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1

Survey of new mosquito species of Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

A study on mosquitoes in parts of Meghalaya revealed the presence of 64 species of mosquitoes under 10 genera. In monsoon (June to October) and post-monsoon (November to May) survey, 42 and 48 species of mosquitoes were detected, respectivily. Higher species diversity was found at lower elevations (up to 1050 m). Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sinensis, Aedes vexans, Ae. nigrostriatus, Ae. annandalei, Culex. fuscocephala, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. murrelli, Cx. brevipalpis, Coquillettidia novochracea, Lutzia halifaxii, Malaya genurostris, Ml. jacobsoni, Tripteroides aranoides, Toxorhynchites minimus, Uranotaenia campestris, Ur. edwardsi and Ur. testaceae which were never reported earlier from Meghalaya state were detected in the present study and the findings were discussed with previously published reports from the state. PMID:24620578

Khan, S A; Dutta, P; Borah, J; Mahanta, J

2013-03-01

2

Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya, Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Environmental status and diarrhea is regarded as a complex and multidimensional topic. Diarrhea is one of the main water-borne diseases considered to be endemic in many regions of the world and brings the major health threats to the world populations, both in tropical and subtropical poor countries. The state Meghalaya situated in the North-Eastern India is an upland landmass bound by seven districts surrounded within by different tribes. The population is predominantly rural, with 81.41% of the population belongs merely to the scheduled tribes. The state offers a wide range of disease environments, dominated by communicable diseases (35.68%), and diarrhea is one of the water-borne diseases that alter the society of the state. Various factors like poor environmental sanitation, unavailability of safe drinking water, seasonal rainfall, infected foods, infection through fomites, flies, cockroaches, etc. are the main culprit that led to the cause of diarrhea in the state. The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethnobiological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. In this review, the information regarding the traditional method of utilization of 58 plant species that are used to treat and cure diarrhea and dysentery are enlisted briefly. PMID:22279372

Laloo, Damiki; Hemalatha, Siva

2011-01-01

3

Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

2009-05-01

4

Daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons. PMID:23930347

Narzary, Pralip Kumar; Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

2013-06-01

5

Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

2014-10-01

6

Multi-loci Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Five Medicinal Plants of Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of the most dominant and morphologically cryptic endophytic fungal isolates from each of five selected medicinal plants, namely Potentilla fulgens, Osbeckia stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Camellia caduca, and Schima khasiana of the biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, were assessed with random amplification of polymorphic DNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1, small subunit rRNA and partial ?-tubulin gene fragments was also conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these isolates with fungal sequences available in Genbank, NCBI. The identity of the fungal isolates is suggested based on the molecular phylogenetic data. PMID:22783080

Bhagobaty, Ranjan Kumar; Joshi, S R

2011-06-01

7

Morphogroups and small sized tests in Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) from the Late Maastrichtian succession of Meghalaya, India as indicators of biotic response to paleoenvironmental stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous-Paleocene shelf successions of Therriaghat and Mahadeo in Meghalaya, India preserve almost the whole of the Late Maastrichtian stage, in which the warm water Tethyan planktonic foraminifera Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) occurs in the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Zone (=Zone CF4) and Pseudoguembelina palpebra Zone (=Zone CF2) as five distinct morphogroups (A-E). Morphogroups A-C commonly occur in rocks representing the transgressive regime of the R. fructicosa Zone at Therriaghat whereas that of P. palpebra Zone was conducive for morphogroup D in the deeper shelf around Therriaghat and morphogroup E in the near shore shelf around Mahadeo. The absence of P. elegans in the Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Zone (=Zone CF3) is postulated due to tectonic cause whereas its absence in the Plummeritahantkeninoides Zone (=Zone CF1) was due to regression. Analysis of growth parameters including length, width, thickness and angle of flaring of the tests of the species reveal that morphogroups B and C are generally larger in size than the other morphogroups and the test length of the Meghalaya specimens is smallest over its world occurrences. Diverse morphogroups and small tests are unique in the species of Meghalaya; however, the cause of such unusual growth is difficult to explain. Due to development close to the tectonically active Deccan volcanic Province and the Assam-Arakan and Himalayan mobile belts, the Meghalaya shelf had unusual biotic stress due to volcanic eruption, sea level fluctuations induced by plate collision and climate warming and retreat of the neo-Tethys. During the biozones CF4 and CF2 when vigorous Deccan outbursts occurred, P. elegans developed diverse morphogroups and acquired small size tests to cope with the changed environments and possibly to increase its chances of avoiding by microspherule missiles.

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay K.

2012-04-01

8

Variation in the orographic extreme rain events over the Meghalaya Hills in northeast India in the two halves of the twentieth century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily rainfall data for the twentieth century, from three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of the stability of the rain record at individual stations in northeast India. Only the coarsest possible view, i.e. comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. Using a more general approach, the number of Fourier transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the twentieth century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period. The detection of the latter periodicity indicates that the Madden-Julian oscillation plays an important role in the formation of extreme rainfall events over the Meghalaya Hills during extreme monsoon years.

Prokop, Pawe?; Walanus, Adam

2014-08-01

9

Changes in orographic extreme rain events over Meghalaya Hills in Northeast India in the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between large-scale circulation and the local topography plays a crucial role in determining the spatial distribution of rainfall over the Meghalaya Hills. The Meghalaya plateau forms the first orographic barrier for the humid southwest monsoon winds, on their way from the Bay of Bengal to the Himalayas. The annual rainfall distribution varies from 12,000 mm in Cherrapunji (1300 m a.s.l.) located at the southern edge of the plateau to 2200 mm in Shillong (1598 m a.s.l.) and only 1600 mm in Gauhati (54 m a.s.l.), located to the north in the Brahmaputra valley. The daily rainfall data for the 20th century, from these three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of stability of rain record at individual stations. Comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. The number of Fourier Transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the 20th century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of the 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period.

Prokop, Pawel; Walanus, Adam

2014-05-01

10

Ethno – veterinary Plants of Nadurbar district of Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

A survey of medicinal plants of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra, India in regard to their veterinary uses, has been done. While collecting the data, special emphasis is given to the foot and Mouth disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Maggotted Wounds, Retention of Placcenta, Timpany and Worms, which are the most common animal ailment in the district. After short listing, about 29 plant species are found to be in regular use by various tribal veterinary doctors in the district. PMID:22557165

Ramalah, P.V.; Patil, M B

2005-01-01

11

Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria are common components of phytoplankton communities in most freshwater ecosystems. Proliferations of cyanobacteria are often caused by high nutrient loading, and as such can serve as indicators of declining water quality. Massive industrialization in developing countries, like India, has polluted fresh water bodies, including wetlands. Many industries directly discard their effluents to nearby water sources without treatment. In the Sambalpur District of India effluents reach the reservoir of the worlds largest earthen dam i.e Hirakud Dam. This study examines cyanobacteria communities in the wetlands of Sambalpur District, Odisha, India, including areas subjected to industrial pollution. Result & Discussion The genera Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium were dominant genera of polluted wetlands of Sambalpur districts. A positive correlation was found between total cyanobacterial species and dissolved oxygen levels, but cyanobacterial diversity was inversely related to BOD, COD, TSS, and TDS. High dissolved oxygen content was also associated with regions of lower cyanobacteria biomass. Conclusion Cyanobacterial abundance was positively correlated to content of oxidisable organic matter, but negatively correlated to species diversity. Lower dissolved oxygen was correlated to decreased diversity and increased dominance by Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium species, observed in regions characterized by deteriorated water quality. PMID:23845058

2013-01-01

12

A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).  

PubMed

The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

2015-01-01

13

A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

Garad, Krushnadeoray U.; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.

2015-01-01

14

An electron microscopic analysis on the ultra structural abnormalities in sperm of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted lake, Umiam (Meghalaya, India).  

PubMed

The present communication reports the ultra structural abnormalities in sperm of a fish species Cyprinus carpio inhabiting a polluted lake, Umiam in North-East India. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed absence of differentiation between head and midpiece (neck) of some sperm while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed some sperm tails with highly reduced length and some sperm with folded tail. Abnormal shape of some sperm head was also revealed by Scanning electron microscopy. Detachment of membrane from some parts of the sperm head and an outward expansion of the same was observed from Transmission electron micrographs of transverse section of sperm head. The well developed mitochondria surrounding the cytoplasmic channel in the sperm tail, as observed in control were found to be drastically disorganized in fish inhabiting the polluted lake. The study suggests that the fish C. carpio inhabiting the polluted lake Umiam is under severe stress as far as its male reproductive system is concerned. The study further suggests that Electron microscopic approach is extremely important in the assessment of adverse effects of environmental pollution on fish tissue. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21509904

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, K

2011-11-01

15

Measuring Regional Backwardness: Poverty, Gender, and Children in the Districts of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines regional disparity in India from the perspective of the smallest geographical unit for which a consisent set of data is available: the district. By doing so, we are able to focus on pockets of deprivation rather than viewing deprivation as a phenomenon affecting a state or a region in its entirety: ‘forward’ states have deprived districts while

Amaresh Dubey

2007-01-01

16

Factors affecting immunization coverage levels in a district of India.  

PubMed

Immunization coverage is measured to assess the performance of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. In 1988 we conducted a coverage survey among 12-23 month-old children in the North Arcot District (population 5,007,746) in southern India. In each of the 12 towns a 30-cluster sample survey was conducted. In the 35 rural blocks with 1590 panchayats, 159 were selected systematically and all children (n = 7300) were surveyed. In the towns, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 29 to 53%, BCG from 65 to 91% and OPV and DPT third dose from just over 60% to just over 80%. In the rural areas, coverage ranged for measles vaccine from 10.8 to 19.3%, BCG 25.1-34.1%, DPT third dose 42.2-50.4% and OPV third dose 39.6-48%. In the towns, 25, 66, 67 and 59% of BCG, DPT, OPV and measles vaccines had been provided by private agencies showing that availability of vaccines throughout the week and easy access even in payment terms played an important role in achieving higher levels of coverage compared with rural areas where all vaccines are given by Government agencies, free of charge. In the rural areas, significantly large variations in coverage were seen among panchayats--large and peri-urban panchayats had significantly better coverage than small and more rural panchayats. Within any given block (the population unit consisting of 30-40 panchayats served by a Primary Health Centre), there were large variations in the levels of immunization coverage between panchayats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8144298

Balraj, V; Mukundan, S; Samuel, R; John, T J

1993-12-01

17

Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan

2011-01-01

18

Chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of the Gambhir River basin, Bharatpur District, Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine dug well samples have been collected from the Gambhir River basin in the Bharatpur District of Rajasthan State in India for hydrogeochemical study to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the water. Broadly speaking, the groundwaters have a chemical composition within the permissible limits suggested for drinking water. Nitrate is higher than the

R. Umar; A. Absar

2003-01-01

19

Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India—plants used in oral health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal

S. S. Hebbar; V. H. Harsha; V. Shripathi; G. R. Hegde

2004-01-01

20

Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l-1 has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km2 with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are

Dipankar Das; Gautam Samanta; Badal Kumar Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Partha Pratim Chowdhury; Gautam Kumar Basu; Dipankar Chakraborti

1996-01-01

21

Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

1996-03-01

22

Assessment of essential newborn care services in secondary-level facilities from two districts of India.  

PubMed

India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts-two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (> 75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (< 50%). The findings underpin the need for improving the existing ENC services by making newborn care comers functional and enhancing skills of service providers to reduce neonatal mortality rate in India. PMID:24847602

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

2014-03-01

23

Assessment of Essential Newborn Care Services in Secondary-level Facilities from Two Districts of India  

PubMed Central

India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts?two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (>75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (<50%). The findings underpin the need for improving the existing ENC services by making newborn care corners functional and enhancing skills of service providers to reduce neonatal mortality rate in India. PMID:24847602

Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L.; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S.; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

2014-01-01

24

Impact of alphacypermethrin treated bed nets on malaria in villages of Malkangiri district, Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of use of bed-nets treated with alphacypermethrin, at 20mg (ai)\\/m2, in comparison to untreated nets or no nets on malaria vectors and malaria incidence was studied in tribal villages of Malkangiri district, Orissa state, India, which are highly endemic for falciparum malaria. Treated or untreated nets were supplied to the villagers in June 1999 and the nets were

S. S Sahu; P Jambulingam; T Vijayakumar; S Subramanian; M Kalyanasundaram

2003-01-01

25

Wind energy potential assessment in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of wind energy and its characteristics at Kumta and Sirsi in Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka has been studied based on primary data collected at these sites for a period of 24 months. Wind regimes at Karwar (1952–1989), Honnavar (1939–1989) and Shirali (1974–1989) have also been analysed based on data collected from India Meteorological Department (IMD) of respective meterological

T. V. Ramachandra; D. K. Subramanian; N. V. Joshi

1997-01-01

26

Burden, pattern and outcomes of road traffic injuries in a rural district of India.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading public health problem and the understanding of RTIs in rural India is limited. The present report documents the burden, pattern, characteristics and outcomes of RTIs in a rural district of India using combined data sources: police and hospital. RTIs contributed for 38% of fatal and 39% of non-fatal injuries with an annual mortality rate of 18.1/100,000 population/year. Young males were affected most and two-wheeler users and pedestrians were involved in 45% and 20% of fatal crashes, respectively. Nearly half (51%) of fatal RTIs occurred on national highways of the district; 46% died immediately at the site. Among those hospitalised, 20% were under the influence of alcohol while use of helmets and seat belts was <5%. Trauma care was deficient in the district leading to greater number of referrals. Road safety should be given high importance in rural India with a focus on safe roads, safe vehicles and safe people along with trauma care. PMID:25109622

Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Rao, Girish N; Jayaram, Ashok N; Panduranganath, Venkatesh

2014-08-11

27

Perinatal mortality in a rural district of south India.  

PubMed

Perinatal mortality is one of the most sensitive indices of maternal and child health. The perinatal mortality rate is an indicator of the extent of pregnancy wastage as well as of the quality and quantity of health care available to the mother and the newborn. A community based prospective study carried out on 13,214 births in South Kanara district between Oct. 1991-Sept. 1992 revealed a perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) of 44.65/1000 births. Among the various factors influencing perinatal mortality, breech deliveries and babies of multiple pregnancies had a very high perinatal mortality rate of 180.81/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 4.90) and 128/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 2.64). The previous bad obstetric history of the mother, parity and sex of the newborn were among the other important factors influencing the PNMR. PMID:10773926

Chandrashekar, S; Rao, R S; Chakladar, B K; Krishnan, L; Nair, N S

1998-01-01

28

Geochemical and statistical evaluation of groundwater in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify the hydrogeochemical process controlling the quality of groundwater, an extensive study was carried out in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India. The objectives of the studies were to delineate the spatial and temporal variability in groundwater quality and understand its suitability for human uses. In the study area groundwater samples from 45 location have been collected during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for the major ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, F-, Fe and silica. The water quality of both districts was good for domestic and agricultural uses except for few samples. These saline samples were localized and were due to the inherent lithology of the study area. Three major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO3 type, mixed Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types in Imphal district and Ca-HCO3, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl type in Thoubal district) were identified. The mineral stability diagrams indicated that the groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite whereas Gibbs plot showed that the chemical composition of ground water in both districts is controlled by the natural weathering processes irrespective of seasons. Among the chemical weathering processes, silicate weathering was dominant. The results were supported by Wilcox plot and USSL diagrams. The study reflected the overall suitability of groundwater for anthropogenic use.

Oinam, Jayalakshmi Devi; Ramanathan, AL.; Singh, Gurmeet

2012-04-01

29

Matching services with local preferences: managing primary education services in a rural district of India.  

PubMed

India's poorest households have particularly little access to education. Urgent reforms are therefore needed to improve the universal availability of quality basic services and universal access to those services. At least 32 million children in India are estimated to not be enrolled and attending school. These children must be brought into schools in order to meet the goal of Universal Elementary Education (UEE). Widespread support exists for the decentralization of public services due to the equity and efficiency benefits associated with it. In particular, decentralization is seen to facilitate the matching of services with local preferences, increasing the chances of meeting policy goals. This approach is explored in the context of research conducted in a village of Raichur district, where poor households' preferences with regard to school timing are analyzed. Sections consider the equity and efficiency merits of decentralization, the agenda for improving education service delivery in India, users' relationship to the education system in Raichur district, how preferences are revealed, whose preferences are important in the conflict between local and policy perspectives, preference heterogeneity in the village context, and whether aspects of education services can be selectively decentralized. PMID:12349044

Subrahmanian, R

1999-02-01

30

Prevalence of Goitre in School Children of Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Iodine is an essential micronutrient. A daily consumption of 100-150 micrograms of iodine is recommended for normal human growth and development. Rationale: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) can be easily prevented. Simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is consumption of iodated salt. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of Goitre among school children in Chamarajanagar district, India, and to estimate iodine in salt samples. Methodology: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years using PPS systematic sampling method. A total of 3757 children were selected for the study. Clinical examination of the thyroid was done and salt samples were collected for Iodine estimation. Data was analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The overall prevalence of Goitre was found to be 7.74% in Chamarajanagar district, India. It was higher in female children compared to male children. The difference was more evident in Grade II cases where 64.47% cases were females and 35.53% cases were males and it showed an increasing trend with age (Class1-4.8%, Class 6-10.9%, Class 7–17.6%). Conclusion: It was observed that IDD is endemic in the district with a prevalence of 7.74% among children of 6-12 years. Analysis of salt samples suggested that 28.42% samples had Iodine less than 15ppm. PMID:24551643

Zama, Syed Yunus; Ahmed, Mansoor; N., Vadiraja

2013-01-01

31

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Surveillance, Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

In India, quality surveillance for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), including laboratory testing, is necessary for understanding the epidemiology and etiology of AES, planning interventions, and developing policy. We reviewed AES surveillance data for January 2011–June 2012 from Kushinagar District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were cleaned, incidence was determined, and demographic characteristics of cases and data quality were analyzed. A total of 812 AES case records were identified, of which 23% had illogical entries. AES incidence was highest among boys <6 years of age, and cases peaked during monsoon season. Records for laboratory results (available for Japanese encephalitis but not AES) and vaccination history were largely incomplete, so inferences about the epidemiology and etiology of AES could not be made. The low-quality AES/Japanese encephalitis surveillance data in this area provide little evidence to support development of prevention and control measures, estimate the effect of interventions, and avoid the waste of public health resources. PMID:23965505

Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Dhole, Tapan N.; Hossain, Shaikh Shah; Krishnan, Sampath K.

2013-01-01

32

Urinary iodine concentrations in the high background radiation areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

We screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in high background radiation areas of the Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu, India. We collected 331 urine samples from three villages in the district: Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar. The median UI concentrations were 257, 262, and 454 microg/L in Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar, respectively. Only 27 samples showed mild or moderate iodine deficiency (<100 microg/L) and none showed severe deficiency (<20 microg/L). These findings indicate that iodine supplementation in the villages is sufficient, probably as a result of appropriate fortification of iodized salt in the region. Further screening, including morphological and functional analysis of the thyroid gland, will be needed to clarify the health effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure attributable to residing in a high background radiation area. PMID:19789421

Brahmanandhan, Gopalganapathi M; Hayashida, Naomi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Malathi, Jeyapandian; Khnna, David; Selvasekarapandian, Subramaniyan; Matsuda, Naoki; Takamura, Noboru

2010-01-01

33

Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas. PMID:16689985

Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

2006-01-01

34

A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

2013-01-01

35

Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. Results TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD=0.14) and 0.88 (SD=0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the ‘best practice frontier’. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD=0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD=0.16). Conclusions Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals. PMID:24067734

Jat, Tej Ram; San Sebastian, Miguel

2013-01-01

36

Major Sites of Cancer Occurrence Among Men and Women in Gandhinagar District, India  

PubMed Central

Background: This study examines major cancer sites among the population of Gandhinagar district, India during the year 2009-2011. Objective: To study leading cancer incidents and mortality and their age distribution in both sexes in Gandhinagar district. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected from various sources and entered in computer and analyzed. Quality checks were done, and duplicate cases were eliminated. For mortality data, death registration units were contacted. Results: Total 2360 incident cases (1374 males and 986 females) and 736 mortality cases (464 males and 272 females) were recorded during the year 2009-2011 in Gandhinagar district. Among males, the leadings sites were mouth, tongue, lung, esophagus, hypopharynx, and larynx, whereas in females they were breast, cervix, ovary, mouth, tongue and myeloid leukemia. Majority of cases were found in the age group of 35-64 years and the proportion in male and female in this age group was 62.51% and 71.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The study helps to understand the possible cancer patterns in Gandhinagar district. Foremost causes of cancer in leading sites in males were tobacco related, and the proportion of cancers associated with tobacco was 53% in our study. It highlights the possibility of easy and early detection of cancers, especially by oral cancer screening in the population. Further, the findings highlight the need of cancer cervix and breast screening among the women at regular intervals through camp approach in the community, as these are the most common sites (40% of female cancers).

Jivarajani, Parimal J.; Patel, Himanshu V.; Mecwan, Rupal R.; Solanki, Jayesh B.; Pandya, Vishruti B.

2015-01-01

37

Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the detailed rainfall characteristics of 3 key areas located in the eastern monsoon India: the margin of Darjeeling Himalaya, the margin of Bhutanese Himalaya and the Cherrapunji region at the southern slope of Meghalaya Upland. All these areas are sensitive to changes but differ in annual rainfall totals (2000-4000 mm, 4000-6000 m and 6000-23,000 mm respectively) and in the frequency of extreme rainfalls. Therefore the response of geomorphic processes is different, also due to various human impact. In the Darjeeling Himalaya the thresholds may be passed 2-3 times in one century and the system may return to the former equilibrium. At the margin of western Bhutanese Himalaya in 1990s, the clustering of three events caused an acceleration in the transformation and formation of a new trend of evolution, especially in the piedmont zone. In the Cherrapunji of Meghalaya region in the natural conditions the effects of dozens of extreme rainfalls every year were checked by the dense vegetation cover. After deforestation and extensive land use the fertile soil was removed and either the exposed bedrock or armoured debris top layer protect the surface against degradation and facilitate only rapid overland flow. A new "sterile" system has been formed.

Soja, Roman; Starkel, Leszek

2007-02-01

38

Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

2013-01-01

39

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

40

Quality of ground water used for irrigation in Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The ground water samples collected from different tehsils of Ujjain district were analysed in the laboratory for electrical conductivity (EC), pH, cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (CO3(2-)), HCO3-, Cl- and SO4(2-)). The water samples were categorized as per criterion developed by Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India. Out of 712 samples, 105, 144, 150, 84, 68, 111 and 50 samples belong to Ujjain, Mahidpur, Khachrod, Tarana, Barnagar, Nagda and Ghatia tehsils of the district respectively. 80% samples indicated good water quality at the district as a whole, whereas 14% were found saline (marginally saline (B1)-9%, saline (B2)-4%, high SAR saline (B3)-1%) and 6% as alkali (marginally alkali (C1)-5%, and alkali (C2)-1%) categories. In general, these waters were of Ca-Na-Mg type with the dominance of Cl followed by HCO3 and CO3 in case of good quality waters. The poor water quality belonged to categories of B1, B2, B3, C1 and C2, which were either having accumulation of salts (high EC) or high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). High significant negative correlation coefficient between pH and SO4-- was observed. The sodium (Na+) content showed significant positive correlation coefficient with EC. Similarly, HCO3- showed a significant positive correlation with RSC content. The ground water quality map of the district was generated using ERDAS-IMAGINE 8.7 Software showing different categories. PMID:19552070

Bangar, K S; Tiwari, S C; Verma, S K; Khandkar, U R

2008-07-01

41

Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.  

PubMed

Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district". PMID:25494132

Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

2014-01-01

42

Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p?district (stable malaria transmission) was strongly associated with peripheral parasitaemia (adjusted OR [aOR] 43.4; 95% CI, 5.6-335.2). Additional covariates associated with parasitaemia were moderate anaemia (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8-7.7), fever within the past week (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.6), and lack of formal education (aOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0-10.7). Similarly, analysis of DU participants revealed that moderate anaemia (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.4) and fever within the past week (aOR 5.8; 95% CI 2.4-13.9) were strongly associated with peripheral and/or placental parasitaemia. Malaria-related admissions were more frequent among pregnant women in Bastar, the district with greater malaria prevalence (51% vs. 11%, p?India. PMID:22882903

2012-01-01

43

Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

2011-08-01

44

Susceptibility status of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Kurnool and Mehboobnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

An entomological survey in Kurnool and Mahboobnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh state, India was undertaken in January, 2002 to find out vector population of Japanese Encephalitis and their susceptibility status to different insecticides. Five Culicine species viz. of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus were captured during the survey. Another suspected vectors Anopheles subpictus and An. hyrcanus were also prevalent in the study villages. The larval population showed a high degree of resistance to Fenthion and Temephos. The test mortality to DDT ranged between 75% and 90%. The mortality of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx vishnui and An. subpictus ranged from 85% to 95%. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus is susceptible to Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin. Cx. vishnui showed 80 % and 85% mortality to DDT and Malathion respectively. PMID:15562958

Sharma, R S; Sharma, S N; Kumar, Ashok

2003-06-01

45

Evaluation of Registered Visually Disabled Individuals in a District of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52%) individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42%) individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern. PMID:19876478

Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Subhalakshmi; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Bandyopadhyay, Manas; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

2008-01-01

46

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

2013-05-01

47

Dynamics of Forest Malaria Transmission in Balaghat District, Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. Findings Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend ?=? 663.55; P<0.0001). Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E) were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44%) and P. vivax (56%). Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T). An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. Conclusion These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions. PMID:24023900

Singh, Neeru; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Chand, Gyan; Mishra, Ashok K.; Shukla, Man M.; Mahulia, Man M.; Sharma, Ravendra K.

2013-01-01

48

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community. PMID:20109179

2010-01-01

49

Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p?

Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

2014-12-01

50

Prevalence of Gingivitis among Children of Urban and Rural Areas of Bhopal District, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Gingivitis is inflammation of the soft tissue without apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Redness, oedema and bleeding on probing characterize this condition. Untreated cases may lead to a more complex and destructive entity known as chronic periodontitis. Periodontitis are the main cause of tooth loss. Poor oral health has thus the potential of hampering the quality of life. So the aim of this study was to find the prevalence of gingivitis, among school-going children of urban and rural areas of Bhopal district, India. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 & 15 y old middle and high school government rural and urban school children of Bhopal district. It was conducted of a period of two months. 1100 Children were examined by using WHO (modified) oral health assessment form, Loe and Silness index was used for recording gingival status. For statistical analysis SPSS version 20 was used. The chi-square test was applied for categorical data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of gingivitis was 59% found. 584 (53.09 %) children had mild gingivitis,61(5.5%) children had moderate gingivitis. Conclusion: This indicates the need for community health activities and awareness program.

Reddy, Venugopal; Bhambal, Ajay; Agrawal, Rohit

2014-01-01

51

AM Fungal Diversity in Selected Medicinal Plants of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) with three medicinally important plants viz., Eclipta prostrata, Indigofera aspalathoides, I. tinctoria collected from three different localities of Kanyakumari District, South India was examined. The study reports the colonization percentage, diversity and species richness of different AM fungi in the rhizosphere of the three medicinal plants and discusses the impact of soil physicochemical characteristics such as soil texture, pH and available macro- and micro nutrient content on AM fungal communities. A total 21 AM fungal species were identified in field conditions of the three plants from three sites. AM fungal species richness, colorization percentage and Shannon index were found to be high in the two Indigofera sp. growing in the hilly areas of Kanyakumari District and were low in E. prostrata collected from the damp regions in the foothills of the three study sites. Five species registered 100% frequency in all the study sites of the three medicinally important plants with Glomus as the dominant genera. The study states that the mean colonization and diversity patterns were dependant on edaphic factors and type of vegetation. PMID:22754000

Sundar, S K; Palavesam, A; Parthipan, B

2011-07-01

52

Indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao District, Assam, Northeastern India  

PubMed Central

Background The present study addresses the use of zootherapy in the traditional healthcare system of the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao district, Assam, India. It sought to identify the different species used for zootherapeutic use with the detailed methods of usages to create awareness and contribute to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources. Method 15 Biate villages within the district of Dima Hasao were surveyed through semi-structured questionnaires and informal interviews. Detailed information on the uses of each animal was recorded. Species were identified using standard literature. Fidelity level (FL) was calculated to demonstrate the percentage of respondents claiming the use of a certain animal for the same major purposes. Result The study documents 34 species for the treatment of about 34 different ailments. The largest number of species reported was mammals with17 species. Maximum number of species has been reported for the treatment of diabetes and its high fidelity levels warrants in-depth studies to establish its pharmacological activity. The usages documented herein are unique to the Biate tribe. Very often, these animals are hunted and sold openly at the local markets in the lure of quick money. A 300 gm live Gekko gecko may fetch a sum of 2,50,000 Indian Rupees (INR), and smoked meat of Hoolock hoolock cost approximately 250–300 INR per kg. Animals are also hunted for its hide. The unrestricted hunting of species like Capricornis sumatraensis has almost wiped out the population within the district. Some species are also reared as pets while some are used for display as a sign of expertise in hunting. The present study has documented the usage of at least 15 animals listed in the IUCN Red List. Conclusion The study illustrates the in-depth knowledge of the Biate tribe on zootherapy. Systematic investigation to identify the active ingredient may lead to the development of new drugs, which would prompt protection of these valuable resources. PMID:23938109

2013-01-01

53

Spatiotemporal distribution of dengue vectors & identification of high risk zones in district Sonitpur, Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Dengue is an arboviral disease of public health importance in many parts of India and recently many cases have been reported from northeastern India. Aedes mosquitoes, which are the vectors of dengue, are widely prevalent in the region. A study was initiated in Sonitpur district of Assam to understand the spatiotemporal distribution and seasonal prevalence of dengue vectors and to identify the high risk zones. Methods: Ovitrap surveys were conducted in three randomly selected villages under each of the eight public health centres (PHC) in district Sonitpur of Assam, northeastern India during March 2011 - February 2012. Three risk zones (high, medium and low) were identified on the basis of per trap density of Aedes mosquitoes. Meteorological data were collected to study the temporal distribution of dengue vectors. Results: Aedes albopictus (99.3%) was the predominant dengue vector followed by Ae. aegypti (0.7%) recorded in the ovitraps. The highest vector density was observed during the post-monsoon (60.1 ± 18 per trap) while the lowest during the winter (7.6 ± 4.9 per trap) and the season-wise differences in the vector density were significant (P=0.005). Maximum temperature (correlation coefficient, r = 0.45) and minimum temperature (r = 0.408) showed the highest positive correlation with the vector density, whereas the number of rainy days showed high positive correlation (r = 0.185) than the total rainfall (r = 0.117). The high risk zone (Dekhiajuli, Behali, Bihaguri and Gohpur PHC) as indicated by the high larval densities of dengue vectors, 45.3 ± 18, 42.1 ± 22.3, 36.9 ± 29.1, 35.3 ± 22.6 per trap, respectively, was validated by dengue epidemiological data collected during 2012. Interpretation & conclusions: Yearlong monitoring of dengue vectors was done for the first time in this region. Monthly maximum temperature and the number of rainy days could be used for the prediction of larval density of Aedes mosquitoes. The identification high dengue risk zones would help in adopting targeted interventions for disease management in future. PMID:25297362

Das, Momi; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Kumar, Dharmendra; Gayan, Jyotsna; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay; Dutta, Prafulla

2014-01-01

54

Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-01-01

55

Visual Impairment among Weaving Communities in Prakasam District in South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in weaving communities in Prakasam district in South India state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods Using Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) methodology, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to select 3000 participants aged ?40 years. Visual Acuity (VA) was assessed using a tumbling E chart and ocular examinations were performed by trained Para medical ophthalmic personnel. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (VI) was defined as presenting VA <6/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 respectively. VI included blindness and moderate VI. Results 2848 of 3000 enumerated subjects (94.0%) participated. 39% were in 40–49 years age group and 11.8% were aged ?70 years, 55% were women and nearly half of them had no formal education. 400 (14%; 95% CI: 12.8–15.3) subjects had VI, including blindness in 131 (4.6%; 95% CI: 3.8–5.4) and moderate VI in 269 (9.4%; 95% CI: 8.3–10.5) individuals. On applying multiple logistic regression, VI was significantly associated with older age and no formal education. Though the odds of having VI were higher in females, it was of borderline statistical significance (p?=?0.06). Refractive error was the leading cause of all VI followed by cataract (56%). However, refractive errors were the leading cause of moderate VI (73.2%) and cataract was the leading cause of blindness (62.6%). ‘Cannot afford the cost of services’ was the leading barrier for utilization of eye care services (47%). Conclusions There is a significant burden of VI in weaving communities in Andhra Pradesh, India most of which is avoidable. With this information as baseline, services need to be streamlined to address this burden. PMID:23409090

Marmamula, Srinivas; Narsaiah, Saggam; Shekhar, Konegari; Khanna, Rohit C.

2013-01-01

56

Integrated Approach for Keshampet Watershed Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh, India - Remote Sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study area deals with the application of Remote Sensing ( RS ) and Geographical Information Systems ( GIS ) techniques of keshempet watershed for suggesting the two treatment plans namely engineering and gully control work and biotech treatment measures for water resource development and catchment area treatment with a view to control soil erosion from the watershed as well to increase the ground water recharge. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 780 8' 30" and 780 13' E longitudes and 160 20' and 160 24' N latitudes in part of Mahbubnagar district, Anhdra Pradesh, India. The present study area occupies an area of 2870 ha. The satellite data used is IRS 1C PAN and LISS IV merged data, dated March 1997 and April 1997. GIS software used are ARC / INFO and ARCView. Land Use / Land Cover map , Hydrogeomorphology map and soil maps are prepared by interpreting the imagery visually and through intensive ground truth. The other relevant maps namely slope, drainage maps are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India toposheets. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land resources and their spatial distribution to assess the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop an action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams (14), mini percolation tanks ( 7 ), farm tanks ( 4 ), desiltation tanks ( 13 ) are proposed for the treatment plans. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic condition of the study area. In this research paper, a number of thematic layers and relevant data are presented.

Sankar, S.

2001-12-01

57

Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: A vast majority of Indian population are engaged in agriculture. While pesticides help in increasing crop production, inappropriate pesticide storage practice and inadequate protective measures frequently causes accidental poisoning among farmers. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the pattern of pesticide use among farmers in a district of India with an attempt to identify the lacunae in their knowledge and awareness level on risks and hazards of pesticides use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, to address the study objective. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistical methods: Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Results: In the present study alpha-cypermethrin (46%) was the most commonly used pesticide followed by methyl parathion (25.6%), imidacloprid (16.4%), dichlorvos (7.8%) and phorate (4.2%). The farmers used to store pesticides mostly in cowshed (48.4%) followed by storeroom (29.6%). During spraying of pesticides, farmers experienced headache (29.8%) followed by nausea (26%), burning sensation in eyes (9.8%), cough (9.2%), muscle cramps (2%). Regarding the personal protective measures taken by the farmers for spraying, covering nose, mouth with cloth combined with bath after spraying was the most common practice (27%). When asked about suggested actions to be taken if anybody becomes sick following exposure to pesticides, 86% of farmers prefer consulting a doctor. Conclusion: The study suggested that farmers of Burdwan were exposed to highly hazardous, restricted and banned pesticides, with insufficient protection. In this situation, educational and training interventions on pesticide handling and safety precautions are urgently needed. PMID:25097405

Banerjee, Indranil; Tripathi, S. K.; Roy, A. Sinha; Sengupta, Parama

2014-01-01

58

Geochemistry and mobilization of arsenic in Shuklaganj area of Kanpur-Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj area located on the banks of the Ganges Delta of Kanpur-Unnao district were elucidated. Samples (n?=?59) were collected from both India Mark II hand pumps (depth, 30-33 m) and domestic hand pump tube wells (10-12 m) located within 5 km from the banks of Ganges. Samples were analyzed for various parameters, including total inorganic As, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, ammonia, and iron. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater aquifer was studied through the trilinear plots between monovalent and divalent cations and anions. In Indian mark II hand pumps, arsenic concentration ranged from below detection limit to 448 ?g/L. Most of the samples contained both As(III) and As(V). The pH of the samples ranged from 7.1 to 8.2. Except for a few, most of the samples were reducing in nature as evident by their negative oxidation reduction potentials. A positive correlation for arsenic with iron, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon shows the probability of biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide processes to leach As in aquifers. For confirmation of the suggested arsenic mobilization mechanism, the presence and absence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducing bacteria were also tested. PMID:21912870

Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Yunus, M; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini

2012-08-01

59

Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India  

SciTech Connect

Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

2007-06-01

60

Assessment of Internalized Stigma Among Patients With Mental Disorders in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

This study aims to compare the prevalence of high internalized stigma of mental illness among patients attending community-based and psychiatric hospital-based care in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India and to examine the factors associated with high internalized stigma. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 290 patients, mean age 45 years, 38.2% and 61.8% female. A Malayalam version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness inventory was used for assessing internalized stigma. A multistage random sampling method was adopted. The prevalence of high internalized stigma was higher among patients from community-based care (44.7%) as compared with those from psychiatric hospital-based care (34.1%). Apart from treatment in community-based care, age ?45 years, unemployment, absence of long-term friendships, no hope of cure with medication, presence of other illnesses, and substance use were significantly associated with high internalized stigma. More than one third of the subjects had high internalized stigma. PMID:25122552

James, Tintu T; Kutty, V Raman

2014-08-13

61

Variations of soil radon concentrations along Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India.  

PubMed

The present study concerns measurements of radon emissions from soil carried out during March to July 2013 at Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. In this study, continuous radon monitoring in soil was done by using LR-115 type II nuclear track detector (Kodak-Pathe, France make), and the exposed films were replaced weekly. A negative correlation coefficient (-0.47) between radon concentration and barometric pressure was found during the investigation period. The average radon concentration was observed to be 1785.71 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 633.07 Bq m(-3). The maximum and minimum values of radon concentration during this period were found to be 3693.88 and 904.76 Bq m(-3), respectively. An anomalous increase in radon concentration was observed on 112th day (i.e. on 14 June 2013) during the investigation period just 1 d prior to the event of M 3.5, which occurred within 120-km distance from the monitoring site. PMID:24996920

Singh, Sanjay; Prasad Jaishi, Hari; Prasad Tiwari, Raghavendra; Chandra Tiwari, Ramesh

2014-11-01

62

Growth profile of Baiga children--a primitive tribe of District Dindori of Madhya Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The present study has been carried out on 795 Baiga children (453 males and 342 females) of Baiga-chak area of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh (MP) varying between 1-18 years of age with an aim to understand their growth profile using cross sectional design. Fourteen body measurements (weight, height, sitting height, lengths, breadths, circumferences and skin folds) were studied. Four indices namely Sitting height/Leg length, Bicristal breadth/Biacro-mial breadth, Head circumference/Chest circumference & Cephalic index were computed to study the proportionate body changes. All body measurements except for skin folds increased progressively in each age group showing insignificant difference between boys and girls in most of age groups with no evident peak velocity during pubertal age in both sexes. However skin folds showed inconsistent pattern with each successive age. The present children were slightly heavier and taller than tribal children of other areas but lighter and shorter than Bharia children. However, these children were comparable with all India rural children but found below 10th percentile when compared with National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The absence of peak velocity and poor growth in studied children may be due to low intensity of growth rate. Proportionate changes observed in the present study were similar to Indian Punjabi girls. PMID:23213954

Qamra, Suneel; Shrivastava, Praval; Roy, Jyotirmoy

2012-09-01

63

Natural radionuclides in ceramic building materials available in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The activity concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and they should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus, studies have been planned to obtain the radioactivity of ceramic building materials used in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. The radioactivity of some ceramic materials used in this region has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyzer. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected ceramic building materials, were in the range of 9.89-30.75, 24.68-70.4, 117.19-415.83 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and annual effective dose rate associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazards of the natural radioactivity in the ceramic building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value. PMID:23567197

Rajamannan, B; Viruthagiri, G; Suresh Jawahar, K

2013-10-01

64

Hydrochemical characteristics of coastal aquifers of Kadaladi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Kadaladi block of Ramanathapuram District, Tamilnadu, India were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrochemistry. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4, PO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and Cl > HCO3 > SO4 > NO3 > PO4. Na-Cl is the dominant hydrochemical facies of the study area. Interpretation of the hydrochemical data suggests that hydrochemistry of the study area is controlled by mixing of fresh water with relict saline water, ion-exchange processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. Above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone. Good quality groundwater is restricted to coastal sand dunes running parallel to the coast and it is important to conserve these dunes.

Sivasubramanian, P.; Balasubramanian, N.; Soundranayagam, John Prince; Chandrasekar, N.

2013-09-01

65

Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 ?g/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (?-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this intersection over granitic rock. The source of As affecting the Rajnandgaon district is located in granites that have pegmatitic intrusions likely generated by hydrothermal activity.

Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

2010-12-01

66

An investigation of maternal deaths following public protests in a tribal district of Madhya Pradesh, central India.  

PubMed

Since 2005, the Government of India has initiated several interventions to address the issue of maternal mortality, including efforts to improve maternity services and train community health workers, and to give cash incentives to poor women if they deliver in a health facility. Following local protests against a high number of maternal deaths in 2010 in Barwani district in Madhya Pradesh, central India, we undertook a fact-finding visit in January 2011 to investigate the 27 maternal deaths reported in the district from April to November 2010. We found an absence of antenatal care despite high levels of anaemia, absence of skilled birth attendants, failure to carry out emergency obstetric care in obvious cases of need, and referrals that never resulted in treatment. We present two case histories as examples. We took our findings to district and state health officials and called for proven means of preventing maternal deaths to be implemented. We question the policy of giving cash to pregnant women to deliver in poor quality facilities without first ensuring quality of care and strengthening the facilities to cope with the increased patient loads. We documented lack of accountability, discrimination against and negligence of poor women, particularly tribal women, and a close link between poverty and maternal death. PMID:22789078

Sri B, Subha; Sarojini, N; Khanna, Renu

2012-06-01

67

A Qualitative Study on Working Experience of Rural Doctors in Malappuram District of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Improving the working conditions of rural doctors is an important issue to increase the quality of health services to target groups. Objectives: To assess the working experience of rural doctors at primary health care level. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted among 30 medical officers from 21 primary health centers in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. In-depth interview was conducted, and content analysis was performed with the identification of themes based on the responses obtained. Results: There were 19 males and 11 females belonged to 25 to 55 years age group. About 70% (21) of them were graduates with MBBS qualification, and the rest were postgraduates. About 2/3rd of them (20) had experience of less than 5 years. They expressed difficulty in managing the work in stipulated time period. However, this had never affected their OP management in anyway. They told that higher authorities were supportive, but they faced some opposition from the public in implementation of national program. Few opined that the training received was grossly insufficient in running the administrative affairs of the health center. Most of them satisfied with physical infrastructure, but manpower including medical officers and supporting staff were not sufficient. Some opined that the age of retirement is too early and should be increased. They participated in Continuing Medical Education, but expressed that it's content should suit to primary health care level. Conclusion: This study highlighted their concern to patient care and time, field work, administrative work, infrastructure, professional development, and future prospects. Further large scale evaluation studies will explore the situational analysis of it. PMID:25161972

Vallikunnu, Vinod; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Harichandrakumar, K. T.

2014-01-01

68

Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.  

PubMed

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

69

Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

2014-01-01

70

Factors controlling the salinity in groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater chemistry has been studied to examine the associated hydrogeochemical processes operating for the development of salinity in the groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is underlain by charnockites and granitic gneisses associated with schists of the Precambrian Eastern Ghats. Groundwater is the main resource for irrigation besides drinking. Chemical parameters, pH, EC, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO(2-)3, HCO3-, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3-, F- and SiO2, are taken into account. Groundwater is of brackish type. Na+-Cl- facies dominates the groundwater. Examination of compositional relations and mineral saturation states shows that the ion exchange of Ca2+ for adsorbed Na+, evapotranspiration, dissolution of soil salts, dissolution of NaCl and CaSO4, and precipitation of CaCO3 are the dominant hydrogeochemical processes associated with the groundwater composition in the area. Evapotranspiration causes accumulation of salts in the soil/weathered zone. These salts reach the water table by leaching through infiltrating recharge water. A positive relation between depth to water table and TDS with season supports this inference. The effects of human activities, such as intensive and long-term irrigation, irrigation-return-flow, application of unlimited agricultural fertilizers and recycling of saline groundwater, act to further increase the salinity in the groundwater. Therefore, the groundwater quality increases towards the flow path, while the post-monsoon groundwater shows higher concentrations of TDS, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3- F- and SiO2 ions. The study could help to understand the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system for taking effective management measures to mitigate the inferior groundwater quality for sustainable development. PMID:17564797

Subba Rao, N

2008-03-01

71

Prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and severe visual impairment in a tribal district of Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background: We present the outcomes of a survey conducted in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. It was based on “Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness” methodology and conducted in 2009 in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: We examined persons of 50 years and older ages. Ophthalmic assistants noted the distant vision [best corrected vision (BCV) and as presented]. Ophthalmologist examined eyes of persons with vision less than 6/18. The principal cause of impairment in each eye and the most “preventable” or “treatable” cause were assigned. We calculated the prevalence rates of bilateral blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), and moderate visual impairment (MVI). Result: We examined 2,005/2,300 persons (response rate 87.2%). The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the BCV was 1.63% (95% CI 1.11–2.15), 5.93% (95% CI 4.96–6.90), and 14.6% (95% CI 13.2–16.1), respectively. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the presented vision was 1.87% (1.32–2.42), 6.72% (95% CI 5.70–7.74), and 19% (95% CI 17.4–20.6), respectively. Unoperated cataract was responsible for 77% of different visual disabilities. The coverage of existing cataract surgery service was 9.4%. Lack of knowledge about cataract surgery was the main cause of unoperated cataract among 41% of interviewed participants with cataract and SVI. Conclusion: Unoperated cataract was the main curable cause of visual disabilities in tribal population of India. Increasing awareness and offering cataract surgeries at affordable cost in the district would reduce visual disabilities. PMID:22279401

Dhake, Praful V.; Dole, Kuldeep; Khandekar, Rajiv; Deshpande, Madan

2011-01-01

72

Geothermal studies at Tattapani Hot Spring area, Sarguja District, Central India  

SciTech Connect

Tattapani area, Sarguja district, M.P. (Madhya Pradesh), is one of the strongest thermal manifestations in central India, comprising several hot springs (50-98/sup 0/C) in marshy land with a cumulative discharge of about 60 1/min, and hydrothermal incrustations over an area 0.10 km/sup 2/. Thermal activity is controlled by the ENE-WSW Tattapani fault and NE-SW cross faults. Tattapani fault also forms the southern boundary of the coal-bearing Gondwana basin with its Proterozoic basement comprising a sequence of gneisses, granites, pegmatites and granulites. The hot springs are of the low discharge, alkaline, Na - HCO/sub 3/ - Cl - SO/sub 4/ type with high fluoride, low HCO/sub 3/ and TDS. Gas activity is moderate. Silica deposits occur around the vents of the hot springs. The chemically computed base-temperature for these thermal waters is 155 +- 15/sup 0/C. Common hydrothermal alteration minerals are chalcedony, cryptocrystalline silica, stilbite, cristobalite, montmorillonite and pyrite with traces of clinoptilolite and platy calcite. This mineral assemblage is in equilibrium in a temperature range of 100/sup 0/C +- 10/sup 0/C, which is actually recorded in boreholes. A conductive temperature gradient of 100 +- 20/sup 0/C/km is measured in 300-350 m deep boreholes drilled in an area of 4 x 0.5 km. The average heat flow is computed to be around 290 +- 50 mW/m/sup 2/. Maximum possible heat generation due to radioactive decay around Tattapani could be in the region of 75 +- 15 mW/m/sup 2/. Saturated hot water (105-108/sup 0/C) under pressure was encountered in two boreholed, and a 5000-6000 1/min flow was more or less maintained for about 6 months in one of these holes which is being deepened after controlling the blow-out. A model is proposed for such an anomalous geothermal regime which cannot be explained by the contemporary understanding of the known magmatic history of the Indian shield.

Shanker, R.; Thussu, J.L.; Prasad, J.M.

1987-01-01

73

Spectacle compliance amongst rural secondary school children in Pune district, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Refractive errors (RE) are the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children. But benefits of visual aids, which are means for correcting RE, depend on the compliance of visual aids by end users. Aim: To study the compliance of spectacle wear among rural school children in Pune district as part of the sarva siksha abhiyan (education for all scheme) after 6 - 12 months of providing free spectacles. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional follow-up study of rural secondary school children in western India. Materials and Methods: The students were examined by a team of optometrists who collected the demographic details, observed if the child was wearing the spectacles, and performed an ocular examination. The students were asked to give reasons for non-wear in a closed-ended questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression used for data analysis. Results: Of the 2312 students who were dispensed spectacles in 2009, 1018 were re-examined in 2010. 523 students (51.4%) were female, the mean age was 12.1 years 300 (29.5%) were wearing their spectacles, 492 (68.5%) students claimed to have them at home while 211 (29.4%) reported not having them at all. Compliance of spectacle wear was positively associated to the magnitude of refractive error (P < 0.001), father's education (P = 0.016), female sex (P = 0.029) and negatively associated to the visual acuity of the better eye (P < 0.001) and area of residence (P < 0.0001). Of those that were examined and found to be myopic (N = 499), 220 (44%) wore their spectacles to examination. Factors associated with compliance to spectacle usage in the myopic population included increasing refractive error (P < 0.001), worsening visual acuity (P < 0.001), and higher academic performance (P < 0.001). The causes for not wearing spectacles were ‘lost spectacles’ 67(9.3%), ‘broken spectacles’ 125 (17.4%), ‘forgot spectacles at home’ 117 (16.3%), ‘uses spectacles sometimes’ 109 (15.2%), ‘teased about spectacles’ 142 (19.8%) and ‘do not like the spectacles’ 86 (12%). Conclusion: Spectacle compliance was poor amongst school children in rural Pune; many having significant vision loss as a result. PMID:23275214

Gogate, Parikshit; Mukhopadhyaya, Debapriya; Mahadik, Ashok; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Sane, Shrivallabh; Shinde, Amit; Holden, Brien

2013-01-01

74

How Ernakulam Became the First Fully Literate District of India = Comment l'Ernakulam devint le premier District entierement alphabete de l'Inde. Notes, Comments...No. 195.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lead Kindly Light" was an extensive campaign for the total eradication of illiteracy within 1 year in the Ernakulam District of India. A major sponsor was Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), the Science and Education Center of Kerala; responsibility for the project was later handed over to the National Literacy Mission (NLM). The project had…

Sivadas, S.

75

Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011  

PubMed Central

India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts. PMID:23382167

Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poché, David; Poché, Richard

2013-01-01

76

Disaster management strategy for mass wasting hazard prone Naitwar Bazar and surrounding areas in Upper Tons valley in Uttarkashi district, Uttaranchal (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Naitwar Bazar in the Upper Tons valley Indian Himalaya (Uttarkashi district of Uttaranchal in India) is showing signs of an impending disaster. This settlement has witnessed active mass wastage during rainy season of 2003 which has caused damage to infrastructure (crucial road link), hospital (i.e. the sole health facility) and residential cum commercial area. The active mass wastage

Aniruddha Uniyal; C. Prasad

2006-01-01

77

Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

Bhattacharjee, D. S.

2011-01-01

78

Health system preparedness for road traffic accidents in a rural district in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess the health system preparedness with regard to road traffic accidents, in terms of resources, organisational functions and geographical distribution of trauma care facilities and their proximity to accident prone areas in Alappuzha district, Kerala.MethodsThe WHO Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care was used for this descriptive operational research involving 49 hospitals in Alappuzha district. Site visits were done (Jul–Sep

B M Asheel; B Soman; V G Kuriakose; S Francis; T Mathew

2010-01-01

79

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

80

Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

Mehra, R; Badhan, K

2012-11-01

81

On the relationship between bird and woody plant species diversity in the Uttara Kannada district of south India.  

PubMed Central

Bird species richness is inversely related to woody plant species diversity and vertical stratification in the natural vegetation of Uttara Kannada, the district with the largest contiguous tract of humid tropical forest in peninsular India. This inverse relationship may be explained by the fact that although the peninsular Indian evergreen forests are rich in woody plant species when compared with the drier vegetation, they harbor an impoverished bird fauna due to their smaller overall extent and greater isolation. Much of this impoverishment is accounted for by the absence of many species of understory timaliids characteristic of the humid evergreen forests of the Eastern Himalayas and Southeast Asia. The plantations of Uttara Kannada largely derive their bird fauna from the drier vegetation and exhibit the commoner trend of a positive correlation between bird species richness and vertical stratification of the vegetation. PMID:11607298

Daniels, R J; Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M

1992-01-01

82

Office blood pressure measurement practices among community health providers (medical and paramedical) in northern district of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Appropriate blood pressure measurement techniques are the cornerstone of clinical acumen. Despite the clear guidelines on BP measurement technique, there seems to be large inter-observer variations. Aim & methods A prospective, observational study was done to assess the knowledge and to study the current practices of office BP measurement among the 400 medical and paramedical staff working in various hospitals of a northern district of India. A single observer under the supervision of investigators observed all the participants and a proforma was filled based on AHA guidelines. After observing BP measurement technique scoring was done (?8 question correct = inaccurate practices, >9 questions correct = accurate practices). Similarly, the knowledge was assessed by giving a pretested questionnaire. Results 5.85 % of the medical staff had excellent knowledge and 80% of the doctors and 62% of the paramedical staff had good knowledge about BPM. Only 1.47% (3 doctors) and 0.5% (1 nurse) had accurate practices. There was no correlation between knowledge and practices. Conclusions We conclude that the right technique and knowledge of blood pressure measurement among community health providers is inadequate and warrants further interventions to improve. PMID:25173197

Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Ralhan, Upma; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Vivudh Pratap; Takkar, Shibba; Wander, G.S.

2014-01-01

83

An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

Verma, Raj Kumar

2014-01-01

84

Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India  

PubMed Central

Background: Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim: To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects: Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ? 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion: Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness. PMID:24618491

Patil, Shailbala; Gogate, Parikshit; Vora, Siddharth; Ainapure, Sachin; Hingane, Ramkrishna N; Kulkarni, Anil N; Shammanna, B R

2014-01-01

85

Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014  

PubMed Central

We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013–April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed. PMID:25531141

Kiran, S.K.; Pasi, Achhelal; Kumar, Satish; Kasabi, Gudadappa S.; Gujjarappa, Prabhakara; Shrivastava, Aakash; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chauhan, L.S.; Laserson, Kayla F.

2015-01-01

86

Crop–weather model for turmeric yield forecasting for Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turmeric is native to India and its successful husbandry depends on the monsoon climate and the availability of irrigation. Yield forecasting in advance is required for export planning and policy decisions. A method to forecast turmeric yield from a time series of meteorological and yield data was developed and tested, using 20-year dataset of dry turmeric yield and monthly climatic

K Kandiannan; K. K Chandaragiri; N Sankaran; T. N Balasubramanian; C Kailasam

2002-01-01

87

Landslide of Rishikesh-Badrinath National Highway at Devprayag, District Tehri Garhwal, Uttaranchal (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the landslide of Rishikesh-Badrinath National Highway in Uttaranchal, India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses causes, mitigation and preventive measures in and around the township of Devprayag. Findings – Apart from the major landslide events (such as Malpa and Okhimath in 1998) most landslides go unnoticed because the losses in

Ravindra K. Pande

2006-01-01

88

Potential and Prospects of Solar Energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy can meet a large variety of the small-scale decentralized energy needs of a region. The design of solar devices depends on the global and diffuse solar radiation data. Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa.

T. V. RAMACHANDRA; D. K. SUBRAMANIAN

1997-01-01

89

Some Less Known Ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and coorg districts, Karnataka, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Present communication deals with 51 less known uses belonging to 39 medicinal plants which are being used traditionally in Karnataka, and are not well known for its said efficacies for curing respective disorders. Each use has been given under correct botanical name, family, local name, locality in particular district and finally the collection number PMID:22557008

Kshirsagar, R. D.; Singh, N. P.

2001-01-01

90

Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara

Nagireddi Srinivasa Rao

2006-01-01

91

Traditional Phytotherapy for Diarroeal Diseases in Dhenkanal district of Orissa, India  

PubMed Central

Medico- etnobotanical exploration carried out in Dhenkanal district of Orissa during 1996-98 reveal that, people use 21 plant species belonging o 20 genera and 17 families on 10 different combinations for the treatment of diarrehoeal diseases. The method of preparation of medicine and details of application care recorded. PMID:22557011

Mohant, R.B; Rout, M.K.

2001-01-01

92

Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

2008-01-01

93

A longitudinal study of malaria associated with deforestation in Sonitpur district of Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assam–Arunachal forest fringed foothill area is endemic for malaria incidence. The present study deals with the temporal analysis of malaria incidence and determines its association with deforestation in 24 villages along the Assam–Arunachal forest fringed foothill area of Sonitpur district of Assam. Malaria epidemiological survey has been carried out in the study area from the year 1994 to 2005. Remote

Manash J. Nath; Ashok Bora; P. K. Talukdar; N. G. Das; Sunil Dhiman; I. Baruah; Lokendra Singh

2012-01-01

94

A longitudinal study of malaria associated with deforestation in Sonitpur district of Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assam–Arunachal forest fringed foothill area is endemic for malaria incidence. The present study deals with the temporal analysis of malaria incidence and determines its association with deforestation in 24 villages along the Assam–Arunachal forest fringed foothill area of Sonitpur district of Assam. Malaria epidemiological survey has been carried out in the study area from the year 1994 to 2005. Remote

Manash J. Nath; Ashok Bora; P. K. Talukdar; N. G. Das; Sunil Dhiman; I. Baruah; Lokendra Singh

2011-01-01

95

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

96

Hydrogeochemical characterization of fluoride rich groundwater of Wailpalli watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater of Nalgonda district is well known for its very high fluoride content for the past five decades. Many researchers\\u000a have contributed their scientific knowledge to unravel causes for fluoride enrichment of groundwater. In the present paper,\\u000a an attempt has been made to relate the high fluoride content in the groundwater to hydrogeochemical characterization of the\\u000a water in a

A. G. S. Reddy; D. V. Reddy; P. N. Rao; K. Maruthy Prasad

2010-01-01

97

Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed Central

The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated. PMID:22556937

Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

2000-01-01

98

HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.  

PubMed Central

An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

2002-01-01

99

Status of iodine nutrition among pregnant mothers in selected districts of Uttarakhand, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Uttarakhand state is a known endemic area for iodine deficiency. Objective: The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the iodine nutritional status amongst pregnant mothers (PMs) in districts: Pauri (P), Nainital (N) and Udham Singh Nagar (USN) of Uttarakhand state. Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters from each district were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1727 PMs from P (481), N (614) and USN (632) were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each PM was conducted. Urine and salt samples were collected from a sub samples of PMs enlisted for thyroid clinical examination. Results: The total Goiter rate was found to be 24.9 (P), 20.2 (N) and 16.1 (USN)%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) levels were found to be 110 ?g/L (P), 117.5 ?g/L (N) and 124 ?g/L (USN). The percentage of PMs consuming salt with iodine content of 15 ppm and more was found to be 57.9 (P), 67.0 (N) and 50.3 (USN). Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that the PMs in all three districts had low iodine nutritional status as revealed by UIC levels of less than 150 ?g/L.

Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha; Nambiar, Vanisha S.; Khenduja, Preetika; Pande, Shubhra

2015-01-01

100

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

101

Notes on the breeding biology of the Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus was studied for three breeding seasons (1999-2002) in Etawah and Mainpuri districts, Uttar Pradesh, India. Twenty- nine pairs were differentiated over the study period in an area of 500 km2. Nests were found even in densely populated areas, frequently close to roads and habitation. Nest-building began in mid- August, immediately after

K. S. GOPI SUNDAR

102

Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

Manikandan, P. N. Arul

2008-01-01

103

Remote Sening Applications For The Management Of Water And Land Resources Of Shivannguda Watershed, Warangal District Of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing population growth has put extra pressure on land and water resources. Therefore there is an imperative need for the development and judiciary use of these resources. Accurate, timely and reliable assessment and monitoring of land and water resources and their systematic exploration and use for the sustainable development. The present study deals with the application of remote sensing of geographical information systems ( GIS ) techniques of Shivannaguda water shed for suggesting the gully control works and check dam construction with a view to control soil erosion from watershed as well as the increase the ground water recharge and identifying the ground water potential zones using remote sensing and GIS. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 160 50' 20" to 170 01' 40" latitude and 780 51' 48" to 780 57' 48" which is part of Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The satellite data used is IRS IC PAN and LISS III merged data. Thematic maps of Hydrogeomorphology, slope, drainage, transport network and village boundary are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India Toposheets and satellite data. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land and water resources and their spatial distribution to asses the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop and action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams ( 3 ) and percolation tanks ( 1 ) are recommended for increase in the ground water potential. Based on the thematic maps some suitable crops are recommended for land resources purpose. Field bunds construction sites and afforestation sites are also recommended to control the soil erosion and to increase the ground water level's. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic conditions of the study area.

Siva Sankar, A.

2002-05-01

104

Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs to be implemented to control JE transmission. PMID:25027086

Mariappan, T.; Samuel, P. Philip; Thenmozhi, V.; Paramasivan, R.; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Tyagi, B.K.

2014-01-01

105

Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

2013-01-01

106

Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

2013-01-01

107

Pesticide residues in two frog species in a paddy agroecosystem in palakkad district, kerala, India.  

PubMed

Pesticides residues were quantified in 109 frogs comprising two species (Fejervarya limnocharis and Hoplobatrachus crassus) from organic and conventional paddy farms in Kerala, India. Seven frogs from conventional but none from the organic farms revealed deformities. Levels of total Organochlorines (OCs) (33.22 ng/g) and Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate-II (26.91/42.15 ng/g) in deformed F. limnocharis and H. crassus were significantly greater than in healthy frogs. Among OCs in healthy frogs, traces of ? (gamma)-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) (2.12 ng/g) were found only in F. limnocharis from organic farm. Among Organophosphates, Phorate (1.02 ng/g) and Quinalphos (2.62 ng/g) were present in traces in deformed F. limnocharis, while Parathion ethyl (1.02 ng/g) was detected in deformed H. crassus. The data indicate that the high level of pesticides may have contributed to the deformity of frogs. Therefore, an elaborative study will be essential to conserve amphibians in India. PMID:25173364

Kittusamy, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Chandrasekar; Kandan, Nambirajan; Subramanian, Muralidharan

2014-12-01

108

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

109

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: knowledge, attitude and practices of the inhabitants of the Kani forest tribal settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for control/prevention of CL is to create awareness among the community and ensure optimal utilization of interventions. First step in this direction would be to carry out a situation analysis on prevailing knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of inhabitants. A study among 103 respondents from 10 Kani tribal settlements showed that though 39.8% of respondents recognized pictures of CL shown to them, but did not have any lay perceptions. There was absolutely no awareness on vector, transmission, risk factors and control measures. The role of sandflies in CL causation was not known to the residents and this prevented them from using any personal protection and adhering to control measures which in turn pose risk of spread of infection within settlements and to newer areas. CL has emerged as a challenging infection in this area and an urgent need for designing appropriate preventive measures and health education strategies is addressed in this article. PMID:25325998

Nandha, B; Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

2014-12-01

110

Esterase mediated resistance against synthetic pyrethroids in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.  

PubMed

Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SP), in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from thirteen districts of Punjab (India) was carried out using adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of drugs were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition) the resistance levels were categorized. Against cypermethrin RFs of 1.48-11.22 were recorded in 12 isolates whereas, one isolate was susceptible. Resistance factors against deltamethrin were 2.4-38.54 and all 13 isolates were found to be resistant. Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity (measured by the production of the metabolite naphthol) revealed a range of 3.34 ± 0.30-13.75 ± 1.33 and 1.31 ± 0.15-8.09 ± 0.68 ?mol/min/mg protein for ? and ?-esterase activity, respectively in different field isolates. Further, multiple pairwise comparisons of the mean values with susceptible strain (Tukey, P = 0.05) revealed significant elevated levels of both ?-esterase and ?-esterase in nine tick isolates resistant to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The data generated on acaricide resistant status and esterase mediated mechanism in ticks will help in formulating tick control strategy for the region. PMID:24927858

Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Rath, Shitanshu S

2014-08-29

111

Assessment of fluoride intake through food chain and mapping of endemic areas of gaya district, bihar, India.  

PubMed

Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively. PMID:25293392

Ranjan, Sumeet; Yasmin, Shahla

2015-02-01

112

Relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among adolescent National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, south India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among National Cadets Corps of Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: Demographic information like age, sex, and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures like weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference and hip circumference, and dental caries were recorded as per standard guidelines. Results: A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (P = 0.049 and 0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI, and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09, and 1.02, respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (Height, weight, and BMI) and dental caries. Conclusion: There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. PMID:23633856

Chakravarthy, Pentapati K.; Suresh, Gowtham; Chenna, Deepika; Chenna, Vijay

2013-01-01

113

Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

2014-12-01

114

Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Conservation and Management of Surface Water for Irrigation in Joganbedi Village, Khargone District, Madhya Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study aimed at developing improved methods based on remote sensing and GIS techniques to increase cultivated area under irrigation. Landuse / landcover mapping was considered as the key component to prioritize locations for constructing appropriate recharge structures. Joganbedi scheme was proposed for this study. Joganbedi is situated 13 km. from Khargone, district Khargone, Madhya Pradesh, India. Command area of the proposed scheme lies in Beda sub-basin which is a tributary of the Narmada River. This area is of hard rock terrain and is occupied by the Deccan basalt. The main objective of the study was surface water conservation and management via multi-spectral information resulting from remotely sensed data to increase irrigation. High resolution GeoEye1 stereo images were used for generation of DEM, contour, landuse/landcover mapping, lineaments and drainage mapping. DEM was used for canal alignment. and further, contours were used to determine catchment, submergence /FRL, and command areas. Landuse/landcover statistics of submergence area helped to identify different land classes within the study area. These parameters are required for scheme planning. Additionally, rainfall data, maximum drawdown level, and dam height were collected as supporting parameters. The study concludes that landuse/landcover mapping is useful in identification of surface water conservation and management plan for irrigation purpose. It also proves that implementation of Joganbedi scheme will increase the cultivated area under irrigation, facilitate the farmers for multi season cropping and help in improving their economic condition.

Singh, A. M.; Chauhan, A. S.; Aggarwal, D.

2014-11-01

115

Study of baseline Widal titres in a healthy adult population of Wayanad district, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The Widal test is still widely used in diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries. Often, specific chemotherapy is administered based on a single Widal test. Interpretation of a single Widal test, in turn, depends on the baseline agglutinin titres among the local population in that area. Hence, we aimed to find out the baseline titres in our area. A single blood sample was collected from hospital outpatients with non-infectious diseases, the patients being aged above 18 years and residing in Wayanad district continuously for at least 5 years. The test was performed according to the Widal test kit manufacturer's instructions and interpreted using standard guidelines. The baseline titre for Anti TO, TH, AH and BH agglutinins in our area was found to be 1:40, 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively. PMID:25234424

Maulingkar, Saleel V; Prakash, R; Harish, Pv; Salabha, B

2015-01-01

116

Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30?months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2014-01-01

117

Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluoride is a chemical element that has been shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body's fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth; however, low concentrations of fluoride intensify the risk of tooth decay. Fluoride can also be quite detrimental at higher concentrations at skeletal fluorosis. The Thoothukudi District is a hard rock and alluvial plain marked as one of the Fluoride-increase area in Tamilnadu due to occurrence of various rock types including fluoride-bearing minerals. The F- content of groundwater can thus originate from the dissolution of Fluoride-bearing minerals in the bed rock. Hundred representative groundwater samples from Thoothukudi District were collected during two different seasons. Samples were analysed for F-, other major cations and anions. The study area is chiefly composed of hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite, alluvio marine, fluvial marine and granite with small patches of quartzite and sandstone. Higher concentration of fluoride is observed during pre-monsoon (3.3 mg l-1) compared to the post-monsoon (2.4 mg l-1) due to the dilution effect. Spatial distribution and factor score show that higher concentrations of F- are noted in the north and central part of the study area owing to lithology. Bicarbonate is well correlated with F- which explains that both ions were derived from the weathering. While F- has a very weak correlation with pH which may be due to the increase of alkalinity resulting from the increase of carbonate and bicarbonate ions.

Singaraja, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Sarathidasan, J.

2014-09-01

118

Heavy metal accumulation by three species of mosses in Shillong, North-Eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made of the accumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, and zinc in Plagiothecium denticulatum, Bryum argenteum and Sphagnum sp. in Shillong, Meghalaya State, Northeastern India. Samples of P. denticulatum and B. argenteum were collected inside Shillong city (urban) and its immediately adjacent outskirts (suburban), while Sphagnum sp. was collected from a suburban site only. Lead and copper levels

Abhik Gupta

1995-01-01

119

Changing trends in the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in a rural district of India: Systematic observations over a decade  

PubMed Central

Context: Globally, limited data are available on changing trends of blindness from a single region. Aims: To report the changing trends in the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment (VI), and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural district of Andhra Pradesh, India, over period of one decade. Settings and Design: Rural setting; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS) method, population-based, cross-sectional survey was done in a rural district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants ?50 years of age. Further, a comparative analysis was done with participants ?50 years from the previously concluded Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) study, who belonged to the same district. Statistical Analysis: Done using 11th version of Stata. Results: Using RACSS, 2160/2300 (93.9%) participants were examined as compared with the APEDS dataset (n=521). Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness in RACSS and APEDS was 8% (95% CI, 6.9–9.1%) and 11% (95% CI, 8.3–13.7%), while that of VI was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2–15.1%) and 40.3% (95% CI, 36.1–44.5%), respectively. Cataract was the major cause of blindness in both the studies. There was a significant reduction in blindness following cataract surgery as observed through RACSS (17.3%; 95% CI, 13.5–21.8%) compared with APEDS (34%; 95% CI, 20.9–49.3%). Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness and VI in this rural district of India over a decade. PMID:22944766

Khanna, Rohit C; Marmamula, Srinivas; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Giridhar, Pyda; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Rao, Gullapalli N

2012-01-01

120

Insecticide Susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Districts in India and  

E-print Network

Objectives: To investigate the DDT and deltamethrin susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Leishmania donovani, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in two countries (India and Nepal) with different histories of insecticide exposure. Methods: Standard WHO testing procedures were applied using 4 % DDT and 0.05 % deltamethrin impregnated papers. The effect of the physiological status (fed and unfed) of females on the outcome of the bioassays was assessed and the optimal time of exposure for deltamethrin was evaluated on a colony population. Field populations from both countries were tested. Results: Fed and unfed females responded in a similar way. For exposure time on field samples 60 min was adopted for both DDT and deltamethrin. In Bihar, knockdown and mortality with DDT was respectively 20 and 43%. In Nepal almost all sand flies were killed, except at the border with Bihar (mortality 62%). With 0.05 % deltamethrin, between 96 and 100 % of the sand flies were killed in both regions. Conclusions: Based on literature and present data 4 % DDT and 0.05 % deltamethrin seem to be acceptable discriminating concentrations to separate resistant from susceptible populations. Resistance to DDT was confirmed in Bihar and in a border village of Nepal, but the sand flies were still susceptible in villages more inside Nepal where only synthetic pyrethroids are used for indoor spraying. The low effectiveness of indoor spraying with DDT in Bihar to control VL can be partially explained

Diwakar Singh Dinesh; Murari Lal Das; Albert Picado; Lalita Roy; Suman Rijal; Shri Prakash; Pradeep Das; Marleen Boelaert; Marc Coosemans

121

Malaria outbreak in a non endemic tribal block of Balasore district, Orissa, India during summer season.  

PubMed

A focal outbreak of malaria at Sialimal sub-centre of Balasore district of Orissa was reported during the month of March, 2010. Three villages of the above block were affected. Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar has conducted an entomological survey and a central clinic simultaneously, with door to door household survey to identify the fever cases. Within a span of 18 days around 172 fever cases were reported with Slide Positivity Rate (SPR) of 24.4% and Pf % of 81%. The malaria epidemiological data of the sub-centre area for last three years indicates that the area is non endemic for malaria (API was 0.81). Entomological survey revealed the presence of three known vectors of malaria i.e. Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles subpictus (local vector). Per Man Hour Density (PMHD) of these three species were 4.2, 2.8 and 10.8 respectively. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in two An. culicifacies, in one An. annularis and in one An. subpictus. Larval density of Anopheline mosquitoes per dip ranged between 12 to 20. The vectors were found to be resistant to DDT but susceptible to synthetic pyrethroid. With this finding necessary remedial measures were taken by the government to curtail the transmission. PMID:22735850

Mahapatra, N; Marai, N; Dhal, K; Nayak, R N; Panigrahi, B K; Mallick, G; Ranjit, M; Kar, S K; Kerketta, A S

2012-06-01

122

Malaria outbreak in the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojna command area in Jaisalmer district, Thar Desert, India.  

PubMed

A focal outbreak of malaria occurred in the villages situated close to the main Indira Gandhi canal near Ramgarh in Jaisalmer district, western Rajasthan. Stagnation of water over a month's period in the main canal as well as long standing rain water in the form of expansive lakes near these villages formed vast breeding grounds for the vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, along with A. stephensi already breeding in the 'tanka' and 'beri' in the epidemichit villages. Rapid mass blood surveys along with other entomological and parasitological investigations were conducted in four of the ten affected villages, viz., Seuva, Raghwa, Raimala and Sadhna. A total of 992 specimens belonging to four vector species were sampled, namely, A. stephensi (47.4%), A. culicifacies (41.0%), A. subpictus (11.2%) and A. annularis (0.4%). Epidemiologically, about one-fourth of the examined persons were positive (SPR 25.5%), although Plasmodium falciparum dominated the parasitaemia (49.5%). Available data are indicative of changed malariological scenario in the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojna command area, where epidemics are regular features every year. PMID:12170943

Tyagi, B K; Yadav, S P; Sachdev, R; Dam, P K

2001-06-01

123

Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

1988-01-01

124

A spatial analysis to study access to emergency obstetric transport services under the public private “Janani Express Yojana” program in two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background The government in Madhya Pradesh (MP), India in 2006, launched “Janani Express Yojana” (JE), a decentralized, 24X7, free emergency transport service for all pregnant women under a public-private partnership. JE supports India’s large conditional cash transfer program, the “Janani Suraksha Yojana” (JSY) in the province and transports on average 60,000 parturients to hospital every month. The model is a relatively low cost one that potentially could be adopted in other parts of India and South Asia. This paper describes the uptake, time taken and geographic equity in access to the service to transport women to a facility in two districts of MP. Methods This was a facility based cross sectional study. We interviewed parturients (n = 468) who delivered during a five day study period at facilities with >10 deliveries/month (n = 61) in two study districts. The women were asked details of transportation used to arrive at the facility, time taken and their residential addresses. These details were plotted onto a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate travelled distances and identify statistically significant clusters of mothers (hot spots) reporting delays >2 hours. Results JE vehicles were well dispersed across the districts and used by 236 (50.03%) mothers of which 111(47.03%) took >2 hours to reach a facility. Inability of JE vehicle to reach a mother in time was the main reason for delays. There was no correlation between the duration of delay and distance travelled. Maps of the travel paths and travel duration of the women are presented. The study identified hot spots of mothers with delays >2 hours and explored the possible reasons for longer delays. Conclusions The JE service was accessible in all parts of the districts. Relatively high utilization rates of JE indicate that it ably supported JSY program to draw more women for institutional deliveries. However, half of the JE users experienced long (>2 hour) delays. The delayed mothers clustered in difficult terrains of the districts. Additional support particularly for the identified hot spots, enhanced monitoring by state agencies and GIS tools can facilitate better effectiveness of the JE program. PMID:25048795

2014-01-01

125

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

126

Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.  

PubMed

The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 ?mhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+?+ NO-?-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture. PMID:20169406

Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

2011-01-01

127

India.  

PubMed

In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

1989-03-01

128

Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India  

PubMed Central

The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio ‘a’, anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C’ were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio ‘a’ were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C’ were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

2013-01-01

129

Space Based Information Support for Decentralised Planning (SIS-DP)-A case study in Balangir District,Odisha, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state government is now focusing on decentralized planning and created administrative infrastructure for Gram Panchayat (Village Community) level planning in participatory way. The people are now opening up and started taking part in planning process at grass root level. In order to involve the people and make planning exercise more effective, National Remote Sensing Centre(ISRO), Dept. of Space(DOS) have begun activities using GIS and Communication Technology(Geo-Ict). Considering the potential of Geo-Ict a project titled "Space Based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP)" was launched by NRSC/ISRO under PC-NNRMS, DOS, Govt. of India. Odisha Space Applications Centre as a partner institution, have ful-filled the commitment of generating thematic information on 1 : 10 K from High resolution satellite data (Ortho-Rectified Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV data) for the state of Odisha. Thematic information on Land use, Settlements, Infrastructure and drainage have been generated and started dissemination to the users. The attribute information available from line department have also been linked to spatial framework of the SIS-DP layers. In the present study Bolangir, a drought prone and backward district is taken up. Total 285 thematic maps have been prepared at Gram Panchayat level keeping a buffer of 1.5 km to locally adjust any discrepancies in the boundary. User workshop and awareness campaigns were conducted and feed backs have been collected on Land Utilization Types (LUT). It is felt that extension of these services to the entire State have a strong bearing on improved strategy and planning process by the State.

Kumar, P.; Dash, S. K.; Thakur, R. R.; Jonna, S.; Tripathi, S.

2014-11-01

130

What Are the Reasons for Poor Uptake of HIV Testing among Patients with TB in an Eastern India District?  

PubMed Central

Background National policy in India recommends HIV testing of all patients with TB. In West Bengal state, only 28% of patients with TB were tested for HIV between April-June, 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to understand patient, provider and health system related factors associated with low uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB. Methods We reviewed TB and HIV program records to assess the HIV testing status of patients registered for anti-TB treatment from July-September 2010 in South-24-Parganas district, West Bengal, assessed availability of HIV testing kits and interviewed a random sample of patients with TB and providers. Results Among 1633 patients with TB with unknown HIV status at the time of diagnosis, 435 (26%) were tested for HIV within the intensive phase of TB treatment. Patients diagnosed with and treated for TB at facilities with co-located HIV testing services were more likely to get tested for HIV than at facilities without [RR?=?1.27, (95% CI 1.20–3.35)]. Among 169 patients interviewed, 67 reported they were referred for HIV testing, among whom 47 were tested. During interviews, providers attributed the low proportion of patients with TB being referred and tested for HIV to inadequate knowledge among providers about the national policy, belief that patients will not test for HIV even if they are referred, shortage of HIV testing kits, and inadequate supervision by both programs. Discussion In West Bengal, poor uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB was associated with absence of HIV testing services at sites providing TB care services and to poor referral practices among providers. Comprehensive strategies to change providers’ beliefs and practices, decentralization of HIV testing to all TB care centers, and improved HIV test kit supply chain management may increase the proportion of patients with TB who are tested for HIV. PMID:23469163

Bishnu, Bipra; Bhaduri, Sudipto; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Click, Eleanor S.; Chadha, Vineet Kumar; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Gupta, Devesh; Ahmed, Quazi T.; Sarkar, Silajit; Paul, Durba; Dewan, Puneet

2013-01-01

131

Role of asymptomatic carriers and weather variables in persistent transmission of malaria in an endemic district of Assam, India  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is perennial in the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh interstate border areas in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India. A yearlong study was carried out on the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria and the role of asymptomatic malaria carriers in persistent transmission of the disease. The relationships between malaria incidence and weather parameters were also investigated. Methods Active and mass blood surveys were conducted on a monthly basis in Bengenajuli, Sapairaumari Pathar, and Nigam villages near the Assam–Arunachal Pradesh border. Epidemiological indices were estimated for malaria-positive cases. Multiple linear regression between monthly malaria incidence and monthly average temperature, and relative humidity along with monthly total rainfall was carried out. The known malaria vectors collected in CDC light traps were identified and recorded. Results Slide positivity rate (SPR) and Plasmodium falciparum percent (Pf%) for symptomatic malaria were 26.1 and 79.8, respectively. Prevalence of malaria vectors was observed throughout the year with varying density. Anopheles philippinensis/nivipes and A. annularis were predominant among the seven known vector species recorded currently. Asymptomatic parasitemia was detected throughout the year with SPR ranging from 4.8 to 5.3. Monthly rainfall with 1-month lag had the highest correlation (r=0.92) with SPR. The relationship between SPR and weather factors was established as SPR=?114.22+0.58 T min+1.38 RH+0.03 RF (R 2=0.89; p=0.00). Conclusion Low and relatively constant levels of asymptomatic parasitemia was present in the study area. High malaria vector density and presence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers were responsible for persistent malaria transmission in the region. This study concludes that passive detection and prompt treatment of asymptomatic carriers is essential for preventing persistent disease transmission. Rainfall along with some other weather variables may be used for predicting the malaria epidemics in the region. The predictive information could be useful to target resources more effectively. PMID:25595688

Das, Nani Gopal; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, Pranab Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay

2015-01-01

132

X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

2014-12-01

133

X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters (a o; c o) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite (a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard (c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE)N / (HREE)N, (La/Lu)N, (La/Yb)N and (Ce/Yb)N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A.; Parihar, P.

2014-12-01

134

Prevalence and Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Clients Attending ICTCs in Six Districts of Tamilnadu, South India.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the HIV serostatus of clients attending integrated counseling and testing centres (ICTCs) in Tamilnadu, south India (excluding antenatal women and children), and to study its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors. Design. In a prospective observational study, we interviewed clients attending 170 ICTCs from six districts of Tamilnadu during 2007 utilizing a standard pretest assessment questionnaire. All the clients were tested for HIV with rapid test kits. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of HIV infection. Results. Of 18329 clients counseled, 17958 (98%) were tested for HIV and 732 (4.1%; range 2.6 to 6.2%) were tested positive for HIV. Median age of clients was 30 years; 89% had never used condoms in their lives and 2% gave history of having received blood transfusion. In multivariate analysis HIV seropositivity was associated with HIV in the family (adjusted odds ratio) (AOR 11.6), history of having sex with sex workers (AOR 2.9), age ?31 years (AOR 2.8); being married (AOR 2.5), previously tested for HIV (AOR 1.9), illiteracy (AOR 1.7), unemployment (AOR 1.5), and alcoholism (AOR 1.5). Conclusion. HIV seroprevalence being high in ICTC clients (varied from 2.6 to 6.2%), this group should also be included in routine programme monitoring of sero-positivity and risk factors for better understanding of the impact of the National AIDS Control Programme. This would help in evolving appropriate policies and strategies to reduce the spread of HIV infection. PMID:21799947

Ramachandran, Rajeswari; Chandrasekaran, V; Muniyandi, M; Jaggarajamma, K; Bagchi, Anasua; Sahu, Supriya

2011-01-01

135

Investigation of geo-spatial hotspots for the occurrence of tuberculosis in Almora district, India, using GIS and spatial scan statistic  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization has declared tuberculosis a global emergency in 1993. It has been estimated that one third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. The emergence of TB/HIV co-infection poses an additional challenge for the control of tuberculosis throughout the world. The World Health Organization is supporting many developing countries to eradicate tuberculosis. It is an agony that one fifth of the tuberculosis patients worldwide are in India. The eradication of tuberculosis is the greatest public health challenge for this developing country. The aim of the present population based study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis is to test a large set of tuberculosis cases for the presence of statistically significant geographical clusters. A spatial scan statistic is used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis. Results Significant (p < 0.05 for primary clusters and p < 0.1 for secondary clusters) high rate spatial and space-time clusters were identified in three areas of the district. Conclusion There is sufficient evidence about the existence of statistically significant tuberculosis clusters in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India. The spatial scan statistics methodology used in this study has a potential use in surveillance of tuberculosis for detecting the true clusters of the disease. PMID:16901341

Tiwari, Neeraj; Adhikari, CMS; Tewari, Ajoy; Kandpal, Vineeta

2006-01-01

136

Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (?2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ? 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ? 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919

Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

2010-01-01

137

Suitable gamma energy for gamma-spectrometric determination of 238U in surface soil samples of a high rainfall area in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a systematic study on suitability of various gamma lines for monitoring of 238U activity in soil samples around a uranium mineralized zone of Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India. The area lies in a plateau region which recieves the highest average annual rainfall (12,000mm) in the world. The geochemical behaviour of the uranium and its daughter

P. Lenka; S. K. Jha; S. Gothankar; R. M. Tripathi; V. D. Puranik

2009-01-01

138

Socio-Economic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Multi-Morbidity among the Rural Elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha (India)  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-morbidity among elderly is increasingly recognized as a major public health challenge in most of the developing countries. However, information on the size of population suffering from multi-morbidity and socio-economic differentials of multi-morbidity is scarce. The objectives of this paper are twofold; first, to assess the prevalence of various chronic conditions and morbidity among rural elderly and second, to examine the socio-economic and demographic factors that have a significant effect on the morbidity. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been done using multi-stage random sampling procedure that was conducted among elderly (60+ years) in Bargarh District of Odisha during October 2011-February 2012. The survey was conducted among 310 respondents including 153 males and 157 females. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess the pattern of multi-morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the adjusted effect of various socio-economic and demographic covariates of multi-morbidity. Results The overall prevalence of multi-morbidity is 57% among rural elderly in Bargarh District of Odisha. The most common diseases in rural areas are: Arthritis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), High Blood Pressure and Cataract. Results from the logistic regression analyses show that age, state of economic independence and life style indicators are the most important measured predictors of multi-morbidity. Unlike earlier studies, wealth index and education have a marginal impact on multi-morbidity rate. Moreover, the occurrence of multi-morbidity is higher for elderly males compared to their female counterparts, though the difference is not significant. Conclusion The high prevalence of morbidity observed in the present study suggests that there is an urgent need to develop geriatric health care services in a developing country like India. Any effort to reorganize primary care for elderly people should also consider the high prevalence of multi-morbidity among rural elderly in India. PMID:24902041

Banjare, Pallavi; Pradhan, Jalandhar

2014-01-01

139

Development Of Remote Sensing And GIS Based Information System For Village Level Planning - A Case Study Of Addanki Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the population in India live in villages and depend on agriculture alone and it is also said that the development of the country is centered around the agriculture. Though several developmental programmes have been initiated and executed on various scales, by both central and state government agencies in prakasam district, microlevel planning taking an individual village as a center has not yet been formulated with full thrust. It is therefore proposed to develop Village Information System (VIS) and model action plan for sustainable development of ADDANKI MANDAL OF PRAKASAM DISTRICT in Andhra Pradesh Using Geospatial technologies. Village information system (VIS) would allow planners and citizens to quickly and efficiently create and test alternative development scenarios and determine their likely impacts on future land use patterns. In short, use of VIS in local government administration would increase efficacy, save time, improve accuracy, generate revenue, automate tasks, provide better decision support as well as being economical. To develop VIS and to understand the status and other aspects of spatial data, very large scale maps of natural resources, utilities, Land use / Land cover and other details are necessary. Hence this paper has considered the scale of 1:10,000 on which the entire data model is developed. This system is user friendly and many decisions can be made by the user according to their choice. The decision support system developed can also be applied on other villages of similar environmental settings. Keywords: Village Information System, Data Model, Micro Level Planning and Geospatial Technologies

Santosh, K.; Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.

2009-05-01

140

Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 ?g/L with maximum observed level of 3200 ?g/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 ?g/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

2014-10-01

141

Programmatic and beneficiary-related factors for low vaccination coverage in Papum Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Vaccination coverage in Papum Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh was observed to be low. We evaluated the universal immunization programme (UIP) through survey of health facilities in the district and collected data about inputs and processes for childhood vaccination, cold-chain maintenance, supervision and monitoring. Using cluster sampling methodology, we selected 697 children aged 12-23 months from 41 clusters and interviewed their mothers to collect information about vaccination status, socio-demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices. Only 50% health facilities in the district were conducting fixed-day immunizations. Of the children surveyed, 55% were fully vaccinated. Mothers who were informed about next due date by health workers, possessed immunization card, attended antenatal clinics, or who delivered in hospital were likely to complete the vaccination schedule of their children. In order to increase the vaccination coverage, all health facilities in the district need to be made functional for conducting immunization. Educating health workers to remind mothers about due date of vaccination will also help increasing the vaccination coverage. PMID:20881003

Takum, Tana; Padung, D; Joshua, Vasna; Manickam, P; Murhekar, Manoj V

2011-08-01

142

Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background: An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP). Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR) using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results: It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion: The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of referral are major contributing factor for maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP. The UP Government, besides strengthening Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) and Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (BEmONC) services in the district and state as a whole, also needs to focus on developing a functional and effective referral system on a priority basis to reduce the maternal deaths in Unnao district.

Raj, Sunil Saksena; Manthri, Suneedh; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar

2015-01-01

143

Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India  

PubMed Central

Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and geographically suitable risk-reduction programmes, apply of such spatial analysis tools should suit a vital constituent in epidemiology research and risk evaluation of kala-azar. PMID:23375077

2013-01-01

144

Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the\\u000a traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets\\u000a of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners\\u000a and has resulted

Albert L Sajem; Kuldip Gosai

2006-01-01

145

New record of the bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana Gorochov (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae) from India.  

PubMed

The first record of a known species of bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana (Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae), collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya (India) is reported. Previously, the species was reported from Thailand and the Indo-China region (Gorochov, 1985, 1988). The other congeneric species reported is Zvenella geniculata (Chopard) from Thailand. The morphological characterization of Z. yunnana has been presented with suitable illustrations. PMID:25544073

Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

2014-01-01

146

Production Potential and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Agrihorticulture Agroforestry Systems in Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree growth, crop yield and cost benefit analysis of guava (Psidum guajava cv. Allahabad safeda) and Assam lemon (Citrus lemon cv. Local) based agrihorticulture agroforestry system (AFS) was analyzed in a split plot experiment on acid alfisol under rainfed conditions at ICAR Research farm, Umiam, Meghalaya, India. Three rice varieties, RCPL-1-24, RCPL-1-25 and RCPL-1-29, were intercropped with guava and Assam

B. P. Bhatt; L. K. Misra

2003-01-01

147

Molecular evidence on the occurrence of co-infection with Pichia guilliermondii and Wuchereria bancrofti in two filarial endemic districts of India  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of India and mostly affects the poor or those with a low-income. The disease results in huge numbers of morbidities, disabilities, and deaths every year. Association of co-infection with other pathogens makes the condition more severe. Although co-infection is becoming a growing area of research, it is yet to emerge as a frontier research topic in filarial research specifically. This study reports the occurrence of a fungal infection in a large number of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis in two districts of West Bengal, India. Methods Nocturnal blood samples from filarial patients containing parasites and fungus were initially co-cultured, and further the fungus was isolated and characterized. Molecular identification of the isolate was carried out by PCR-based selective amplification and sequencing of highly-conserved D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, whereas pathogenicity was determined by amplification of the RPS0 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the relationship between the isolate and common pathogenic yeasts. The isolate was studied for antibiotic sensitivity, whereas morphological characterization was performed by microscopic techniques. Results The isolate was identified as Pichia guilliermondii and this fungus was found to exist in co-infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in filarial patients. The fungus showed resistance to azole antifungals, griseofulvin, and, amphotericin B, whereas significant susceptibility was evident in cases of nystatin and cycloheximide. A total of 197 out of 222 patients showed this co-infection. Conclusion This study revealed, for the first time, that P. guilliermondii exists as a co-infection in microfilaraemic individuals living in a filarial endemic zone. The findings are important and have relevance to human health, especially for filarial patients. PMID:24708881

2014-01-01

148

Monitoring seasonal progress of rice stubble burning in major rice growing districts of Haryana, India, using multidate AWiFS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the methodology and results of assessment of seasonal progress of rice stubble burning for 10 major rice growing districts of Haryana state in India. These 10 districts contribute about 84 per cent of total rice area of the state. As the rice fields are immediately required to be vacated for the sowing of next crop the farmers opt for mechanized harvesting and easy way out of burning the stubbles in the field. Such burning result in release of polluting gases and aerosols. Besides, the heating of the soil kills the useful micro-flora of the soil causing soil degradation. Multi-date AWiFS data from Resourcesat 1 and 2 satellites acquired between October 16, 2013 to November 26, 2013 were used for estimating paddy stubble burning areas at different intervals for the year 2013 crop growing season. In season collected ground truth data using hand held GPS along with field photographs were used to identify paddy stubble burning areas and other land features. Complete enumeration approach and Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classifier was used for digital analysis. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of each date was also used with other spectral bands of temporal images. To improve the classification accuracy the non-agricultural areas were masked out. The area was estimated by computing pixels under the classified image mask. Progress of paddy stubble burning was estimated at different intervals for the year 2013 using available cloud free multi-date IRS-P6 AWiFS data to identify the crucial period when stubbles burning takes place in major area so that preventive measures can be taken to curb the menace.

Yadav, M.; Prawasi, R.; Jangra, S.; Rana, P.; Kumari, K.; Lal, S.; Jakhar, K.; Sharma, S.; Hooda, R. S.

2014-11-01

149

Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

2012-01-01

150

Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( C?) of fracture datasets of each domain. The C? is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

2014-04-01

151

A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Methods Children ?16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. Results The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3–50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9% 95% CI: 11.6–26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7% 95% CI: 2.9–12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1% 95% CI: 2.4–11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Discussion Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children. PMID:22576826

Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

2012-01-01

152

Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

2014-01-01

153

A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of abandoned wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of abandoned wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection. PMID:20003288

2009-01-01

154

Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India  

PubMed Central

The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

2006-01-01

155

The Coexistence of Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Disability in Children Aged 3–18 Years in the Barwani District, India  

PubMed Central

Background. The coexistence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID) is common. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID in Barwani, India. Method. A total of 262 children with ID were evaluated for psychiatric disorders using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Psychiatric disorders appeared in study participants at the following rates: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6.5%; autism, 4.2%; anxiety, 2.7%; bipolar disorder, 1.1%; delusional disorder, 0.8%; depression, 2.3%; obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.8%; schizophrenia, 1.9%; enuresis, 10.3%; epilepsy, 23.7%; and behavioral problems, 80.9%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was statistically higher in severely intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 49) than mildly intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 50). Conclusions. There is a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID when their IQ ? 49 compared with ID children whose IQ ? 50. PMID:23738223

2013-01-01

156

The coexistence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability in children aged 3-18 years in the barwani district, India.  

PubMed

Background. The coexistence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID) is common. This study determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID in Barwani, India. Method. A total of 262 children with ID were evaluated for psychiatric disorders using the diagnostic criteria outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Psychiatric disorders appeared in study participants at the following rates: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6.5%; autism, 4.2%; anxiety, 2.7%; bipolar disorder, 1.1%; delusional disorder, 0.8%; depression, 2.3%; obsessive-compulsive disorder, 0.8%; schizophrenia, 1.9%; enuresis, 10.3%; epilepsy, 23.7%; and behavioral problems, 80.9%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was statistically higher in severely intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 49) than mildly intellectually disabled children (IQ ? 50). Conclusions. There is a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with ID when their IQ ? 49 compared with ID children whose IQ ? 50. PMID:23738223

Lakhan, Ram

2013-01-01

157

Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the rural communities of Churu district in the Thar Desert, India.  

PubMed

The traditional uses of medicinal plants in healthcare practices are providing clues to new areas of research; hence its importance is now well recognized. However, information on the uses of indigenous plants for medicine is not well documented from many rural areas of Rajasthan including Churu district. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to elicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 68 plant species are commonly used by the local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (31%) leaves were used. The interviewees mentioned 188 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating fever, rheumatism, diarrhea, asthma and piles. The knowledge about the total number of medicinal plants available in that area and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generation. PMID:17714898

Parveen; Upadhyay, B; Roy, Shikha; Kumar, Ashwani

2007-09-25

158

Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

2014-12-01

159

NS1 Antigen Capture ELISA an Effective Method for Diagnosis of Early Dengue Infection - Report of an Outbreak at Angul District, Odisha, India  

PubMed Central

Background: An outbreak of dengue infection occurred in Angul district of Odisha in the month of August & September, 2011. The study was undertaken to detect NS1 antigen positivity among the study population, to compare IgM capture ELISA with NS1 antigen detection for diagnosis of dengue and to identify the predominant genotype of Dengue virus responsible for the outbreak. Materials and Methods: Total 1020 serum samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of dengue from the outbreak. All were subjected for NS1 antigen detection, 92 were selected based on their clinical severity of illness (fever, rash, bleeding manifestation, arthralgia) for further study of IgM ELISA and platelet count and 148 NS1 positive samples were selected from different Blocks of Anugul district for RT-PCR at NIV, Pune, India. Results: Five hundred and thirteen (50.2%) samples were positive for NS1 antigen (highly significant p-value <0.0001, C.I - 95%) with 88% positivity during 1-5 days. The NS1 Ag positivity was peaked to 86.9% on days 3 to 5 (Sensitivity & NPV - 100% each) & declined to 6.2% during 6-10 days with a low sensitivity of 7.14% but 100% specificity & PPV. However, the IgM antibody positivity was 81.2% on days 6 to 10 and 87.5% after 10 days (Sensitivity- 100%, Specificity-13.33%,PPV-7.14% & NPV - 100%). RT-PCR resulted 32.4% positivity (6- DEN1, 39 - DEN 2 & 3- DEN 3) among which 20% were in IgM +ve & 68% in IgM -ve cases. Conclusion: Therefore, early diagnosis of dengue could be mainly by NS1 antigen detection whereas Ig M ELISA is a better tool during the later stage of infection &RT-PCR is more effective in IgM -ve cases.The predominant genotype responsible for the outbreak was found to be DEN-2. PMID:25302194

Mahapatra, Dharitri; Sarangi, Gitanjali; Paty, Bimoch Projna; Das, Padma; Chayani, Nirupama

2014-01-01

160

Observed variability and trends in extreme temperature indices and rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India—a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trends and variability in extreme temperature indices and its impact on rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India, which is part of the middle Indo-Gangetic Basin. Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was employed for detection of trend and Sen slope was determined to quantify the magnitude of such trends. We have analyzed 10 extreme temperature indices for monthly and seasonally. The influence of extreme temperature indices on rice-wheat productivity was determined using correlation analysis. As far as Patna is concerned, if the number of cool days during September ?10, the rice productivity will increase due to the availability of sufficient duration to fill up the grain. However, higher warm days during all the months except June will affect the productivity. A significant negative correlation was noticed between maximum value of minimum temperature during September and rice productivity. Highly significant positive correlation was noticed between number of cool days during September with rice productivity while it was highly significant negative correlation in the case of number of warm days during the same month. As far as Samastipur is concerned, a negative correlation was noticed between wheat productivity and maximum value of maximum temperature (TXx) during February, but not statistically significant. The higher temperature may affect the kernel weight and thereby yield. It is seen that a critical value of TXx ?29.2 °C will be harmful to wheat crop during February. A significant positive correlation of number of cool nights with wheat productivity also supports the above relationship. The critical values of extreme temperature indices during rice and wheat growing months provide an indicator to assess the vulnerability of rice-wheat productivity to temperature for Patna and Samastipur districts and there is a need to prepare an adaptive strategy and also develop thermo-insensitive rice-wheat high yielding varieties suitable for this region to sustain rice-wheat productivity under projected climate change situation.

Subash, N.; Singh, S. S.; Priya, Neha

2013-01-01

161

Factors Associated with Morbidities Among Infants in Three Sub Centre Areas of Belgaum District of South India: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health status of infants is a sensitive indicator of development and factors influencing it need to be better understood. Objectives: This study was conducted to search for factors associated with morbidity among infants and to find out their influence on weight gain during infancy. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was undertaken in south India from November 2004 till April 2006. A birth cohort of all children born during first 6 months of the study period were assessed at enrollment and followed up monthly till they attained 1 year of age. Results: Incidence of morbidity among infants was found to be least among those exclusively breast fed (EBF) for 6 months and most when EBF for less than 6 months (P = 0.045). It was also more when infants were weaned with a combination of animal milk, formula milk, semi-solids and solid diet and least when weaned only with semi-solids and solids (P = 0.018). Diarrheal episodes were more in infants who were bottle-fed (P < 0.001). Weight gain between 6th and 12th month of infancy was found to be significantly affected by various morbidities (P = 0.001). Incidence of morbidities was less among preterm babies and more among partially immunized (P < 0.001) babies with birth order ? 3 (P = 0.012), babies of mothers with low socio-economic and educational status. Delayed milestones during infancy was seen more in babies with history of birth asphyxia (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Several factors influenced incidence of morbidities and these morbidities had a negative effect on weight gain. Hence these factors need to be addressed to promote better child health. PMID:24019603

Joseph, Nitin; Naik, Vijaya A; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Mallapur, Mahesh; Kotian, Shashidhar M

2013-01-01

162

Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications in a Rural Population of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-communicable diseases, no longer a disease of the rich, impose a great threat in the developing nations due to demographic and epidemiological transition. This increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors is worrisome. Adherence to hypertension (HT) medication is very important for improving the quality of life and preventing complications of HT. Aim: To study the factors determining adherence to HT medication. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, with a total population of around 16,005. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 6 months (February-July) using a pre-structured and validated questionnaire. All eligible participants were selected by house-to-house survey and individuals not available on three consecutive visits were excluded from the study. The questionnaire included information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, adherence to HT medication, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Caste was classified based on Tamil Nadu Public Service commission. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical Consideration: Informed verbal consent was obtained prior to data collection. The patient's adherence to HT medication was assessed using the Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-taking Behavior [MMAS-4]. Results: We studied 473 hypertensive patients of which 226 were males and 247 were females. The prevalence of adherence was 24.1% (n = 114) in the study population. Respondents with regular physical activity, non-smokers and non-alcoholics were more adherent to HT medication as compared with respondents with sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake (P < 0.005). Based on health belief model, the respondents who perceived high susceptibility, severity, benefit had better adherence compared with moderate and low susceptibility, severity, benefit.

Venkatachalam, J.; Abrahm, Sherin Billy; Singh, Zile; Stalin, P.; Sathya, G. R.

2015-01-01

163

Limited access to iodized salt among the poor and disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (> or = 15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of < or = US$ 10 (PR: 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8). Those who heard and were aware of the risk of iodine-deficiency disorders and of the benefit of iodized salt were more likely to use appropriate salt (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Those who were aware of the ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of > or = 15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population. PMID:20824980

Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

2010-08-01

164

Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

2013-03-01

165

Limited Access to Iodized Salt among the Poor and Disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (?15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of ?US$ 10 (PR: 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8). Those who heard and were aware of the risk of iodine-deficiency disorders and of the benefit of iodized salt were more likely to use appropriate salt (PR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Those who were aware of the ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of ?15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population. PMID:20824980

Sen, Tapas Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

2010-01-01

166

A Study on Ground Water Resource Management in Gondwana Formations in Western Part of West Godavari District Andhra Pradesh India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater source forms nearly fifty percent of the total irrigation in the country. With green revolution, there has been an increasing demand for water for agricultural and this led to overexploitation of groundwater resources in many parts of the state and the study area is not an exception. With the success of groundwater exploration and development through deep tube wells in the study area, the farmers plunged into hectic activity of tapping groundwater. The present study was taken up to assess to groundwater recharge and draft in the area and to suggest remedial measures to redress overexploitation condition. The study area is underlain by a vide range of geological formations from Archean to Tertiary age. Crystallines consist of two-tier setting of aquifers with weathered and fracture zones. The Gondwana formations with Sandstone, shale and clay zones form unconfined to confined aquifer system. Deccan trap basalt occurs subsurface in some parts. Crystalline aquifers are exploited through borewells with a depth range of 29 to 101.5 m. Static water levels range in depth from 2.5 and 19.27 m bgl. Their yields range from 2.53 to 19.27 m3/hr. Sedimentary aquifers are exploited through tube wells with a depth range of 18 to 293 m and static water levels range from 2.1m agl to 48.0 m bgl. Yields of the wells vary form 1.3 to 67 m3 /hr. Groundwater is lifted by monoblock pumpsets of 5 HP in some places but mostly by submersible pumpsets with 5 to 12.5 HP. The tube wells are subjected to pumping from 5 to 18 hours per day depending on availability of electricity (power supply). They are operated form 90 days to throughout the year in different places. Groundwater development in the study area shows a steady increase since 1960 with number of tube wells uniformly increasing in each decade, from an initial figure of 592 wells in 1960 to 17,173 tube wells in 2002. Crop pattern was shifted from dry crops to paddy and sugar cane as major crops and irrigated dry crops like maize, tobacco, palm oil, garden crops in minor extent and coconut was planted in large extents. Piezometric surface shows uniform gradient over the entire area indicating hydraulic continuity between different geological formations. The water budgeting was computed by using norms recommended by GEC (Ground Water Estimation Committee) of CGWB 1997, Govt. of India. For the present study, June 2000 to May 2001 period is taken as groundwater year. Groundwater recharge is calculated (formation wise) by rainfall infiltration and water table fluctuation methods, and recharge from other sources reservoirs, tanks, canals, irrigation water returns etc. the total recharge comes to be 626 MCM. Groundwater draft for irrigation and domestic purposes is found to be 994.96 MCM. Groundwater balance shows overdraft by 364.15 MCM. Well density is increased from <1/Sq. km in 60s to >30/Sq.km in 2000. Piezometric surface profiles in N-S direction also show a drop from 1960 to 2000 year by 44m. Taking into consideration, the mined water during 1990-2000, the overdraft comes to 704 MCM i.e. 70.4 MCM/year. Groundwater draft in the study area is found to be 2.85 times more than the actual requirement (342 MCM) of the crops in the area due to highly permeable sandy soils. In view of the alarming imbalance in the groundwater recharge and draft, some management practices are suggested to restore the original groundwater condition which includes proper well spacing, artificial recharge, change of cropping pattern and irrigation methods to suit to the local conditions. Quality of groundwater is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes.

Singara, S.

2006-05-01

167

Study of the variation and the effect of geo-chemical composition on the external background radiation level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study to generate the baseline of natural radiation and radioactivity in East and West Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya,\\u000a India was conducted to determine the different radiation dose in selected stations. Twenty stations were selected in both\\u000a the district, which include Shillong the capital of Meghalaya and the Domiasiat area, which has been identified as one with\\u000a a Uranium

Deswyn G. Marbaniang; Raj Kumar Poddar; P. Nongkynrih

2009-01-01

168

Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking,

Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Badal Kumar Mandal; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Uttam Kumar Chowdhury; Dilip Lodh; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Gautam Kumar Basu; Subhash Chandra Mukherjee; Kshitish Chandra Saha; Dipankar Chakraborti

2003-01-01

169

Effect of house spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10 per cent capsule suspension (CS) formulation in comparison with 10 per cent wettable powder (WP) against malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Selection of an insecticide and its appropriate formulation is a prerequisite of formulating any chemical control strategy against vectors. A hut scale field trial was carried out to study the effectiveness of house spraying with capsule suspension (CS) formulation of lambdacyhalothrin in comparison with its wettable powder (WP) formulation on mortality, density and behaviour of malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India. Methods: The two formulations were tested at 20 and 30 mg (a.i.)/m2 for their effectiveness in terms of deterrence, excito-repellency, blood-feeding success, mortality and residual activity against Anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, in experimental huts in Malkangiri district, Odisha State, India. Results: Both CS and WP formulations prevented the entry of An. fluviatilis in to the sprayed huts by >90 per cent for >6 months, the entire peak malaria transmission season in the area. The exit rate increased (90-99%) with different treatments and the feeding rate was reduced (91-97%). There was no significant difference between WP 30, CS 20 and CS 30 mg/m2 in these respects. However, WP 20 mg/m2 caused a lesser effect than the other three groups. The formulations or the dosages differed only in causing vector mortalities. Overall, the total mortality rate of An. fluviatilis was higher in the huts sprayed with CS 30 (58%) than the huts sprayed with CS 20 (48%), WP 20 (37%) and WP 30 mg/m2 (47%). Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the duration of residual action and the effect on entry, exit, feeding and mortality of An. fluviatilis, the dosage 20 mg/m2 of CS formulation of lambdacyhalothrin could be considered for further use. PMID:25488449

Gunasekaran, K.; Sahu, S.S.; Vijayakumar, T.; Subramanian, S.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

170

Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

2010-12-01

171

Census of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

172

Risk of Financing Agriculture in the North-Eastern Hill Region of India with Special Reference to Meghalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study pertains to the economic issues of risk and uncertainties associated with financing hill agriculture from the twin angles of risk of farmers to utilize the credit and of bankers to disburse the agricultural loan. The issues discussed are: first, why the financial institutions are reluctant to lend agricultural advances? Second, whether the farm income or rate of return

Subhasis Mandal; K. K. Datta; Suchitra Mohanty; B. K. Mahapatra

2005-01-01

173

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

174

Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

2014-01-01

175

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water using multivariate statistical techniques in an industrial area: A case study from Patancheru, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of different multivariate statistical approaches for the interpretation of data obtained during a monitoring programme of surface and groundwater in Patancheru industrial town near Hyderabad (India) is presented in this study. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields

Aradhi K. Krishna; M. Satyanarayanan; Pradip K. Govil

2009-01-01

176

Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.  

PubMed

Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care, locally-situated interventions could be more easily planned to provide appropriate and acceptable mental health care in LMICs. PMID:25089962

Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

2014-10-01

177

Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda  

PubMed Central

Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care, locally-situated interventions could be more easily planned to provide appropriate and acceptable mental health care in LMICs. PMID:25089962

Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

2014-01-01

178

Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients. Comparison of LED Fluorescent Microscopy and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in a District Hospital in India.  

PubMed

HIV-related tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the World Health Organization has endorsed the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients from developing countries, but information about the use of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is scarce. In this study, we compared the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) auramine fluorescent microscopy and the Xpert assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients in a district hospital of India. Although at higher cost, Xpert outperformed LED fluorescent microscopy in all type of specimens, especially in cerebrospinal fluid where the number of positive results was increased 11 times. Pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, pus, and stool specimens also yielded positive results with the Xpert assay. When collecting two additional early-morning sputum samples, the increase of the number of positive results with the Xpert assay was lower than previously reported for HIV infected patients. Rifampicin resistance was observed in 2.2% of the cases. The results of this study show that the Xpert assay can dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and other types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis of HIV infected patients. PMID:22966426

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Azcona, Jose M; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

179

Japanese encephalitis in south Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India: a three-year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection frequency.  

PubMed

In the South Arcot district, an area endemic for Japanese encephalitis in Tamil Nadu, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex vishnui Theobald, Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex fuscocephala Theobald constituted 93.6% of 422,621 adult females representing 27 culicine species collected between August 1991 and July 1994. Vector abundance was lowest in the hot and dry season (April-June) and highest in the cool and wet season (October-December). Overall, 285,531 adult female mosquitoes (5,710 pools) were tested for virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by inoculation into larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann and identification by immunofluorescent test using JE virus specific monoclonal antibody or by both. In total, 91 isolations were made, of which 80 (88%) were identified as JE virus; 58 isolations were from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 22 from Cx. vishnui, 6 from Cx. fuscocephala and 5 from Cx. gelidus, giving similar minimum infection rates (MIR) of 0.28, 0.41, 0.39, and 0.52, respectively. Vector abundance and MIR increased from July concurrently with the initiation of rice cultivation. MIR peaked in September followed by a decrease in October, but mosquitoes remained abundant until March. The decrease in MIR from October onward coincided with rising herd immunity in pigs. Although MIRs in October (0.47) and November (0.42) were lower than in September (0.92), a comparable high risk of infection for humans continued because of high vector abundance and human biting rates. In the South Arcot district, the probability of a child receiving an infective bite was 0.53 per JE transmission season. PMID:9439119

Gajanana, A; Rajendran, R; Samuel, P P; Thenmozhi, V; Tsai, T F; Kimura-Kuroda, J; Reuben, R

1997-11-01

180

Politician Identity and Religious Conflict in India* Sonia Bhalotra  

E-print Network

from Times of India archives. The analysis is currently conducted at the district level. We instrument1 Politician Identity and Religious Conflict in India* Sonia Bhalotra University of Bristol Irma on religious conflict in India during 1980-2007. We code religion from name and construct updated conflict data

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

181

Strategies for coping with the costs of inpatient care: a mixed methods study of urban and rural poor in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, coping mechanisms for inpatient care costs have been explored in rural areas, but seldom among urbanites. This study aims to explore and compare mechanisms employed by the urban and rural poor for coping with inpatient expenditures, in order to help identify formal mechanisms and policies to provide improved social protection for health care. Methods A three-step methodology was used: (1) six focus-group discussions; (2) 800 exit survey interviews with users of public and private facilities in both urban and rural areas; and (3) 18 in-depth interviews with poor (below 30th percentile of socio-economic status) hospital users, to explore coping mechanisms in greater depth. Results Users of public hospitals, in both urban and rural areas, were poor relative to users of private hospitals. Median expenditures per day were much higher at private than at public facilities. Most respondents using public facilities (in both urban and rural areas) were able to pay out of their savings or income; or by borrowing from friends, family or employer. Those using private facilities were more likely to report selling land or other assets as the primary source of coping (particularly in rural areas) and they were more likely to have to borrow money at interest (particularly in urban areas). Poor individuals who used private facilities cited as reasons their closer proximity and higher perceived quality of care. Conclusions In India, national and state governments should invest in improving the quality and access of public first-referral hospitals. This should be done selectively—with a focus, for example, on rural areas and urban slum areas—in order to promote a more equitable distribution of resources. Policy makers should continue to explore and support efforts to provide financial protection through insurance mechanisms. Past experience suggests that these efforts must be carefully monitored to ensure that the poorer among the insured are able to access scheme benefits, and the quality and quantity of health care provided must be monitored and regulated. PMID:21653545

Ranson, Michael Kent; Jayaswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

2012-01-01

182

Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of any life support system. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study was confined to the coastal belt of Alappuzha district, which lies in the coastal lowland division of Kerala. Groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purpose were examined by various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride. These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purpose by comparing with the WHO and Indian standards. TDS, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and permeability index were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The sample analysis reveals that the groundwater is not entirely fit for drinking with respect to pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Cl-. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Based on TDS and SAR almost all samples are suitable for irrigation purpose except a few locations, which show values beyond the permissible limits. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant water type in the study area. The sequence of the abundance of the major cations and anions is Ca > Na > Mg > K = HCO3 > Cl > SO4. Based on the total hardness and TDS, 96 % of groundwater samples are found suitable for drinking purpose.

Sarath Prasanth, S. V.; Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gangadhar, K.

2012-09-01

183

The Calcutta metropolitan district.  

PubMed

11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence. PMID:12268497

1987-01-01

184

The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future changes in water quantity and quality. For disaster risk assessment, the goal is to identify the intersection of potential mass movement and flood hazards, with exposed people, resources, and assets. Base level information is required on glacier area and volume, mass balance, glacial lake distribution, surface topography, information on snow cover, duration, and snow water equivalent, and gauge measurements on river and stream flows. Where instrumental data is lacking, information of past hydrological regimes and evidence of mass movement can be derived from documentary records (archival reports), from geological indicators (i.e. palaeofloods: sedimentary and biological records over centennial to millennial scales), and from botanical sources (i.e. dendrogeomorphology). The adaptive capacity to face the challenges associated with a changing cryosphere in the Kullu district will require economic, political, and knowledge capacity to plan, prepare, and respond to issues of water quantity and quality, and disaster risk associated with mass movement and flood hazard. Socio-economic information to be assessed includes economic metrics, literacy rates, and population demographic factors such as gender, age, and religion. These same factors largely determine a communities capacity to anticipate, respond to, and recover from disasters.

Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

2014-05-01

185

Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.  

PubMed

Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1logcfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. PMID:25574846

Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

2015-03-16

186

HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)  

PubMed Central

Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

2001-01-01

187

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2010-10-01

188

DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.  

PubMed

Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. PMID:25130907

Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

2014-10-15

189

Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. Methods First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or ? 50% of FSWs respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compare exposure by district categories, vulnerability factors and intermediate outcomes associated with exposure. Results Reported exposure, evaluated on basis of having received any of three core services, was higher in Solo (75%) compared with Minor (66%) districts. Logistic regression showed that FSWs in solo districts were more likely to be exposed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.86) compared with FSWs in Minor districts. Multivariate analysis in Solo districts revealed that FSW with ?15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Conclusions Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA. PMID:20167734

Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

2010-01-01

190

ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

1985-01-01

191

Dynamics of distinct intraseasonal oscillation in summer monsoon rainfall over the Meghalaya-Bangladesh-western Myanmar region: covariability between the tropics and mid-latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed spatiotemporal structures for the submonthly-scale (7-25 days) intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in summer monsoon rainfall and atmospheric circulation were investigated in South Asia using high-quality rainfall and reanalysis datasets. The Meghalaya-Bangladesh-coast of the western Myanmar (MBWM) region is the predominant area of submonthly-scale ISO in the Asian monsoon regions. The distinct rainfall ISO is caused by a remarkable alternation of low-level zonal wind between westerly and easterly flows around the Gangetic Plain on the same timescales. In the active ISO phase of the MBWM, a strong low-level westerly/southwesterly flows around the plain and a center of cyclonic vorticity appears over Bangladesh. Hence, a local southerly flows toward the Meghalaya Plateau and there is strong southwesterly flow towards the coast along southeastern Bangladesh and western Myanmar, resulting in an increase in orographic rainfall. Rainfall also increases over the lowland area of the MBWM due to the low-level convergence in the boundary layer under the strong cyclonic circulation. The submonthly-scale low-level wind fluctuation around the MBWM is caused by a westward moving n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER) wave. When the anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly related to the ER wave approaches the Bay of Bengal from the western Pacific, humid westerly/southwesterly (easterly/southeasterly) flows enhance around the Gangetic Plain on the northern fringe of the anticyclone (cyclone) and in turn promote (reduce) rainfall in the MBWM. Simultaneously, robust circulation signals are observed over the mid-latitudes. In the active phase, cyclonic anomalies appear over and around the TP, having barotropic vertical structure and also contributing to the enhancement of low-level westerly flow around the Gangetic Plain. In the upper troposphere, an anticyclonic anomaly is also observed upstream of the cyclonic anomaly over the TP, having wavetrain structure. The mid-latitude circulation around the TP likely helps to induce the distinct ISO there in conjunction with the equatorial waves. Thus, the distinct ISO in the MBWM is strongly enhanced locally (~500 km) by the terrain features, although the atmospheric circulation causing the ISO has a horizontal scale of ~6,000 km or more, extending across the whole Asian monsoon system from the tropics to mid-latitudes.

Fujinami, Hatsuki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Morimoto, Akihito

2014-10-01

192

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

193

India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...

2013-04-16

194

Tsunami: India  

article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... several meters due to the quake, resulting in large ocean waves, called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami ...

2013-04-16

195

India: Gujarat  

... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

2013-04-16

196

India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

2013-04-16

197

Human consumption of rumen flukes of cattle in India.  

PubMed

The practice of eating rumen flukes of cattle by a section of people living in Meghalaya, a north eastern State of India, is reported in this communication. Economically backward, some rural people belonging to Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, and Karbi tribes of Christian and Nepali communities who eat beef are accustomed to consuming cooked flukes during breakfast, meals, and also along with rice beer or alcohol. Inspection of the rumens of cattle during slaughter indicated a prevalence of flukes belonging to Cotylophoron, Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax, and Fischoederius genera in 74% cases, and their collection from rumen ranged approximately from 50 g to 600 g. Biochemical analysis of flukes found 12.60% total protein, 0.78% fat, and 0.87% ash on fresh weight basis. High prevalence of flukes, easy visualization in rumen, their bulk collection, presence of nutritive value, absence of any ill effect, and lack of imminent danger of transmissibility are believed to be the rationales influencing their consumption by people. It is suggested that dietary benefits obtained from flukes might contribute to the energy transfer and inclusion in the food web. PMID:24964650

Sarmah, P C; Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Goswami, A; Raquib, M; Kakati, P

2014-01-01

198

Cancer notification in India  

PubMed Central

In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India. PMID:24665453

Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

2014-01-01

199

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

200

Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease in Thirthahalli, Karnataka, India, 2014.  

PubMed

Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka State, India. Since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of Karnataka State, India. Recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. This disease has also been reported from new areas, such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala State. During January-March 2014, KFDV-positive cases were detected in Thirthahalli taluk, Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. Here, we report an outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease occurring in the Kannangi and Konandur area, Thirthahalli taluk in Karnataka State, India, with sporadic cases from eight other areas. PMID:25063021

Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita M; Patil, Deepak Y; Sandhya, V K; Prakash, K S; Surgihalli, Rajesh; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-09-01

201

Internet India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1997-01-01

202

Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India.  

PubMed

Twelve hundred rice samples consisting of paddy (675) and milled rice (525) were collected from 20 states across India. These samples were assessed for Aspergillus spp. infection on selective medium and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by indirect competitive ELISA. In this investigation, Aspergillus flavus contamination dominated in all the seed samples. The other major contaminants were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Out of 1200 rice samples, 67.8% showed AFB1 ranging from 0.1 to 308.0 microg/kg. All the paddy samples from Chattishgarh, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu showed AFB1 contamination. Milled rice grains from different states showed below the permissible levels of AFB1 (average 0.5-3.5 microg/kg). Eighty-two percent of samples from open storage that were exposed to rain showed AFB1 contamination followed by one-year-old seed. Out of 1200 samples, 2% showed AFB1 contamination above the permissible limits (>30 microg/kg). This is the first comprehensive report of aflatoxin contamination in rice across 20 states in India. PMID:19028301

Reddy, K R N; Reddy, C S; Muralidharan, K

2009-02-01

203

On the waterfront: water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a south India canal irrigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The

P. P. Mollinga

1998-01-01

204

Neuropathy in Arsenic Toxicity from Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large number of people from 9 out of 18 districts of West Bengal, India are endemically exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater due to drinking of tubewell water containing arsenic level above World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 µg\\/L. From our ongoing studies on neurological involvement in patients of arsenicosis from different districts of West Bengal, we report our findings

Subhash Chandra Mukherjee; Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman; Uttam Kumar Chowdhury; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Dilip Lodh; Chitta Ranjan Chanda; Kshitish Chandra Saha; Dipankar Chakraborti

2003-01-01

205

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

2013-01-01

206

India Votes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's largest democracy goes to the polls in Mid-February for parliamentary elections. India Today (discussed in the August 29, 1997 Scout Report), a weekly news magazine with a circulation of over 11 million, provides this site for interested Internauts to follow the elections. It provides ongoing daily news, an election calendar, and election information organized by state, constituency, party, and leaders. In addition, there are links to IT articles of interest. Newcomers to the Indian electoral process are advised to consult the Reference section first.

1998-01-01

207

Mughal India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

208

Delhi: India's urban example.  

PubMed

Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels. PMID:12342348

Cutler, B

1988-06-01

209

Prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in rural Bengal, India.  

PubMed

India is in the thalassemia belt of the world. Both ?- and ?-thalassemia (?- and ?-thal) are found in West Bengal, a state in the eastern part of India. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the prevalence rates of different hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of five districts of West Bengal state in eastern India. Thalassemia testing was done using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 35,413 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. ?-Thalassemia trait was found in 10.38%, Hb E [?26(B8)Glu?Lys] trait in 4.30%, sickle cell trait in 1.12%, borderline Hb A(2) value 0.73%, low Hb A(2) 0.68% and Hb D trait 0.37%. This is the first study that addresses the prevalence of different hemoglobinopathies in rural areas of West Bengal. The prevalence of ?-thal trait is higher in West Bengal than other parts of India. This data is likely to be helpful in planning screening programs in rural areas of West Bengal, India. PMID:22004064

Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; Dutta, Shyamali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Ghosh, Malay Kumar

2012-01-01

210

AIDS in position to ravage India.  

PubMed

The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV. PMID:8782442

Jayaraman, K S

1996-09-01

211

School District Energy Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

212

District, Know Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

2009-01-01

213

Local health information systems, e-Governance and ICT policy in Andhra Pradesh, India: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities  

E-print Network

1 Local health information systems, e-Governance and ICT policy in Andhra Pradesh, India of Oslo, Norway 1. Introduction In this article, we discuss two ongoing health information system projects going in two rural districts in the same state in India. Local level Information and Communication

Sahay, Sundeep

214

Hindu and Christian fertility in India: a test of three hypotheses.  

PubMed

Three hypotheses interpret differences in human fertility among religious groups. The Particularistic Theology Hypothesis stresses the pronatalist influence of doctrines forbidding artificial contraception and emphasizing the importance of sons, while the Characteristics Hypothesis focuses on the antinatalist effect of urban residence, higher education, and late age at marriage. But the Minority Status Hypothesis argues that such antinatalist effects may be stronger for a minority than a majority, since better-educated, late-marrying urbanites have greater chances for upward mobility. Minority groups with these advantages may have much lower fertility than similar people in the majority group if antinatalism is seen as a way to counter prejudice and move up. I tested these three hypotheses with data from the 1981 Census of India, from which I calculated mean numbers of children ever born per wife aged 35-44. I standardized the mean for differences between Hindu and Christian women by urban residence, education, age, and length of marriage. The standardized fertility rates of Hindus and Christians were similar in 25 states/union territories. Only in Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland did the Hindu religious minority have a lower standardized birth rate than the Christian majority; but the Muslim minority had one like the Christians'. This pattern was most consistent with the Characteristics Hypothesis. PMID:8146697

Johnson, N E

1993-01-01

215

Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

2014-08-01

216

Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.  

PubMed

Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

2014-01-01

217

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

218

Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India  

PubMed Central

Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

2013-01-01

219

Girl prostitution in India.  

PubMed

This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

Mukhopadhyay, K K

1995-01-01

220

Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India  

PubMed Central

This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

2010-01-01

221

The Lab Area Approach of District Institutes of Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India has established district institutes of education and training (DIETs) to improve the quality of elementary education. These institutions use of the Lab Area approach, which focuses on innovative ideas and experiments related to elementary education and teacher development. Studies show that this approach has a positive impact. This paper…

Yadav, Satish K.

2002-01-01

222

India Network Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.

223

Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected

R. Chakrabarti; A. R. Basu; J. Peterson; S. Misra

2004-01-01

224

Phytochemical Analyses and Activity of Herbal Medicinal Plants of North- East India for Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Cancer and Anti-Tuberculosis and their Docking Studies.  

PubMed

The traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of North-East India is documented here. The present study was carried out through the personal discussion with the president of the Jaintia Indigenous Herbal Medicine Association, Dr.H.Carehome Pakyntein from Jowai, Meghalaya. The plants being used generation after generation by his family of herbalists to cure ailments like tuberculosis, cancer and diabetes were selected for the present study. In order to scientifically validate the use of these selected plants for the cure of selected diseases, phytochemical analyses, characterization and molecular docking studies of some of the selected compounds from these plants have been carried out. The compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy- Benzaldehyde from methanolic extract of Strophanthus Wallichii and DL tetrahydropalmatine from Stephania Hernandifolia have been confirmed after determining their molecular structures, justifying the activity of these two plants against TB and cancer, respectively. The present study covers the potentials of some of the medicinal plants of North east India in curing common diseases due to which millions of people suffer and die. The presence of certain compounds in these plants related to the cure of the diseases deserves further studies. PMID:25579573

Suhitha, Sivasubramanian; Devi, Seenivasan Karthiga; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Pakyntein, H Carehome; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Velmurugan, Devadasan

2015-01-01

225

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF VERMONT  

E-print Network

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF VERMONT GREEN MOUNTAIN CHRYSLER-PLYMOUTH- DODGE AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS, Plaintiff, v. THOMAS W. TORTI, Secretary of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources

Hansen, James E.

226

India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster

2009-01-01

227

FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

228

By Katie Newton Louisville District  

E-print Network

By Katie Newton Louisville District See Guard, Page 5 Great White Egret (Ardea alba) foraging U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Louisville District has been working closely with the Kentucky Army from the Louisville District to perform a Threatened and Endangered Species investigation of the center

US Army Corps of Engineers

229

Districts Weigh Obesity Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

Butler, Kevin

2008-01-01

230

District-Level Downsizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

231

Rightsizing a School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

2012-01-01

232

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

233

Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

234

Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

Kaur, Harpreet; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

2014-01-01

235

Partnership challenges fund in India.  

PubMed

The Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) Small Family by Choice project is the first large program to be funded by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Partnership Challenges Fund. This project endorses FPAI's integrated approach to family planning to address the family planning and reproductive health needs of the population in Northern India. The project will accelerate family planning acceptance in 3 districts in Madhya Pradesh State covering a population of some 3.6 million people. These strategies will include community participation, women's empowerment, literacy programs, male involvement, and youth mobilization. The project is the core of FPAI's Strategic Plan for 1992-2000, which strives to reach areas of greatest need, improve quality of care in family planning services, promote appropriate contraceptive choice, and provide supplies. Women will be helped through literacy, education, skills development and income generation. Particular emphasis will be placed on involving men in family planning and reproductive health choices within the family. The Small Families project will concentrate on the individual needs of people within the local community. The project will accelerate family planning acceptance through people's participation while improving their health and socioeconomic conditions. Service will be delivered through local NGOs and women's groups. Initially, this project will be carried out as operations research to identify the most effective combination of interventions. The project may be expanded to other states, incorporating findings from the initial project. The Partnership Challenges Fund has been established to support innovative projects that satisfy the expectations of the IPPF Vision 2000 Strategic Plan, and address priority reproductive health issues within FPAs strategic planning. The Fund intends to support projects that address the reproductive health needs of people within the community, and affect changes that will improve the health and social well-being of individuals in the developing world. PMID:12288551

1994-03-01

236

The Socioeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Participation in India’s Health Insurance Scheme for the Poor  

PubMed Central

The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), which was introduced in 2008 in India, is a social health insurance scheme that aims to improve healthcare access and provide financial risk protection to the poor. In this study, we analyse the determinants of participation and enrolment in the scheme at the level of districts. We used official data on RSBY enrolment, socioeconomic data from the District Level Household Survey 2007–2008, and additional state-level information on fiscal health, political affiliation, and quality of governance. Results from multivariate probit and OLS analyses suggest that political and institutional factors are among the strongest determinants explaining the variation in participation and enrolment in RSBY. In particular, districts in state governments that are politically affiliated with the opposition or neutral parties at the centre are more likely to participate in RSBY, and have higher levels of enrolment. Districts in states with a lower quality of governance, a pre-existing state-level health insurance scheme, or with a lower level of fiscal deficit as compared to GDP, are significantly less likely to participate, or have lower enrolment rates. Among socioeconomic factors, we find some evidence of weak or imprecise targeting. Districts with a higher share of socioeconomically backward castes are less likely to participate, and their enrolment rates are also lower. Finally, districts with more non-poor households may be more likely to participate, although with lower enrolment rates. PMID:23805211

Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2013-01-01

237

About "Save the Children Committee (India)".  

PubMed

This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community. PMID:12179427

1996-01-01

238

ETHNOMEDICINE OF BHIL TRIBE OF JHABUA DISTRICT, M. P.**  

PubMed Central

The Bhils are inhabitants of Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone and Ratlam distrcits of Madhya Pradesh. A large number of Bhils live in the neighbouring States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They constitute the third largest tribe of India; the first two being Gonds and Santhals. They utilize a large number of plant species occurring wild in the district as herbal remedies in various diseases and ailments. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was conducted in the tribal blocks. Viz. Kathiware, Alirajpur and Sodhwa blocks of Jhabua district, M. P. The authors have gathered first-hand information on seventy – five plant species and their mode of therapeutic uses from the tribal medicine men ‘Badwa’ and other experienced tribals. The present study has brought of light some interesting data on potential medicinal plants which will be screened for determining their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:22557535

Maheshwari, J. K.; Kalakoti, B. S.; Lal, Brij

1986-01-01

239

As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

240

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

241

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

242

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India  

E-print Network

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

Toronto, University of

243

Alabama district flood plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

2002-01-01

244

ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

PubMed Central

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

1991-01-01

245

Diversity of Odonata (Insecta) from Dholbaha Dam (Distt. Hoshiarpur) in Punjab Shivalik, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on the species diversity of the order Odonata was carried out during 2002 ? 2004 at Dholbaha dam, which has a moist deciduous forest surrounding it in district Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India. A total of 30 species belonging to 7 families of order Odonata were recorded during the study period. The family Libellulidae, represented by 18 species was the most

Gaurav Sharma; P. C. Joshi

2007-01-01

246

Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

2014-01-01

247

Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the wealth of medicinal plants used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Apatani have traditionally settled in seven villages in the Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region of India. The present study has resulted in the documentation of 158 medicinal plant species used by the Apatani group of

Chandra Prakash Kala

2005-01-01

248

Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided

Madan Mohan Mahawar; DP Jaroli

2007-01-01

249

Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja, a natural interspecific hybrid occurring in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja, a species found abundantly in Tanjore, Pudukottai, Trichirapalli and Ramnad districts of Tamil Nadu state, India and grown as a fence plant showed intermediacy in phenotypic characters of J. curcas L. and J. gossypifolia L. A detailed survey at its place of occurrence supplemented with data employed from cytological and peroxidase isozyme studies revealed that

A. J. Prabakaran; M. Sujatha

1999-01-01

250

AN OUTBREAK OF SORGHUM ERGOT IN PARTS OF ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report the occurrence of sorghum ergot epidemics in India in 1999 and 2000. In both years, ergot was present in epidemic form. During the rainy season of 1999, a severe epidemic occurred in Maachinenipalli village, Mahbubnagar District. During 2000, another severe epidemic occurred in Maachine...

251

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

252

Farmers' Training and Functional Literacy. A Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical report of the Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh, India presents the research procedures and statistical analysis for the previously published non-technical report of the study. The main study objectives were to obtain qualitative and quantitative measurements of attainment and…

Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

253

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

254

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2010-10-01

255

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2012-10-01

256

46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...District Commander or District Commander. The term Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by the Commandant to command all Coast Guard...

2011-10-01

257

Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

258

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

259

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

260

Isolation and molecular characterization of a H5N1 virus isolated from a Jungle crow ( Corvus macrohynchos ) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, India experienced widespread outbreaks of H5N1 virus in West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam. The virus was detected in\\u000a Kamrup district of Assam in November 2008 and subsequently spread to eight more districts. Two Jungle or Large billed crows\\u000a (Corvus macrohynchos) were found dead in a hospital campus at about 8 km from the foci of initial detection of the

S. Nagarajan; C. Tosh; H. V. Murugkar; G. Venkatesh; M. Katare; R. Jain; P. Behera; R. Khandia; S. Tripathi; D. D. Kulkarni; S. C. Dubey

2010-01-01

261

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

Rosen, Jay

262

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

, contracting, and university admission decisions, violates the United States Constitution. On December 11, 2006UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND 8, 2006 by several plaintiffs who claim that a recently-approved state constitutional amendment

Shyy, Wei

263

Evaluation of GVI-based indices for drought early warning in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is the major disaster, which occurs in some part of India every year due to monsoon variability. India has established satellite based National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS), at National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space since 1987. NADAMS provides near real time monitoring and early warning of drought conditions at National level using NOAA AVHRR and at regional level using IRS WiFS and AWiFS data. ISRO-NASA-NOAA science cooperation project has been initiated during 2005 for development of satellite based decision support drought monitor system in India. Initially, the evaluation of GVI based indices for drought early warning in India was taken up. The study was carried out over five small regions each covering part of a district and over five large regions each covering few districts in each state of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states and the result of the study is presented in this paper. The weekly GVI based indices such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for the period from 1991-2004 over 5 small regions covering part of districts namely Banaskantha district of Gujarat state to represent Bajra crop, Surendra nagar district of Gujarat state to represent Cotton crop, Nasik district of Maharashtra to represent Bajra crop, Bhandara district to represent Rice crop and Akola district of Maharastra to represent Jowar crop was selected. The weekly GVI based indices over 5 large regions with larger database from 1981 to 2004 covering few districts of Rajasthan state to represent winter wheat and few districts of Maharashtra state to represent Jowar, Rice and Cotton crops were selected. The comparison of seasonal average VCI, TCI and VHI with the corresponding crops yield over 5 small regions indicate better regression coefficient for VHI than VCI or TCI. The comparison over 5 large regions covering larger data base from 1982-2004 indicate better regression coefficient for VCI than VHI or TCI. Results of the study suggests over smaller region, the VCI and TCI combined VHI indices relates better with crop yields, whereas over larger region, the VCI itself relates better with crop yields than with TCI or the VCI and TCI combined VHI.

Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Kogan, Felix N.

2006-12-01

264

Lumping and splitting: the health policy agenda in India.  

PubMed

India's health system was designed in a different era, when expectations of the public and private sectors were quite different. India's population is also undergoing transitions in the demographic, epidemiologic and social aspects of health. Disparities in life expectancy, disease, access to health care and protection from financial risks have increased. These factors are challenging the health system to respond in new ways. The old approach to national health policies and programmes is increasingly inappropriate. By analyzing inter- and intra-state differences in contexts and processes, we argue that the content of national health policy needs to be more diverse and accommodating to specific states and districts. More 'splitting' of India's health policy at the state level would better address their health problems, and would open the way to innovation and local accountability. States further along the health transition would be able to develop policies to deal with the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases and more appropriate health financing systems. States early in the transition would need to focus on improving the quality and access of essential public health services, and empowering communities to take more ownership. Better 'lumping' of policy issues at the central level is also needed, but not in ways that have been done in the past. The central government needs to focus on overcoming the large inequalities in health outcomes across India, tackle growing challenges to health such as the HIV epidemic, and provide the much needed leadership on systemic issues such as the development of systems for quality assurance and regulation of the private sector. It also needs to support and facilitate states and districts to develop critical capacities rather than directly manage programmes. As India develops a more diverse set of state health policies, there will be more opportunities to learn what works in different policy environments. PMID:12917266

Peters, David H; Rao, K Sujatha; Fryatt, Robert

2003-09-01

265

Is the HIV burden in India being overestimated?  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV burden estimate for India has a very wide plausibility range. A recent population-based study in a south Indian district demonstrated that the official method used in India to estimate HIV burden in the population, which directly extrapolates annual sentinel surveillance data from large public sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, led to a 2–3 times higher estimate than that based on population-based data. Methods We assessed the generalisability of the reasons found in the Guntur study for overestimation of HIV by the official sentinel surveillance based method: addition of substantial unnecessary HIV estimates from STI clinics, the common practice of referral of HIV positive/suspect patients by private practitioners to public hospitals, and a preferential use of public hospitals by lower socioeconomic strata. We derived conservative correction factors for the sentinel surveillance data and titrated these to the four major HIV states in India (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu), and examined the impact on the overall HIV estimate for India. Results HIV data from STI clinics are not used elsewhere in the world as a component of HIV burden estimation in generalised epidemics, and the Guntur study verified that this was unnecessary. The referral of HIV positive/suspect patients from the private to the public sector is a widespread phenomenon in India, which is likely causing an upward distortion in HIV estimates from sentinel surveillance in other parts of India as well. Analysis of data from the nationwide Reproductive and Child Health Survey revealed that lower socioeconomic strata were over-represented among women seeking antenatal care at public hospitals in all major south Indian states, similar to the trend seen in the Guntur study. Application of conservative correction factors derived from the Guntur study reduced the 2005 official sentinel surveillance based HIV estimate of 3.7 million 15–49 years old persons in the four major states to 1.5–2.0 million, which would drop the official total estimate of 5.2 million 15–49 years old persons with HIV in India to 3–3.5 million. Conclusion Plausible and cautious extrapolation of the trends seen in a recent large and rigorous population-based study of HIV in a south Indian district suggests that India is likely grossly overestimating its HIV burden with the current official sentinel surveillance based method. This method needs revision. PMID:17181865

Dandona, Lalit; Lakshmi, Vemu; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi

2006-01-01

266

Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)

2007-03-23

267

Television Training in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)

Malik, Iqbal

1973-01-01

268

7 CFR 953.29 - District committees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating... § 953.29 District committees. Potato producers and handlers in each district...establish and organize a District Committee of potato producers and handlers within each...

2010-01-01

269

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

270

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

271

National Association of Conservation Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

272

PROPHYLACTIC USES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN BASTAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH  

PubMed Central

The present ethnobotanical exploratory study embodies the folk medicinal uses of certain important medicinal plants by tribals of bastar district in Madhya Pradesh state of India. Twenty seven medicinal plants form diverse families have been covered being therapeutically used against different diseases such acidity, debility, diabetes, male and female weakness, fistula, migraine and skin diseases etc. How the tribal folks consider the mode of drug administration and application in different ailments has been ailments has been elaborately emphasized. PMID:22556857

Sharma, D.C.; Chandra, Umesh

1998-01-01

273

Spatial access to inpatient health care in northern rural India.  

PubMed

Access to health care in rural areas is a major concern for local populations as well as for policy makers in developing countries. This paper examines spatial access to in-patient health care in northern rural India. In order to measure spatial access, impedance-based competition using the Three-Step floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method, a modification of the simple gravity model, was used. 3SFCA was chosen for the study of the districts of Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat in the Uttar Pradesh state and Vaishali in the Bihar state, two of India's poorest states. This approach is based on discrete distance decay and also considers more parameters than other available methods, hence is believed to be a robust methodology. It was found that Vaishali district has the highest spatial access to in-patient health care followed by Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat. There is serious lack of health care, in Pratapgarh and Kanpur Dehat with 40% and 90% of the villages having shortage of in-patient care facilities in these respective districts. The most important factor affecting spatial access was found to be the distance to the nearest major urban agglomeration. PMID:24893032

Ranga, Vikram; Panda, Pradeep

2014-05-01

274

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination inBangladesh andWestBengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninedistricts inWestBengal, India, and42districts inBangldesh have arsenic levels inground- water above theWorldHealth Oranization mxmumpermissible limit of50pg\\/L. Thearea andpopulation ofthe42districts inBangadesh andthe9districts inWestBengal are92,106 km2and79.9 million and38,865 kI2and42.7 million, respectively. Inourpreliminar study, wehave identified 985anenic-affected villags in69police stations\\/blocks ofnine arsenic-afFect- eddistricts inWestBengl. InBa esh, wehave identified 492affected villages in141police stations\\/blocks of42affected districts. Todate, wehave collected 10,991 water smples from 42 arsenic-affected

Bhajan K. Biswas; Tarit RoyChowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Gautam C. Basu; Chinta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Khitish C. Saha; Subhas K. Mukherjee; Sibtosh Roy; Saiful Kabir

2000-01-01

275

VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

2011-01-01

276

Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India  

PubMed Central

Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time. PMID:25606442

Jain, Shalu; Saxena, Sunita; Kumar, Anup

2014-01-01

277

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

278

Ethnobiology of the Nilgiri hills, India.  

PubMed

The Nilgiri is a popular massif towering high in the Western Ghats in South India with an altitude of 2623 m. Nature has been magnanimous in bestowing Nilgiri district with rich evergreen temperate to tropical forests. A high degree of biodiversity, marked by varied flora and fauna of good therapeutic potential as well as the varied number of indigenous groups of people in this area, makes it very popular among herbalists. The district has six anthropologically well defined ethnic groups namely Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyas and Kattunayakas living here possibly since 1200 B.C. The present review highlights the ethnobiological profile of six indigenous populations and their dependence on ambient flora and fauna for traditional health care needs. It has been observed that about 2700 therapeutically potent plant species are available in this hill station of which almost all have come from local medicine. Some have been explored scientifically. However, about 150 plant species are still to be explored for their therapeutic potential. The ethnography, phytochemical and therapeutic uses as well as the anthropological perspectives of the local medicines have been discussed in this review. PMID:11933110

Rajan, S; Sethuraman, M; Mukherjee, Pulok K

2002-03-01

279

Designing a Comprehensive School District Assessment Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comprehensive assessment plan designed by the Kitsap (Washington) School District. This plan clarifies district assessment purposes and aligns student evaluation with the district's new performance-based content standards. The test provides a model for other districts seeking to integrate curriculum standards, instruction, and…

Elman, Linda; Chappuis, Stephen; Chappuis, Jan

1998-01-01

280

Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population

P Jambulingam; K Gunasekaran; SS Sahu; T Vijayakumar

2008-01-01

281

The paleoposition of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal similarity is extremly poor between India-Antarctica and India-Australia. This suggests that India cannot be placed alongside Antarctica or Australia in a pre-drift assembly. Moreover, the distribution of marine rocks indicates that India faced an open sea at its eastern margin during Proterozoic, Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Before the drift, India probably occupied the position between Somalia and Asia, and the Tethys was narrow and intracontinental. With the spreading of the Carlsberg Ridge in the Upper Cretaceous, the Indian block rotated counter-clockwise in relation to Africa to converge to Asia, with the opening up of the Arabian Sea. The rotational movement of India is supported by hot spot trajectory and reversal of paleoslopes of the ancient Gondwana rivers. There is a possible genetic relation between the Arabian sphenochasm and the origin of the Himalaya. With continued convergence of India to Asia, limited subduction occured at the Indus Suture along the axis of the Tethys; the further compression led to the closure of the Tethys followed by foldings, faultings and large-scale intracratonic subductions to form the Himalaya. The Himalayan uplift probably began in the Miocene, but went more actively in the Quaternary.

Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

282

Critical care in India.  

PubMed

India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

1997-04-01

283

HIV Seroprevalence among Tuberculosis Patients in India, 2006–2007  

PubMed Central

Background Little information exists regarding the burden of HIV among tuberculosis patients in India, and no population-based surveys have been previously reported. A community-based HIV prevalence survey was conducted among tuberculosis patients treated by the national tuberculosis control programme to evaluate the HIV prevalence among tuberculosis patients in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifteen districts (total population: 40.2 million) across 8 states were stratified by HIV prevalence in antenatal clinic HIV surveillance sites and randomly selected. From December 2006 to May 2007, remnant serum was collected from patients' clinical specimens taken after 2 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment and subjected to anonymous, unlinked HIV testing. Specimens were obtained and successfully tested for 5,995 (73%) of 8,217 tuberculosis patients eligible for the survey. HIV prevalence ranged widely among the 15 surveyed districts, from 1% in Koch Bihar, West Bengal, to 13.8% in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. HIV infection was 1.3 times more likely among male TB patients than among female patients. Relative to smear-positive tuberculosis, HIV infection was 1.4 times more likely among smear-negative patients and 1.3 times more likely among extrapulmonary patients. In 4 higher-HIV prevalence districts, which had been previously surveyed in 2005–2006, no significant change in HIV prevalence was detected. Conclusions The burden of HIV among tuberculosis patients varies widely in India. Programme efforts to implement comprehensive TB-HIV services should be targeted to areas with the highest HIV burden. Surveillance through routine reporting or special surveys is necessary to detect areas requiring intensification of TB-HIV collaborative activities. PMID:18714335

Raizada, Neeraj; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Khera, Ajay; Sokhey, Jotna; Wares, D. Fraser; Sahu, Suvanand; Thakur, Rahul; Dewan, Puneet Kumar

2008-01-01

284

Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India: A vanishing disease!  

PubMed Central

Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India was a common medical problem in the coastal districts of south India, especially the Kerala State. The clinical and autopsy studies have shown left and right ventricular apical fibrosis, with varying degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents with severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents very high systemic venous pressure and congestive cardiac failure. Surgical management improved the natural history of the disease to some extent. Various infectious and toxic factors were postulated regarding its aetiology. During the last few years, incidence of the disease has decreased considerably. The only explanation identified is the significant improvement in the living standards of the people with the corresponding decline in the childhood malnutrition, infections, worm infestation and associated eosinophilia. PMID:23287119

Vijayaraghavan, G.; Sivasankaran, S.

2012-01-01

285

Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

286

India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

287

Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.  

PubMed

Two taxa, Hericium yumthangense (Russulales, Agaricomycotina) and Mycoleptodonoides sharmae (Polyporales, Agaricomycotina) are described as new to science from the Shingba Rhododendron sanctuary located in the northern district of Sikkim, India. Macro- and micromorphological characters are described and illustrated for both species, which are compared with allied taxa. ITS rDNA sequences supported H. yumthangense as a rather isolated species within Hericium, the species complexes of which were not resolved due to low interspecific sequence divergence. In the case of M. sharmae, 28S rDNA (D1/D2) data rendered this poorly known genus among well-known taxa of the core-polyporoid clade. PMID:24563842

Das, Kanad; Stalpers, Joost A; Stielow, J Benjamin

2013-12-01

288

Keratinophilic fungi on feathers of pigeon in Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Results of a preliminary survey of keratinophilic fungi associated with feathers of pigeon on high rise buildings in Thane district of Maharashtra (India) are reported. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 67 samples were positive for keratinophilic fungi. Altogether 67 fungal strains belonging to 10 species of seven genera were isolated viz. Chrysosporium indicum (24%), Chrysosporium sp. (2%), Chr. tropicum (8%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum (3%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (15%), Malbranchea pulchella (3%), Malbranchea sp. (1%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (2%) and Trichophyton terrestre (4%). PMID:15189186

Deshmukh, S K

2004-06-01

289

Effects of inbreeding on marriage payment in north India.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between consanguineous marriages and marriage payment, using data from two Muslim qaums living in urban and rural areas in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, North India. Qaum and locality were found to have no significant association with the dowry system. Marriage payment is less common in consanguineous than in non-consanguineous marriages. However, the association between marriage payment and the type of marriage is significant at p < 0.001. The dowry system is more prevalent among the higher socioeconomic groups, while the bride-wealth system is more common among the lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:7650050

Badaruddoza; Afzal, M

1995-07-01

290

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

291

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

292

78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...

2013-06-21

293

Managing India's environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this

Jasanoff

1986-01-01

294

Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

295

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

296

Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

1999-12-01

297

History of Nuclear India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and

Ram Chaturvedi

2000-01-01

298

The Ramayana: India's Odyssey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide demonstrates how the "Ramayana," one of India's epic literary treasures, can be used in a literature unit in English classes for ninth-grade students. The unit incorporates a useful comparison to the Greek epic, the "Odyssey." Included in this curriculum guide are the following sections: the text (an English version of the…

Fuchs, Gaynell M.; Lynn, Thomas J.

299

Asbestos problem in India.  

PubMed

Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. Ultimately construction workers, electricians, vehicle mechanics and other workers in the building trades who are exposed to asbestos inhale hundreds and thousands of amphiboles, which causes lung damage. It is being mined in India at places such as Andhra Pradesh (Pulivendla), Jharkand (Roro), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajsamand) and the common problem faced by the locals are asbestosis through air and fluorosis through drinking water. The problem continues to be in India as well as other developing countries. Also, India import and re-export asbestos to other countries and workers at shipyard, transport of the hazardous material on road and roadside residents all are vulnerable to this uncommon disease. The signs and symptoms generally found with the workers are shortness of breath, persistent and productive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis can show up many years after the asbestos exposure. PMID:15950810

Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N

2005-07-01

300

The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.

1998-01-01

301

[Demographic trends in India].  

PubMed

A summary of the first results of the 1981 census of India is presented. Consideration is given to the sex ratio and to the effect on fertility of various factors, including female education, religion, and age at marriage. The effectiveness of the national family planning program is also considered, and the role of natural family planning methods is assessed. PMID:12265737

Fonseca, A

1982-12-18

302

Education And Gender Bias in the Sex Ratio At Birth: Evidence From India  

PubMed Central

This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people’s acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts. PMID:20355693

ECHÁVARRI, REBECA A.; EZCURRA, ROBERTO

2010-01-01

303

Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

2014-05-01

304

Ethnobotanical flora used by four major tribes of Koraput, Odisha, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to chronicle the utilization pattern of a number of plant species by four major tribes inhabiting\\u000a in Koraput district of Odisha, India. Fifteen villages dominated by tribal communities, under five Community Development Blocks\\u000a were selected. A semi structured questionnaire was developed to bring together data on traditional crops and forest species\\u000a still used by

Smita MishraSusanta; Susanta Sekhar Chaudhury

305

Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals\\u000a worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain,\\u000a which is formed by the Ganga–Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh\\u000a is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The

Mridul Chetia; Soumya Chatterjee; Saumen Banerjee; Manash J. Nath; Lokendra Singh; Ravi B. Srivastava; Hari P. Sarma

2011-01-01

306

Fluoride incidence in groundwater: a case study from Talupula, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride-rich groundwater is well known in granite aquifers in India and the world. This study examines the fluoride content\\u000a of well water in different parts of Talupula area of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. It also focuses on fluorides and\\u000a their relationship to water-quality parameters and their impacts on humans through groundwater resources. Most parts of the\\u000a area covered in this

Nagaraju Arveti; M. R. S. Sarma; J. A. Aitkenhead-Peterson; K. Sunil

2011-01-01

307

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996–1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998–1999). District level consumption of coal\\/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors

M. Shekar Reddy; Chandra Venkataraman

2002-01-01

308

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

309

Biosocial covariates of adult male body mass index in Central India.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) is the 'measuring rod' of nutritional status. This study investigates the type and extent of correlation between adult male BMI and socioeconomic, cultural and bio-demographical variables using data from 11,496 individuals from 38 districts of Central India. For each individual, stature, body weight and sitting height data were collected, their Cormic index and BMI computed, and averages for each district calculated. Mean BMI was found to be lowest for the population of Tikamgarh (17.90+/-1.91 kg m(-2)) and highest for that of Durg district (19.33+/-2.16 kg m(-2)), whereas the mean BMI for the total population of Central India was 18.67+/-2.18 kg m(-2), which is lower than that of well-to-do individuals in India as a whole. The F ratio indicates that there is inter-district variation in anthropometric characteristics of populations. District-wise biosocial indicators were obtained, namely population density per square kilometre, percentage urban population, percentage of population that is of scheduled caste/tribe, sex ratio, average rural population per PHC/CHC (primary or community health centre), literacy rate, life expectancy, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, gender development index and human development index. Most of these variables were found to be significantly correlated with each other, but BMI was only significantly correlated with three of them, viz. gender development index (R2=0.211), life expectancy (R2=0.130) and infant mortality rate (R2=0.128). Gender development index and life expectancy were positively correlated with BMI, whereas infant mortality rate was negatively correlated. It is concluded that if BMI increases then life expectancy will also increase. Thus better nutritional status may be a helpful tool for reducing infant mortality rate, which is an indicator of socioeconomic status, health condition, health care and ultimately overall development of a region or population. PMID:17349067

Gautam, Rajesh K

2007-11-01

310

'Hellenistic India'1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst the influence of post-colonialism may be seen in many aspects of modern Classical studies, one area of study in which the issues raised by reassessment of Europe's colonial past is of particular resonance is that of Hellenistic-period (c. 323-31 BCE) Greek settlement in India and Central Asia. The history of these regions under Greek rule has often, consciously or

Rachel R. Mairs

311

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15

312

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2013-01-01

313

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2012-01-01

314

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2014-01-01

315

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2011-01-01

316

7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions...District 3 consists of all counties in California where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and...

2010-01-01

317

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2012-01-01

318

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2014-01-01

319

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2013-01-01

320

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2011-01-01

321

7 CFR 959.17 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.17 District. District means each of the geographic divisions of...

2011-01-01

322

7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee... The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county...

2010-01-01

323

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following districts of the production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1: (Coastal Bend) The Counties of Victoria, Calhoun, Goliad, Refugio, Bee, Live Oak, San Patricio, Aransas, Jim Wells, Nueces, Kleberg, Brooks,...

2010-01-01

324

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2011-01-01

325

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2010-01-01

326

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2014-01-01

327

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2012-01-01

328

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.21 District. District means any of the...

2013-01-01

329

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2010-01-01

330

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2012-01-01

331

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2014-01-01

332

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2011-01-01

333

7 CFR 905.13 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...County Commissioner's Districts Four and Five of Volusia County. (d) Citrus District Four shall include the Counties of Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Glades, De Sota, Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier, Monroe, Dade,...

2013-01-01

334

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2013-01-01

335

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2014-01-01

336

7 CFR 920.12 - District  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.12 District District means the applicable one of the following...

2011-01-01

337

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following...

2012-01-01

338

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  

PubMed

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-08-01

339

Child maltreatment in India.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

2013-11-01

340

MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

2000-01-01

341

Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01

342

Review: Carbonate aquifers and future perspectives of karst hydrogeology in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 3 % of India's total land surface is occupied by carbonate rocks which are mostly karstified and constitute a significant source of groundwater. The groundwater drawn from these aquifers matches the water demand of ~35 million people living in 106 districts of the country and also the water needs of livestock, irrigation and industry. The studies on karst in India carried out so far have mostly addressed geology, hydrology and groundwater contamination. A literature survey suggests that there is a need for detailed research, applying new approaches and techniques for proper carbonate aquifer identification, characterization and management. Such specific approaches will improve modeling, exploitation and protection of karst groundwater. An overview of the research carried out on groundwater resources of karst formations in India is presented, which also throws light on the protection of karst aquifers from existing anthropogenic activities such as mining and groundwater over-exploitation.

Dar, Farooq Ahmad; Perrin, Jerome; Ahmed, Shakeel; Narayana, Allu China

2014-06-01

343

Florida School District Teams Technology with Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses steps taken to initiate, implement, and complete the five-year technology plan of Florida's Lee County school district. The project was developed to provide computer access for the district's administrators, teachers, and students. Sidebars present project phases; inservice training opportunities for district staff; services provided by…

Spriggs, Valerie, G.; Bohannon, Harriet C.

1995-01-01

344

The model of District Medical Data Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the infrastructure for the healthcare system, The District Medical Data Center need to be built at first. The model of architecture of District Medical Data Center is proposed in the paper. Both the advantages and disadvantages of the model are set forth while the view is presented. The District Medical Data Center is “patient-centered” instead of “accounting-centered” in the

Zhang Jiemin; Lu Jinsheng

2010-01-01

345

Working Together: Districts and the State Department.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Department of Education officials visited Azusa Unified School District as part of their study on the governance of education after Proposition 13. This article summarizes, from the District's perspective, the discussions on categorical programs and ways the State Department could help the district to improve education.…

Beall, Lewis L.

1978-01-01

346

Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

Cline, David S.

2011-01-01

347

Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Windham County Natural Resources Conservation District was authorized and formed by the State of Vermont on January 8, 1946, under the provisions of the Soil Conservation Act No. 246 of the Acts of the 1939 Vermont General Assembly. It is one of 14 Conservation Districts in the state of Vermont. Windham District is a political subdivision of the State

Vice Chairperson; Gail MacArthur; Andrea Darrow

348

District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

2014-01-01

349

7 CFR 916.12 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area or such other subdivision as may be prescribed pursuant to § 916.31: (a) District 1 shall include the counties of Madera and Fresno. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Kings and Tulare. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

350

California's Districts of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

Kronholz, June

2014-01-01

351

Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

352

Marketing Techniques for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

Lane, John J., Ed.

353

Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

354

Competition with Charters Motivates Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

2013-01-01

355

Diversity at Sherwood Forest District  

E-print Network

Working with inner city schools #12;Diversity at Sherwood Social deprivation Community WoodlandsDiversity at Sherwood Forest District #12;Diversity at Sherwood Forestry Commission #12;Diversity at Sherwood Sherwood's Team Shortlisted for Civil Service `Diversity and Equality Award' #12;Diversity

356

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

357

Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India  

PubMed Central

Background To identify levels of physical inactivity and smoking and examine their relationships to health among older people in India. Methods In 2010, Longitudinal Aging Study in India researchers interviewed 1,683 older adults in randomly sampled households with members aged???45 years in eight stratified districts in four states (90.9% response rate). We first used descriptive analyses to characterize older people in poor and good health. Differences between groups were established using chi-squared and t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed to determine whether physical inactivity and smoking led to poor health while controlling for district of residence, caste, age, gender, marital status, and educational level. Regression analyses were also used to identify significant relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Larger proportions of older people in poor health were smokers (26.1% vs. 16.9%; p???0.001) and physically inactive (vigorous activities: 88.7% vs. 70.7%, p???0.001; moderate activities: 67.1% vs. 57.1%, p???0.01). Smoking (p???0.05) and lack of vigorous physical activity (p???0.001) increased the likelihood of poor health. Low educational level was significantly related to smoking and the lack of moderate physical activity (both p???0.001). Female gender decreased the likelihood of smoking. Male gender increased the likelihood of vigorous physical activity but decreased the likelihood of moderate physical activity. Conclusions Smoking and physical inactivity have important impacts on the health of older people in India. Policy attention is needed to improve these modifiable health behaviors. PMID:24884852

2014-01-01

358

Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

Dalal, Ajit K.

2011-01-01

359

E-Learning in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India

Mishra, Sanjaya

2009-01-01

360

A Tale of Two Indias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

Sidhu, Jonathan

2007-01-01

361

Adult Education in India & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

362

Sickle Cell Disease in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

countered in which only one of the parents shows the sickle cell trait. In such instances the other parent usually shows the presence of a gene respon- sibbe for some other hematobogic abnormality.8 In India the presence of sickle cell trait in different foci ( the Veddian tribes of the South,' the tribes of \\\\Vestern India,#{176} and certain labor tribes

R. N. SHUKLA; B. R. SoLM; A. S. PARANDE

1958-01-01

363

Environment and Culture in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

Leuthold, David

364

Renewable energy financing: India's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's Renewable Energy Programme is the largest and the most extensive among the developing countries of the World. The increased use of renewable energy technologies has been facilitated by a variety of policy and support measures from the Government of India (GoI). The programme is administered by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) - the nodal ministry of the

V. Bakthavatsalam

1999-01-01

365

Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

2012-01-01

366

Regeneration of Lasiurus sindicus in relation to grazing pressure and root-zone soil moisture in arid rangelands of western Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted in arid rangelands of Jaisalmer district in western Rajasthan, India, assessed the effect of root-zone soil moisture and grazing pressure on regenerative potential and fodder yields of Lasiurus sindicus (Sewan) grass. Uncontrolled grazing sig- nifi cantly reduced stand density of grass tussocks and their regeneration compared with sites subjected to controlled grazing or no grazing. The root-zone

R. S. MERTIA; R. PRASAD; B. K. KANDPAL

367

School Choice for the Poor? The Limits of Marketisation of Primary Education in Rural India. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…

Harma, Joanna

2010-01-01

368

Earth - India and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

1990-01-01

369

Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

370

India`s low-tech energy success  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

Sampat, P.

1995-11-01

371

India Habitat Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

372

Holocene aridification of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

2012-02-01

373

Field survey for sickle cell disease in the tribal population of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh.  

PubMed

Tribals have inhabited the hilly forest area in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, South India in isolation for centuries. A field survey for sickle cell disease was conducted from 1978 to 1986 and electrophoresis on cellogel was carried out in 2,589 samples. The incidence of sickle gene varied in different castes among the tribals. A higher incidence was found in the Valmiki (31.5%), followed by the Konda Kammari (27%), Koya Dora (17.3%), Konda Reddy (13.4%), Koya (12.1%), Konda Kapu (6.8%), and others (4.2%). Harijans living in the tribal belt had an incidence of 16.1%. PMID:2292553

Nayudu, N V

1990-07-01

374

Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

Perry, Mary

2005-01-01

375

The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

Dell, Karen

2009-01-01

376

Tibetan Studies in Modern India  

E-print Network

',in, the plains of India knowledge about Tibet W,as ,rather m~agre~'Md: ~ '; - mystic except for the trader families or scholarly pilgrims to Kailas Mansarovar. Tibet was know,l1 in India as 'the land of Lamas' a,nd the land from where came the ,sacred fly... inside Tibet. These two Bengalis were the pioneers in modern India's quest about religion and culture of Tibet. Shortly after came a Hungarian scholar named Alexander Csoma de Kores, who made Calcutta and Darjeeling his seats for Tibetan studies...

Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

1983-01-01

377

Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.  

PubMed

Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. PMID:24121564

Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

2014-01-15

378

The development of mental health services within primary care in India: learning from oral history  

PubMed Central

Background In India very few of those who need mental health care receive it, despite efforts of the 1982 National Mental Health Programme and its district-level component the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) to improve mental health care coverage. Aims To explore and unpack the political, cultural and other historical reasons for the DMHP’s failures and successes since 1947 (post-independence era), which may highlight issues for today’s current primary mental health care policy and programme. Methods Oral history interviews and documentary sourcing were conducted in 2010–11 with policy makers, programme managers and observers who had been active in the creation of the NMHP and DMHP. Results The results suggest that the widely held perception that the DMHP has failed is not entirely justified, insofar that major hurdles to the implementation of the plan have impacted on mental health coverage in primary care, rather than faults with the plan itself. These hurdles have been political neglect, inadequate leadership at central, state and district levels, inaccessible funding and improperly implemented delivery of services (including poor training, motivation and retention of staff) at district and community levels. Conclusion At this important juncture as the 12th Five Year Plan is in preparation, this historical paper suggests that though the model may be improved, the most important changes would be to encourage central and state governments to implement better technical support, access to funds and to rethink the programme leadership at national, state and district levels. PMID:25089154

2014-01-01

379

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

380

Elections in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News discusses the general elections in India. The seven resources discussed offer poll results, analysis, and commentary. More than 600 million voters in the world's largest democracy went to the polls recently to choose candidates from 622 political parties. The election produced a temporarily deadlocked parliament, with the Hindu nationalist party, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and an alliance of the Congress and United Front parties hotly pursuing representatives from smaller regional parties to reach the magic number of 272 -- a majority. On March 10, President KR Narayanan formally asked the leader of the BJP, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, whether or not he is able to form the next government. It is now up to the BJP to decide whether or not it can put together a working coalition.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

381

Comets in ancient India  

E-print Network

The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

Gupta, Patrick Das

2014-01-01

382

Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-12-01

383

HOW DOES THE DISTRICT LOOK FROM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to explore image-building strategies developed by industrial district firms and collective agents operating within local systems. As globalisation increases, the ability to project a positive, identity-congruent industrial district image may be a crucial competitive factor at an international level. Through in-depth interviews with Sassuolo district senior managers, together with secondary source information, we explore the ceramic tile

Gianluca Marchi; Elisa Martinelli

384

India's demographic snapshot, 1991.  

PubMed

Having presented the provisional results of the 1991 Census of India in tabular form, the author discusses the policy implication of the data. During the 1981-91 decade, India witnesses a 160.99 net increase in population, which brought the country's total population to an estimated 844.32 million. The annual growth rated during the decade was 2.1%. The author explains that these alarming population figures reflect the failure of the government's population program. The author warns that unless the Planning Commission develops new strategies, the upcoming 5-year plans. The author explains that the failure of family planning is due primarily to the low literacy rate -- especially the female literacy rate is 29% (and 25% among rural women). The author also discusses the problems of urbanization and the work force. During the past decade, cities grew at a somewhat slower rate than in previous decades, meaning that the absorptive capacity of the cities has gone down. Nonetheless, the urban population grew by 58 million during 10-year period. The urban infrastructure is virtually collapsing, with 30-50% of the urban population living in slums. The data also reveals the structural stagnation of the economy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for about 2/3 of the work force, registered only slight decreases during the decade, signifying a marginal shift from agriculture to nonagricultural activity. Furthermore, population growth has aggravated the unemployment problem. Finally, the author addresses the issue of the sex ratio (females/1000 males), which declined from 934 in 1981 to 929 in 1991, which indicates a continued prejudice against women. PMID:12317108

Bose, A

1991-12-01

385

Patterns of Government for Wisconsin School Districts. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines the characteristics of the five kinds of Wisconsin school districts: the common school district, the union high school district, the city school district, the unified school district, and the city of the first class. The report discusses general characteristics, annual meetings, school board duties and powers, mechanisms…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Board and Administrator Services.

386

Searching for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tribals from Kerala, India  

PubMed Central

Background: In India, indigenous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are mainly confined to the northwestern region. But now, more and more case reports are coming in from other parts of India. In January 2009, a 26-year-old lady residing in a forest area in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State presented with bluish red nodules on her upper extremities, of six months duration, which was clinically more in favor of cutaneous leishmaniasis. She had never gone out of the district of Thiruvananthapuram in her life. Aim: To investigate whether the patient hails from a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Setting and Design: An epidemiological investigation in the form of a survey was carried out in March 2009 by a multidisciplinary team among 63 persons residing in the Mele Aamala and Aayiramkala forest tribal settlements in Kuttichal Panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district. Material and Methods: History taking and clinical examination of 38 persons in the area with special consideration to skin lesions was undertaken. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the skin lesions was done. Breeding places of sand fly and possible reservoirs of Leishmania were also simultaneously investigated. Statistical analysis used: The data obtained was tabulated as frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical significance of differences in distributions. Results: Out of the 38 persons examined, active lesions were found in 12 persons and six had healed lesions. Tissue samples were obtained from seven out of the 12 suspected cases. Four of them showed Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in tissue smears. Out of the cultures taken from three patients, one showed promastigote forms in Novy McNeal Nicolle (NNN) medium. Histopathological study was done in five patients and two patients had LD bodies, one had epithelioid cell granuloma and the other two had mixed infiltrate with predominantly macrophages. All the three investigations were carried out in three patients and out of them one showed positivity in all the three investigations and the rest two were positive in tissue smear and histopathological examination. Sandflies collected from the area gave an indirect evidence of its role in the disease transmission in the area. Conclusion: The clinical, microbiological and histopathological evaluation of the skin lesions was consistent with cutaneous leishmaniasis. But none of the patients gave history of travel outside the district before the onset of the disease and no one had newly moved into this area within the last two years. So this may be considered as probably a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis PMID:20606960

S M, Simi; T S, Anish; R, Jyothi; K, Vijayakumar; Philip, Rekha Rachel; Paul, Nimmy

2010-01-01

387

Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija

2011-01-01

388

Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians,\\u000a bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast\\u000a of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species (Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures

J. M. Guerra-García; T. Ganesh; M. Jaikumar; A. V. Raman

2010-01-01

389

Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan

2013-01-01

390

Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

2003-01-01

391

The Interrelationship of School District Expenditures and Student Academic Achievement in Oklahoma Public Elementary School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose and Method of Study. The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between school district expenditures and student academic achievement in 102 public elementary school districts in the state of Oklahoma. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationship between school district expenditures and…

Moore, Glenn M.

2012-01-01

392

A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Missouri District Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Missouri district is a small rural school district with 450 students and 51 staff with a total of 210 client computers. The district consists of two schools (K-6 and 7-12) housed in a single building. This document contains the results of the four 2004 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) case studies: (1) Software costs; (2) Hardware costs; (3)…

Consortium for School Networking, 2004

2004-01-01

393

WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis  

E-print Network

to public demonstrations all across India, after corruption, fuel prices and a young woman's gang rape,500 police personnel had to accompany trucks to the waste treatment plant as they were being blocked by local

394

Quantifying the Dimensions of Water Crisis in India: Spatial Water Deficits and Storage Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is facing threats of mounting water resources crisis with growing concerns on the reliable supply of water for various agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability, limited storage infrastructure to buffer the variations, and increasing consumptive uses across the country exacerbates the situation further. In this study, a detailed quantitative assessment of the water availability and storage requirements for India is presented. Considering the climate variability over a century time scale and the current water demands, Potential Storage Index (PSI) is developed for all districts in India using the sequent peak algorithm. The Potential Storage Index highlights the districts with high water stress, thus identifying the regions where water demand management or new storage infrastructure is needed. Preliminary analysis shows that the regions under high stress are the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and depleted groundwater aquifers. The sensitivity of the model and applications to irrigated and rainfed crop management are presented. The results of the analysis are further used to assess differential vulnerability of particular sectors within the nation which can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions.

Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

2010-12-01

395

A New Kind of School District: How Local Leaders Can Create Charter Districts. The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This short paper discusses the advantages of and outlines key design issues for creating charter districts. The design issues are divided into three categories representing the three central elements of the environment the districts are trying to create for their schools: the opportunity to perform, incentives to perform, and capacity to perform.…

Hassel, Bryan

396

Smuggling India: Deconstructing Western India’s Illicit Export Trade, 1818-1870  

E-print Network

textiles, and timber. As the physical Portuguese presence in India diminished, ultimately replaced in many respects by the English East India Company, the mercantile communities with which they traded continued their operations relatively unabated. Despite... , indigo and salt.14 Moreover, their business also included shipment of legal commodities such as silk textiles, chintzes, and various other piece goods. In both cases, firms were built on foundations of kinship and developed from long-standing regional...

Boehme, Kate

2015-02-16

397

Implementing reproductive and child health services in rural Maharashtra, India: a pragmatic approach.  

PubMed

The Government of India has been providing limited maternal and child health services through its Family Welfare programme, but this system is characterised by weaknesses that include inefficient work schedules; non-availability of functioning equipment; poor contraceptive and drug supplies; poor skills and knowledge of health workers; and poor access to services in villages without health centres. For the new Reproductive and Child Health programme to deliver an even wider range of services, the health system will need to be strengthened and the quality of service delivery improved. This paper describes a seven-year operations research project in Parner block, Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra, India, undertaken by the Foundation for Research in Health Systems in partnership with state and district health administrations. It shows the feasibility of establishing a more efficient system, with a minimum of affordable inputs, that increases the use of services by women. Four critical policy changes were implemented: service delivery in each village was changed from household visits to a clinic base, stringent monitoring mechanisms were put in place, in-service training for health workers was instituted and the range of services was gradually increased. This experience is now being applied more widely, with eventual phasing up to full district and state level. PMID:12800711

Barua, Alka; Waghmare, Ramesh; Venkiteswaran, Sumathi

2003-05-01

398

Malaria and the Narmada-river development in India: a case study of the Bargi dam.  

PubMed

The largest river-valley development to be proposed in India is that in the Narmada valley. The building of the Bargi dam, a multi-purpose irrigation and hydro-electric project, in Jabalpur, in central India, formed part of the first phase of the development of this valley (1974-1988). Many villages and several hectares of land in three districts were submerged as the waters rose behind the dam, the worst affected area being the catchment area of the primary health centre (PHC) at Narayanganj, in Mandla district. Until recently, cases of malaria were relatively rare in Narayanganj. However, an epidemic of malaria in late 1996 claimed hundreds of lives in the area and the outbreak spread, during 1997, to new villages in the region. A review of the records collected by the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) not only indicated that the slide positivity rate (SPR) for Narayanganj increased > 7.45-fold between 1979 and 1997 but also that the slide falciparum rate (SFR) increased > 32-fold over the same period. The NMEP data available for Mandla district as a whole indicated a doubling in mean SPR and SFR between 1979 and 1997. There is no evidence that a new species of vector has established since 1979. In fact, indoor-resting densities of anophelines and of the most established vector, Anopheles culicifacies, have fallen since the dam was built, but densities of another vector, An. fluviatilis, have increased. PMID:10690243

Singh, N; Mehra, R K; Sharma, V P

1999-07-01

399

Strengthening Primary Level Health Service Delivery: Lessons from a State in India  

PubMed Central

The main aim of the study was to assess primary health centers (PHCs) in terms of availability of assured services, facility of primary management of selected cases, surgeries, maternal and newborn health care services, and child health care services with respect to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). Data were collected from service providers (medical officerin-charge) at PHCs through well-structured questionnaire developed by referring the IPHS for PHCs prescribed by the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The study was conducted at five districts (i.e. Bundi, SawaiMadhopur, Kota, Tonk, and Karauli) of Rajasthan state of India. All 148 PHCs of these five districts were included in the study. Findings depict that more than 90% of the study PHCs showed availability of services such as outpatient department (OPD), antenatal check up (ANC), postnatal check up (PNC), management of reproductive tract infections/sexual transmitted infection (RTI/STI), immunization, and treatment of diarrhea. However, services such as emergency services (24 h), primary management of fractures, surgery of cataract, medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) services, management of low-birth-weight babies, facility for tubectomy and vasectomy, and facility for internal examination for gynecological conditions were poor at PHCs of the study districts, which need to be addressed for further strengthening of primary health centers. PMID:24479021

Sodani, Prahlad Rai; Sharma, Kalpa

2012-01-01

400

Maiden outbreaks of dengue virus 1 genotype III in rural central India.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Dengue is regarded as the most important arboviral disease. Although sporadic cases have been reported, serotypes responsible for outbreaks have not been identified from central India over the last 20 years. We investigated two outbreaks of febrile illness, in August and November 2012, from Korea district (Chhattisgarh) and Narsinghpur district (Madhya Pradesh), respectively. Fever and entomological surveys were conducted in the affected regions. Molecular and serological tests were conducted on collected serum samples. Dengue-specific amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. In Korea and Narsinghpur districts 37·3% and 59% of cases were positive, respectively, for dengue infection, with adults being the worst affected. RT-PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype 1 genotype III as the aetiology. Ninety-six percent of infections were primary. This is the first time that dengue virus 1 outbreaks have been documented from central India. Introduction of the virus into the population and a conducive mosquitogenic environment favouring increased vector density caused the outbreak. Timely diagnosis and strengthening vector control measures are essential to avoid future outbreaks. PMID:24667083

Barde, P V; Kori, B K; Shukla, M K; Bharti, P K; Chand, G; Kumar, G; Ukey, M J; Ali, N A; Singh, N

2015-01-01

401

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”....

2014-04-01

402

Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India  

PubMed Central

Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs’ performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds—more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

2014-01-01

403

Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.  

PubMed

Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

2014-07-01

404

Severe Neurotoxic Envenoming and Cardiac Complications after the Bite of a ‘Sind Krait’ (Bungarus cf. sindanus) in Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

We report a case of severe envenoming with unusual complications and two anecdotal cases of fatalities following proven 17-scale-row ‘Sind krait’ (Bungarus cf. sindanus) bites on people sleeping in temporary huts at construction sites in Pune District, Maharashtra, India. A 25-yr-old male developed progressive neuromuscular paralysis, abdominal pain and autonomic disturbances complicated by four prolonged episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia requiring defibrillation, and followed by pulmonary edema secondary to impaired left ventricular systolic function and hyperfusion. There was no response to antivenom; mechanical ventilation was required for six days. Only one other case of fatal envenoming likely caused by this species had been reported previously in India. The distribution of B. sindanus sensu lato from eastern Afghanistan to India overlaps with that of the superficially very similar common krait (Bungarus caeruleus). Thus, B. cf. sindanus envenoming may be common but routinely overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:23264729

Pillai, Lalitha V.; Ambike, Dhananjay; Husainy, Saifuddin; Khaire, Anil; Captain, Ashok; Kuch, Ulrich

2012-01-01

405

Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

2007-01-01

406

Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2013-01-01

407

Brevard District Plan for Career Education Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Brevard County Plan was written to include goals and objectives for the years 1974-77. Goals for 1974-75 include promoting the career education concept in all district schools (emphasizing the various career education elements at appropriate grade levels), setting up placement services, coordinating county and district goals, program…

Thomas, Olive W.

408

District of Columbia v. Heller and Originalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 26, 2008, the United States Supreme Court handed down its 5-4 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, striking a District of Columbia statute that prohibits the possession of useable handguns in the home on the ground that it violated the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Justice Scalia's majority opinion drew dissents from Justice Stevens and

Lawrence B. Solum

2009-01-01

409

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2010-01-01

410

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2011-01-01

411

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2012-01-01

412

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2014-01-01

413

7 CFR 927.11 - District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall...provisions of this subpart as applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be...

2013-01-01

414

Improving Districts: Systems That Support Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current focus on accountability for results, many schools are finding ways to continuously improve their practices and better meet the needs of all children. School districts, too, are focused on the goal of continuous improvement. Nine districts, remarkable for the success they have demonstrated in helping the majority of their schools,…

WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

415

Teacher-Quality Checklist for School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many districts struggle with multiple--and often incompatible--data systems for tracking payroll, collecting teacher evaluations, recruiting and hiring. Aligning these systems and annually assessing where a district stands is the first step towards developing a smart human capital strategy. This checklist outlines the goals, data and questions a…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

2010-01-01

416

School Turnarounds: The Essential Role of Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inspiration for this book was a crucial observation: that if the school turnaround movement is to have widespread and lasting consequences, it will need to incorporate meaningful district involvement in its efforts. The result is a volume that considers school turnaround efforts at the district level, examining the evidence thus far and…

Zavadsky, Heather

2012-01-01

417

Affirmative Action Plan for School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a model for use by any size or type of school district in developing an affirmative action plan. The model is intended to give districts a clear idea of what affirmative action requires and what type of program must be implemented for affirmative action to be successful. Separate sections of the booklet discuss numerical…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

418

Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

Castner, Myra H.; And Others

419

School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

2009-01-01

420

Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

421

The New American Urban School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Commission of the States has found that urban school districts face enormous problems. This document looks at a variety of ideas about how to re-engineer the urban school district. These essays encourage educators and the public to think about the nation's urban school systems and how they might better meet the needs of children. The…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

422

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

423

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2011-01-01

424

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2012-01-01

425

7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee...Kenedy, Duval, and McMullen in the State of Texas. District No. 2: (Laredo) The...Zapata, Webb, and Jim Hogg in the State of Texas. District No. 3: (Lower...

2013-01-01

426

Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

Klein, Alyson

2013-01-01

427

ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING  

E-print Network

#12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation of the DH plant Imanta · Selection of the heat pump/chiller · Operation of the heat pump/chiller · Summary

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

428

Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Intermittent attention to the district as the unit of study has left a void in our understanding of the complexities associated with the ability of district-level leaders to contribute to successful, systemic educational reform. In this article, the authors address this void by providing a narrative synthesis of previous findings,…

Rorrer, Andrea K.; Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph

2008-01-01

429

The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

430

School Attendance and District and School Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size of schools and districts in which they are located has become a salient policy issue in recent years. While consolidation of school districts and expanding high school size were in vogue from the 1960s until recently, funding agencies are now sponsoring projects to reduce school size under the assumption that smaller schools will lead to…

Jones, John T.; Toma, Eugenia F.; Zimmer, Ron W.

2008-01-01

431

Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Public elementary and secondary education is financed in many states at least partially at the local level and school district budgets in many states are determined by voter referenda. To date, however, there have been no studies that sought to explain why the proportion of school district budget proposals in a state that are approved by voters in referenda

Ronald G Ehrenberg; Randy A. Ehrenberg; Christopher L. Smith; Liang Zhang

2003-01-01

432

Implementing District-Wide Shared Decision Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the University of Illinois initiated the Consortium for Educational Change to facilitate discussions about local reform initiatives among districts and university faculty. A high school dean of students' assessment of his district's CEC Partnership Council disclosed communication and trust problems and unanimous support for goals and…

Drexler, Doug

1998-01-01

433

SOME ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORAPUT DISTRICT ORISSA  

PubMed Central

The paper presents the ethnomedicinal use of 35 plants by the tribals of Koraput district to cure 25 diseases they suffer from. Apart from this, a note on the vegetation pattern, tribal population and geography of the district is given here. PMID:22557632

Das, P.K.; Misra, M.K.

1988-01-01

434

Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

McDaniel, Gwenn

2010-01-01

435

Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

Gordon, Dan

2012-01-01

436

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

437

Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

2012-01-01

438

Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

Bidin, Zainin

2012-01-01

439

5 Steps to a Greener School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

Hines, Gary

2010-01-01

440

Nutritive values of wild edible fruits, berries, nuts, roots and spices consumed by the Khasi tribes of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen wild edible berries, fruits, roots, and nuts consumed by the Khasi tribe of Meghalaya were botanically identified and analyzed for their nutrient contents in terms of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins. The study revealed that Coix lachryma jobi, a nut, was rich in protein (13.3 g %), Zanthoxylum acanthopodium a spice, rich in fat (20.9 g %), and Solanum indicum

D. Agrahar-Murugkar; G. Subbulakshmi

2005-01-01

441

India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

Doeksen, Peggy

442

Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. Methods and Findings Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban) were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision <6/18 were dilated and examined by an ophthalmologist. 42722 individuals aged >?=?50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8) were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye) and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9) were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye). Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye) was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5). Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye) was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6) compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2), among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8) compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1) and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0) compared to people aged 50–54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6). Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. Conclusions Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable. PMID:18682738

Neena, John; Rachel, Jose; Praveen, Vashist; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.

2008-01-01

443

Determinants of neonatal mortality in rural India, 2007–2008  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors affecting it. Therefore, this study attempt to examine individual, household, and community level factors affecting neonatal mortality in rural India. Data and methods. We analysed information on 171,529 singleton live births using the data from the most recent round of the District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007–08. Principal component analysis was used to create an asset index. Two-level logistic regression was performed to analyse the factors associated with neonatal deaths in rural India. Results. The odds of neonatal death were lower for neonates born to mothers with secondary level education (O R = 0.60, p = 0.01) compared to those born to illiterate mothers. A progressive reduction in the odds occurred as the level of fathers’ education increased. The odds of neonatal death were lower for infants born to unemployed mothers (O R = 0.89, p = 0.00) compared to those who worked as agricultural worker/farmer/laborer. The odds decreased if neonates belonged to Scheduled Tribes (O R = 0.72, p = 0.00) or ‘Others’ caste group (O R = 0.87, p = 0.04) and to the households with access to improved sanitation (O R = 0.87, p = 0.02), pucca house (O R = 0.87, p = 0.03) and electricity (O R = 0.84, p = 0.00). The odds were higher for male infants (O R = 1.21, p = 0.00) and whose mother experienced delivery complications (O R = 1.20, p = 0.00). Infants whose mothers received two tetanus toxoid injections (O R = 0.65, p = 0.00) were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Children of higher birth order were less likely to die compared to first birth order. Conclusion. Ensuring the consumption of an adequate quantity of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections by pregnant mothers, targeting vulnerable groups like young, first time and Scheduled Caste mothers, and improving overall household environment by increasing access to improved toilets, electricity, and pucca houses could also contribute to further reductions in neonatal mortality in rural India. Any public health interventions aimed at reducing neonatal death in rural India should consider these factors. PMID:23734339

Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit

2013-01-01

444

Mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans in India.  

PubMed

The first case of mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans has been described from India in a young farmer of Jaisalmer situated in the Thar desert of Western Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological and mycological studies. PMID:3894683

Joshi, K R; Mathur, D R; Sharma, J C; Vyas, M C; Sanghvi, A

1985-02-01

445

Government of India Department of Science & Technology  

E-print Network

Government of India Department of Science & Technology Department of Biotechnology Australian for bilateral collaboration in science Jointly managed by Australian and Indian governments Supports & Technology (DST), Government of India & Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

446

Country watch: India.  

PubMed

An acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education program sponsored by World Vision of India was effective in reaching low-income adolescent girls in Bombay. During the preparatory phase, household surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to gain insight into the daily lives, interests, sexual activities, and health problems of female adolescents. These activities identified a need for support and cooperation of the parents of these girls and the broader community, services such as child care for younger siblings to facilitate attendance, promotion of self-confidence and self-expression, and discussion of AIDS within the broader context of women's status and rights. The curriculum covered topics such as being a woman, puberty, sexuality, sexual exploitation and harassment, the human immune system, and protection against AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. These messages were communicated through lectures, videos, plays, puppet shows, quizzes, story telling, role plays, and group discussions. The course was supplemented by a community awareness program involving community leaders, mothers of adolescent females, young men, and adolescent boys. A total of 76 girls (average age, 14 years) attended the 7-session course. A follow-up survey indicated that knowledge about AIDS, menstruation, and reproduction increased significantly over baseline; 62% of participants reported they had talked to others about AIDS since the course. World Vision has since expanded its Women and AIDS project to male and female adolescents and adults in 21 slums and two industrial complexes in Bombay. PMID:12291989

Bhende, A A

1996-01-01

447

Groundwater Prospect Zoning Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: A Case Study in Dala-Renukoot Area, Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, ground water prospect zones in Dala-Renukoot area, in Sonebhadra district. Uttar Pradesh, India have\\u000a been delineated, through integration of various thematic maps using ARC\\/INFO GIS. Thematic maps in respect of geology, geomorphology.\\u000a slope, drainage, land-use\\/land cover, lineament and lineament intersection frequency were prepared on 1:50,000 scale using\\u000a remote sensing and conventional methods. These maps were scanned

Kamaleshwar Pratap; K. V. Ravindran; B. Prabakaran

2000-01-01

448

Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

2012-12-01

449

Economic and Disease Burden of Dengue Illness in India  

PubMed Central

Between 2006 and 2012 India reported an annual average of 20,474 dengue cases. Although dengue has been notifiable since 1996, regional comparisons suggest that reported numbers substantially underrepresent the full impact of the disease. Adjustment for underreporting from a case study in Madurai district and an expert Delphi panel yielded an annual average of 5,778,406 clinically diagnosed dengue cases between 2006 and 2012, or 282 times the reported number per year. The total direct annual medical cost was US$548 million. Ambulatory settings treated 67% of cases representing 18% of costs, whereas 33% of cases were hospitalized, comprising 82% of costs. Eighty percent of expenditures went to private facilities. Including non-medical and indirect costs based on other dengue-endemic countries raises the economic cost to $1.11 billion, or $0.88 per capita. The economic and disease burden of dengue in India is substantially more than captured by officially reported cases, and increased control measures merit serious consideration. PMID:25294616

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Adhish, S. Vivek; Nandan, Deoki; Karthiga, K. S.; Chellaswamy, Vidya; Gaba, Mukul; Arora, Narendra K.

2014-01-01

450

Model for sexual health found in India's West Bengal.  

PubMed

This article briefly identifies and describes a successful sexual health program, which was piloted in West Bengel state in India. The Indian National AIDS Control Organization established a model intervention project for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Calcutta. The project is funded for 1994-99 by the United Kingdom's Department of International Development. The project includes 8 interventions among brothel-based prostitutes, clients, and vulnerable groups, such as street children and homosexuals. There are 12 sites around Calcutta's "red light" district area of Sonagachi. During October 1996-June 1997, the project reached 150,000 individuals. Almost 650 peer educators were trained. 15,000 people were counseled for STDs. 6000 people were treated for STDs. The program distributed 1.3 million condoms. The project focus shifted from small interventions to empowerment and gender issues, on negotiating skills with clients, and training and capacity building. Success is attributed to the selection of brothel-based prostitutes, rather than free agent prostitutes who operate from hotels, lodges, and residential areas. The project plans to address the needs of sex workers who are free agents. The project has expanded to 4 other states. The future expansion of this project as well as AIDS prevention and control projects in India is uncertain. Currently programs are dependent on health program funding from multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. However, the greater challenge is not funding, but the powerful crime syndicates that run the massive prostitution industry in cities such as Bombay. PMID:9454057

Kumar, S

1998-01-01

451

India Politics by Other Means: Attacks Against Christians in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Human Rights Watch study examines a recent upsurge in inter-religious violence directed at Christians in India, largely by right-wing Hindu organizations, collectively known as the sangh parivar. According to Human Rights Watch, such actions are designed "to promote and exploit communal tensions to stay in power," a strategy "supported at the local level by militant groups who operate with impunity." The report provides a cultural and political context for the violence, reports on the violence itself and its areas of concentration, recommendations to the government of India as well as to the international community, and a discussion of relevant international law.

Narula, Smita.

452

Prevalence and clinical manifestations of malaria in aligarh, India.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of tropical countries with an estimated 207 million cases globally. In India, there are endemic pockets of this disease, including Aligarh. Hundreds of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases with severe pathological conditions are recorded every year in this district. The aim of this study is to find out changes in liver enzymes and kidney markers. Specific diagnosis for P. falciparum and P. vivax was made by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides. Clinical symptoms were observed in both of these infections. Liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and kidney function markers, such as creatinine and urea, were estimated by standard biochemical techniques. In Aligarh district, P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections were 64%, 34%, and 2%, respectively. In case of P. falciparum infection, the incidences of anemia, splenomegaly, renal failure, jaundice, and neurological sequelae were higher compared to those in P. vivax infection. Recrudescence and relapse rates were 18% and 20% in P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, respectively. Liver dysfunctions and renal failures were more common in P. falciparum patients, particularly in elderly patients. Artesunate derivatives must, therefore, be introduced for the treatment of P. falciparum as they resist to chloroquine as well as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations. PMID:25548413

Asma, Umm-E; Taufiq, Farha; Khan, Wajihullah

2014-12-01

453