salinity in the groundwater. Therefore, the groundwater quality increases towards the flow path, while the post-monsoon groundwater shows higher concentrations of TDS, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3- F- and SiO2 ions. The study could help to understand the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system for taking effective management measures to mitigate the inferior groundwater quality for sustainable development. PMID:17564797

  3. Folk-lore medicines for jaundice from Coimbatore and palghat districts of Tamil Nadu and kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, A S

    1988-01-01

    Ethno-botanical explorations with regard to the folk-lore medicine in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and Palghat district of Kerala for jaundice was carried out. Out of twenty remedies thus gathered two are found to be new reports and a few others have got interesting combination. The specimens are identified at Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore and deposited in the Herbarium of Ethnobiology department of International Institute of Ayurveda, Coimbatore. Two newly reported plants for Jaundice namely Alysicarpus vaginalis DC. and Justicia tranquebariensis L. f, have been taken for phytochemical screening and pharmacological studies. The botanical name of the plant, local name, Sanskrit name and the part of the plant employed are given in table I. PMID:22557611

  4. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants in goats in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Das, Sutopa; Raju, D S N; Chakravarty, Indirani; Nagalingam, M; Hemadri, D; Govindaraj, G; Ibotombi Singh, N; Ltu, Keduzol; Devi, Maitryee; Sharma, K; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats in various parts of North-East (NE) India by screening of suspected serum samples collected during outbreak investigation and random samples during 2013-2014 survey. A total of 391 serum samples (318 random and 73 outbreak/suspected) were collected from 28 districts in 7 states (Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Mizoram) of NE India. Serum samples were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal-antibody based competitive ELISA. Analysis of 391 serum samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 17.90 % [CI 95 % 14.40-22.00] in goats {45.2 % in suspected [CI 95 % 34.32-56.58] and 11.63 % in random [CI 95 % 8.56-15.63] samples} in NE India. As expected prevalence was high in outbreaks vis-à-vis random samples. The random survey results (11.63 %) has specific implication in epidemiological perspectives, since it highlights the exact PPR prevalence under natural situations, where the subclinical, in apparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in goats, as samples were collected from unvaccinated animals. It also warrants appropriate control measures against PPR in NE region to prevent spread of infection besides widespread presence of the disease in rest of India. PMID:25674627

  5. Fluoride distribution in groundwater and survey of dental fluorosis among school children in the villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Yadav; Suman Lata; Sudhir K. Kataria; Sunil Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride concentration of groundwater reserves occurs in many places in the world. A critical area for such contamination\\u000a in India is alluvial soil of the plain region, consisting of five blocks (Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Beri, Matanhail, and Sahalawas)\\u000a of the Jhajjar District adjacent to the National Capital Territory of India, New Delhi. The purpose of this study was to assess\\u000a the

  6. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  7. Spectacle compliance amongst rural secondary school children in Pune district, India

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Mukhopadhyaya, Debapriya; Mahadik, Ashok; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Sane, Shrivallabh; Shinde, Amit; Holden, Brien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Refractive errors (RE) are the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children. But benefits of visual aids, which are means for correcting RE, depend on the compliance of visual aids by end users. Aim: To study the compliance of spectacle wear among rural school children in Pune district as part of the sarva siksha abhiyan (education for all scheme) after 6 - 12 months of providing free spectacles. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional follow-up study of rural secondary school children in western India. Materials and Methods: The students were examined by a team of optometrists who collected the demographic details, observed if the child was wearing the spectacles, and performed an ocular examination. The students were asked to give reasons for non-wear in a closed-ended questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression used for data analysis. Results: Of the 2312 students who were dispensed spectacles in 2009, 1018 were re-examined in 2010. 523 students (51.4%) were female, the mean age was 12.1 years 300 (29.5%) were wearing their spectacles, 492 (68.5%) students claimed to have them at home while 211 (29.4%) reported not having them at all. Compliance of spectacle wear was positively associated to the magnitude of refractive error (P < 0.001), father's education (P = 0.016), female sex (P = 0.029) and negatively associated to the visual acuity of the better eye (P < 0.001) and area of residence (P < 0.0001). Of those that were examined and found to be myopic (N = 499), 220 (44%) wore their spectacles to examination. Factors associated with compliance to spectacle usage in the myopic population included increasing refractive error (P < 0.001), worsening visual acuity (P < 0.001), and higher academic performance (P < 0.001). The causes for not wearing spectacles were ‘lost spectacles’ 67(9.3%), ‘broken spectacles’ 125 (17.4%), ‘forgot spectacles at home’ 117 (16.3%), ‘uses spectacles sometimes’ 109 (15.2%), ‘teased about spectacles’ 142 (19.8%) and ‘do not like the spectacles’ 86 (12%). Conclusion: Spectacle compliance was poor amongst school children in rural Pune; many having significant vision loss as a result. PMID:23275214

  8. Geothermal studies at Tattapani Hot Spring area, Sarguja District, Central India

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, R.; Thussu, J.L.; Prasad, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tattapani area, Sarguja district, M.P. (Madhya Pradesh), is one of the strongest thermal manifestations in central India, comprising several hot springs (50-98/sup 0/C) in marshy land with a cumulative discharge of about 60 1/min, and hydrothermal incrustations over an area 0.10 km/sup 2/. Thermal activity is controlled by the ENE-WSW Tattapani fault and NE-SW cross faults. Tattapani fault also forms the southern boundary of the coal-bearing Gondwana basin with its Proterozoic basement comprising a sequence of gneisses, granites, pegmatites and granulites. The hot springs are of the low discharge, alkaline, Na - HCO/sub 3/ - Cl - SO/sub 4/ type with high fluoride, low HCO/sub 3/ and TDS. Gas activity is moderate. Silica deposits occur around the vents of the hot springs. The chemically computed base-temperature for these thermal waters is 155 +- 15/sup 0/C. Common hydrothermal alteration minerals are chalcedony, cryptocrystalline silica, stilbite, cristobalite, montmorillonite and pyrite with traces of clinoptilolite and platy calcite. This mineral assemblage is in equilibrium in a temperature range of 100/sup 0/C +- 10/sup 0/C, which is actually recorded in boreholes. A conductive temperature gradient of 100 +- 20/sup 0/C/km is measured in 300-350 m deep boreholes drilled in an area of 4 x 0.5 km. The average heat flow is computed to be around 290 +- 50 mW/m/sup 2/. Maximum possible heat generation due to radioactive decay around Tattapani could be in the region of 75 +- 15 mW/m/sup 2/. Saturated hot water (105-108/sup 0/C) under pressure was encountered in two boreholed, and a 5000-6000 1/min flow was more or less maintained for about 6 months in one of these holes which is being deepened after controlling the blow-out. A model is proposed for such an anomalous geothermal regime which cannot be explained by the contemporary understanding of the known magmatic history of the Indian shield.

  9. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manju Panghal; Vedpriya Arya; Sanjay Yadav; Sunil Kumar; Jaya Parkash Yadav

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake

  10. Implications of ignoring the old disaster management plans : Lessons learnt from the Amparav tragedy of 23 September 2004 in the Nainital district of Uttaranchal (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyoosh Rautela; R. K. Pande

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to discuss the causes of the landslide event at Amparav in Kumaun Himalaya (Nainital district of Uttaranchal in India) and attempts to bring forth the importance of mass awareness regarding the past disaster events in their surroundings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – On the aftermath of the landslide tragedy of 23 September, 2004 field investigations were carried out

  11. A STUDY OF THE ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF WATERFOWL AT MAN-MADE RESERVOIRS IN KHEDA DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA, WITH A VIEW TOWARDS CONSERVATION, MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aeshita Mukherjee; C. K. Borad; B. M. Parasharya

    The population of waterfowl in the reservoirs of Kheda District, Gujarat, India was studied from 1988 to 2000. Observations were made in January each year at three study sites where the waterfowl population was the highest. Factors contributing to the presence of the waterfowl in these three reservoirs included abundant food supply and safe roosting sites. Coots were the most

  12. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

  14. Anthropometric and physiological traits: age changes among the Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, northern West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subrata K; Pal, Baidyanath

    2003-12-01

    Data on anthropometric and physiological parameters were collected as a part of an ongoing biomedical research project on 197 adult Oraon agricultural labourers of the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India. The analysis of the present data focuses attention towards the nature and extent of changes in adulthood in respect of anthropometric and physiological traits. The results reveal that the height increases up to 35 years of age, then declines, weight decreases after 40 years of age, although males and females do not show similar results. Physiological parameters on the other hand reveal that the blood pressure increases with age and strength parameters i.e. grip strength and back strength declines after the age of 25 years or so. However, no generalization can be made out of this, because of the cross-sectional nature of the present study. PMID:14717537

  15. Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Badhan, K

    2012-11-01

    The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

  16. India's JSY cash transfer program for maternal health: Who participates and who doesn't - a report from Ujjain district

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background India launched a national conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), aimed at reducing maternal mortality by promoting institutional delivery in 2005. It provides a cash incentive to women who give birth in public health facilities. This paper studies the extent of program uptake, reasons for participation/non participation, factors associated with non uptake of the program, and the role played by a program volunteer, accredited social health activist (ASHA), among mothers in Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among women giving birth in 30 villages in Ujjain district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 418 women who delivered in 2009. Socio-demographic and pregnancy related characteristics, role of the ASHA during delivery, receipt of the incentive, and reasons for place of delivery were collected. Multinomial regression analysis was used to identify predictors for the outcome variables; program delivery, private facility delivery, or a home delivery. Results The majority of deliveries (318/418; 76%) took place within the JSY program; 81% of all mothers below poverty line delivered in the program. Ninety percent of the women had prior knowledge of the program. Most program mothers reported receiving the cash incentive within two weeks of delivery. The ASHA's influence on the mother's decision on where to deliver appeared limited. Women who were uneducated, multiparious or lacked prior knowledge of the JSY program were significantly more likely to deliver at home. Conclusion In this study, a large proportion of women delivered under the program. Most mothers reporting timely receipt of the cash transfer. Nevertheless, there is still a subset of mothers delivering at home, who do not or cannot access emergency obstetric care under the program and remain at risk of maternal death. PMID:22269638

  17. Iodine nutritional status among neonates in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika

    2014-10-01

    Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). According to WHO, if more than 3 % of the neonates have TSH levels of 5 mlU/l and more in a population, it indicates presence of iodine deficiency (ID). Iodine deficiency is an endemic health problem in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. The aim is to determine iodine nutrition status of neonates of Solan district. In Solan district, six hospitals/community health centers providing obstetric services and conducting more than 100 deliveries per annum were identified and enlisted. Two hospitals were selected keeping in view of operational feasibility. A total of 683 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. It was found that 63.2 % of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l indicating iodine deficiency in the Solan district. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Solan district, HP. PMID:24563104

  18. Spatial changes of estuary in Ernakulam district, Southern India for last seven decades, using multi-temporal satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dipson, P T; Chithra, S V; Amarnath, A; Smitha, S V; Harindranathan Nair, M V; Shahin, Adhem

    2015-01-15

    The study area, located in the western side of Kerala State, South India, is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetlands - the largest estuary in India's western coastal wetland system and one of the Ramsar Sites of Kerala. Major portion of this estuary comes under the Ernakulam district which includes the Cochin City - the business and Industrial hub of Kerala, which has seen fast urbanization since independence (1947). Recently, this region is subjected to a characteristic fast urban sprawl, whereas, the estuarine zone is subjected to tremendous land use/land cover changes (LULC). Periodic monitoring of the estuary is essential for the formulation of viable management options for the sustainable utilization of this vital environmental resource. Remote sensing coupled with GIS applications has proved to be a useful tool in monitoring wetland changes. In the present study, the changes this estuarine region have undergone from 1944 to 2009 have been monitored with the help of multi-temporal satellite data. Estuarine areas were mapped with the help of Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat ETM (1990) and IRS LISS-III (1998 and 2009) using visual interpretation and digitization techniques in ArcGIS 9.3 Environment. The study shows a progressive decrease in the estuarine area, the reasons of which are identified chronologically. PMID:24823281

  19. Office blood pressure measurement practices among community health providers (medical and paramedical) in northern district of India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Ralhan, Upma; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Vivudh Pratap; Takkar, Shibba; Wander, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Appropriate blood pressure measurement techniques are the cornerstone of clinical acumen. Despite the clear guidelines on BP measurement technique, there seems to be large inter-observer variations. Aim & methods A prospective, observational study was done to assess the knowledge and to study the current practices of office BP measurement among the 400 medical and paramedical staff working in various hospitals of a northern district of India. A single observer under the supervision of investigators observed all the participants and a proforma was filled based on AHA guidelines. After observing BP measurement technique scoring was done (?8 question correct = inaccurate practices, >9 questions correct = accurate practices). Similarly, the knowledge was assessed by giving a pretested questionnaire. Results 5.85 % of the medical staff had excellent knowledge and 80% of the doctors and 62% of the paramedical staff had good knowledge about BPM. Only 1.47% (3 doctors) and 0.5% (1 nurse) had accurate practices. There was no correlation between knowledge and practices. Conclusions We conclude that the right technique and knowledge of blood pressure measurement among community health providers is inadequate and warrants further interventions to improve. PMID:25173197

  20. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

  1. Ancestral Consanguinity and Mortality Among Three Endogamous Populations of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. K. Reddy; K. K. Reddy; P. G. Reddy

    2007-01-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been practiced around the globe by many societies from time immemorial, particularly in South India. Consanguineous marriages play a major role in the health of a population, and diseases leading to mortality of the progeny are a consequence of detrimental recessive genes. To evaluate the effects of ancestral consanguinity on mortality in relation to consanguineous marriage, we

  2. Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, S.K.; Pasi, Achhelal; Kumar, Satish; Kasabi, Gudadappa S.; Gujjarappa, Prabhakara; Shrivastava, Aakash; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chauhan, L.S.; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013–April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed. PMID:25531141

  3. Crop–weather model for turmeric yield forecasting for Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kandiannan; K. K Chandaragiri; N Sankaran; T. N Balasubramanian; C Kailasam

    2002-01-01

    Turmeric is native to India and its successful husbandry depends on the monsoon climate and the availability of irrigation. Yield forecasting in advance is required for export planning and policy decisions. A method to forecast turmeric yield from a time series of meteorological and yield data was developed and tested, using 20-year dataset of dry turmeric yield and monthly climatic

  4. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  5. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  6. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  7. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

  8. Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated. PMID:22556937

  9. Geochemistry of Proterozoic Radioactive Arkoses in Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: Evidence for K-rich Evolved Granitoid Upper Crust in the Late Archaean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yamuna Singh

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical studies on radioactive arkoses (43–153 ppm U and 387–862 ppm Th) of the Proterozoic Pakhal Supergroup from Bangaruchilka, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, indicate that their gross major and trace element chemistry reflect their mineral composition. Chemically, arkoses are rich in silica (83% to 88% SiO2) and potassium (3% to 5% K2O), with consistently high Al2O3\\/Na2O (36 to 50)

  10. Hydrochemistry and evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in the Markandeya River basin, Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravikumar; R. K. Somashekar; Mhasizonuo Angami

    2011-01-01

    Markandeya River basin stretches geographically from 15°56? to 16°08? N latitude and 74°37? to 74°58? E longitude, positioned\\u000a in the midst of Belgaum district, in the northern part of Karnataka. Since the quantity and quality of water available for\\u000a irrigation in India is variable from place to place, groundwater quality in the Markandeya River basin was evaluated for its\\u000a suitability

  11. Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, T.; Samuel, P. Philip; Thenmozhi, V.; Paramasivan, R.; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Tyagi, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs to be implemented to control JE transmission. PMID:25027086

  12. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

  13. India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

    \\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

  14. Phytochemical Analysis of Eight Medicinal Plants from Amravati District (MS) India

    E-print Network

    P. G. Dhawale

    Abstract- The preliminary phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants from Amravati District (MS) was done. The plants were Abutilon indicum L.(Swart)., Euphrbia hirta L., Ficus hispida L. f., Melia azedarch L., Phyllathus reticulatus Poir.,Psidium guajava L., vitex negundo L., Vitex pinnata L. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid. The presence of these phytochemicals can be correlated with medicinal potential of these plants. Index Terms- Medicinal plants, Phytochemical analysis, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  16. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region. PMID:23636597

  17. Esterase mediated resistance against synthetic pyrethroids in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2014-08-29

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SP), in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from thirteen districts of Punjab (India) was carried out using adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of drugs were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition) the resistance levels were categorized. Against cypermethrin RFs of 1.48-11.22 were recorded in 12 isolates whereas, one isolate was susceptible. Resistance factors against deltamethrin were 2.4-38.54 and all 13 isolates were found to be resistant. Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity (measured by the production of the metabolite naphthol) revealed a range of 3.34 ± 0.30-13.75 ± 1.33 and 1.31 ± 0.15-8.09 ± 0.68 ?mol/min/mg protein for ? and ?-esterase activity, respectively in different field isolates. Further, multiple pairwise comparisons of the mean values with susceptible strain (Tukey, P = 0.05) revealed significant elevated levels of both ?-esterase and ?-esterase in nine tick isolates resistant to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The data generated on acaricide resistant status and esterase mediated mechanism in ticks will help in formulating tick control strategy for the region. PMID:24927858

  18. Assessment of fluoride intake through food chain and mapping of endemic areas of Gaya district, Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sumeet; Yasmin, Shahla

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively. PMID:25293392

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: knowledge, attitude and practices of the inhabitants of the Kani forest tribal settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nandha, B; Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for control/prevention of CL is to create awareness among the community and ensure optimal utilization of interventions. First step in this direction would be to carry out a situation analysis on prevailing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of inhabitants. A study among 103 respondents from 10 Kani tribal settlements showed that though 39.8% of respondents recognized pictures of CL shown to them, but did not have any lay perceptions. There was absolutely no awareness on vector, transmission, risk factors and control measures. The role of sandflies in CL causation was not known to the residents and this prevented them from using any personal protection and adhering to control measures which in turn pose risk of spread of infection within settlements and to newer areas. CL has emerged as a challenging infection in this area and an urgent need for designing appropriate preventive measures and health education strategies is addressed in this article. PMID:25325998

  20. Follow-up Assessment of Under-nourished Children Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme in Tapi District, India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kanan T.; Nayak, Sunil N.; Patel, Prakash B.; Modi, Bhautik P.; Gharat, Vaibhav V.; Bansal, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: India shares the largest burden of under-nutrition in world. The aim of this study was to conduct follow-up assessment of under-nourished children attending anganwadi center (AWC). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in 50 AWC of Tapi district. Total 529 children aged 1-6 years diagnosed as under-nourished before 1 year were included. Pre-structured questionnaire was used for present day assessment of these children followed by Epi-info mediated analysis. Results: Children of literate mothers had higher weight gain. Ninety percent of children attended anganwadi regularly, however 25% of children dropped out for more than 1 month. In 1 year, growth had faltered in 20% children and was stagnant in 63% of them. Children who were treated for under-nutrition; that completed course at Child Development and Nutrition Center; and whose parents were counseled about the under-nourished status of child had higher weight gain than their counterparts. Conclusions: Parents of under-nourished children must be counseled about the nutritional status of their child. In cases of under-nourished child, referral to higher center must be ensured by health worker. Supplementary feeding as a long-term solution to country's under-nutrition problem should be studied in detail with the alternative solutions. PMID:25013696

  1. Determination of 222RN level in groundwater using a Rad7 detector in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Vikas; Mehra, Rohit; Rani, Asha

    2013-09-01

    Radon gas is a significant health threat linked to thousands of preventable deaths each year. In this paper, radon activity concentration is measured in 260 groundwater samples collected from 65 villages in the Bathinda district of Punjab State, India, using Rad7, an electronic radon detector (Durridge Co., USA). The radon concentration varies from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 5.1 ± 0.3 Bq l(-1) with a mean value of 2.63 Bq l(-1). The recorded values of radon concentration in groundwater are within the safe limit of 11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The annual effective dose in stomach and lungs per person is also evaluated in this research. The estimated total annual effective dose of adults ranged from 8.82 to 49.98 µSv y(-1). The total annual effective dose from all locations of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv y(-1)), recommended by World Health Organisation and EU Council. PMID:23509398

  2. Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

    2009-10-01

    Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

  3. Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30?months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

  4. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  5. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  6. Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaraja, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Sarathidasan, J.

    2014-09-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that has been shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body's fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth; however, low concentrations of fluoride intensify the risk of tooth decay. Fluoride can also be quite detrimental at higher concentrations at skeletal fluorosis. The Thoothukudi District is a hard rock and alluvial plain marked as one of the Fluoride-increase area in Tamilnadu due to occurrence of various rock types including fluoride-bearing minerals. The F- content of groundwater can thus originate from the dissolution of Fluoride-bearing minerals in the bed rock. Hundred representative groundwater samples from Thoothukudi District were collected during two different seasons. Samples were analysed for F-, other major cations and anions. The study area is chiefly composed of hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite, alluvio marine, fluvial marine and granite with small patches of quartzite and sandstone. Higher concentration of fluoride is observed during pre-monsoon (3.3 mg l-1) compared to the post-monsoon (2.4 mg l-1) due to the dilution effect. Spatial distribution and factor score show that higher concentrations of F- are noted in the north and central part of the study area owing to lithology. Bicarbonate is well correlated with F- which explains that both ions were derived from the weathering. While F- has a very weak correlation with pH which may be due to the increase of alkalinity resulting from the increase of carbonate and bicarbonate ions.

  7. A spatial analysis to study access to emergency obstetric transport services under the public private “Janani Express Yojana” program in two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The government in Madhya Pradesh (MP), India in 2006, launched “Janani Express Yojana” (JE), a decentralized, 24X7, free emergency transport service for all pregnant women under a public-private partnership. JE supports India’s large conditional cash transfer program, the “Janani Suraksha Yojana” (JSY) in the province and transports on average 60,000 parturients to hospital every month. The model is a relatively low cost one that potentially could be adopted in other parts of India and South Asia. This paper describes the uptake, time taken and geographic equity in access to the service to transport women to a facility in two districts of MP. Methods This was a facility based cross sectional study. We interviewed parturients (n = 468) who delivered during a five day study period at facilities with >10 deliveries/month (n = 61) in two study districts. The women were asked details of transportation used to arrive at the facility, time taken and their residential addresses. These details were plotted onto a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate travelled distances and identify statistically significant clusters of mothers (hot spots) reporting delays >2 hours. Results JE vehicles were well dispersed across the districts and used by 236 (50.03%) mothers of which 111(47.03%) took >2 hours to reach a facility. Inability of JE vehicle to reach a mother in time was the main reason for delays. There was no correlation between the duration of delay and distance travelled. Maps of the travel paths and travel duration of the women are presented. The study identified hot spots of mothers with delays >2 hours and explored the possible reasons for longer delays. Conclusions The JE service was accessible in all parts of the districts. Relatively high utilization rates of JE indicate that it ably supported JSY program to draw more women for institutional deliveries. However, half of the JE users experienced long (>2 hour) delays. The delayed mothers clustered in difficult terrains of the districts. Additional support particularly for the identified hot spots, enhanced monitoring by state agencies and GIS tools can facilitate better effectiveness of the JE program. PMID:25048795

  8. Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

  9. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions. PMID:25522499

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar Ahamed, A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Loganathan, K.; Manikandan, K.

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses was assessed in Alathur Block located in Perambalur District of the state of Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from ten villages were analyzed in two seasons for major cations, anions and other parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Kelly's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio, % sodium, chloro-alkaline indices, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index to know the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Piper trilinear diagram interpretations were made to know the suitability of chemical type of the groundwater. It reveals that the subsurface water is alkaline (Na + K) than the alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, most of the groundwater samples belong to class high-salinity hazard and low-sodium hazard (C3-S1) and high-salinity hazard and medium-sodium hazard (C3-S2), which indicate that the groundwater of most stations require a special type of irrigation method.

  11. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  12. Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.

    PubMed

    Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

    2011-01-01

    The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 ?mhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+?+ NO-?-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture. PMID:20169406

  13. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  14. Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2013-06-01

    The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio 'a', anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C' were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio 'a' were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C' were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

  15. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A.; Parihar, P.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters (a o; c o) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite (a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard (c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE)N / (HREE)N, (La/Lu)N, (La/Yb)N and (Ce/Yb)N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  16. Role of asymptomatic carriers and weather variables in persistent transmission of malaria in an endemic district of Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nani Gopal; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, Pranab Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is perennial in the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh interstate border areas in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India. A yearlong study was carried out on the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria and the role of asymptomatic malaria carriers in persistent transmission of the disease. The relationships between malaria incidence and weather parameters were also investigated. Methods Active and mass blood surveys were conducted on a monthly basis in Bengenajuli, Sapairaumari Pathar, and Nigam villages near the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh border. Epidemiological indices were estimated for malaria-positive cases. Multiple linear regression between monthly malaria incidence and monthly average temperature, and relative humidity along with monthly total rainfall was carried out. The known malaria vectors collected in CDC light traps were identified and recorded. Results Slide positivity rate (SPR) and Plasmodium falciparum percent (Pf%) for symptomatic malaria were 26.1 and 79.8, respectively. Prevalence of malaria vectors was observed throughout the year with varying density. Anopheles philippinensis/nivipes and A. annularis were predominant among the seven known vector species recorded currently. Asymptomatic parasitemia was detected throughout the year with SPR ranging from 4.8 to 5.3. Monthly rainfall with 1-month lag had the highest correlation (r=0.92) with SPR. The relationship between SPR and weather factors was established as SPR=?114.22+0.58 T min+1.38 RH+0.03 RF (R 2=0.89; p=0.00). Conclusion Low and relatively constant levels of asymptomatic parasitemia was present in the study area. High malaria vector density and presence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers were responsible for persistent malaria transmission in the region. This study concludes that passive detection and prompt treatment of asymptomatic carriers is essential for preventing persistent disease transmission. Rainfall along with some other weather variables may be used for predicting the malaria epidemics in the region. The predictive information could be useful to target resources more effectively. PMID:25595688

  17. Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

    2012-07-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  18. Space Based Information Support for Decentralised Planning (SIS-DP)-A case study in Balangir District,Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Dash, S. K.; Thakur, R. R.; Jonna, S.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    The state government is now focusing on decentralized planning and created administrative infrastructure for Gram Panchayat (Village Community) level planning in participatory way. The people are now opening up and started taking part in planning process at grass root level. In order to involve the people and make planning exercise more effective, National Remote Sensing Centre(ISRO), Dept. of Space(DOS) have begun activities using GIS and Communication Technology(Geo-Ict). Considering the potential of Geo-Ict a project titled "Space Based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP)" was launched by NRSC/ISRO under PC-NNRMS, DOS, Govt. of India. Odisha Space Applications Centre as a partner institution, have ful-filled the commitment of generating thematic information on 1 : 10 K from High resolution satellite data (Ortho-Rectified Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV data) for the state of Odisha. Thematic information on Land use, Settlements, Infrastructure and drainage have been generated and started dissemination to the users. The attribute information available from line department have also been linked to spatial framework of the SIS-DP layers. In the present study Bolangir, a drought prone and backward district is taken up. Total 285 thematic maps have been prepared at Gram Panchayat level keeping a buffer of 1.5 km to locally adjust any discrepancies in the boundary. User workshop and awareness campaigns were conducted and feed backs have been collected on Land Utilization Types (LUT). It is felt that extension of these services to the entire State have a strong bearing on improved strategy and planning process by the State.

  19. Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio ‘a’, anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C’ were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio ‘a’ were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C’ were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

  20. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Clients Attending ICTCs in Six Districts of Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rajeswari; Chandrasekaran, V.; Muniyandi, M.; Jaggarajamma, K.; Bagchi, Anasua; Sahu, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the HIV serostatus of clients attending integrated counseling and testing centres (ICTCs) in Tamilnadu, south India (excluding antenatal women and children), and to study its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors. Design. In a prospective observational study, we interviewed clients attending 170 ICTCs from six districts of Tamilnadu during 2007 utilizing a standard pretest assessment questionnaire. All the clients were tested for HIV with rapid test kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of HIV infection. Results. Of 18329 clients counseled, 17958 (98%) were tested for HIV and 732 (4.1%; range 2.6 to 6.2%) were tested positive for HIV. Median age of clients was 30 years; 89% had never used condoms in their lives and 2% gave history of having received blood transfusion. In multivariate analysis HIV seropositivity was associated with HIV in the family (adjusted odds ratio) (AOR 11.6), history of having sex with sex workers (AOR 2.9), age ?31 years (AOR 2.8); being married (AOR 2.5), previously tested for HIV (AOR 1.9), illiteracy (AOR 1.7), unemployment (AOR 1.5), and alcoholism (AOR 1.5). Conclusion. HIV seroprevalence being high in ICTC clients (varied from 2.6 to 6.2%), this group should also be included in routine programme monitoring of sero-positivity and risk factors for better understanding of the impact of the National AIDS Control Programme. This would help in evolving appropriate policies and strategies to reduce the spread of HIV infection. PMID:21799947

  2. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

  3. Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?district level in relation to HIV intervention programs and the degree of urbanization. These findings could be used to enhance program planning to further reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:24885786

  4. Streptococcal pharyngitis, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: Eight-year prospective surveillance in Rupnagar district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Yash Paul; Thakur, Jarnail S; Patro, Binod K; Bhatia, Anju; Singh, Inder P; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Chakraborti, Anuradha; Dhanda, Vanita; Sapru, Sunita; Sharma, Meenakshi; Shah, Bela; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continue to be a neglected public health priority. We carried out a registry-based control project, prospective surveillance and sample surveys to estimate the burden of disease. Methods. We trained healthcare providers and established a surveillance system for the 1.1 million population of Rupnagar district in Punjab. In sample surveys conducted among schools, physicians examined the sampled children. Children with a cardiac murmur were investigated by echocardiography. Throat swabs were obtained from a sub-sample, and group A streptococci (GAS) were identified and emm typed by standard laboratory methods. We estimated the morbidity rates for RF/RHD from surveillance data and school surveys using a correction factor to account for under-registration of cases in the registry. Results. A total of 813 RF/RHD cases were registered from 2002 to 2009. Of the 203 RF and 610 RHD cases, respectively, 51.2% and 36.7% were males. In the age group of 5-14 years, RF was more common (80%) than RHD (27%). The prevalence of RF/RHD in 5-14-year-old students was 1.0/1000 (95% CI 0.8-1.3). The school survey indicated that about two-thirds of the RF/RHD cases were enrolled in the hospital-based registries. Based on the school survey, the prevalence of RF/RHD was estimated to be 143/100 000 population. In the registry, the annual incidence of acute RF was estimated to be at least 8.7/100 000 children in the age group of 5-14 years. The prevalence of GAS was 2% (13/656) in children with sore throat and 0.5% (14/2920) among those not having sore throat. Typing of 27 GAS revealed 16 emm types. We estimate that about 1000 episodes of GAS pharyngitis lead to one episode of acute RF. Conclusion. RF/RHD continue to be a public health problem in Punjab, India. PMID:25471757

  5. Virulence for guinea pigs of tubercle bacilli isolated from the sputum of participants in the BCG trial, Chingleput District, South India.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, R; Venkataraman, P; Vallishayee, R S; Reeser, P; Musa, S; Hashim, R; Kim, Y; Dimmer, C; Wiegeshaus, E; Edwards, M L

    1987-03-01

    This study, conducted in Madras, India and in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, was concerned with the virulence of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the sputum of individuals living in the Chingleput district of south India. The following results were obtained. 1. The findings of Mitchison with respect to the predominance of low virulence for guinea pigs among isolates from persons living Madras, were confirmed on isolates from the sputum of residents of the Chingleput district. 2. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the root index of virulence. 3. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the number recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected by the respiratory route with 5-10 tubercle bacilli. 4. Relatively low correlations were found between RIV and the susceptibility of isolates to thiophene-2 carboxylic acid hydrazide or to hydrogen peroxide. PMID:3116731

  6. Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

  7. Socio-Economic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Multi-Morbidity among the Rural Elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha (India)

    PubMed Central

    Banjare, Pallavi; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2014-01-01

    Background Multi-morbidity among elderly is increasingly recognized as a major public health challenge in most of the developing countries. However, information on the size of population suffering from multi-morbidity and socio-economic differentials of multi-morbidity is scarce. The objectives of this paper are twofold; first, to assess the prevalence of various chronic conditions and morbidity among rural elderly and second, to examine the socio-economic and demographic factors that have a significant effect on the morbidity. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been done using multi-stage random sampling procedure that was conducted among elderly (60+ years) in Bargarh District of Odisha during October 2011-February 2012. The survey was conducted among 310 respondents including 153 males and 157 females. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the pattern of multi-morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the adjusted effect of various socio-economic and demographic covariates of multi-morbidity. Results The overall prevalence of multi-morbidity is 57% among rural elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha. The most common diseases in rural areas are: Arthritis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), High Blood Pressure and Cataract. Results from the logistic regression analyses show that age, state of economic independence and life style indicators are the most important measured predictors of multi-morbidity. Unlike earlier studies, wealth index and education have a marginal impact on multi-morbidity rate. Moreover, the occurrence of multi-morbidity is higher for elderly males compared to their female counterparts, though the difference is not significant. Conclusion The high prevalence of morbidity observed in the present study suggests that there is an urgent need to develop geriatric health care services in a developing country like India. Any effort to reorganize primary care for elderly people should also consider the high prevalence of multi-morbidity among rural elderly in India. PMID:24902041

  8. New record of the bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana Gorochov (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2014-01-01

    The first record of a known species of bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana (Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae), collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya (India) is reported. Previously, the species was reported from Thailand and the Indo-China region (Gorochov, 1985, 1988). The other congeneric species reported is Zvenella geniculata (Chopard) from Thailand. The morphological characterization of Z. yunnana has been presented with suitable illustrations. PMID:25544073

  9. New record of Anelytra (Anelytra) eunigrifrons Ingrisch, 1998 (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae, Agraeciini) from India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Mal, Jhabar; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    The record of Anelytra (Anelytra) eunigrifrons Ingrisch, 1998 (Conocephlinae: Agraeciini) collected from Umiam in the North-east province, Meghalaya (India) is reported for the first time. Previously, the species was reported from Indo-China, Myanmar Burma, and Shan province, Carin Ghecu (Ingrisch, February 01, 1888 to March 31, 1888 and 1998). From India only one species, Anelytra (Anelytra) concolor  Redtenbacher, 1891 has been recorded from Maharashtra, Mumbai. The paper includes the morphological characterization of the male of this species collected from North-east India. PMID:25781794

  10. Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

  11. Cost-analysis of the WHO Essential Medicines List in A Resource-Limited Setting: Experience from A District Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dixon; Zachariah, Seeba; Byram, Rajarajeshwari; Kannan, Shanmugamari

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been publishing the essential medicines list (EML) since 1977. The EML includes the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective drugs for the most relevant public health conditions worldwide. The WHO performs a cost-effectiveness analysis within each therapeutic group, but very little is known about which therapeutic groups are costliest for hospitals that adopt the WHO EML concept. In this study, we have described the annual consumption of medicines in a district hospital in India, that limited the list of available drugs according to the WHO EML concept. Only 21 drugs constituted 50% of the hospital spending. Anti-infective medicines accounted for 41% of drug spending, especially antiretrovirals which were used to treat HIV infection. Among other therapeutic groups, insulin had the highest impact on the hospital budget. We identified medicines used in perinatal care, which included anti-D immunoglobulin and lung surfactants, that were used rarely, but bore a relatively high cost burden. The results of this study indicate that, in district that adopt the WHO EML, antiretrovirals and antibiotics were the top therapeutic groups for the drug hospital budgets. PMID:24995196

  12. Cost-analysis of the WHO Essential Medicines List in A Resource-Limited Setting: Experience from A District Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Thomas, Dixon; Zachariah, Seeba; Byram, Rajarajeshwari; Kannan, Shanmugamari

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been publishing the essential medicines list (EML) since 1977. The EML includes the most efficacious, safe and cost-effective drugs for the most relevant public health conditions worldwide. The WHO performs a cost-effectiveness analysis within each therapeutic group, but very little is known about which therapeutic groups are costliest for hospitals that adopt the WHO EML concept. In this study, we have described the annual consumption of medicines in a district hospital in India, that limited the list of available drugs according to the WHO EML concept. Only 21 drugs constituted 50% of the hospital spending. Anti-infective medicines accounted for 41% of drug spending, especially antiretrovirals which were used to treat HIV infection. Among other therapeutic groups, insulin had the highest impact on the hospital budget. We identified medicines used in perinatal care, which included anti-D immunoglobulin and lung surfactants, that were used rarely, but bore a relatively high cost burden. The results of this study indicate that, in district that adopt the WHO EML, antiretrovirals and antibiotics were the top therapeutic groups for the drug hospital budgets. PMID:24995196

  13. Socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural features of prior and anticipated influenza vaccine uptake in urban and rural Pune district, India: a mixed-methods case study

    PubMed Central

    Kudale, Abhay; Purohit, Vidula Shridhar; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ensuring production capacity of efficacious vaccines for pandemic preparedness alone may not be sufficient for effective influenza control. Community willingness to accept the vaccine is also critical. Population acceptance must therefore be recognised as a major determinant of vaccine effectiveness, and the social, cultural and economic determinants of population acceptance require study for effective policy and action. Pune is a focus of pandemic influenza in India. The experience of the 2009/2010 pandemic in Pune, capacity for vaccine production and experience with vaccine use provide a unique opportunity to address key questions about an effective vaccine intervention strategy for influenza control in India. This study will examine the socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural determinants of anticipated acceptance of influenza vaccines among the urban and rural populations of Pune district. Additionally, community ideas about seasonal influenza and its distinction from pandemic influenza will be investigated. Proposed research also considers the influence of health professionals, policy makers and media professionals on the awareness, preference and use of influenza vaccines. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study including urban and rural community surveys, in-depth interviews with health professionals, case studies at two hospitals where suspected influenza cases were referred during the pandemic and in-depth interviews with media professionals and public health policy makers. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the ethics review committees of the Maharashtra Association of Anthropological Sciences and the WHO, and by the Ethics Commission of Basel, Switzerland. The proposed research will provide a better understanding of communication and education needs for vaccine action for influenza control in India and other low-income and middle-income countries. The findings and the approach for health social science research will have implications for containment of pandemic influenza in other settings and for effective vaccine action planning for other vaccines. PMID:23408082

  14. Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh Rameshkumar; Shroff, Bhavesh Dahyabhai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 ?g/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels. PMID:22355478

  15. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 ?g/L with maximum observed level of 3200 ?g/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 ?g/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  16. Soil Survey and Land Use System Approach for Planning of Sustainable Land Management A Case Study of Ananthapur District, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. VELAYUTHAM; R. S. REDDY; N. G. RAGHU MOHAN; A. K. MAJI

    India is a country of splendid diversity of soil, climate, food, clothing and culture. The stability in the sector of food security, fiber and shelter provisions and animal wealth has been threatened due to ever-increasi ng population pressure and indiscriminatory use of land resources. It is also well recognized all over the world, specially in the developing countries that inappropriate

  17. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  18. Are Banks Responsive to Exogenous Shocks to Credit Demand in Rural Economies? District level Evidence from India

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Are Banks Responsive to Exogenous Shocks to Credit Demand in Rural Economies? District ­ level demand in the rural economy in the wake of droughts. We find that banks increase agricultural credit-sector banks. Overall, our findings offer positive evidence on the role of commercial banks in rural financial

  19. Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Manthri, Suneedh; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP). Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR) using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results: It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion: The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of referral are major contributing factor for maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP. The UP Government, besides strengthening Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) and Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) services in the district and state as a whole, also needs to focus on developing a functional and effective referral system on a priority basis to reduce the maternal deaths in Unnao district. PMID:25674573

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis control in India through primary health care system--a successful experiment of district level planning.

    PubMed

    Saxena, N B; Aggarwal, V; Dhillon, G P; Sharma, R S; Rao, J S

    1996-06-01

    A model district action plan for control of Visceral Leishmaniasis a serious public health problem in north-east Bihar was developed in late 1989 and implemented in 1992 in district Vaishali. A two years implementation resulted in decline in cases and deaths due to Visceral Leishmaniasis to the extent of 65.32% and 46.51% respectively in 1993 as compared to 1992 and 41.13% and 44.93% respectively in 1994 as compared to 1993 with an overall decrease of 79.58% in case and 70.54% in deaths in 1994 as compared to 1992. The implementation of action plan not only established declining trends in morbidity and mortality due to Visceral Leishmaniasis in the district but also successfully contained the cases unresponsive to first line treatment with Sodium Stibogluconate by reducing the prevalence of such cases from 12.42% in 1992 to 8.59% in 1994. Various components of the action plan, implementation strategy and consequent impact on disease situation are presented in this paper. PMID:8810148

  1. Molecular evidence on the occurrence of co-infection with Pichia guilliermondii and Wuchereria bancrofti in two filarial endemic districts of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of India and mostly affects the poor or those with a low-income. The disease results in huge numbers of morbidities, disabilities, and deaths every year. Association of co-infection with other pathogens makes the condition more severe. Although co-infection is becoming a growing area of research, it is yet to emerge as a frontier research topic in filarial research specifically. This study reports the occurrence of a fungal infection in a large number of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis in two districts of West Bengal, India. Methods Nocturnal blood samples from filarial patients containing parasites and fungus were initially co-cultured, and further the fungus was isolated and characterized. Molecular identification of the isolate was carried out by PCR-based selective amplification and sequencing of highly-conserved D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, whereas pathogenicity was determined by amplification of the RPS0 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the relationship between the isolate and common pathogenic yeasts. The isolate was studied for antibiotic sensitivity, whereas morphological characterization was performed by microscopic techniques. Results The isolate was identified as Pichia guilliermondii and this fungus was found to exist in co-infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in filarial patients. The fungus showed resistance to azole antifungals, griseofulvin, and, amphotericin B, whereas significant susceptibility was evident in cases of nystatin and cycloheximide. A total of 197 out of 222 patients showed this co-infection. Conclusion This study revealed, for the first time, that P. guilliermondii exists as a co-infection in microfilaraemic individuals living in a filarial endemic zone. The findings are important and have relevance to human health, especially for filarial patients. PMID:24708881

  2. Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

  3. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF EIGHT TRADITIONALLY USED ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS FROM AKOLA DISTRICT (MS) INDIA

    E-print Network

    Dipak Koche; Rupali Shirsat; Syed Imran

    The preliminary phytochemical analysis of eight ethnomedicinal plants from Akola District (MS) was done. The plants were Ocimum sanctum L., Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit., Croton tiglium L., Physalis minima L., Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers., Malachra capitata L., Cleome viscosa L., and Galphimia glauca Cav. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannin, terpenoid, saponin, steroid and cardiac glycosides in their aqueous leaf extracts. Some of these phytochemicals were further estimated quantitatively. Present paper deals with the significance of these phytochemicals with respect to the role of these plants in traditional medicinal system.

  4. Recurrent floods and prevalence of diarrhea among under five children: observations from Bahraich district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Kaushal, Sonia; Aribam, Bijaya S.; Khattri, Prashant; D'Aoust, Olivia; Singh, Mongjam M.; Marx, Michael; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important problem among the under-five children in India. Objective The paper examines long-term impacts of recurrent floods on diarrhea among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh, India. Design A two stage stratified cluster survey was conducted in flood affected (exposed) and non-flood affected areas (unexposed). Results The long-term impact of the floods was not clearly marked in the overall prevalence of diarrhea with the exposed group having prevalence of 55.1% as against 56.2% in the unexposed group of children under five. Economic condition of the household is associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in both exposed and unexposed strata. Anemia was found to be a significant risk factor for diarrhea among children in both the flood exposed and non-flood exposed populations. The recurrent floods did not have any significant effect on the prevalence of diarrhea in relation to gender, religion, caste, and household size. Conclusions The study indicates that the long-term impacts of floods are very differently manifested than the immediate impacts. PMID:21695069

  5. Factors affecting treatment-seeking for febrile illness in a malaria endemic block in Boudh district, Orissa, India: policy implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Orissa state in eastern India accounts for the highest malaria burden to the nation. However, evidences are limited on its treatment-seeking behaviour in the state. We assessed the treatment-seeking behaviour towards febrile illness in a malaria endemic district in Orissa. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out during the high malaria transmission season of 2006 in Boudh district. Respondents (n = 300) who had fever with chills within two weeks prior to the day of data collection were selected through a multi-stage sampling and interviewed with a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Malaria treatment providers (n = 23) were interviewed in the district to gather their insights on factors associated with prompt and effective treatment through a semi-structured and open-ended interview guideline. Results Majority of respondents (n = 281) sought some sort of treatment e.g. government health facility (35.7%), less qualified providers (31.3%), and community level health workers and volunteers (24.3%). The single most common reason (66.9%) for choosing a provider was proximity. Over a half (55.7%) sought treatment from appropriate providers within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Respondents under five years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.84-4.80, P = 0.012), belonging to scheduled tribe community (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.07, P = 0.022) and visiting a provider more than five kilometers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.83, P = 0.026) were more likely to have delayed or inappropriate treatment. Interviews with the providers indicated that patients' lack of trust in community volunteers providing treatment led to inappropriate treatment-seeking from the less qualified providers. The reasons for the lack of trust included drug side effects, suspicions about drug quality, stock-outs of drugs and inappropriate attitude of the provider. Conclusion Large-scale involvement of less qualified providers is suggested in the malaria control programme as volunteers after appropriate capacity development since the community has more trust in them. This should be supported by uninterrupted supply of drugs to the community volunteers, and involvement of the community-based organizations and volunteers in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of malaria control services. There is also a need for continuous and rigorous impact evaluations of the program to make necessary modifications, scale up and to prevent drug resistance. PMID:21192825

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  7. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( C?) of fracture datasets of each domain. The C? is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  8. Characterization of fluoride-tolerant halophilic Bacillus flexus NM25 (HQ875778) isolated from fluoride-affected soil in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kartick Chandra; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Ghosh, Tuhin Subhra; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A new Gram-positive, nonpigmented, rod-shaped fluoride-tolerant bacterial strain, NM25, was isolated from waterlogged muddy field soil collected from the fluoride endemic area of Rampurhat II block (average fluoride in water, 4.7 mg/l, and in soil, 1.5 mg/kg) in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. The study was undertaken to characterize the fluoride-tolerant bacterial isolate, to determine its role in bioaccumulation of fluoride, and to analyze the water and soil quality of the bacterial environment. The isolate was positive for catalase, lipase, urease, protease, oxidase, and H2S production, but negative for indole production, nitrate reduction, and Vogues-Proskauer test. The organisms were sensitive to recommended doses of ofloxacin, kanamycin, rifampicin, levofloxacin, vancomycin, gatifloxacin, gentamicin, doxycycline, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence, and phylogenetic analysis, the bacterial isolate NM25 was identified as Bacillus flexus. The G+C content of the 16S rDNA was 53.14 mol%. This strain tolerated up to 20% (w/v) NaCl in nutrient agar medium and was grown at the pH range 4-12. It reduced fluoride concentration up to 67.45% and tolerated more than 1,500 ppm of fluoride in brain-heart infusion agar medium. PMID:24068284

  9. Land use/land cover change and urban expansion during 1983-2008 in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyanagar, Rajagopal; Kawal, Babita M.; Dwarakish, Gowdagere S.; Surathkal, Shrihari

    2012-01-01

    Urban settlements in developing countries are, at present, growing five times as fast as those in developed countries. This paper presents the urban expansion and land use/land cover changes in the fast urbanizing coastal area of the Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka state, South India, during the years 1983-2008 as a case study. Six Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite images were used in the present work. Supervised classification was carried out using maximum likelihood algorithm. The overall accuracy of the classification varied from 79% to 86.6%, and the kappa statistics varied from 0.761 to 0.850. The results indicate that the urban/built-up area in the study area has almost tripled during the study period. During the same time, the population has increased by 215%. The major driving forces for the urbanization were the enhanced economic activity due to the port and industrialization in the area. The urban/built-up area is projected to increase to 381 km2 and the population in the study area is expected to reach 2.68 million by the year 2028. Urban growth prediction helps urban planners and policymakers provide better infrastructure services to a huge number of new urban residents.

  10. Monitoring land use with reference to aquaculture in Chinna Cherukuru village of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India - A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, M. R.; Ganguly, K.; Sunder, B. S.; Rani, G. P.; Rao, A.; Shankar, G. R.

    2014-11-01

    The present study focuses on the dynamics of conversion of agricultural land to aquaculture over a decade from 1995 to 2013 in Chinna Cherukuru Village (Thotapalligudur Mandal) in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh State, India. Multi temporal satellite data from 1995's medium resolution to high resolution IRS LISS IV & Cartosat of 2013 time frame was analysed and mapped using RS & GIS techniques to monitor the dynamics of land transformation from agriculture to aquaculture (1995's) and conversion back to agriculture in 2013. It was observed that, in 1995 aquaculture was practiced to an extent of 62.35 hectares which accounts to 9.48 % of the Total Geographic Area (TGA) of the village (658.01 hectares), whereas in 2001 there is a major conversion from agricultural land to aquaculture accounting to an extent of 237.01 hectares or 36.01 % of total village area . However, thereafter there was a significant conversion back to agriculture accounting to an extent of 27.23 hectares or 4.13 % of TGA in 2013. The study tries to understand the underlying reasons for conversion back to agriculture which were due to several factors that include outbreak of diseases in aquatic fauna, natural calamities, variation in production cost / selling cost and non-availability of infrastructure facilities like cold storages etc. The present village level study on LUCC database provides an answer key question about socio-economic issues, land use and cropping pattern which form important input for environmental management.

  11. Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi pluton, Sonbhadra district, Mahakoshal mobile belt, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Srivastava, Anand K.; Kumar, Gopendra; Dwivedi, S. B.

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole around the Late Paleoproterozoic Jhirgadandi pluton in the eastern part of Parsoi Formation of Mahakoshal terrain, central India represents three distinct metamorphic zones, characterized by definite mineral assemblages. The contact-metamorphic event produced the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages Bt + Qtz + Alb + Sil ± Cd ± Grt ± Mus ± Kfs in the metapelites of inner aureole, Bt + Qtz + And + Mus + Kfs + Plag ± Cd ± Chl in middle aureole and Chl + Mus + Bt ± And + Alb + Qtz ± Ep + Mt ± tourmaline in the outer aureole. The estimated P-T conditions based on detailed geothermobarometric calculations in the thermal metamorphosed rocks are 690°C/3.4 kbar, 580 ± 15°C and 487 ± 30°C in inner aureole, middle aureole and outer aureole, respectively. The variation in metamorphic condition suggests that the shallow crustal level emplacement of Jhirgadandi pluton is responsible for the overprinting of contact metamorphic assemblages (M2) in the low grade metapelites (regional metamorphism M1) of Mahakoshal Group.

  12. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  13. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

  14. A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of abandoned wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of abandoned wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection. PMID:20003288

  15. Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study. PMID:24159547

  16. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  17. Evaluation and selection of multipurpose tree for improving soil hydro-physical behaviour under hilly eco-system of north east India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Saha; J. M. S. Tomar; P. K. Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Soil hydro-physical behaviour was studied under a 20-year old agroforestry plantation consisting of five multipurpose tree\\u000a species (Pinus kesiya Royle ex-Gordon, Alnus nepalensis D.Don, Parkia roxburghii G.Don, Michelia oblonga Wall. and Gmelina arboria Roxb.) maintained under normal recommended practices at Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya,\\u000a India. The aim was to select tree species, which could act

  18. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4 parts per million and above as dental fluorosis is a public health problem in these areas with 100% prevalence. PMID:25364597

  19. Factors Associated with Morbidities Among Infants in Three Sub Centre Areas of Belgaum District of South India: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Naik, Vijaya A; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Mallapur, Mahesh; Kotian, Shashidhar M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health status of infants is a sensitive indicator of development and factors influencing it need to be better understood. Objectives: This study was conducted to search for factors associated with morbidity among infants and to find out their influence on weight gain during infancy. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was undertaken in south India from November 2004 till April 2006. A birth cohort of all children born during first 6 months of the study period were assessed at enrollment and followed up monthly till they attained 1 year of age. Results: Incidence of morbidity among infants was found to be least among those exclusively breast fed (EBF) for 6 months and most when EBF for less than 6 months (P = 0.045). It was also more when infants were weaned with a combination of animal milk, formula milk, semi-solids and solid diet and least when weaned only with semi-solids and solids (P = 0.018). Diarrheal episodes were more in infants who were bottle-fed (P < 0.001). Weight gain between 6th and 12th month of infancy was found to be significantly affected by various morbidities (P = 0.001). Incidence of morbidities was less among preterm babies and more among partially immunized (P < 0.001) babies with birth order ? 3 (P = 0.012), babies of mothers with low socio-economic and educational status. Delayed milestones during infancy was seen more in babies with history of birth asphyxia (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Several factors influenced incidence of morbidities and these morbidities had a negative effect on weight gain. Hence these factors need to be addressed to promote better child health. PMID:24019603

  20. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ranjan, Alok; Das, Pradeep

    2011-05-01

    The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI) calculated as follows: (Green - SWIR I)/(Green + SWIR I). Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001), while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (?(2) = 26.3; P <0.001). The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (?(2) = 26.0; P <0.001). The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission. PMID:21590671

  1. Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications in a Rural Population of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, J.; Abrahm, Sherin Billy; Singh, Zile; Stalin, P.; Sathya, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases, no longer a disease of the rich, impose a great threat in the developing nations due to demographic and epidemiological transition. This increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors is worrisome. Adherence to hypertension (HT) medication is very important for improving the quality of life and preventing complications of HT. Aim: To study the factors determining adherence to HT medication. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, with a total population of around 16,005. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 6 months (February-July) using a pre-structured and validated questionnaire. All eligible participants were selected by house-to-house survey and individuals not available on three consecutive visits were excluded from the study. The questionnaire included information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, adherence to HT medication, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Caste was classified based on Tamil Nadu Public Service commission. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical Consideration: Informed verbal consent was obtained prior to data collection. The patient's adherence to HT medication was assessed using the Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-taking Behavior [MMAS-4]. Results: We studied 473 hypertensive patients of which 226 were males and 247 were females. The prevalence of adherence was 24.1% (n = 114) in the study population. Respondents with regular physical activity, non-smokers and non-alcoholics were more adherent to HT medication as compared with respondents with sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake (P < 0.005). Based on health belief model, the respondents who perceived high susceptibility, severity, benefit had better adherence compared with moderate and low susceptibility, severity, benefit. PMID:25657510

  2. Limited Access to Iodized Salt among the Poor and Disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Tapas Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (?15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of ?US$ 10 (PR: 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8). Those who heard and were aware of the risk of iodine-deficiency disorders and of the benefit of iodized salt were more likely to use appropriate salt (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Those who were aware of the ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of ?15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population. PMID:20824980

  3. Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

  4. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  5. Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Badal Kumar Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Uttam Kumar Chowdhury; Dilip Lodh; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Gautam Kumar Basu; Subhash Chandra Mukherjee; Kshitish Chandra Saha; Dipankar Chakraborti

    2003-01-01

    To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking,

  6. Census of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

  7. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages. PMID:22684811

  8. Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

  9. Effect of house spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10 per cent capsule suspension (CS) formulation in comparison with 10 per cent wettable powder (WP) against malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, K.; Sahu, S.S.; Vijayakumar, T.; Subramanian, S.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Selection of an insecticide and its appropriate formulation is a prerequisite of formulating any chemical control strategy against vectors. A hut scale field trial was carried out to study the effectiveness of house spraying with capsule suspension (CS) formulation of lambdacyhalothrin in comparison with its wettable powder (WP) formulation on mortality, density and behaviour of malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India. Methods: The two formulations were tested at 20 and 30 mg (a.i.)/m2 for their effectiveness in terms of deterrence, excito-repellency, blood-feeding success, mortality and residual activity against Anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, in experimental huts in Malkangiri district, Odisha State, India. Results: Both CS and WP formulations prevented the entry of An. fluviatilis in to the sprayed huts by >90 per cent for >6 months, the entire peak malaria transmission season in the area. The exit rate increased (90-99%) with different treatments and the feeding rate was reduced (91-97%). There was no significant difference between WP 30, CS 20 and CS 30 mg/m2 in these respects. However, WP 20 mg/m2 caused a lesser effect than the other three groups. The formulations or the dosages differed only in causing vector mortalities. Overall, the total mortality rate of An. fluviatilis was higher in the huts sprayed with CS 30 (58%) than the huts sprayed with CS 20 (48%), WP 20 (37%) and WP 30 mg/m2 (47%). Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the duration of residual action and the effect on entry, exit, feeding and mortality of An. fluviatilis, the dosage 20 mg/m2 of CS formulation of lambdacyhalothrin could be considered for further use. PMID:25488449

  10. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  12. Appropriate Strategy for Rehabilitating the Rural Blind: Education of Parents and Counselling of Visually Handicapped Persons in Bhagwanpur Block (District Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, M. L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-two visually handicapped persons (mean age 48.8 years) were identified in 21 of 82 rural villages surveyed by trained local field workers in India. Assessment, rehabilitation planning, parent/trainer counseling and education, and training in such areas as daily living skills and orientation and mobility were provided as appropriate. (JW)

  13. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vijith; R. Satheesh

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India\\u000a was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The\\u000a study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated\\u000a over other types of the vegetation in

  14. Analysis of Gender Disparity in Meghalaya by Various Types of Composite Indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SK Mishra

    2007-01-01

    Subjugation of women in certain spheres of life is very common in the patriarchal societies and it has a long history. In India, women have little social or economic independence. They are treated inequitably at home as much as at the workplace outside. Perhaps, it is so for the Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. However, Meghlaya, a state in North

  15. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-10-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care, locally-situated interventions could be more easily planned to provide appropriate and acceptable mental health care in LMICs. PMID:25089962

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-01-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care, locally-situated interventions could be more easily planned to provide appropriate and acceptable mental health care in LMICs. PMID:25089962

  17. Effect of skill on work productivity and physical body dimensions of the Oraon tea garden labourers of the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subrata K; Mozumdar, Arupendra; Kar, Sujata

    2005-12-01

    Skill is one of the factors influencing labour productivity of manual labour. The present study aims to find out the possible relationship between skill and productivity and between skill and physical body dimension among the tea garden labourers of Northern West Bengal, India. Skill was measured by indigenously devised test protocols developed only for this purpose. Productivity or labour output was measured in terms of amount of tea leaves (in weight) plucked in a day by an individual. Physical body dimension was recorded in terms of a list of anthropometric traits. The results show an inconsistent relationship between skill and productive output and a non-significant relationship between skill and physical body dimensions. However, there are some trends that skill is high in younger individuals and low skill in females is associated with relatively high fat accumulation in the body. PMID:16402595

  18. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Relationship with Scholastic Performance among Primary and Secondary School Children in Two Select Private Schools in Bangalore Rural District (India)

    PubMed Central

    Rashmi, M.R.; Shweta, B. M.; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Agrawal, Twinkle; Shah, Moulik; Sequeira, Randell

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. Materials and Methods: All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as < -3 SD, -2 to -3 SD, > -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd's ratio, Chi square for trend. Results: A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315) and females were 46% (267). One hundred and fifty-nine (27%) of the children had pallor, 81 (20%) had under nutrition, 38 (7%) had stunting, 197 (34%) had thinness and 5 (1%) were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Conclusion: Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.

  19. Strategies for coping with the costs of inpatient care: a mixed methods study of urban and rural poor in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent; Jayaswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, coping mechanisms for inpatient care costs have been explored in rural areas, but seldom among urbanites. This study aims to explore and compare mechanisms employed by the urban and rural poor for coping with inpatient expenditures, in order to help identify formal mechanisms and policies to provide improved social protection for health care. Methods A three-step methodology was used: (1) six focus-group discussions; (2) 800 exit survey interviews with users of public and private facilities in both urban and rural areas; and (3) 18 in-depth interviews with poor (below 30th percentile of socio-economic status) hospital users, to explore coping mechanisms in greater depth. Results Users of public hospitals, in both urban and rural areas, were poor relative to users of private hospitals. Median expenditures per day were much higher at private than at public facilities. Most respondents using public facilities (in both urban and rural areas) were able to pay out of their savings or income; or by borrowing from friends, family or employer. Those using private facilities were more likely to report selling land or other assets as the primary source of coping (particularly in rural areas) and they were more likely to have to borrow money at interest (particularly in urban areas). Poor individuals who used private facilities cited as reasons their closer proximity and higher perceived quality of care. Conclusions In India, national and state governments should invest in improving the quality and access of public first-referral hospitals. This should be done selectively—with a focus, for example, on rural areas and urban slum areas—in order to promote a more equitable distribution of resources. Policy makers should continue to explore and support efforts to provide financial protection through insurance mechanisms. Past experience suggests that these efforts must be carefully monitored to ensure that the poorer among the insured are able to access scheme benefits, and the quality and quantity of health care provided must be monitored and regulated. PMID:21653545

  20. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. PMID:25574846

  1. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Prasanth, S. V.; Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gangadhar, K.

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater is an essential and vital component of any life support system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study was confined to the coastal belt of Alappuzha district, which lies in the coastal lowland division of Kerala. Groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purpose were examined by various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride. These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purpose by comparing with the WHO and Indian standards. TDS, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and permeability index were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The sample analysis reveals that the groundwater is not entirely fit for drinking with respect to pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Cl-. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Based on TDS and SAR almost all samples are suitable for irrigation purpose except a few locations, which show values beyond the permissible limits. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant water type in the study area. The sequence of the abundance of the major cations and anions is Ca > Na > Mg > K = HCO3 > Cl > SO4. Based on the total hardness and TDS, 96 % of groundwater samples are found suitable for drinking purpose.

  2. An epidemiological study of newly diagnosed sputum positive tuberculosis patients in Dhubri district, Assam, India and the factors influencing their compliance to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Sheikh, Samuel; Das, Kushal Chandra; Zaman, Gaffar Sarwar; Pal, Ranabir

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tuberculosis (TB) affects the economically productive age group and has emerged as a disease of significant socio-economic global burden. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify epidemiological factors responsible for TB and the clinico-social correlates influencing their compliance. Subjects and Methods: All new smear positive TB (NSP-TB) patients registered in Dhubri District Tuberculosis Center-Tuberculosis Unit during 2007 in Assam were included in this study. The study was performed by interview technique using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Nearly 90.76% of the participants were in the age group of 15-55 years and were predominantly unskilled workers and sole earning member of their family. 83.33% of the patients had symptoms of cough for more than 3 weeks and most of them (98.15%) lived in overcrowded houses. More than half of the patients had X-ray examination as their initial approach to diagnosis. More males (59.18%) than females (40.82%) reported to the health institution within first 6 weeks after the onset of symptom and among them 91.84% were declared cured after completion of therapy and while, only 40% of the patients initiating treatment after 6 weeks of the onset of symptoms were declared cured after completion of therapy. Conclusions: The prevalence of NSP-TB cases was more among the illiterate and underprivileged population who needs counseling and motivation for early intervention. PMID:25097426

  3. Dopamine D2 receptor and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 genes among the two linguistically distinct tribal populations of Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Saksena, Deepti; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, haplotype studies have emerged as a critical tool for studying the human migratory patterns. Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and Ankyrin Repeat and Kinase Domain Containing 1 (ANKK1) genes, which also bear specific clinical implications in various neuropsychiatric and behavioural/addictive disorders, are significant nuclear DNA markers for studying human genome diversity. The present study was conducted in order to understand the distribution pattern of the three DRD2 and ANKK1 TaqI sites and also the frequencies of their haplotypes among Oraons (n = 48) and Mundas (n = 50)--the two linguistically distinct tribal population groups of Jharkhand. The phylogenetic inference was drawn through the statistical comparisons of the present DRD2 and ANKK1 TaqI site data with the available data from population groups belonging to other parts of India and also rest of the world (ALFRED Database). All the three TaqI sites were found to be polymorphic among Oraons and Mundas with relatively high average heterozygosities. Oraons exhibited a comparatively higher frequency of the ancestral B2D2A1 haplotype (0.356) than the Mundas (0.193). Significant and higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) values between all three sites were observed among Mundas which is indicative of admixture, whereas Oraons exhibited non significant and low LD values. The presence of ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 in higher frequency and lower and non-significant LD among Oraons suggest that they might be the older inhabitants in the region though the major limitation of the study is small sample size which might have introduced bias in the accuracy of the calculated pairwise LD for the three polymorphic sites. PMID:23590110

  4. The Calcutta metropolitan district.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence. PMID:12268497

  5. Psychosocial Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy at Udupi District, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Emanuel; Kamath, Ramachandra; Andrews, Teddy; Hegde, Belle Monappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) on antiretroviral therapy has appreciably increased. However, psychosocial challenges pose a great threat to their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to determine psychosocial factors influencing health-related quality of life of PLHA on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling to select 226 PLHA at District hospital. Demographic information was collected using a semistructured questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed using WHOQOL-HIV Bref. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, CAGE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used. One-way ANOVA was applied. Results: There was a significant difference in mean quality of life score with respect to level of anxiety in the physical (P < 0.001), psychological (P < 0.001), level of independence (P < 0.001), social relationships (P = 0.047), environment (P < 0.001), and spirituality domain (P < 0.001). Significant difference in mean quality of life score was observed with respect to level of depression in physical (P = 0.003), psychological (P = 0.036), level of independence (P = 0.017), social relationships (P = 0.019), and spirituality (P = 0.001). Friend support was positively associated with HRQOL in physical (P < 0.001), psychological (P < 0.001), level of independence (P = 0.013), social relationships (P < 0.001), environment (0.001), and spirituality domain (0.026). Family support was positively associated with HRQOL in physical (P = 0.001), psychological (P = 0.001), level of independence (P = 0.040), social relationships (P = 0.008), environment (0.001), and spirituality domain (0.026). A significant difference was observed with respect to affiliation to social organization in social relationships domain (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Psychosocial challenges including anxiety, depression, and social support impact upon all domains of HRQOL of PLHA. PMID:24627748

  6. Asymptomatic infection of visceral leishmaniasis in hyperendemic areas of Vaishali district, Bihar, India: a challenge to kala-azar elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Das, V N R; Siddiqui, N A; Verma, R B; Topno, R K; Singh, D; Das, S; Ranjan, A; Pandey, K; Kumar, N; Das, P

    2011-11-01

    A cohort of 91 asymptomatic individuals with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were identified during base line screening using recombinant 39-aminoacid antigen (rk-39) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conducted from December 2005 to June 2006 involving 997 individuals of two highly endemic villages of Vaishali district, Bihar. The point prevalence of asymptomatic infection was 98 per 1000 persons at baseline. There was no statistically significant difference between rk-39 and PCR positivity rate (P>0.05), even though PCR positivity alone was found significantly higher (4.2%) than rk-39 positivity alone (2.6%). The monthly follow-up of the asymptomatic cohort revealed a disease conversion rate of 23.1 per 100 persons within a year. There was a statistically significant difference in conversion of disease when individuals were positive by both tests as compared to single tests by rk-39 and PCR (P<0.01). Disease conversion rate in the subjects residing in households with a history of VL (62%, 13/21) was higher than those residing in the households without a history of VL (38%, 8/21). Most of the identified asymptomatic individuals were from low socio-economic strata similar to that of VL cases in general. Apart from rk-39, PCR may be considered for screening of asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in large-scale epidemiological studies. Screening of asymptomatic cases and their close follow-up to ascertain early detection and treatment of VL may be considered in addition to the existing VL control strategies. PMID:21945327

  7. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  8. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows seasonal fluctuations and these spatial patterns of physical and chemical constituents are useful in deciding water use strategies for various purposes.

  9. The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future changes in water quantity and quality. For disaster risk assessment, the goal is to identify the intersection of potential mass movement and flood hazards, with exposed people, resources, and assets. Base level information is required on glacier area and volume, mass balance, glacial lake distribution, surface topography, information on snow cover, duration, and snow water equivalent, and gauge measurements on river and stream flows. Where instrumental data is lacking, information of past hydrological regimes and evidence of mass movement can be derived from documentary records (archival reports), from geological indicators (i.e. palaeofloods: sedimentary and biological records over centennial to millennial scales), and from botanical sources (i.e. dendrogeomorphology). The adaptive capacity to face the challenges associated with a changing cryosphere in the Kullu district will require economic, political, and knowledge capacity to plan, prepare, and respond to issues of water quantity and quality, and disaster risk associated with mass movement and flood hazard. Socio-economic information to be assessed includes economic metrics, literacy rates, and population demographic factors such as gender, age, and religion. These same factors largely determine a communities capacity to anticipate, respond to, and recover from disasters.

  10. Innovation District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

  11. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  12. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     View Larger Image ... a tongue of pollution extending across the middle of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther ...

  13. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. PMID:25130907

  14. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...headquarters. There are three districts: The Community Development District, the Seashore...

  15. ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

    1985-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

  16. Human consumption of rumen flukes of cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, P C; Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Goswami, A; Raquib, M; Kakati, P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of eating rumen flukes of cattle by a section of people living in Meghalaya, a north eastern State of India, is reported in this communication. Economically backward, some rural people belonging to Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, and Karbi tribes of Christian and Nepali communities who eat beef are accustomed to consuming cooked flukes during breakfast, meals, and also along with rice beer or alcohol. Inspection of the rumens of cattle during slaughter indicated a prevalence of flukes belonging to Cotylophoron, Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax, and Fischoederius genera in 74% cases, and their collection from rumen ranged approximately from 50 g to 600 g. Biochemical analysis of flukes found 12.60% total protein, 0.78% fat, and 0.87% ash on fresh weight basis. High prevalence of flukes, easy visualization in rumen, their bulk collection, presence of nutritive value, absence of any ill effect, and lack of imminent danger of transmissibility are believed to be the rationales influencing their consumption by people. It is suggested that dietary benefits obtained from flukes might contribute to the energy transfer and inclusion in the food web. PMID:24964650

  17. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  18. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K?=?1 to K?=?20 were tested and population K?=?3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K?=?5 and K?=?4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a valuable resource for future genomic studies and crop improvement strategies. PMID:25412256

  19. Shifts in Cropping System and Its Effect on Human Nutrition: Case Study from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Kataki

    2002-01-01

    More than twenty cropping systems are practiced in India. Rice-wheat and rice-rice are the major cropping systems practiced in an estimated 120 districts and 50 districts of the country, respectively. The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan) is the creation of the agricultural green revolution. Higher production of

  20. India Illustrated

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Ganges� and "A Corner of Fort St. George.� The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

  1. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  2. Neuropathy in Arsenic Toxicity from Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhash Chandra Mukherjee; Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Uttam Kumar Chowdhury; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Dilip Lodh; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Kshitish Chandra Saha; Dipankar Chakraborti

    2003-01-01

    Large number of people from 9 out of 18 districts of West Bengal, India are endemically exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater due to drinking of tubewell water containing arsenic level above World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 µg\\/L. From our ongoing studies on neurological involvement in patients of arsenicosis from different districts of West Bengal, we report our findings

  3. Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

  4. ECOLOGICAL SANITATION SYSTEM FOR VILLAGE VIDGAON, INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. NIMBALKAR; P. H. SAWANT; R. A. HEGDE

    The present paper deals with the design of Ecological Sanitation system (EcoSan) toilets for a village. The Vermiculture composting toilet is suggested for the village Vidgaon in Jalgaon District, India. EcoSan offers a solution to sustainable sanitation provision as it aims at providing improved sanitation by sanitizing the excreta and re-using it in agriculture. The main objective of this work

  5. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  6. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference. PMID:25416966

  7. Muse India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

  8. Telesupport Experiment for Agricultural Information Management in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupak Goswami; Jhumpa Ghosh Ray; Jhulan Ghose

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the experimentation of Change Initiatives, an Indian NGO of sub-regional scope, with the application of ICT in agricultural information management under the EUsponsored TeleSupport Project at Nadia district of West Bengal, India. During the piloting phase, an innovative mechanism of information management was experimented for facilitating a twoway interaction between expert and client system with the involvement

  9. SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.

    1993-01-01

    This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given. PMID:22556647

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shariq Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector

  11. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. Comparative Efficacies of Artemisinin Combination Therapies in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps Genes in Tea Gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K.; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K.; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K.; Ray, Krishnangshu

    2012-01-01

    In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I51R59N108, with pfdhps, G437 and/or E540. The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. PMID:22314538

  13. India Votes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The world's largest democracy goes to the polls in Mid-February for parliamentary elections. India Today (discussed in the August 29, 1997 Scout Report), a weekly news magazine with a circulation of over 11 million, provides this site for interested Internauts to follow the elections. It provides ongoing daily news, an election calendar, and election information organized by state, constituency, party, and leaders. In addition, there are links to IT articles of interest. Newcomers to the Indian electoral process are advised to consult the Reference section first.

  14. Evidence of Paternal N5, N10 - Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T Gene Polymorphism in Couples with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions (RSAs) in Kolar District- A South West of India

    PubMed Central

    Vanilla, Shiny; Kotur, Pushpa F; Kutty, Moideen A; Vegi, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a multifactorial clinical obstetrics complication commonly occurring in pregnancy. Many research studies have noted the mutations such as C677T in N5, N10 - Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)gene which is regarded as RSA risk factor. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of frequency of C677T of the MTHFR gene mutations with RSA. Aim: The purpose of present study is to determine the frequency of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss and the impact of paternal polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T in recurrent pregnancy loss in population of couples living in Kolar district of Karnataka with RSA. Design: A total of 15 couples with a history of two or more unexplained RSA were enrolled as subjects in the study and a total of 15 couples with normal reproductive history, having two or more children and no history of miscarriages were enrolled as controls. Materials and Methods: DNA extraction from samples case and control group couples and its quantification by Agarose gel electrophoresis, assessment of DNA purity, MTHFR C 677T gene mutation detection by PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis: Carried out by web based online SPSS tool. Results: The frequency of C677T genotype showed homozygous wild type CC (80%), heterozygous CT type (13.3%) and homozygous mutation TT type (6.67%) observed in males. Similarly from female’s homozygous wild type CC (86.6%), heterozygous type (13.3%), and homozygous type mutations TT (0%) was recorded. In couple control groups, we observed homozygous wild type CC (86.6%), heterozygous CT type (13.3%) and homozygous type mutations TT type (0%). Conclusion: We noticed a high frequency of MTHFR specifically T allele associated with paternal side.Therefore, the present study indicated the impact of paternal gene polymorphism of MTHFR C677T on screening in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.

  15. Mughal India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

  16. Towards patient-centered health services in India--a scale to measure patient perceptions of quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISHNA DIPANKAR RAO; DAVID H. PETERS; KAREN BANDEEN-ROCHE

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. (i) To develop a reliable and valid scale to measure in-patient and outpatient perceptions of quality in India and (ii) to identify aspects of perceived quality which have large effects on patient satisfaction. Design. Cross-sectional survey of health facilities and patients at clinics. Setting. Primary health centers, community health centers, district hospitals, and female district hospitals in the state

  17. A comparative analysis of some aspects of the training and visit system of agricultural extension in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gershon Feder; Roger Slade

    1986-01-01

    The article utilises recent farm survey data to assess the performance of the Training and Visit Extension system in one district in the state of Haryana (India) compared to a neighbouring district covered by an older extension system. The data show a significantly higher level of village?level extension activity in the area covered by Training and Visit Extension, and this

  18. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  19. District Data Base Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Glenda L.; Shirer, William R.

    This handbook provides guidance to district-wide steering committees about how to compile a database. A district database should contain two types of information including general contextual data that are broadly germane and relevant to all programs. The second type of information is about specific programs. The database should begin as a minimal…

  20. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  1. Chicago Park District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

  2. Regional and sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    In this paper the authors have estimated for 1990 and 1995 the inventory of greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O for India at a national and sub-regional district level. The district level estimates are important for improving the national inventories as well as for developing sound mitigation strategies at manageable smaller scales. Our estimates indicate that the total CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O emissions from India were 592.5, 17, 0.2 and 778, 18, 0.3 Tg in 1990 and 1995, respectively. The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of these gases over this period were 6.3, 1.2 and 3.3%, respectively. The districts have been ranked according to their order of emissions and the relatively large emitters are termed as hotspots. A direct correlation between coal consumption and districts with high CO 2 emission was observed. CO 2 emission from the largest 10% emitters increased by 8.1% in 1995 with respect to 1990 and emissions from rest of the districts decreased over the same period, thereby indicating a skewed primary energy consumption pattern for the country. Livestock followed by rice cultivation were the dominant CH 4 emitting sources. The waste sector though a large CH 4 emitter in the developed countries, only contributed about 10% the total CH 4 emission from all sources as most of the waste generated in India is allowed to decompose aerobically. N 2O emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer were maximum in both the years (more than 60% of the total N 2O). High emission intensities, in terms of CO 2 equivalent, are in districts of Gangetic plains, delta areas, and the southern part of the country. These overlap with districts with large coal mines, mega power plants, intensive paddy cultivation and high fertilizer use. The study indicates that the 25 highest emitting districts account for more than 37% of all India CO 2 equivalent GHG emissions. Electric power generation has emerged as the dominant source of GHG emissions, followed by emissions from steel and cement plants. It is therefore suggested, to target for GHG mitigation, the 40 largest coal-based thermal plants, five largest steel plants and 15 largest cement plants in India as the first step.

  3. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  4. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA BEST ODDS CORP., Plaintiff, vs. IBUS MEDIA LIMITED, a foreign company; IBUS Best Odds Corp. is a Nevada corporation that provides "news and information via a global computer Nevada common law. (Compl., ECF No. 1). On January 21, 2014, Defendants moved to dismiss for lack

  5. Deccan Volcanism, Climate Change and the KT Mass Extinction across India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.; Silvia, G.; Annachiara, B.; Brian, G.; Sunil, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan Trap eruptions occurred over a relatively short time period coinciding with the KT mass extinction. Here we present results based multiproxies data from intertrappean sediments located at Anjar, Kutch, western India, Jhilmili, Madhya Pradesh, central India, and Rajahmundry, SE India. We compare these results with a KT sequence in Meghalya, NE India, about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province. Intertrappean sediments at Anjar consist mainly of lacustrine sediments and exhibit at least three PGE anomalies with high Pd contents but only one with a significant Ir enrichment. The presence of dinosaurs eggshells and bone fragments above the Ir anomaly implies an upper Maastrichtian age for these sediments. Thus, the PGE anomalies do not coincide with the KT boundary, nor are they of cosmic origin because normalized PGE values suggest a flood basalt origin. Clay minerals consist mainly of smectite and palygorskite and reflect semi-arid conditions, probably linked to higher surface temperatures on a young volcanic landscape subjected to effusive volcanic activity. In the Rajhamundry area, two Deccan basalt flows, known as the Rajahmundry traps, mark the most extensive lava flows extending 1000 km across the Indian continent. The sediments directly overlying the lower trap contain the earliest Danian planktic foraminifera of zones P0-P1a and mark the initial evolution in the aftermath of the KT mass extinction. The upper trap was deposited during zone P1b corresponding to the lower part of magnetic polarity C29n. Sedimentological, mineralogical data reveal that deposition occurred in a shallow estuarine to inner neritic environment with periods of subaerial deposition marked by paleosoils. Clay minerals consist exclusively of smectite, typical of vertisoil developed under semi-arid conditions. Outcrop correlation reveals an incised valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT boundary at or close to the lower trap basalt in C29R and the upper trap near the C29R/C29N transition. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial, semi-humid to arid environments. But a short aquatic interval (<60 ky) of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow coastal marine conditions with brackish marine ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval close to the KT boundary. Similar to Rajahamundry, clays from paleosoils consist exclusively of smectite and indicate semi-arid conditions. In Meghalaya to the northeast, the K-T transition consists of Upper Cretaceous sediments dominated by sandstone, shale, sandy shale and rare coal layers, which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental reliefs. The KTB is characterized by major PGE anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). Contrary to the sections located in the Deccan traps area, dominant kaolinite in clay mineral assemblages indicates high humidity and high runoff, which is likely linked with increased warming (greenhouse effect) due to Deccan activity on the mainland. The contemporaneous semi-arid climate conditions that are observed in the Deccan Traps province are not observed in Meghalaya and therefore appear to be restricted to areas of volcanic activity.

  6. Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

  7. global warming's six indias

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  8. VILLAGE SIZE IN INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Singh; Sandip Chakraborty; Tarun K. Roy

    2008-01-01

    India is predominantly a rural and agrarian society, and 72 percent of India's population lives in villages according to the 2001 census. Village size varies considerably in the country, with some villages having fewer than 50 residents and some having more than 10,000 residents. The study first examines the growth of villages in India using census data. It then establishes

  9. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  10. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

  12. India Network Gopher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.

  13. Two new species of Amemboa Esaki (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Srimoyee; Subramanian, K A; Polhemus, Dan A

    2014-01-01

    Amemboa mahananda sp. nov. and Amemboa bifurcata sp. nov. are described from Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Darjeeling district and from Kalikhola, in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, and compared with all allied species. A species checklist of the genus Amemboa Esaki, 1925  and Amemboides Polhemus & Andersen, 1984 from India and their distribution in India and elsewhere is provided. Amemboa kumari (Distant, 1910) is reported for the first time from West Bengal and Amemboa dentata Polhemus & Andersen, 1984 is newly recorded from Himachal Pradesh. PMID:24871522

  14. Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chakrabarti; A. R. Basu; J. Peterson; S. Misra

    2004-01-01

    We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected

  15. Collaborative RESEARCH COUNCILS UK INDIA

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    NEW HORIZONS UK-India Collaborative Research #12;RESEARCH COUNCILS UK INDIA Research Councils UK (RCUK) India, launched in 2008, brings together the best researchers in the UK and India through high-quality, high-impact research partnerships. RCUK India, based at the British High Commission in New Dehli, has

  16. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  17. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  18. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  19. How High Poverty Districts Improve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

  20. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  1. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  2. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  3. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  4. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  5. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  6. The Socioeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Participation in India’s Health Insurance Scheme for the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was introduced in 2008 in India, is a social health insurance scheme that aims to improve healthcare access and provide financial risk protection to the poor. In this study, we analyse the determinants of participation and enrolment in the scheme at the level of districts. We used official data on RSBY enrolment, socioeconomic data from the District Level Household Survey 2007–2008, and additional state-level information on fiscal health, political affiliation, and quality of governance. Results from multivariate probit and OLS analyses suggest that political and institutional factors are among the strongest determinants explaining the variation in participation and enrolment in RSBY. In particular, districts in state governments that are politically affiliated with the opposition or neutral parties at the centre are more likely to participate in RSBY, and have higher levels of enrolment. Districts in states with a lower quality of governance, a pre-existing state-level health insurance scheme, or with a lower level of fiscal deficit as compared to GDP, are significantly less likely to participate, or have lower enrolment rates. Among socioeconomic factors, we find some evidence of weak or imprecise targeting. Districts with a higher share of socioeconomically backward castes are less likely to participate, and their enrolment rates are also lower. Finally, districts with more non-poor households may be more likely to participate, although with lower enrolment rates. PMID:23805211

  7. Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Prakash Kala

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the wealth of medicinal plants used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Apatani have traditionally settled in seven villages in the Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region of India. The present study has resulted in the documentation of 158 medicinal plant species used by the Apatani group of

  8. Diversity of Odonata (Insecta) from Dholbaha Dam (Distt. Hoshiarpur) in Punjab Shivalik, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaurav Sharma; P. C. Joshi

    2007-01-01

    Study on the species diversity of the order Odonata was carried out during 2002 ? 2004 at Dholbaha dam, which has a moist deciduous forest surrounding it in district Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India. A total of 30 species belonging to 7 families of order Odonata were recorded during the study period. The family Libellulidae, represented by 18 species was the most

  9. Enhanced frequency of micronuclei in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Basu; J. Mahata; A. K. Roy; J. N. Sarkar; G. Poddar; A. K. Nandy; P. K. Sarkar; P. K. Dutta; A. Banerjee; M. Das; K. Ray; S. Roychaudhury; A. T. Natarajan; R. Nilsson; A. K. Giri

    2002-01-01

    In West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the maximum permissible limit in seven districts covering an area of 37,493km2. In the present study, evaluation of the micronuclei (MN) formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was carried out in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Forty

  10. Groundwater quality in some villages of Haryana, India: focus on fluoride and fluorosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Meenakshi; V. K Garg; Kavita; Renuka; Anju Malik

    2004-01-01

    The fluoride concentration in underground water was determined in four villages of Jind district of Haryana state (India) where it is the only source of drinking water. Various other water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, total hardness, total alkalinity as well as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate concentrations were also measured.

  11. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  12. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  13. Altruistic Suicide in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Vijayakumar

    2004-01-01

    Altruistic suicide has a long history in India, even being noted in the Dharmashastras, an ancient religious text. In ancient India, two forms of altruistic suicide were practiced. One was Jauhar, a kind of mass suicide by women of a community when their menfolk suffered defeat in battle; the other was Sati, a suicide of a widow on the funeral

  14. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  15. Nuclear Tests in India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    1998-01-01

    This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

  16. As India's Plates Collide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

  17. ETHNOMEDICINE OF BHIL TRIBE OF JHABUA DISTRICT, M. P.**

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, J. K.; Kalakoti, B. S.; Lal, Brij

    1986-01-01

    The Bhils are inhabitants of Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone and Ratlam distrcits of Madhya Pradesh. A large number of Bhils live in the neighbouring States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They constitute the third largest tribe of India; the first two being Gonds and Santhals. They utilize a large number of plant species occurring wild in the district as herbal remedies in various diseases and ailments. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was conducted in the tribal blocks. Viz. Kathiware, Alirajpur and Sodhwa blocks of Jhabua district, M. P. The authors have gathered first-hand information on seventy – five plant species and their mode of therapeutic uses from the tribal medicine men ‘Badwa’ and other experienced tribals. The present study has brought of light some interesting data on potential medicinal plants which will be screened for determining their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:22557535

  18. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

  19. Four New Vaccines for Routine Immunization in India: What About Hemophilus Influenza B and Pneumococcal Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sourabh; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan

    2015-01-01

    Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was flagged off in India in 1978. According to the recommendation of National technical advisory group of India (NATGI), Government of India is going to include four new vaccines in the UIP for whole India. The four new vaccines are Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine (IPV) for polio, rota viral vaccine, vaccine against rubella, and Japanese encephalitis vaccine (179 districts in India). Here, authors have tried to show a comparative descriptive analysis of the hemophilus influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia with rota virus, so that in near future Government of India can also consider their inclusion in the national UIP. In India, 39.2% of all diarrheal death are due to rota virus, whereas 0.72 million deaths are due to hemophilus influenza B and 1.3 million are due to pneumococcal pneumonia in <5 years age-group. India's indigenous developed rota viral vaccine's (Rotavac) efficacy is 56% in 1st year compared to H influenza B (Hib) efficacy 95% and PCV13 vaccine “3 + 1” dose efficacy 100% (South Africa). Rotarix incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is US $21.4 to US $34 per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) compared to Hib US $ 819 per DALYs in India. In case of pneumococcal vaccine, India needs more trails on the serotype specificity, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness but there is enough evidence that hemophilus influenza burden is high in India and the present Hib vaccine is safe and highly effective. In future with the help of donor agencies, India should include the hemophilus influenza B and pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine in national UIP which will save millions of poor children's life.

  20. Two new species of Pleciobates (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha: Gerridae) from India, with a key to the species of Pleciobates.

    PubMed

    Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash; Zettel, Herbert; Basu, Srimoyee; Barman, Bijita; Gupta, Susmita; Subramanian, K A

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of water striders in the genus Pleciobates are described from India and compared with allied species. Pleciobates bengalensis Jehamalar, Basu & Zettel sp. nov. is described from the Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal and Pleciobates expositus Jehamalar, Chandra & Zettel sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Gerridae) is described from the Dhubri District, Assam. A key to the species of Pleciobates and a distribution map of the species of Pleciobates from India are provided. For the first time the genitalia of Pleciobates females are described in detail. PMID:25283668

  1. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  2. Gender, Education, and Women's Power: Indian State and Civil Society Intersections in DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and Mahila Samakhya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Dutt, Shushmita

    2001-01-01

    Examines different understandings of gender equity and women's empowerment in the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) and Mahila Samakhya (Women's Empowerment). Highlights achievements of the two organizations. Concludes that social justice and educational transformation cannot proceed in India without the powerful interconnections of the…

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  4. A case for internal migration policy in India.

    PubMed

    Ram, S

    1993-01-01

    Migration helps to minimize regional, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities, and is considered to be an integral component of the development process. Migration helps to diffuse development, technology, and innovations from more developed areas or cities to rural or less developed areas. Little attention, however, has been paid to migration policy in India. Most studies on migration in India either describe the patterns of migration or analyze reasons for the moves. This paper discusses why migration takes place, what are the consequences of migration, whether India has a migration policy, whether India needs a migration policy, and what type of policy is required. The development and entrenchment of urban slums in India is related to the country's lack of migration policy. A two-pronged policy on migration is thus proposed which would ensure employment opportunities and an improved standard of living in rural areas, while taking into account the planning of cities and city surroundings. Rural areas and small towns need to be provided with more employment opportunities, financial and technological support to process raw materials, infrastructure for agricultural service centers, better education and other facilities to improve local living standards, and the diffusion of industries from big cities to district headquarters and medium-size towns. Commensurate efforts should be made in urban centers to prevent the future development of slums. PMID:12179084

  5. Analyzing deforestation rates, spatial forest cover changes and identifying critical areas of forest cover changes in North-East India during 1972-1999.

    PubMed

    Lele, Nikhil; Joshi, P K

    2009-09-01

    Deforestation is recognized as one of the most significant component in LULC and global changes scenario. It is imperative to assess its trend and the rates at which it is occurring. The changes will have long-lasting impact on regional climate and in turn on biodiversity. In North-East India, one of the recognized global biodiversity hotspots, approximately 30% of total forest cover is under pressure of rapid land use changes. This region harbors variety of rare and endemic species of flora and fauna. It also has a strong bearing on regional climatic conditions. Extensive shifting cultivation, compounded by increasing population pressure and demands for agriculture land are the prime drivers in addition to other proximate drivers of deforestation. It is therefore of prime concern to analyse forest cover changes in the region, assess rate of change and extent and to identify the areas, which show repetitive changes. We analyzed forest cover maps from six temporal datasets based on satellite data interpretation, converted to geospatial database since 1972 till 1999. The states of Meghalaya, Nagaland and Tripura show highest changes in forest cover. Arunachal Pradesh shows least dynamic areas and maintains a good forest cover owing to its topographical inaccessibility in some areas. The present study reports the forest cover changes in the region using geospatial analysis and analyse them to devise proper management strategies. PMID:18677545

  6. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipankar Chakraborti; E. Jayantakumar Singh; Bhaskar Das; Babar Ali Shah; M. Amir Hossain; Bishwajit Nayak; Sad Ahamed; N. Rajmuhon Singh

    2008-01-01

    Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely\\u000a affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59%\\u000a of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples

  7. Viral hepatitis in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

    2006-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies. PMID:17100109

  8. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

  9. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  10. Assessing Agricultural Vulnerability in India using NDVI Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushalya, R.; Praveen Kumar, V.; Shubhasmita, S.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of climate change on Indian rainfed agriculture was assessed using temporal NDVI data products from AVHRR and MODIS. Agricultural vulnerability was analysed using CV of Max NDVI from NOAA-AVHRR (15-day, 8 km) and MODIS-TERRA (16-day, 250 m) NDVI data products from 1982-2012. AVHRR dataset was found suitable for estimating regional vulnerability at state and agro-eco-sub-region (AESR) level while MODIS dataset was suitable for drawing district-level strategy for adaptation and mitigation. Methodology was developed to analyse NDVI variations with spatial pattern of rainfall using 10 X 10 girded data and spatially interpolating it to estimate Standard Precipitation Index. Study indicated large variations in vegetation dynamics across India owing to bio-climate and natural resource base. IPCC framework of vulnerability and exposure was used to identify vulnerable region extending from arid western India to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions in central India and southern peninsula. This is a major agricultural region in the country with sizable human and livestock population with millions of marginal and small farm holdings. Exposure to climatic variability at local and regional levels have national implications and study indicated that over 122 districts extending over 110 mha was vulnerable to climate change that spread across 26 typical AESR in 11 states in India. Of the 74 mha under agriculture in the region, MODIS dataset indicated 47 mha as agriculturally vulnerable while coarser resolution of AVHRR dataset indicated a conservative estimate of 29 mha. First ever estimates of agricultural vulnerability for India indicates 20.4 to 33.1 % agricultural land under risk from climate change.

  11. RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over 80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India.

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over £80 million of UK-India research with matched resources from DST India. Department of Science and Technology (DST) Department of Atomic Energy

  12. Vaccine Policy in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yennapu Madhavi

    2005-01-01

    India enjoyed early initial successes in vaccine development and indigenous production of vaccines in the public sector. But the country now faces a growing gap between the demand for and supply of essential vaccines.

  13. Arsenic in India's Groundwater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS; )

    2007-03-23

    In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

  14. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  15. Translating Terror in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Chakravartty

    2002-01-01

    India's ambiguous position in relation to U.S. hegemony is reflected in the Indian media's response to the 9-11 attacks and the U.S. bombing of Afghanistan. Historically, not only has India been one of the most vocal third world critics of U.S. economic and political influence, it has also played a strategic military and economic role among the world's democra- cies.

  16. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA ST. TAMMANY PARISH TAX COLLECTOR CIVIL for collection of sales and use taxes under Louisiana law. The parties have agreed to submit the case distribution system #12;2 that has no physical presence in Louisiana except for the use of common carriers

  17. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    , contracting, and university admission decisions, violates the United States Constitution. On December 11, 2006UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND 8, 2006 by several plaintiffs who claim that a recently-approved state constitutional amendment

  18. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

  19. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  20. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of...

  1. Spatial access to inpatient health care in northern rural India.

    PubMed

    Ranga, Vikram; Panda, Pradeep

    2014-05-01

    Access to health care in rural areas is a major concern for local populations as well as for policy makers in developing countries. This paper examines spatial access to in-patient health care in northern rural India. In order to measure spatial access, impedance-based competition using the Three-Step floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method, a modification of the simple gravity model, was used. 3SFCA was chosen for the study of the districts of Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat in the Uttar Pradesh state and Vaishali in the Bihar state, two of India's poorest states. This approach is based on discrete distance decay and also considers more parameters than other available methods, hence is believed to be a robust methodology. It was found that Vaishali district has the highest spatial access to in-patient health care followed by Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat. There is serious lack of health care, in Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat with 40% and 90% of the villages having shortage of in-patient care facilities in these respective districts. The most important factor affecting spatial access was found to be the distance to the nearest major urban agglomeration. PMID:24893032

  2. Rural Districts REAP New Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusler, Mary Conk

    2003-01-01

    Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) grants give rural districts a new source of federal funds. REAP has two separate programs that address the specific needs of rural districts. The first is the Small and Rural Schools Achievement Program; the second is the Rural and Low Income Schools Program. Explains the differences in the programs and…

  3. A Tale of Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts

  4. Congressional Districting: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Jan Witold; Cronic, Jason P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the controversies and consequences involved in drawing proper districts for federal and state representatives. Discusses the Supreme Court's role in deciding these questions. Provides definitions and related court cases concerning gerrymandering and malapportionment, the two most common abuses of the districting process. (MJP)

  5. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  6. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

  7. Pennsylvania School District Testing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blust, Ross S.; Kohr, Richard L.

    A survey to gather information concerning school district testing programs in Pennsylvania is reviewed. The information concerns the commercially produced norm referenced and criterion referenced achievement tests, as well as locally produced achievement tests used in the state's school districts. The Pennsylvania Division of Educational Testing…

  8. National Association of Conservation Districts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

  9. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination inBangladesh andWestBengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhajan K. Biswas; Tarit RoyChowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Gautam C. Basu; Chinta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Khitish C. Saha; Subhas K. Mukherjee; Sibtosh Roy; Saiful Kabir

    2000-01-01

    Ninedistricts inWestBengal, India, and42districts inBangldesh have arsenic levels inground- water above theWorldHealth Oranization mxmumpermissible limit of50pg\\/L. Thearea andpopulation ofthe42districts inBangadesh andthe9districts inWestBengal are92,106 km2and79.9 million and38,865 kI2and42.7 million, respectively. Inourpreliminar study, wehave identified 985anenic-affected villags in69police stations\\/blocks ofnine arsenic-afFect- eddistricts inWestBengl. InBa esh, wehave identified 492affected villages in141police stations\\/blocks of42affected districts. Todate, wehave collected 10,991 water smples from 42 arsenic-affected

  10. INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhandapani Alagiri

    2007-01-01

    Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

  11. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shalu; Saxena, Sunita; Kumar, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time. PMID:25606442

  12. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Saxena, Sunita; Kumar, Anup

    2014-12-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time. PMID:25606442

  13. Pharmacy Education in India

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes. PMID:20585429

  14. Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Uchino; T. Roychowdhury; M. Ando; H. Tokunaga

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal—India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tubewell water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by

  15. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  16. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  17. Radon level in dwellings and its correlation with uranium and radium content in some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surinder Singh; Ajay Kumar; Baldev Singh

    2002-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detectors have been used to measure indoor radon level in some dwellings of Una district, Himachal Pradesh, India. The annual average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the range of the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radon values in some of the dwellings exceed the action

  18. Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Jambulingam; K Gunasekaran; SS Sahu; T Vijayakumar

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population

  19. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  20. Ethnobiology of the Nilgiri hills, India.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Sethuraman, M; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2002-03-01

    The Nilgiri is a popular massif towering high in the Western Ghats in South India with an altitude of 2623 m. Nature has been magnanimous in bestowing Nilgiri district with rich evergreen temperate to tropical forests. A high degree of biodiversity, marked by varied flora and fauna of good therapeutic potential as well as the varied number of indigenous groups of people in this area, makes it very popular among herbalists. The district has six anthropologically well defined ethnic groups namely Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyas and Kattunayakas living here possibly since 1200 B.C. The present review highlights the ethnobiological profile of six indigenous populations and their dependence on ambient flora and fauna for traditional health care needs. It has been observed that about 2700 therapeutically potent plant species are available in this hill station of which almost all have come from local medicine. Some have been explored scientifically. However, about 150 plant species are still to be explored for their therapeutic potential. The ethnography, phytochemical and therapeutic uses as well as the anthropological perspectives of the local medicines have been discussed in this review. PMID:11933110

  1. WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis

    E-print Network

    , Mumbai, MH 400018, India In 2012, for the first time in the history of India, the country has seen's residents had to sneak out at night with plastic bags full of trash to dispose them behind bushes

  2. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  3. Climate drivers on malaria transmission in arunachal pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Chenna, Sumana; Parasaram, Vaideesh; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the years 2006 to 2012 and provides information on prevalence of malaria and its regulation with effect to various climatic factors in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T2 statistics models are adopted to understand the effect of weather variables on malaria transmission. The epidemiological study shows that the prevalence of malaria is mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. It is noted that, the intensity of malaria cases declined gradually from the year 2006 to 2012. The transmission of malaria observed was more during the rainy season, as compared to summer and winter seasons. Further, the data analysis study with Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T2 statistic has revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall are the most influencing factors for the high rate of malaria transmission in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. PMID:25803481

  4. Improving health services in India: a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves. PMID:18607033

  5. Projection of school district enrollments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dillen, S. L.; Friedman, L. D.; Cheng, W. K.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives were to provide a better statistical basis for enrollment projections, to attempt to model the school district's enrollment, and to produce a single estimate of enrollment for each grade, grade group, and ethnic group, and for the total by year. Efforts were also made to provide error estimates for the projections, to design a simple, user-oriented computer program for use by school district administrators, and to work with real data from local school districts and aid them in making projections on an experimental basis. The study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory was concerned with projection methodology and production of a generally usable computer program.

  6. Administrative issues involved in disaster management in India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdish

    2006-12-01

    India as a country is vulnerable to a number of disasters, from earthquakes to floods. Poor and weaker members of the society have always been more vulnerable to various types of disasters. Disasters result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality amongst the affected population. Damage to infrastructure and reduction in revenues from the affected region due to low yield add to the economic losses. Poor co-ordination at the local level, lack of early-warning systems, often very slow responses, paucity of trained dedicated clinicians, lack of search and rescue facilities and poor community empowerment are some of the factors, which have been contributing to poor response following disasters in the past. The first formal step towards development of policies relating to disaster care in India was the formulation of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) which was formulated initially by the Government of India for managing natural disasters only. However, this was subsequently amended to include man-made disasters as well. It sets the scene for formulating state and district level plans in all states to bring cohesiveness and a degree of uniform management in dealing with disasters. A National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted which aims to provide national guidelines and is headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is the highest decision-making body for the management of disasters in the country. The authority has the responsibility for co-ordinating response and post-disaster relief and rehabilitation. Each state is required to set up Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Committees for co-ordination and close supervision of activities and efforts related to the management of disasters. PMID:17162696

  7. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  8. PV opportunities in India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today{close_quote}s opportunities timely indeed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  10. Archaeological Survey of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees Indiaâ??s ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring Indiaâ??s methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

  11. Testing and Assessment in Illinois School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, John Q.

    A survey of school districts across the state of Illinois in 1999 focused on three dimensions of local assessment practices: (1) why districts give tests; (2) the tests they give; and (3) what they do with test results. Telephone interviews were conducted with district assessment coordinators or superintendents from 75 school districts, including…

  12. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...County. (c) Sacramento River District includes...included in the Sacramento River District, and that portion...included in the Sacramento River District. (g) Contra...Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes...San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and San...

  13. Districts That School Year-Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes four school districts that operate year-round schools: Socorro Independent School District, Texas; Valley View School District, Romeoville, Illinois; Murrieta Valley Unified School near San Diego, California; and Rock Island-Milan School District in northwestern Illinois. Briefly describes three tracks of year-round education:…

  14. Demographic study of one sedentary and two migrant populations of eastern India.

    PubMed

    Piplai, C

    1991-10-01

    Demographic data were collected from 185 sedentary Oraon of Gumla district of Bihar, 255 migrant Oraon, and 242 migrant Tamang households, covering a total population of 1009, 1414, and 1537 individuals, respectively. Both migrant groups were tea garden laborers working in the Birpara, Lankapara, and Tulsipara tea gardens in the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India. The present study reveals that the migrant Oraon possess significantly higher fertility and (infant) mortality than the sedentary Oraons even though they are a genetically similar group. The study also reveals that the two migrant groups differ with respect to both fertility and mortality even though they inhabit similar physical and sociocultural environments. PMID:1916743

  15. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E. [Swedish District Heating Association, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  16. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  18. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  19. Calendars of India

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Vinod K

    2010-01-01

    This short monograph is devoted to different historical calendars prevalent in India from ancient times. They are classified and described with astronomical and historical details. Relationship of the calendrical elements to modern astronomical terminology has been explained. A proposal is outlined for modifying the calendar for removing inconsistencies and improving its accuracy.

  20. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  1. The Hijras of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serena Nanda

    1986-01-01

    The hijra (eunuch\\/transvestite) is an institutionalized third gender role in India. Hijra are neither male nor female, but contain elements of both. A devotees of the Mother Goddess Bahuchara Mata, their sacred powers are contingent upon their asexuality. In reality, however, many hijras are prostitutes. This sexual activity undermines their culturally valued sacred role. This paper discusses religious meanings of

  2. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  3. Victoria India Doctoral Scholarships

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    and industry, and theVictorian India Doctorate Scholarships will continue to build on these links. Melbourne, offering world-class educational institutions, a temperate climate, amazing food, arts and sporting events overwhelming and I like its laidback character." Nandita Vijayakumar Current PhD student in Neuropsychology

  4. Rodent Control in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Parshad

    1999-01-01

    Eighteen species of rodents are pests in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, animal and human dwellings and rural and urban storage facilities in India. Their habitat, distribution, abundance and economic significance varies in different crops, seasons and geographical regions of the country. Of these, Bandicota bengalensis is the most predominant and widespread pest of agriculture in wet and irrigated soils and has

  5. India: Development and Participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen

    2003-01-01

    This book explores the role of public action in eliminating deprivation and expanding human freedoms in India. The analysis is based on a broad and integrated view of development, which focuses on well-being and freedom rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. The authors place human agency at the centre of stage, and stress the complementary roles of different

  6. Marine Archaeology in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

    Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

  7. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...Service [FWS-R6-R-2008-N0186; FF06R06000 134 FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

  8. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  9. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  10. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

  11. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

  12. oxytoComparison of Domiciliary and Institutional Delivery-care Practices in Rural Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharad D. Iyengar; Kirti Iyengar; Virendra Suhalka; Kumaril Agarwal

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess key practices and costs relating to home- and institutional delivery care in rural Rajasthan, India. One block from each of two sample districts was cov- ered (estimated population-279,132). Field investigators listed women who had delivered in the past three months and contacted them for structured case interview. In total, 1,947 (96%) of

  13. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shekar Reddy; Chandra Venkataraman

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996–1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998–1999). District level consumption of coal\\/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mridul Chetia; Soumya Chatterjee; Saumen Banerjee; Manash J. Nath; Lokendra Singh; Ravi B. Srivastava; Hari P. Sarma

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals\\u000a worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain,\\u000a which is formed by the Ganga–Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh\\u000a is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The

  15. Nipissing District Developmental Screen

    PubMed Central

    Limbos, Marjolaine M.; Joyce, David P.; Roberts, G. Jane

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if providing the Nipissing District Developmental Screen (NDDS) free of charge is associated with increased use of this measure and to investigate regional variations in the use of the NDDS in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of purchasing data from before the NDDS was available at no cost compared with analysis of the results of a brief questionnaire completed by those downloading the NDDS for free. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Users of the NDDS. INTERVENTION Provision of free on-line access to the NDDS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patterns of purchasing or downloading of the NDDS by FPs and health care professionals (HCPs) before and after implementation of the program. RESULTS Before the program, 91 FPs (0.9% of FPs in Ontario) purchased the NDDS, and an additional 129 FPs (1.3% of FPs in Ontario) downloaded the NDDS in the year after the start of the program. Including all other HCPs increased the estimated number of users to 504 (representing an estimated 5.0% of all FPs in Ontario). Adjusting for group practice increased the estimate to 16.5% of all FPs in Ontario who had access to the NDDS. There were no significant differences in NDDS usage by FPs between central, southwestern, and northern Ontario (P > .05). Significantly fewer FPs in eastern Ontario accessed the NDDS than FPs in other areas of the province did (P < .001). CONCLUSION Despite measures to increase usage, only a small number of FPs access the NDDS in Ontario. However, free access to the NDDS does seem to contribute to removing barriers to screening, as indicated by a 3-fold increase in the number of FPs accessing the NDDS. Further research is required to investigate the reasons for these trends so that effective methods to increase the use of developmental screening measures in clinical practice can be implemented. PMID:20154233

  16. INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION Application Instructions for

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION #12;Application Instructions for Doing Business in Emerging Markets: India this course and visiting India. 3. Complete one SUNY Academic Reference Request Forms and have the form

  17. Geographic pathology revisited: development of an atlas of cancer in India.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Ambakumar; Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Gangadharan, Paleth; Visweswara, Rudrapatna Narayanrao; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2005-09-20

    Information on 217,174 microscopically diagnosed cancers diagnosed in 2001-2002 was collected from pathology laboratories in 68 districts across India. Data collection took place primarily via the Internet. Average annual age-adjusted incidence rates for microscopically diagnosed cases (MAAR) by gender and site were calculated for each of the 593 districts in the country. The rates were compared to those from established population based cancer registries (PBCR). In 82 districts, the MAAR for 'all cancer sites' was above a "completeness" threshold of 36.2/100,000 (based on results of a rural PBCR). The results confirmed some known features of the geography of cancer in India, and brought to light new ones. Cancers of the mouth and tongue are particularly frequent in both genders in the southern states. Very high rates of nasopharynx cancer were found in the northeastern states (Nagaland, Manipur). There was clear geographic correlation between the rates of cervical and penile cancer, and a high rate of stomach and lung cancer (in both genders) in many districts of Mizoram State. The area of high risk for gallbladder cancer seems larger than suspected previously, involving a wide band of northern India. There is a belt of high incidence of thyroid cancer in females in southwest coastal districts. Other than identifying possible existence of high-risk areas of specific cancers, our study has recognized places where PBCR could be established. The study was remarkably cost-effective and the electronic data-capture methodology provides a model for health informatics in the setting of a developing country. PMID:15849747

  18. Altruistic suicide in India.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    Altruistic suicide has a long history in India, even being noted in the Dharmashastras, an ancient religious text. In ancient India, two forms of altruistic suicide were practiced. One was Jauhar, a kind of mass suicide by women of a community when their menfolk suffered defeat in battle; the other was Sati, a suicide of a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband or after the cremation. The practice of Jauhar ended with the fall of the Muslim rule and the practice of Sati is against the law, but cases of Sati still occur. The act of Sati is now seen as suicide, not as altruistic, and there are laws against abetment and glorification. Specific ancient cases and more modern ones are presented to illustrate this type of suicide. PMID:16006390

  19. Celiac disease in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, B R

    1999-01-01

    Celiac disease is well documented especially from northern parts of India. It should be suspected in a child having chronic diarrhoea with growth failure. There are unusual manifestations like refractory anemia, rickets, recurrent abdominal pain and short stature without other gastrointestinal manifestations. Definitive diagnosis still requires undertaking multiple intestinal biopsies, before and after wheat withdrawal from the diet. Additional difficulty in diagnosing celiac in tropical countries like India includes confounding factors of malnutrition and parasitic infestations like giardia. Serological tests like antigliadin antibodies (IgG and IgA), anti-reticulin antibodies and endomysial antibodies have shown some promise in screening and definitive evaluation of the disease. Gluten free diet gives dramatic results. PMID:11132463

  20. Cotton in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Khadi; V. Santhy; M. S. Yadav

    The genus Gossypium has 50 species, of which only four are cultivated commercially. India is the only country that grows all four cultivated\\u000a species of cotton, with the majority of the cotton cultivated area being used for Gossypium hirsutum. The country has done pioneering work in developing hybrids of cotton, and presently, 73.62% of cotton cultivated area is\\u000a occupied by

  1. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  2. Review: Carbonate aquifers and future perspectives of karst hydrogeology in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Farooq Ahmad; Perrin, Jerome; Ahmed, Shakeel; Narayana, Allu China

    2014-06-01

    About 3 % of India's total land surface is occupied by carbonate rocks which are mostly karstified and constitute a significant source of groundwater. The groundwater drawn from these aquifers matches the water demand of ~35 million people living in 106 districts of the country and also the water needs of livestock, irrigation and industry. The studies on karst in India carried out so far have mostly addressed geology, hydrology and groundwater contamination. A literature survey suggests that there is a need for detailed research, applying new approaches and techniques for proper carbonate aquifer identification, characterization and management. Such specific approaches will improve modeling, exploitation and protection of karst groundwater. An overview of the research carried out on groundwater resources of karst formations in India is presented, which also throws light on the protection of karst aquifers from existing anthropogenic activities such as mining and groundwater over-exploitation.

  3. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  4. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  5. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  6. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  7. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  8. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  9. The Socioeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Participation in India's Health Insurance Scheme for the Poor.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was introduced in 2008 in India, is a social health insurance scheme that aims to improve healthcare access and provide financial risk protection to the poor. In this study, we analyse the determinants of participation and enrolment in the scheme at the level of districts. We used official data on RSBY enrolment, socioeconomic data from the District Level Household Survey 2007-2008, and additional state-level information on fiscal health, political affiliation, and quality of governance. Results from multivariate probit and OLS analyses suggest that political and institutional factors are among the strongest determinants explaining the variation in participation and enrolment in RSBY. In particular, districts in state governments that are politically affiliated with the opposition or neutral parties at the centre are more likely to participate in RSBY, and have higher levels of enrolment. Districts in states with a lower quality of governance, a pre-existing state-level health insurance scheme, or with a lower level of fiscal deficit as compared to GDP, are significantly less likely to participate, or have lower enrolment rates. Among socioeconomic factors, we find some evidence of weak or imprecise targeting. Districts with a higher share of socioeconomically backward castes are less likely to participate, and their enrolment rates are also lower. Finally, districts with more non-poor households may be more likely to participate, although with lower enrolment rates. PMID:23805211

  10. Water quality assessment of Majhiaon block of Garwa district in Jharkhand with special focus on fluoride analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirti Avishek; Gopal Pathak; M. S. Nathawat; Usha Jha; Neeta Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride in groundwater is known to contaminate the water sources globally. Jharkhand, one of the states in the eastern part\\u000a of India, is known to have excessive fluoride content in groundwater sources. The present work involves assessment of water\\u000a quality with special reference to fluoride in Majhiaon block of Garwa district in Jharkhand. Iron, nitrate and arsenic were\\u000a also tested

  11. Congressional District Visits in August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Fushcia

    2014-08-01

    In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

  12. Southwest Florida Water Management District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

  13. Cultural values and globalization: India’s dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamlesh Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The argument in this article is twofold. First, the Euro-American project of creating a world market is underpinned by its hegemonic agenda. Second, this has serious implications for the preservation of India’s composite cultural tradition and religious identities. Related to this is the commoditization of women and gender relations. The crucial relevance of grafting the ideals of western modernity for

  14. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.22 District. District means any one of...

  15. 7 CFR 959.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.17 District. District means each of the geographic divisions of...

  16. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

  17. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

  18. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

  19. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

  20. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

  1. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

  2. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

  3. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

  4. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating...Washington, Payette and Gem Counties, in Idaho. District No. 2 (Oregon Slope...Nampa, and Notus Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale,...

  5. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

  6. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

  7. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

  8. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...San Diego, and Imperial Counties of California. (2) District 2 consists of...Fresno, Madera, and Merced Counties of California. (3) District 3 consists of...

  9. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

  10. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

  11. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

  12. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

  13. 7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order...953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each...organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers...

  14. Your District Deserves an Audit Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

  15. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

  16. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

  17. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

  18. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

  19. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...District 1 shall include the counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San...Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c)...

  20. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means one of the subdivisions of the...

  1. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.6 District. District means one of the subdivisions of the...

  2. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

  3. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

  4. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

  5. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Area): Canyon County, Idaho. District No. 6 (Homedale, Marsing, Meredian, Melba, Mountain Home, Glenns Ferry and Twin Falls Area): All counties in the Idaho portion of the production area not included within Districts Nos. 1 and 5....

  6. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1?=?INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes. PMID:23936088

  7. Work force of India's scheduled caste population: a spatial perspective.

    PubMed

    Gosal, R P

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the work force of India's scheduled caste population in a spatial perspective. Findings are based upon data from detailed district-wise maps from data relating to the workers. Peninsular India has a far larger proportion of workers to the total scheduled caste population than northern India. The degree of participation of females trying to earn their living is the most crucial factor in the broad regional differentiation which is then associated with women's social status and autonomy in the society and their freedom from inhibitions to work outside of the home. These factors are deeply rooted in the histories of the two regions and their components. Demographic, economic, and political variables are intermingled with the social and cultural dimensions to impact upon the magnitude and composition of the work force. Further disparities exist within and across macro-regions at meso and micro regional levels which are connected with socioeconomic and demographic specificities of the local/regional situations. PMID:12179048

  8. Groundbreaking High-Performance Building Districts

    E-print Network

    Jordan, J.

    2014-01-01

    /Property Manager or Developer Agree to support the District performance goals through the sharing of the following information with the Dallas 2030 District Leadership Council: Building energy use, water use, and Transportation Mitigation Plan (TMP... or Developer Assessment of current building performance to 2030 District goals Anonymous benchmarking against local peer buildings Guidance for moving towards 2030 District goals Training and ongoing support through educational workshops on tools and best...

  9. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U. [Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India); Sharma, S.K. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Energy Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  10. Spatial and temporal responses of different crop?growing environments to agricultural drought: a study in Haryana state, India using NOAA AVHRR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Murthy; M. V. R. Sesha Sai; K. Chandrasekar; P. S. Roy

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal responses to agricultural drought of different districts with different crop?growing environments were assessed using National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)?derived monthly time composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of a drought year (2002) and a normal year (2004) in Haryana state, one of the most prolific agricultural states of India.

  11. Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pritha Ghosh; Mayukh Banerjee; Sujata De Chaudhuri; Rajdeep Chowdhury; Jayanta K Das; Angshuman Mukherjee; Ajoy K Sarkar; Lakshmikanta Mondal; Kalipada Baidya; Tanmoy Jyoti Sau; Apurba Banerjee; Arindam Basu; Keya Chaudhuri; Kunal Ray; Ashok K Giri

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with

  12. ENHANCED FODDER PRODUCTION WITH INNOVATIVE SUSTAINABLE INFORMAL SEED SYSTEMS FOR FOOD-FEED CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGE SEED BANKS, INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravinder Reddy Ch; Gurava Reddy K; S P Wani

    This paper describes an innovative informal institutional arrangements adapted for making rural communities seed secure in food-feed crops in Karivemula village in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Small and resource poor farmers are often at a disadvantageous position in absorbing the agricultural technology related to genetic enhancement of productive potential of agricultural crops in general and food-feed crops in

  13. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  14. Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Anna

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

  15. Vacant District Chair Positions (as of 1/28/2014)

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Bluff in Tehama County) REGION 2: SACRAMENTO & NORTH SIERRAS District 21 ­ El Dorado County District 23: NORTHERN CALIFORNIA District 10/11 ­ Siskiyou County, Humboldt & Eureka Counties District 13 ­ Modoc, Lassen, Plumas Counties District 15 ­ Yuba & Sutter Counties District 16 ­ Tri-County Area (includes Red

  16. School District Consolidation: The Benefits and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William D.; Yinger, John M.

    2010-01-01

    School district consolidation is a striking phenomenon. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, 117,108 school districts provided elementary and secondary education in 1939-1940. By 2006-2007, the number of districts had dropped to 13,862, a decline of 88 percent. The rate of consolidation has slowed in recent years, but at…

  17. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  18. The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

    Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

  19. School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovash, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

  20. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts

  1. 7 CFR 916.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...area or such other subdivision as may be prescribed pursuant to § 916.31: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Madera and Fresno. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include...

  2. Womens pay in English rural districts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Hoggart; Shen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines hourly wage payments for women who live in the rural districts of England, both in terms of variability within such districts and in terms of comparisons with non-rural districts. Drawing on the Labour Force Surveys Local Annual Database, the paper argues that, once education, industry and occupation are taken into account, there is little to distinguish wage

  3. Northside Maker District Prepared by the

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    ScoutNorth & Northside Maker District Prepared by the Carlson Ventures Enterprise Erik Greene, John · Recommendation One: ScoutNorth Filter · Recommendation Two: Northside Maker District · Conclusion #12;Executive ­ ScoutNorth Filter ­ Maker District #12;Research & Findings Overview · Target population (North

  4. California's Districts of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

  5. District Learning Tied to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

  6. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  7. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  8. Sickle Cell Disease in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. SHUKLA; B. R. SoLM; A. S. PARANDE

    1958-01-01

    countered in which only one of the parents shows the sickle cell trait. In such instances the other parent usually shows the presence of a gene respon- sibbe for some other hematobogic abnormality.8 In India the presence of sickle cell trait in different foci ( the Veddian tribes of the South,' the tribes of \\\\Vestern India,#{176} and certain labor tribes

  9. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  10. Accounting Systems for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

  11. By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District See Stream, Page 5 Dave Derrick, Research Hydraulic of the Tacony Creek in Philadelphia during a workshop July 23. (Photo by Steve Rochette) Corpsaimstorestore partnered with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Philadelphia Water Department to host a stream

  12. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  13. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  14. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  15. U.S.-India tensions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, R. [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India); Ollapally, D.

    1995-01-01

    Relations between India and the United States have improved considerably since the end of the Cold War, but they are still punctuated by controversies over nuclear nonproliferation. To a significant extent, these conflicts seem to be the result of persisting American beliefs that India is obstinate about the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, that India is vulnerable to technology-denying efforts, and that it can be equated with its neighbor, Pakistan. These perceptions take on added import because of the assumption by American policymakers that South Asia is the most most dangerous nuclear hot spot. Implicitly, India`s image also continues to be that of a revisionist state destined to be at odds with the United States, a status quo global power. These are misperceptions that deserve attention, as only four months remain for constructive dialogue before the NPT conference convenes to review the expiring 30-year-old treaty.

  16. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-01-15

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. PMID:24121564

  17. Regional Disparities in Household Consumption in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bhattacharya; B. Mahalanobis

    1967-01-01

    This paper analyses the distributions of persons by per capita household consumer expenditure on all items estimated from the 13th Round (Sept. 1957-May 1958) of the Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) separately for the rural and urban sectors of the different states of India [19]. For rural India, urban India and all-India, the disparities in consumption are analysed into between

  18. ANSAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: Gurgaon, India

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    ANSAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: Gurgaon, India About: Ansal Institute of Technology (AIT in the heart of northern India. Students can easily travel to the nearby cities of Agra (Taj Mahal), Jaipur accommodation in Gurgaon, contact: admissions@aitgurgaon.org Fun Facts about India Chess was invented in India

  19. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  20. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  1. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  2. India Habitat Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

  3. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  4. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  5. Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

  6. What Transition Means for India’s City Poor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Sharp

    2008-01-01

    The British actor Sanjeev Bhaskar has recently been revisiting his family roots in the Indian subcontinent and also noting the huge contrasts with high-rise prosperity jostling for position with urban slums. 2 Indeed, anyone who has toured India other than by insulated dashes from one five-star hotel to another in a blacked-out limousine will be troubled by the poverty. India,

  7. Central Utah Water Conservancy District

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

  8. The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India very few of those who need mental health care receive it, despite efforts of the 1982 National Mental Health Programme and its district-level component the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) to improve mental health care coverage. Aims To explore and unpack the political, cultural and other historical reasons for the DMHP’s failures and successes since 1947 (post-independence era), which may highlight issues for today’s current primary mental health care policy and programme. Methods Oral history interviews and documentary sourcing were conducted in 2010–11 with policy makers, programme managers and observers who had been active in the creation of the NMHP and DMHP. Results The results suggest that the widely held perception that the DMHP has failed is not entirely justified, insofar that major hurdles to the implementation of the plan have impacted on mental health coverage in primary care, rather than faults with the plan itself. These hurdles have been political neglect, inadequate leadership at central, state and district levels, inaccessible funding and improperly implemented delivery of services (including poor training, motivation and retention of staff) at district and community levels. Conclusion At this important juncture as the 12th Five Year Plan is in preparation, this historical paper suggests that though the model may be improved, the most important changes would be to encourage central and state governments to implement better technical support, access to funds and to rethink the programme leadership at national, state and district levels. PMID:25089154

  9. India`s energy future may see rise of nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, B. [Univ. of Caen (France)

    1996-07-01

    Plagued by technical and safety problems, India`s nuclear power industry has an uncertain future. {open_quotes}Nuclear power`s litany of problems makes it difficult to envision a vital future for India`s nuclear-power program.{close_quotes} says Basudeb Chaudhuri, an assistant professor of economics at the Technology Institute of the University of Caen in France. Though India possesses the natural resources, labor force, and industrial base to develop a viable nuclear power program, its nuclear industry produces only 2 percent of the nations`s electricity, Chanudhuri notes. Chaudhuri advocates that alternative sources of energy be added to the current mix of coal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power. He contends that nonconventional energy sources, including biomass, tidal, and wind energy, could become important ingredients in the energy mix. Because of increasing population and rapid economic development, demand for electricity in India will continue to rise, and there will be a need for nuclear in addition to other energy sources. {open_quotes}There are glimmers of hope that nuclear power can become an important part of the nation`s energy mix,{close_quotes} Chaudhuri says.

  10. Corruption in India Andrew Sanchez

    E-print Network

    to the consolidation of power. In India, public scandals of the previous twenty years, which link numerous elected politicians and even government ministers to repeated acts of parliamentary corruption, embezzlement, land

  11. Tackling antibiotic resistance in India.

    PubMed

    Wattal, Chand; Goel, Neeraj

    2014-12-01

    Infectious diseases are major causes of mortality in India. This is aggravated by the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) both in the community and in hospitals. Due to the emergence of resistance to all effective antibiotics in nosocomial pathogens, the situation calls for emergency measures to tackle AMR in India. India has huge challenges in tackling AMR, ranging from lack of surveillance mechanisms for monitoring AMR and use; effective hospital control policies; sanitation and non-human use of antimicrobial. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Govt. of India has taken initiatives to tackle AMR. Extensive guidelines have been drafted and a model worksheet has been developed as a roadmap to tackle AMR. PMID:25353717

  12. Elections in India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In the News discusses the general elections in India. The seven resources discussed offer poll results, analysis, and commentary. More than 600 million voters in the world's largest democracy went to the polls recently to choose candidates from 622 political parties. The election produced a temporarily deadlocked parliament, with the Hindu nationalist party, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and an alliance of the Congress and United Front parties hotly pursuing representatives from smaller regional parties to reach the magic number of 272 -- a majority. On March 10, President KR Narayanan formally asked the leader of the BJP, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, whether or not he is able to form the next government. It is now up to the BJP to decide whether or not it can put together a working coalition.

  13. Comets in ancient India

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  14. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  15. Soil Fertility Index, Soil Evaluation Factor, and Microbial Indices under Different Land Uses in Acidic Soil of Humid Subtropical India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; S. K. Reza; Biplab Sharma

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the impact of land use on soil fertility in an Entisol in the Jalpaiguri District of humid subtropical India. The natural forest served as a control against which changes in soil properties were compared. Soil samples were collected from four different depths (0–25, 25–50, 50–75, and 75–100 cm) of soil from four land uses

  16. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

  17. PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    18-1 PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania .........................................18-10 25. Union City Dam, PA .....................................18-11 26. Woodcock Creek Lake, PA

  18. PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    18-1 PITTSBURGH, PA DISTRICT This District comprises part of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania .........................................18-11 25. Union City Dam, PA .....................................18-12 26. Woodcock Creek Lake, PA

  19. Decadal Variation in the Rainfall Characteristics over River Basins across the Western Ghats of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, R.; Gouda, K. C.; Murthy, A.; Prabhuraj, D. K.; Laxmikantha, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rainfall over a river basin have high impact on the human life in the coastal region, in particular during monsoon season. In the present work the rainfall characteristics over Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India is studied in decadal to annual scale. The specialty of the district is, here a network of five river basins exist and all rivers flow into the Arabian Sea in the west coast of India. Being a part of the Western Ghats region all these rivers have different hydrological and geological properties. All the rivers are mainly rain fed in nature. The Significant uncertainties in annual precipitation and extreme precipitation events over the basin are due to the uncertainties in the atmospheric parameters like temperature, offshore wind, humidity etc. In this study, TRMM, GPCP and India Meteorological Department (IMD) measured rainfall data were used to analyze the decadal rainfall analysis over the basin. It is found that the overall trend of rainfall is decreasing from 1951 to 2000 where as the monsoon (June-September) rainfall seems to be normal. The extreme rainfall events seem to have increased in the recent decade compare to the earlier decades. The rainfall decreases towards East compared to the west part of the basin. The surface water potential, evapo transpiration, soil temperature, soil moisture of the basin is studied and empirical relation with the rainfall presented in this work.

  20. Got Web? Investing in a District Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

  1. Botanical evaluation of the Drenthian district

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Barkman; V. Westhoff

    1969-01-01

    The Biological Station of Wijster is situated approximately in the centre of the so-called Drenthian district, one of the 11 phytogeographical districts of the Netherlands. This district also extends into NW Germany and consists mainly of base-poor fluvioglacial and drift-sands with underlying boulder clay. The climate is boreo-atlantic, with fairly high rain-fall (about 31 inches), little sunshine, the highest summer

  2. Availability and distribution of safe abortion services in rural areas: a facility assessment study in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Ali, Sayyed; Randive, Bharat; Sabde, Yogesh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion contributes to a significant portion of maternal mortality in India. Access to safe abortion care is known to reduce maternal mortality. Availability and distribution of abortion care facilities can influence women's access to these services, especially in rural areas. Objectives To assess the availability and distribution of abortion care at facilities providing childbirth care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province of India. Design Three socio demographically heterogeneous districts of MP were selected for this study. Facilities conducting at least 10 deliveries a month were surveyed to assess availability and provision of abortion services using UN signal functions for emergency obstetric care. Geographical Information System was used for visualisation of the distribution of facilities. Results The three districts had 99 facilities that conducted >10 deliveries a month: 74 in public and 25 in private sector. Overall, 48% of facilities reported an ability to provide safe surgical abortion service. Of public centres, 32% reported the ability compared to 100% among private centres while 18% of public centres and 77% of private centres had performed an abortion in the last 3 months. The availability of abortion services was higher at higher facility levels with better equipped and skilled personnel availability, in urban areas and in private sector facilities. Conclusions Findings showed that availability of safe abortion care is limited especially in rural areas. More emphasis on providing safe abortion services, particularly at primary care level, is important to more significantly dent maternal mortality in India. PMID:25797220

  3. Maiden outbreaks of dengue virus 1 genotype III in rural central India.

    PubMed

    Barde, P V; Kori, B K; Shukla, M K; Bharti, P K; Chand, G; Kumar, G; Ukey, M J; Ali, N A; Singh, N

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is regarded as the most important arboviral disease. Although sporadic cases have been reported, serotypes responsible for outbreaks have not been identified from central India over the last 20 years. We investigated two outbreaks of febrile illness, in August and November 2012, from Korea district (Chhattisgarh) and Narsinghpur district (Madhya Pradesh), respectively. Fever and entomological surveys were conducted in the affected regions. Molecular and serological tests were conducted on collected serum samples. Dengue-specific amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. In Korea and Narsinghpur districts 37·3% and 59% of cases were positive, respectively, for dengue infection, with adults being the worst affected. RT-PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype 1 genotype III as the aetiology. Ninety-six percent of infections were primary. This is the first time that dengue virus 1 outbreaks have been documented from central India. Introduction of the virus into the population and a conducive mosquitogenic environment favouring increased vector density caused the outbreak. Timely diagnosis and strengthening vector control measures are essential to avoid future outbreaks. PMID:24667083

  4. Need for neonatal screening program in India: A national priority

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Pradhan, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    In India, out of 342 districts surveyed, 286 have been identified as endemic to iodine deficiency (ID). Research studies conducted in school age children (SAC), Adolescent girls, Pregnant Mothers (PMs) and Neonates have documented poor iodine nutritional status. As observed by total goiter rate of more than 5% and median urinary iodine concentration level of <100 ?g/l in SAC and <150 ?g/l in PMs as prescribed cutoff of World Health Organization. And higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels among neonates. ID leads to compromised mental development and hence which remain hidden and not visible to family, program managers and administrator. The present review describes the current status of ID in different parts of the country. With a view to strongly recommend the implementation of Neonatal screening program for ID so that the optimal mental development of children can be achieved. PMID:25729682

  5. Need for neonatal screening program in India: A national priority.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Neha; Pradhan, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    In India, out of 342 districts surveyed, 286 have been identified as endemic to iodine deficiency (ID). Research studies conducted in school age children (SAC), Adolescent girls, Pregnant Mothers (PMs) and Neonates have documented poor iodine nutritional status. As observed by total goiter rate of more than 5% and median urinary iodine concentration level of <100 ?g/l in SAC and <150 ?g/l in PMs as prescribed cutoff of World Health Organization. And higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels among neonates. ID leads to compromised mental development and hence which remain hidden and not visible to family, program managers and administrator. The present review describes the current status of ID in different parts of the country. With a view to strongly recommend the implementation of Neonatal screening program for ID so that the optimal mental development of children can be achieved. PMID:25729682

  6. Epidemiology of injuries in rural Wardha, central India.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Shriram V; Deshmukh, Pradeep R

    2014-10-01

    Injury is a major public health problem in India. As very few studies are available from rural areas, hence the present study was carried out to study the epidemiology of injuries in the rural areas of Maharashtra. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Primary Health Centres (PHC) of a district in Maharashtra. 4790 subjects were studied using a two stage sampling technique. During last one year, 19.0% (95% CI: 17.7%-19.9%) had at least one injury. Majority of injuries (94.0%) were unintentional while assault and suicide related injuries were 37 (4.1%) and 10 (1.1%) respectively. Age, sex, education, occupation and socio-economic status were significantly associated with injuries. PMID:25382915

  7. The Interrelationship of School District Expenditures and Student Academic Achievement in Oklahoma Public Elementary School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study. The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between school district expenditures and student academic achievement in 102 public elementary school districts in the state of Oklahoma. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationship between school district expenditures and…

  8. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

  9. One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Richard J.

    In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

  10. Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem

    E-print Network

    Ferland, Jacques A.

    Vietnam, March 2010 1 The districting problem:The districting problem: applicationsTrois--RiviRivièèresres #12;Vietnam, March 2010 2 IntroductionIntroduction The districting problem consists in partitioning a considering different criteria or constraints.criteria or constraints. #12;Vietnam, March 2010 3 Main criteria

  11. From Districts to Schools: The Distribution of Resources across Schools in Big City School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Ross; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Amor, Hella Bel Hadj

    2007-01-01

    While the distribution of resources across school districts is well studied, relatively little attention has been paid to how resources are allocated to individual schools inside those districts. This paper explores the determinants of resource allocation across schools in large districts based on factors that reflect differential school costs or…

  12. Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs’ performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds—more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

  13. Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

  14. [India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragdon, Ann E.

    This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

  15. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  16. Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India: Some reflections on the use of instructionist and learner-centred activities K. Meenakshi Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India the language and hence many Chinese students opt to pursue their higher education in India or in any other

  17. Social Sciences: TheSocial Sciences: The Missing Beacon of IndiaMissing Beacon of India

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    Social Sciences: TheSocial Sciences: The Missing Beacon of IndiaMissing Beacon of India Invites you strategy and India's Consumer Economy. She has her own consulting practice, and serves or has served on the boards of several of India's leading companies including Infosys, Bharat Petroleum, Mahindra Financial

  18. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia Douwe J. J and where India­Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or be- fore 52 Ma remains a long and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory

  19. Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural India, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors affecting it. Therefore, this study attempt to examine individual, household, and community level factors affecting neonatal mortality in rural India. Data and methods. We analysed information on 171,529 singleton live births using the data from the most recent round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007–08. Principal component analysis was used to create an asset index. Two-level logistic regression was performed to analyse the factors associated with neonatal deaths in rural India. Results. The odds of neonatal death were lower for neonates born to mothers with secondary level education (O R = 0.60, p = 0.01) compared to those born to illiterate mothers. A progressive reduction in the odds occurred as the level of fathers’ education increased. The odds of neonatal death were lower for infants born to unemployed mothers (O R = 0.89, p = 0.00) compared to those who worked as agricultural worker/farmer/laborer. The odds decreased if neonates belonged to Scheduled Tribes (O R = 0.72, p = 0.00) or ‘Others’ caste group (O R = 0.87, p = 0.04) and to the households with access to improved sanitation (O R = 0.87, p = 0.02), pucca house (O R = 0.87, p = 0.03) and electricity (O R = 0.84, p = 0.00). The odds were higher for male infants (O R = 1.21, p = 0.00) and whose mother experienced delivery complications (O R = 1.20, p = 0.00). Infants whose mothers received two tetanus toxoid injections (O R = 0.65, p = 0.00) were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Children of higher birth order were less likely to die compared to first birth order. Conclusion. Ensuring the consumption of an adequate quantity of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections by pregnant mothers, targeting vulnerable groups like young, first time and Scheduled Caste mothers, and improving overall household environment by increasing access to improved toilets, electricity, and pucca houses could also contribute to further reductions in neonatal mortality in rural India. Any public health interventions aimed at reducing neonatal death in rural India should consider these factors. PMID:23734339

  20. 20 CFR 702.272 - Informal recommendation by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...272 Informal recommendation by district director. (a) If the district director determines that the employee has been...discrimination and is able to resume his or her duties, the district director will recommend that the employer...

  1. 76 FR 2431 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...Houston District Office Advisory Committee...ACTION: Notice of open Federal advisory...Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public...The meeting is open to the public, however...Houston District Office Advisory...

  2. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

  3. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

  4. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

  5. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...established and will retain the present land management districts within the...

  6. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”....

  7. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  8. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  9. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  10. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  11. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  12. Government of India Department of Science & Technology

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Government of India Department of Science & Technology Department of Biotechnology Australian for bilateral collaboration in science Jointly managed by Australian and Indian governments Supports & Technology (DST), Government of India & Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary

  13. Ecosystem function in a Khasi village of the desertified Cherrapunji area in northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A K Gangwar; P S Ramakrishnan

    1989-01-01

    Village ecosystem function of the Khasis in Meghalaya was studied. The land has been desertified around Cherrapunji as the\\u000a traditional slash and burn agriculture (jhum) has been replaced by plantation systems. Apart from mixed plantations with areca\\u000a nut, orange, jackfruit, bay leaf, black pepper and betel leaf, broom grass, thatch grass and bamboo are also raised in the\\u000a village. All

  14. Battling the malaria iceberg with chloroquine in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod P

    2007-01-01

    The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of the Ministry of Health, Government of India is reporting about 2 million parasite positive cases each year, although case incidence is 30-fold or more under-estimated. Forty five to fifty percent of Plasmodium infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the killer parasite. Anti-malaria drug policy (2007) of the NVBDC recommends chloroquine (CQ) as the first line of drug for the treatment of all malarias. In a Primary Health Centre (PHC) reporting 10% or more cases of CQ resistance in P. falciparum, ACT blister pack is recommended and, so far, the policy has been adopted in 261 PHCs of 71 districts. The NVBDCP still depends on CQ to combat malaria and, as a result, P. falciparum has taken deep roots in malaria-endemic regions, causing unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. This policy was a subject of criticism in recent Nature and Lancet articles questioning the World Bank's decision to supply CQ to the NVBDCP. Continuation of an outdated drug in the treatment of P. falciparum is counterproductive in fighting drug resistant malaria and in the containment of P. falciparum. Switchover to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in the treatment of all P. falciparum cases, ban on artemisinin monotherapy and effective vector control (treated nets/efficient insecticide spraying) would be a rational approach to malaria control in India. PMID:17683630

  15. Tuberculosis Management Practices by Private Practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2013-01-01

    Setting Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Design Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Results Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Conclusion Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance. PMID:23967158

  16. Epidemiology of chronic fungal rhinosinusitis in rural India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Panda, Naresh; Das, Ashim; Singh, Amarjeet

    2015-05-01

    A descriptive epidemiological study of fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) was conducted in rural north India in the form of house-to-house survey of villages of two districts each of Punjab and Haryana provinces using a clinical case definition of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The suspected cases were investigated further in the laboratory to confirm FRS. Air and environment were sampled in different seasons to find Aspergillus spore count. The prevalence of chronic FRS cases was at 0.11% of the population and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant (97.6%) agent of all types of chronic FRS. The chronic FRS patients were classified as allergic FRS 41 (56.1%), chronic granulomatous FRS 13 (17.8%), eosinophilic FRS 11 (15.0%), fungal ball 7 (9.5%) and chronic invasive FRS 1 (1.3%). Aspergillus spores were present in large numbers (~20%) in air with significantly higher counts of A. flavus during winter months in the wheat-thrashing areas of Punjab as compared to Haryana (P = 0.0079). The present study identified high prevalence (27.5% of CRS cases) of chronic FRS cases in rural north India and its possible association with wheat harvesting seasons. PMID:25756934

  17. Economic and disease burden of dengue illness in India.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Adhish, S Vivek; Nandan, Deoki; Karthiga, K S; Chellaswamy, Vidya; Gaba, Mukul; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2012 India reported an annual average of 20,474 dengue cases. Although dengue has been notifiable since 1996, regional comparisons suggest that reported numbers substantially underrepresent the full impact of the disease. Adjustment for underreporting from a case study in Madurai district and an expert Delphi panel yielded an annual average of 5,778,406 clinically diagnosed dengue cases between 2006 and 2012, or 282 times the reported number per year. The total direct annual medical cost was US$548 million. Ambulatory settings treated 67% of cases representing 18% of costs, whereas 33% of cases were hospitalized, comprising 82% of costs. Eighty percent of expenditures went to private facilities. Including non-medical and indirect costs based on other dengue-endemic countries raises the economic cost to $1.11 billion, or $0.88 per capita. The economic and disease burden of dengue in India is substantially more than captured by officially reported cases, and increased control measures merit serious consideration. PMID:25294616

  18. Family planning defended [India].

    PubMed

    Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, criticized what she termed excessive propaganda on the part of certain political parties and groups against family planning, indicating that there was a tremendous need for family planning in a country with a population of 660 million. In a television interview Gandhi stressed that her government believed in persuasion and not coercion as the means of controlling population growth. A mass sterilization campaign conducted during Gandhi's previous government 3 years ago was 1 of the main factors influencing her defeat in the 1977 national elections. A national population policy setting the goals and strategy for curbing population growth is now being formulated, but the government has provided sufficient indication that there will be no return to compulsion which had marked the implementation of the family planning program during 1975-1976. Family planning is presently being pursued as a totally voluntary program and as an integral part of a comprehensive policy including education and health. The plan is to organize 50,000 camps in which 2 million persons are expected to participate. PMID:12278475

  19. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  20. Opinions about district nurses prescribing.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, S; Ek, A C; Akerlind, I

    2001-01-01

    Opinions about district nurses prescribing The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of district nurses (DNs) and general practitioners (GPs) about nurse prescribing in Sweden in order to elucidate similarities and differences, and relate different opinions to background and psychosocial working factors. In a questionnaire about psychosocial working conditions, seven statements about DNs prescribing were included. The questionnaire was sent to 554 DNs and 566 GPs with a participant rate of 83%. On all items as well as on the total score DNs rated more positively compared with GPs. Amongst the DNs a positive opinion was related to a traditional primary care organization, age < 50, good social support at work, and high workload. A positive opinion amongst GPs was associated with working in a traditional primary care organization, being male GP, and a good social support at work. In a multiple regression analysis, occupation and organization were independently associated with the total score. The result shows a strong professional solidarity amongst GPs and seems to be based on concern about the profession rather than patient care. PMID:12453174

  1. FIC_NCI_International Tobacco Training Program Brochure_ with logos_8-18-06.pub

    Cancer.gov

    Dhirendra Narain Sinha, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India Prem Mony, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India Rajesh Kumar and Sunil Sethi, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India Anna S. Kerketta, Regional Medical Reasearch Centre (ICMR), Orissa, India Prakash C. Gupta, Healis, Sekhsaria Institute of Public Health, Navi Mumbai, India F. U. Ahmed, Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Meghalaya, India L. Usha Rani, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India K. T. Shenoy, Medical College, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala, India S.

  2. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

  3. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

  4. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

  5. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

  6. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

  7. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  8. Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

  9. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

  13. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

  14. Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Myra H.; And Others

    A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

  15. Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2012-01-01

    More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

  16. A Small District's Quest for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Claudio

    In Texas, a financially troubled school district must submit a plan of action to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) for improving its financial situation without harming the quality of education delivered. If things get worse, TEA assigns a financial monitor to advise the district on overcoming its financial problems and to determine if further…

  17. Project Management in a Local School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, C. Peter

    This paper embodies three presentations given at a panel discussion on organizing, planning, and managing the local school district. The first presentation on comprehensive planning for change draws a distinction between "a priori" and "a posteriori" planning and relates these two types of planning in coping with school district problems. The next…

  18. District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

  19. > BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    > BUREAU HOME > AUSTRALIA > QUEENSLAND > FORECASTS DISTRICT FORECASTS IMPROVEMENTS FOR QUEENSLAND across Australia From October 2013, new and improved district forecasts will be introduced in Queensland Protection times FURTHER INFORMATION : www.bom.gov.au/NexGenFWS © Commonwealth of Australia, 2013 PTO> Wind

  20. California District Makes Instructional Leadership a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on Norwalk-La Mirada school district's work to transform the principals of its 29 schools into leaders of instruction, rather than managers of school buildings. Policymakers nationwide increasingly see the shift as crucial for academic achievement, but relatively few districts have taken concrete steps to help principals make…