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Sample records for district southeastern ethiopia

  1. Consolidation of Small, Rural Schools in One Southeastern Kentucky District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, June; Cleveland, Roger; Huffman, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    From 1945 to 1980, school districts across the United States decreased the number of schools through consolidation. With the advent of geographic software, it is possible to map schools across time and analyze patterns of school openings, closings, and consolidation. In this study, one Southeastern Kentucky district was selected as a pilot for…

  2. Leading Change in Literacy: Southeastern District Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Steven; Neal, Elizabeth Anne; Tesh, Linda; Turner, Patsy; Millsaps, Cherise

    Describing the SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE) program and its mission to promote and support the continual improvement of educational opportunities for all learners in the Southeast, this paper focuses on the importance of improving student literacy outcomes in schools due to the demands of living in a technological,…

  3. Emergence or re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in areas of Somalia, north-eastern Kenya, and south-eastern Ethiopia in 2000-01.

    PubMed

    Marlet, M V L; Sang, D K; Ritmeijer, K; Muga, R O; Onsongo, J; Davidson, R N

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known to be endemic in Somalia along the basins of the (Middle) Shebelle and (Lower) Juba rivers, and in Kenya in parts of the Rift Valley, on the border with Uganda and the Eastern Provinces. From May 2000 to August 2001, we diagnosed 904 patients with VL. The patients came from an area which spanned the Wajir and Mandera districts of north-eastern Kenya, southern Somalia, and south-eastern Ethiopia. Small numbers of patients were also seen in northern Somalia. These areas were either previously non-endemic for VL, or had only sporadic cases prior to the epidemic. We describe the features of the outbreak and review the history of VL in the region. Unusual rainfall patterns, malnutrition, and migration of a Leishmania-infected population seeking food and security may have contributed to this outbreak. PMID:15307414

  4. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  5. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998

  6. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p < 0.05) but no significance difference was observed among the age groups and body condition score of camels (p > 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  7. Development of a scalable mental healthcare plan for a rural district in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay; Selamu, Medhin; Giorgis, Tedla W.; Shibre, Teshome; Teferra, Solomon; Tegegn, Teketel; Breuer, Erica; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing evidence for the implementation and scaling up of mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Ethiopia is an urgent priority. Aims To outline a mental healthcare plan (MHCP), as a scalable template for the implementation of mental healthcare in rural Ethiopia. Method A mixed methods approach was used to develop the MHCP for the three levels of the district health system (community, health facility and healthcare organisation). Results The community packages were community case detection, community reintegration and community inclusion. The facility packages included capacity building, decision support and staff well-being. Organisational packages were programme management, supervision and sustainability. Conclusions The MHCP focused on improving demand and access at the community level, inclusive care at the facility level and sustainability at the organisation level. The MHCP represented an essential framework for the provision of integrated care and may be a useful template for similar LMIC. PMID:26447174

  8. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bikilla, Asfaw Demissie; Jerene, Degu; Robberstad, Bjarne; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG) for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. PMID:19615069

  9. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Ethiopia reviews the history of the country's demographic situation and reports on the government's overall approach to population problems; the population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Ethiopia is 1 of the few remaining countries in the world that has never conducted a population census. The prevailing demographic data come from sample surveys, none of which had a complete national coverage. UN estimates indicate a crude birthrate of 51.8/1000 for the 1950s, with a slight decline to 49.6/1000 by 1970-75. The crude death rate was estimated to have dropped from 30.6/1000 in the early 1950s to 23.2/1000 in the early 1970s. Infant mortality is reported to have declined from 208/1000 in the early 1950s to 155/1000 during 1970-75. and life expectancy increased from 32.9 years in 1950-55 to 40.9 in 1970-75. Historically, Ethiopia is not known to have experienced any serious migration problems except for the massive exodus of refugees into neighboring countries in recent years due to continuous military operations. The government has no explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth, although in recent years it has acknowledged that these rates are too high. The most pressing concern is the improvement of the health situation through a primary health care approach. Institutional arrangements in the area of population remain at an early stage of development. The government explicitly recognizes the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development. The Central Statistical Office estimated the population size at 24.1 million in January 1970, and the annual rate of population growth at 2.2% for the early

  10. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2006-2007 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Graduation rate; (8) 3rd, 4th, 8th and 10th grade…

  11. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2007-2008 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Graduation rate; (8) 3rd, 4th, 8th and 10th grade…

  12. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2004-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2004-2005 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Habitual truancy; (8) 3rd Grade Wisconsin Reading and…

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths are highly prevalent in scavenging chickens of selected districts of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne

    2012-03-15

    A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence between cestodes and nematodes of helminths parasites within the same district. The major cestode species recovered form chickens were Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised. PMID:24175425

  14. A high-resolution multi-proxy stalagmite record from Mechara, Southeastern Ethiopia: palaeohydrological implications for speleothem palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrat, Asfawossen; Baker, Andy; Umer Mohammed, Mohammed; Leng, Melanie J.; van Calsteren, Peter; Smith, Claire

    2007-01-01

    An annually laminated stalagmite from Southeastern Ethiopia grew for 443+/-8 yr starting at 5023 yr BP (+/-160 yr) as determined by lamina-tuned U-Th dating. The speleothem shows three growth phases: (1) an initial phase where the stalagmite has a candlestick shape, deposited by relatively slow rate drip water; (2) a middle growth phase where laminae grow on the flanks, suggesting faster drip rates; and (3) a final growth phase where the speleothem becomes narrower owing to a decrease in drip water supply towards the end of deposition. Morphometry, annual growth rate, fluorescence index, and 234U/238U isotope ratio show marked differences between the growth phases, while 13C and 18O do not show significant variation, except within the third phase towards the top of the stalagmite, where they have higher values. The study indicates that the multiproxy approach is crucial as the different proxies respond to single climate forcing in different manners. Our results can be widely applied to speleothem studies distinguishing the relative importance of the various proxies in recording cave external (climate, hydrology) and cave internal (e.g. evaporation) processes. Copyright

  15. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p<0.05) grazing land than the others. Communal grazing, roadside grazing, enset (false banana, Ensete ventricosum), banana leaf and private grazing land were major feed resources for sheep. Lake Awassa and tap water were permanent water sources. Watering frequency of sheep varies from once a day to once in 4 days. Sheep are primarily kept to generate income and equilibrate benefit and risk and for home consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); <10 %). The reasons for expansion of sheep flock in the future were market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized

  16. Psychosocial assessment of lathyrism patients in rural Estie district of South Gondar, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, H; Haimanot, R T

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty three patients in the lathyrism endemic rural Estie district of Northern Ethiopia were interviewed and examined to assess the psychosocial impacts of neurolathyrism. The majority of the affected were in the age group of 11-20 years (43%) followed by 21-30 years (29%). Males were more affected than females (4.8:1). Peak occurrences of neurolathyrism was observed at time of mobilization of the population in villagization and land diversification schemes. Females were affected to lesser extent and at an earlier age than males. Neurolathyrism affected matrimony among the rural farming population where marriage is considered as the most significant social achievement of any young member of the society. Divorce rate due to paralysis was 28%. It also influenced the choice of occupation among the afflicted rural people. Many males went into ecclesiastical professions. A significant number of males also took up occupations which traditionally were considered to be exclusively for women like basketry and embroidery. More females, not withstanding their age, were engaged in cattle-keeping. During the study, the rural communities were made aware of the association of neurolathyrism and consumptions of grass pea seed. It is believed that this step will enable communities to use home-based detoxifying methods and resort to alternate crops during times of food shortage. PMID:10214443

  17. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765

  18. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths of equines in Damot-Gale district, Wolaita zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sheferaw, Desie; Alemu, Melese

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of equines helminthosis studied from November 2011 to May 2012 in two agroecological zones Damot-Gale district, Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, and to see the distribution of internal helminth parasites of equines. A total of 500 faecal samples collected for coprological examination of gastrointestinal helminth ova. From each species of studied animals 200 positive faecal samples were pooled and cultured, and then the larvae recovered and identified. The coprological examination revealed 100 % Strongyle, 16.6 % Fasciola species, 10.2 % Parascaris equorum, 2.1 % Oxyuris equi, 1.1 % Strongyloides westeri, and 0.7 % Gastrodiscus species in donkeys. The coproscopic examination of horse faeces revealed prevalence of 100 % Strongyle, 17.5 % Fasciola species, 5.5 % Parascaris equorum, 1.4 % Oxyuris equi, 0.5 % Strongyloides westeri. A statistically significant variations in the prevalence of equines helminthes were not observed among putative risk factors (P > 0.05), except in the case of Parascaris equorum and Fasciola species, in which statistical significant variations were observed with age and purpose of the animal, respectively (P < 0.05). The average egg per gram of faeces in this study was 689.8, with a range of 100-1,600 eggs per gram of faeces. Statistically significant variations in mean eggs per gram of faeces were observed in all the considered putative risk factors (P < 0.05), except in the case of sexes. The coproculture performed on 200 pooled faecal samples revealed that Cyathostome species, Strongyius vulgaris, Trichostrongylus axei, Triodontophorus species, Strongylus equinus, Strongylus edentatus and Oesophagodontus robustus were the major helminth parasites of equines in Damot-Gale district, Wolaita. PMID:26064026

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha; Dejene, Tewedros Ayalew; Telila, Lidet Befkadu; Bekele, Daniel Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%), followed by whole roots (20.4%). Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68). Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective preparations and

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in

  1. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

    2006-01-01

    The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (X2 = 3.89, df = 6, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 12.6). The study showed that the majority (62.1%) of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i) Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii) further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii) Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended. PMID:17184523

  2. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

    2006-01-01

    The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (Chi2 = 3.89, df = 6, alpha = 0.05 and 1-alpha = 12.6). The study showed that the majority (62.1%) of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i) Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii) further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii) Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended. PMID:17184523

  3. Ethnoveterinary plants of Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal preparations for addressing veterinary problems have been applied in Ankober District, Ethiopia, for generations. However, the millennia-old ethnoveterinary knowledge of the community, and the plants are subjected to loss without being scientifically documented due to anthropogenic and environmental threats. Hence, this study aims at providing a comprehensive documentation on ethnoveterinary plant knowledge of the people in order to preserve the fast-eroding knowledge and resources of the area. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods methods were used to gather ethnoveterinary data. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values were calculated using quantitative approaches so as to check the level of informants' agreement on plant use and healing potential of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species, respectively. Indigenous knowledge on use of medicinal plants for ethnoveterinary purposes among different informant groups was compared using One-way ANOVA and t-tests. Results A total of 51 plant species representing 50 genera and 35 botanical families used in the treatment of 33 different ailments were identified. Medicinal plant species belonging to families Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Ranunculaceae were reported to be of frequent use in the local ethnoveterinary medical system. Roots (65%, 33 species) were most often utilized for remedy preparation. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal (0.71) ailments depicting best agreement on knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat aliments in this category. Embelia schimperi Vatke showed highest fidelity level value (90%) to treat gastro-intestinal diseases showing conformity of knowledge on this species' healing potential. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in average number of therapeutic plants reported by senior members of the community than younger groups

  4. Utilization of institutional delivery service at Wukro and Butajera districts in the Northern and South Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality in the world. Institutional delivery is the key intervention in reducing maternal mortality and complications. However, the uptake of the service has remained low and the factors which contribute to this low uptake appear to vary widely. Our study aims to determine the magnitude and identify factors affecting delivery at health institution in two districts in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional household survey was conducted from January to February 2012 in 12 randomly selected villages of Wukro and Butajera districts in the northern and south central parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire from 4949 women who delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Results One in four women delivered the index child at a health facility. Among women who delivered at health facility, 16.1% deliveries were in government hospitals and 7.8% were in health centers. The factors that significantly affected institutional delivery in this study were district in which the women lived (AOR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.82), women age at interview (AOR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.62), women’s education (AOR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.22, 10.20), wealth status (AOR: 16.82, 95% CI: 7.96, 35.54), women’s occupation (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.24), antenatal care (4+) use (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.42, 2.20), and number of pregnancies (AOR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18,0.35). We found that women who were autonomous in decision making about place of delivery were less likely to deliver in health facility (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.23,0.63). Conclusions Institutional delivery is still low in the Ethiopia. The most important factors that determine use of institutional delivery appear to be women education and household economic status. Women’s autonomy in decision making on place of delivery did not improve health facility delivery in our study population. Actions targeting the disadvantaged, improving

  5. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  6. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  7. Willingness to join community-based health insurance among rural households of Debub Bench District, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even though Ethiopia bears high burden of diseases, utilization of modern health care services is limited. One of the reasons for low utilization of healthcare services is the user-fee charges. Moving away from out-of-pocket charges for healthcare at the time of use is an important step towards averting the financial hardship associated with paying for health service. Prepaid plans for health are not accustomed in Ethiopia. Therefore, social and community based health insurance schemes were introduced since 2010. In this study, willingness of rural households in Debub Bench District, to join community based health insurance was assessed. Method Cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Debub Bench District in March 2013 using a pretested structured questionnaire. Two stage sampling technique was used to select 845 households as study units which were allocated to the kebeles proportionately. The sampled households were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered into EPIDATA 3.0 and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Result Among 845 sampled households, 808 were interviewed (95.6% response rate). About 78% of the respondents were willing to join the scheme. Most of demographic, socioeconomic variables and social capital were found to be significantly associated with willingness to join community based health insurance. Conclusion If the scheme is initiated in the district, majority of the households will enroll in the community based health insurance. Farmers, the married households, Bench ethnic groups and illiterate, the dominant segments of the population, are more likely to enroll the schemes. Therefore initiation of the scheme is beneficial in the district. PMID:24920538

  8. Integration of Interactive Whiteboards within Classroom Instruction in a Small, Rural School District in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Stacy Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent IWB integration occurs in instruction and its impact on student engagement in a small, rural school district in the southeastern United States. A study was conducted in core subject areas across K-12 grade spans involving 50 teachers using a mixed methods approach. Teachers were observed twice…

  9. Livestock feed resources utilization practices in Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Tikabo; Belay, Shumuye

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out with the objective to assess the utilization practices of local feed resources. It was implemented in Tanqua-Abergelle district of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Lemlem and Gera peasant associations (PAs) were selected purposively based on their potentiality in livestock resources and road access for household (HH) interview purpose. Likewise, Sheka-Tekli and Hadinet PAs were chosen for the purpose of focus group discussion (FGD). A total of 60 HHs (30 from each PA) were selected randomly for interview using semi-structured questionnaire. About 16 % of the respondents were female HHs. Two FGDs were held with key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (2013, version 21) statistical software procedures. The study area is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming system with high interaction between crop and livestock. Livestock are the mainstay for the farm community with many benefits as sources of draught, meat, milk, income, and manures. Cattle are kept primarily for the purpose of draught power with meat and milk as secondary products, whereas shoats are kept mainly for cash income, manure, meat, and milk. The land holding size per HH was 1.44 ha while the herd size was 4.93 tropical livestock unit (TLU). Almost all the land holding (97 %) is allocated for crop cultivation with lesser for forage production (<1 %) indicating poor attention for fodder harvesting. The cattle herd is composed of local breeds (99 %) with less exotic/crossbred (1 %), indicating that the livestock rearing is practiced using local breed. Crop residues, natural pastures, stubble grazing, hay, and browsing are the main feed resources for animals. The availability and contribution of each feed vary with season and areas. Sorghum stover is the main feed source in the area and followed by maize stover, Eragrostis tef straw, and pulse straws. Crop residues are fed as basal diet with no or less supplementation using local concentrates

  10. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Duguna Fango District, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care, especially during childbirth, based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduces delays in obtaining this care. Objective This study was conducted to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness and its associated factors among pregnant woman in Duguna Fango District in Wolayta Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 578 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 578 pregnant women only one tenth (10.7%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 103 (18.1%) arranged transportation to health facility. Two hundred forty eight (43.6%) identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. more than half (54.1%) of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. only few 17(3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Two hundred sixty four (46.4%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and more than half (53.6) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall less than one fifth 18.3% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.62–5.37), being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.45–7.82), having knowledge of at least two danger signs during

  11. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  12. Multilocus microsatellite typing revealed high genetic variability of Leishmania donovani strains isolated during and after a Kala-azar epidemic in Libo Kemkem district, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Cruz, Israel; Kuhls, Katrin; Alvar, Jorge; Cañavate, Carmen; Hailu, Asrat; Schönian, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of kala-azar (KA) occurred for the first time in Libo Kemkem district, in the highland area of northwest Ethiopia. In order to track the possible origins of the outbreak parasites, we have investigated 19 strains of Leishmania donovani that were collected during (n = 6) and after (n = 13) the outbreak by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Unique microsatellite profiles were obtained for all strains from Libo Kemkem. When compared to those of L. donovani strains from different Ethiopian, Kenyan and Sudanese foci, by genetic distance and Bayesian clustering model analyses, most strains from Libo Kemkem grouped with strains from: (i) Humera and Metema in the lowlands and Belessa in the highland of Ethiopia, and (ii) Sudan, at different hierarchal levels. The strains from Libo Kemkem district were assigned at least to three genetically distinct clusters (A, B1 and B2) of which only one, cluster B2, consisted exclusively of strains from Libo Kemkem. The fact that most of the outbreak strains were found to be related to strains from well-known KA foci in northwest Ethiopia and Sudan might suggest multiple introductions of L. donovani strains from these foci into Libo Kemkem district. PMID:21382503

  13. Effects of metal pollution on genetics of freshwater mussels in a southeastern Missouri mining district

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Lead mining has historically been in operation in Missouri since the 1700`s, and an extensively mineralized region known as the ``Old Lead Belt`` in the southeastern portion of the state contained some of the most substantial deposits in the district. Although mining is currently inactive in this region, intensive past mining resulted in accumulation of large tailings piles placed adjacent to aquatic resources. Erosion and accidental releases of mine tailings rich in lead, zinc, cadmium and copper have resulted in contamination in the Big River drainage, one of two principal tributaries in the Meramec River Basin. Substantial bioaccumulation of metals has previously been documented for freshwater mussels collected from the Big River, as well as for other aquatic biota. This research project investigated the effects of metal pollution on biochemical genetic variability among three populations of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis ventricosa in the Meramec River Basin. Specimens were collected from metal-contaminated reaches of the Big River, and two reference populations in Meramec and Bourbeuse Rivers. Using techniques of starch gel electrophoresis, significant differences were found in allozyme frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase locus between mussels collected from the metal-contaminated Big River versus reference populations, suggesting that certain allozyme genotypes may be more sensitive than others to metal pollutants. The genetic response to geographic variation in environmental contamination between the L. ventricosa populations examined in the Meramec River Basin suggests that differential pollution-induced selection of allozyme genotypes has occurred in the Big River.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity. Result Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%). Being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10–2.62)], patients age [41–64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01–5.57), 65–89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52–6.64)], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09–2.63)] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36–8.73)] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity. Conclusion The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area. PMID:26808967

  15. Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Samson, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    Five species of riparian vertebrates (425 individuals) primarily representing upper trophic levels were collected from the Big River and Black River drainages in two lead mining districts of southeastern Missouri, 1981?82. Big River is subject to metal pollution via erosion and seepage from large tailings piles from inactive lead mines. Black River drains part of a currently mined area. Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), and green-backed herons (Butorides striatus) collected downstream from the source of metal contamination to Big River had significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) higher lead and cadmium levels than specimens collected at either an uncontaminated upstream site or on Black River. Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) had elevated lead levels below the tailings source, but did not seem to accumulate cadmium. Levels of lead, cadmium, or zinc in northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) were not related to collecting locality. Carcasses of ten bank swallows (Riparia riparia) collected from a colony nesting in a tailings pile along the Big River had lead concentrations of 2.0?39 ppm wet weight. Differences between zinc concentrations in vertebrates collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were less apparent than differences in lead and cadmium. There was little relationship between metal concentrations in the animals studied and their trophic levels. Bullfrogs are the most promising species examined for monitoring environmental levels of lead, cadmium, and zinc. Downstream from the source of tailings, bullfrogs had markedly higher levels of these metals in most of their tissues. The species is also widely distributed in North America, easily caught, and relatively sedentary.

  16. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community’s health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community’s health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Result Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members’ exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Conclusion Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed. PMID:26959816

  17. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05–13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08–4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. Conclusions There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease. PMID:26657490

  18. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found between the prevalence rates of helminth parasites in the different agro-ecological zones; the highest prevalence was observed in the lowland areas. This suggests that agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

  19. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lelisa, Kumela; Shimeles, Shihun; Bekele, Jemere; Sheferaw, Desie

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes) and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus) were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%). Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% - 14.3%) were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%), Trypanosoma brucei (23.8%) and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%). The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV) and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05). About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity. PMID:25686018

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  1. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  2. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  3. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women’s health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yirga, Wondimu Shanko; Kassa, Nega Assefa; Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women’s health. Methods Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years), in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5%) of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1%) reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9%) respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]). Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1%) respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003), illiteracy (P = 0.01), and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012). The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3%) were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM. Conclusion In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated

  4. Knowledge, perception and utilization of postnatal care of mothers in Gondar Zuria District, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tesfahun, Fikirte; Worku, Walelegn; Mazengiya, Fekadu; Kifle, Manay

    2014-12-01

    Mothers and their newborns are vulnerable to illnesses and deaths during the postnatal period. More than half a million women each year die of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. The majority of deaths occur in less developed countries. Utilization of postnatal care (PNC) service in Ethiopia is low due to various factors. These problems problem significantly hold back the goal of decreasing maternal and child mortality. To assess mothers' knowledge, perception and utilization of PNC in the Gondar Zuria District, Ethiopia. Our study is a community-based, cross-sectional study supported by a qualitative study conducted among 15-49 years mothers who gave birth during the last year. A multistage sampling technique was used to selected participants; structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Data were entered into EPI info version 3.5.1 and exported into SPSS version 16.0 for the quantitative study and thematic framework analysis was applied to the qualitative portion. The majority of the women (84.39 %) were aware and considered PNC necessary (74.27 %); however, only 66.83 % of women obtained PNC. The most frequent reasons for not obtaining PNC were lack of time (30.47 %), long distance to a provider (19.25 %), lack of guardians for children care (16.07 %), and lack of service (8.60 %). Based on the multivariate analysis, place of residence (AOR 2.68; 95 % CI 1.45-4.98), distance from a health institution (AOR 2.21; 95 % CI 1.39-3.51), antenatal care visit (AOR 2.60; 95 % CI 1.40-5.06), and having decision-making authority for utilization (AOR 1.86; 95 % CI 1.30-2.65) were factors found to be significantly associated with PNC utilization. Mothers in the study area had a high level of awareness and perception about the necessity of PNC. Urban women and those who displayed higher levels of autonomy were more likely to use postnatal health services. PMID:24770953

  5. Impact of a commercial destocking relief intervention in Moyale district, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Dawit; Cullis, Adrian; Catley, Andy; Aklilu, Yacob; Mekonnen, Gedlu; Ghebrechirstos, Yodit

    2008-06-01

    A commercial destocking intervention was piloted in southern Ethiopia during the drought of early 2006. The intervention led to the purchase of an estimated 20,000 cattle valued at USD 1.01 million. On average, destocked households received USD 186 from the sale of cattle--approximately 5,405 households were involved. In terms of aid investment, the approximate cost-benefit ratio was 41:1. During the drought, income from destocking accounted for 54.2 per cent of household income (n = 114 households), and was used to buy food, care for livestock, meet various domestic expenses, support relatives, and either pay off debts or augment savings. Seventy-nine per cent of the income derived from destocking was used to buy local goods or services. Expenditure on livestock care amounted to 36.5 per cent of local spending, and included the private transportation of livestock to better grazing areas. The buoyant livestock export trade was considered to be an important driver of commercial destocking, demonstrating a positive link between livestock and meat exports, and pastoral vulnerability during drought. PMID:18380850

  6. Clinico-epidemiological study of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Waja-Timuga, District of Alamata, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, is the most prevalent water related disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Although prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been reported for the present study area, earlier studies have not estimated intensity of infections in relation to periportal fibrosis, which would have been crucial for epidemiological and clinical evaluations. Hence, a community based cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 to assess prevalence of infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis in Waja-Timuga, northern Ethiopia. Methods In a cross sectional study involving 371 randomly selected individuals, fresh stool samples were collected and processed by the Kato-Katz method and examined microscopically. Ultrasonography was used to determine status of schistosomal periportal fibrosis and to detect hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Serum was collected for assay of hepatic activity. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 11 statistical soft ware. P-value <0.05 was reported as statistically significant. Results The prevalence of S.mansoni infection was 73.9%, while the prevalence of schistosomal periportal fibrosis was 12.3% and mean intensity of infection was 234 eggs per gram of stool. Peak prevalence and intensity of S.mansoni infection was documented in the age range of 10–20 years. Among the study individuals, hepatomegaly was recorded in 3.7% and splenomegaly was recorded in 7.4% of the study individuals. Similarly, among the study individuals who had definite periportal fibrosis, 5.9% had elevated liver enzyme levels. Conclusion The high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis observed in the study area calls for a periodic deworming program to reduce disease, morbidity and transmission. Preventive chemotherapy complemented with other control measures is highly required for

  7. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Background A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). Objectives This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. Methods In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Results Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. Conclusions The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended. PMID:26203904

  8. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India’s extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  9. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  10. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3 ± 34) and

  11. Level of Young People Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Utilization and Its Associated Factors among Young People in Awabel District, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayehu, Atitegeb; Kassaw, Teketo; Hailu, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently in Ethiopia, young people’s sexual and reproductive health services are limited and there is a growing issue of confidentiality and affordability of these health services. Moreover, the available services provided are not sensitive to the special needs of young people. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess young people’s sexual and reproductive health service utilization and its associated factors in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 randomly selected young people using a pre-tested structured questionnaires in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The mean age of respondents were 17.80 (+ 2.65) years. About 41% of young people had utilized sexual and reproductive health services. Young people from families of higher family expenditure, lived with mothers, participated in peer education and lived near to a Health Center were more likely to utilize sexual and reproductive health services. Furthermore, those who had a parental discussion on sexual and reproductive health (AOR (95% C.I): 2.23 (1.43, 3.46)) and ever had sexual intercourse (AOR (95% C.I): 1.88 (1.30, 2.71)) were more likely to utilize the service than their counterparts. On the other hand, those young people lived with their father and had a primary level of educational attainment was less likely to utilize the service. Conclusion Utilization of sexual and reproductive health services is low which needs a great attention where; if not intervened, young people might engage in risky sexual activities. Therefore, it needs a concerted effort from all the concerned bodies to improve their service utilization and thereby reduce the burden of young people’s disease and disabilities associated with sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26992006

  12. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kassa Woreta, Hiwot; Mekonnen Kelkay, Mengistu; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735), 663 (2.2%) individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended. PMID:27022483

  13. Assessment of the effect of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in three rural kebeles of Adami Tulu District, South Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Adami Tulu District, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has been the main tool used to control malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of IRS and ITNs control strategies in Aneno Shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of Ethiopia) compared with Kamo Gerbi (supplied ITN only) and Jela Aluto (no IRS and ITNs), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted after heavy rains (October/November, 2006) and during the sporadic rains (April, 2007) in the three kebeles of Adami Tulu District. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film. Monthly collection of adult mosquitoes from October-December 2006 and April-May 2007 and sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the collected mosquitoes were detected. Data related to the knowledge of mode of malaria transmission and its control measures were collected. Data collected on parasitological and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys were managed and analysed using a statistical computer program SPSS version 13.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The overall prevalence of malaria was 8.6% in Jela Aluto, 4.4% in Kamo Gerbi and 1.3% in Aneno Shisho in the two season surveys. The vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles coustani were recorded. However, sporozoite ELISA on mosquito collections detected no infection. The difference in overall malaria prevalence and mosquito density between the three kebeles was significant (P<0.05). Conclusions The present study has provided some evidence for the success of ITNs/IRS combined malaria control measures in Aneno Shisho kebele in Adami Tulu District. Therefore, the combined ITNs/IRS malaria control measures must be expanded to cover all kebeles in the District of Ethiopia. PMID:22533789

  14. An Evaluation of the Accelerated Reader Program in Grades 3-5 on Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Attitude in an Urban Southeastern School District in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Carol Ann

    The purpose of this study was to study recreational reading in third, fourth, and fifth grade urban students in a school district in Southeastern Virginia. The widely-used Accelerated Reader (AR) was the tool examined in the promotion of recreational reading. The major research questions determined if recreational reading, using Accelerated…

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend. PMID:26374209

  16. Serological survey of African horse sickness in selected districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bitew, Molalegne; Andargie, Ashenafi; Bekele, Mihreteab; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was undertaken in selected districts of different agro-ecology of Jimma zone (Dedo, Yebu, Seka, Serbo, and Jimma town) from November 2009 to February 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of African horse sickness virus and associated risk factors of the disease. Two hundred seventy-four equids (189 horses, 43 mules, and 47 donkeys) with a history of non-vaccination for at least 2 years were selected randomly from the above areas. Sera samples were collected and assayed for the presence of specific antibody against African horse sickness virus using blocking ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of 89 (32.5%) was found and it was 24 (51.1%) for donkeys, 13 (30.2%) for mules, and 52(28.3%) for horses. Seroprevalence was significantly (X(2) = 11.05, P < 0.05) different among the different species of equids. Seroprevalence was also significantly (X(2) = 11.43, P < 0.05) different among the different agro-ecological areas being higher in highlands 47 (40.5%) followed by midland 30 (34.5%) and lowland 12 (16.9%). Age and sex were not significantly (X(2) = 3.15, P > 0.05 and X(2) = 3.38, P > 0.05, respectively) associated with seroprevalence of AHSV. The present study showed that African horse sickness (AHS) is highly prevalent disease for the horses followed by mules and then donkeys in Jimma zone explained by lower seroconversion rate. Therefore, control strategy against AHS should target at high risk species of all age and sex in their locality in the initial stage for better containment of the disease. PMID:21465102

  17. Evaluation of growth performance of abergele goats under traditional management systems in Sekota District, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Belay; Taye, Mengistie

    2013-07-15

    The study was conducted at Abergele in the semi arid parts of Sekota district to evaluate growth performance of Abergele goats managed under traditional management systems. Data on growth and growth rates were collected from 724 kids for two years. The least squares mean birth, three months, six months and yearling weight of kids obtained were 1.91 +/- 0.04, 6.84 +/- 0.19, 9.13 +/- 0.31 and 16.42 +/- 1.20 kg, respectively. Parity of doe and birth type of kid significantly affected birth weight and three months weight while sex of kid and season of birth of kid affected birth, three months, six months and yearling weight consistently. Kids from first parity does were lighter at birth, three months and six months of age than kids from higher parity does. Twin born kids were lower in weight at birth and three months of ages than their single born counterparts. Female kids and kids born during the dry season had lower weight at all ages considered. The least squares mean pre-weaning and post-weaning growth rates obtained were 53.4 +/- 2.30 and 29.3 +/- 4.32 g day(-1), respectively. Parity of doe, type of birth and season birth of kid affected pre-weaning growth rate. Kids from first parity does, twin born kids and kids born during the dry season had lower growth rate. The significant effect of fixed factors needs to be considered in an effort to improve productivity of goats in the study areas. PMID:24505995

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by

  19. Uncorrected refractive error and associated factors among primary school children in Debre Markos District, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uncorrected Refractive Error is one of the leading cause amblyopia that exposes children to poor school performance. It refrain them from productive working lives resulting in severe economic and social loses in their latter adulthood lives. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and its associated factors among school children in Debre Markos District. Method A cross section study design was employed. Four hundred thirty two students were randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The data were collected by trained ophthalmic nurses through interview, structured questionnaires and physical examinations. Snellens visual acuity measurement chart was used to identify the visual acuity of students. Students with visual acuity less than 6/12 had undergone further examination using auto refractor and cross-checked using spherical and cylindrical lenses. The data were entered into epi data statistical software version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was set at α ≤ 0.05. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using odds ratios with 95% confidence interval. Result Out of 432 students selected for the study, 420 (97.2%) were in the age group 7–15 years. The mean age was 12 ± 2.1SD. Overall prevalence of refractive error was 43 (10.2%). Myopia was found among the most dominant 5.47% followed by astigmatism 1.9% and hyperopia 1.4% in both sexes. Female sex (AOR: 3.96, 95% CI: 1.55-10.09), higher grade level (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI: 1.98-11.47) and using computers regularly (AOR: 4.53, 95% CI: 1.58-12.96) were significantly associated with refractive error. Conclusion The burden of uncorrected refractive errors is high among primary schools children. Myopia was common in both sexes. The potential risk factors were sex, regular use of computers and higher grade level of students. Hence, school health programs should work on health

  20. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  1. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  2. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated. PMID:27375920

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  4. Occurrence and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Ixodid Ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 to address the occurrence and genotypes of Coxiella burnetii using molecular methods in ticks collected from domestic animals in Ethiopia. Ticks were tested for C. burnetii by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting two different genes followed by multispacer sequence typing (MST). An overall prevalence of 6.4% (54/842) of C. burnetii was recorded. C. burnetii was detected in 28.6% (14/49) of Amblyomma gemma, 25% (31/124) of Rhipicephalus pulchellus, 7.1% (1/14) of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 3.2% (2/62) of Am. variegatum, 3.1% (4/128) of Am. cohaerens, 1.6% (1/63) of Rh. praetextatus, and 0.6% (1/153) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Significantly higher overall frequencies of C. burnetii DNA were observed in Am. gemma and Rh. pulchellus than in other tick species (Mantel-Haenszel [MH], P < 0.0001). The overall frequency of C. burnetii was significantly higher (MH, P < 0.0001) in ticks from southeastern districts (Arero, Moyale, and Yabelo) than that from other districts. This study demonstrated the presence of C. burnetii genotype MST 18 in ticks in southeastern districts and genotype MST 20 in ticks in central districts. This study highlights the importance of ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Ethiopia. PMID:26392155

  5. The Emergence of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Following the Earthquake in Southern Villages of Bam District, Southeastern Iran, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Poursmaelian, Somayeh; Hakimi-Parizi, Maryam; Ziaali, Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of a new emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in southern villages of Bam District, southeastern Iran, 2010. Methods: A house-to- house census survey of 5544 individuals were interviewed and physically examined for the presence of active lesions or scars. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct smears, cultures and identification by PCR. The data were entered into a computer and SPSS ver. 15. Results: Overall, 1.2% of the inhabitants were infected, 0.5% active and 0.7% scars and females were more significantly infected (1.7%) than males (0.8%), (P= 0.003). All age groups were equally affected. Most of the lesions were on the face and majority had single lesion. Most of the cases appeared from 2006 to 2008 during the CL epidemic in the city of Bam. PCR indicated L. tropica as the causative agent. Conclusion: The presence of non-immune individuals along with suitable ecological conditions could induce a new emerging focus of ACL in villages. PMID:23785690

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Objective To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. Results The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies

  7. Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Feleke; Dibaba, Yohannes; Admassu, Bitiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the timing of first antenatal care attendance and associated factors among pregnant women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, south Ethiopia. Method. Facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February to March, 2014, in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District. Data were collected from 409 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in nine public health facilities using systematic random sampling. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results. The mean (SD±) age of the respondents was 26 ± 5.5 years. The mean gestational age at first antenatal care attendance was 5 ± 1.5 months. This study indicated that pregnant women with low monthly income (AOR = 4.9, CI: 1.71, 14.08), women who did not receive advise on when to start ANC (AOR = 3, CI: 1.48, 6.24), women with household food insecurity (AOR = 4.66, CI: 1.007, 21.59) and women with unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 4.49, CI: 2.16, 9.35) had higher odds of late antenatal care attendance compared with their counterparts. Conclusions. The study showed that majority of the pregnant women attended late for first antenatal care. Hence, providing health education on the timing of antenatal care is important. PMID:26543485

  8. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea. PMID:25995718

  9. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in management of livestock health problems by Afar people of Ada’ar District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The great majority of the Afar people of Ethiopia are pastoralists, highly dependent on livestock and livestock products. Livestock productivity is, however, frequently affected by different diseases. Although many districts in the Region have veterinary clinics, they lack basic facilities. As a result, the Afar people are still dependent on local materials, mainly plants, and traditional knowledge to manage livestock health problems. However, there is a serious threat to such local resources mainly due to recurrent drought and influence of modernization. Hence there is a need for proper documentation and evaluation of the existing ethnoveterinary knowledge in the Region. This study was aimed at documenting and analysing ethnoveterinary knowledge of people in Ada’ar District of the Afar Region associated with the use of plants. Methods The study involved interviewing selected knowledgeable Afar people in Ada’ar District on the use of plants to manage livestock ailments. Fidelity Level (FL) values were calculated for the reported medicinal plant to estimate their healing potentials. Specimens of reported medicinal plant were collected, identified and deposited at the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Results The study revealed 49 medicinal plants as being used by the Afar people of Ada’ar District for the treatment of various livestock ailments, the majority of which (67.3%) were shrubs. Highest number of medicinal plants was used to treat blackleg, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), sudden sickness and pneumonia. Leaf was the most frequently sought plant part, accounting for 47% of the reported plants. All the medicnal plants used in the District were uncultivated ones growing in semi-disturbed and disturbed habitats as remnant plants and weeds. Cissus quadrangularis and Solanum incanum were the plants scoring the highest fidelity level values for their use to treat blackleg and respiratory tract problems, respectively. Conclusion

  10. Assessment of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis and community directed treatment with Ivermectin in Quara District, north western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has been working with ultimate goal of reducing the public health and socio-economic problems associated with onchocerciasis within a period of 12–15 years. Although dedicated community engagement is crucial for the success of the program, there is little/no information on the levels of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis as well as about the ongoing control program in Ethiopia. In this study, we have assessed the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Quara district residents about onchocerciasis and the current control strategies in the area. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2012 and January 2013 in Quara District, Amhara Regional State, North West of Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from randomly selected kebeles (small administrative units) of the study area and were interviewed about onchocerciasis and about community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) using structured questionnaire. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using EpiData software, V.3.1. The data were transferred to SPSS soft-ware V.16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results Out of 418 respondents, 401 (95.9%) of the respondents have heard about onchocerciasis (locally known as ‘wara’) and 11.2% said that they knew about the etiology of the disease, which was named as filarial worm. However, 356 (88.8%) had at least one misconception about the causative agent of onchocerciasis. More than half (69.4%) knew that the transmission of the disease is related to black fly biting. Overall, 93.3% participants believed that onchocerciasis is preventable, of whom 49.5% indicated use of drug as the means of preventing the disease. Majority (95.5%) of the participants perceived CDTI as very useful program. Conclusion Although onchocerciasis is endemic disease in the study area, large

  11. Open-label trial on efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine against the uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Metema district, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wudneh, Feven; Assefa, Ashenafi; Nega, Desalegn; Mohammed, Hussien; Solomon, Hiwot; Kebede, Tadesse; Woyessa, Adugna; Assefa, Yibeltal; Kebede, Amha; Kassa, Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Following the increased Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Ethiopia adopted artemether/lumefantrine (AL) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum in 2004. According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, this study was carried out for regular monitoring of the efficacy of AL in treating the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Metema district, Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Patients and methods This is a one-arm prospective 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy study among the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients aged 6 months and older. The study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, based on the revised World Health Organization protocol of 2009 for surveillance of antimalarial drug therapeutic efficacy study. Standard six-dose regimen of AL was given twice daily for 3 days, and then the treatment outcomes were assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and any other unscheduled day for emergency cases. Results There were 91 study subjects enrolled in this study, of whom 80 study subjects completed the full follow-up schedules and showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses on day 28, with no major adverse event. Per protocol analysis, the unadjusted cure rate of Coartem® was 98.8% (95% confidence interval: 93.3%–100%) in the study area. Recurrence of one P. falciparum case was detected on day 28, with a late parasitological failure rate of 1.2%. No early treatment failure occurred. Complete parasite and fever clearance was observed on day 3. Gametocyte carriage was 4.4% at enrollment that cleared on day 21. Although the difference is statistically not significant, a slight increase in the level of mean hemoglobin from baseline to day 28 was observed. Conclusion The study showed high efficacy and tolerability of Coartem® against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, suggesting the continuation as a first-line drug in the study district

  12. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P < 0.05) improved the farmers cash income than non-tree based garden. With insignificant garden size; homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

  13. Cross-sectional study on Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia in selected districts of sedentary and pastoral production systems in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Solomon; Asmare, Kassahun

    2010-01-01

    A study to estimate the seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pluropneumonia (CCPP) in southern Ethiopia was conducted from November 2005 to June 2006. Two districts from sedentary (Arbaminch and Boreda) and pastoral (Hammar and Bena-Tsemay) production systems were included in the study. Sera samples were collected from 913 goats (234 from sedentary and 679 from pastoral) to check for CCPP serostatus. The animals were sampled from 155 flocks (44 pastoral and 111 sedentary). Five clinically suspected CCPP cases were also sacrificed and attempt was made to isolate Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae (MccP) from lung tissue, nasal swab and plural exudates. Sera samples were tested for the presence of CCPP antibodies using CFT. The overall seroprevalence recorded in the study was 18.61%. The corresponding seroprevalences for sedentary and pastoral production systems were 27.78% and 15.46% respectively. Regarding districts, the prevalence in Hammar was 15.63% while that of Bena-Tsemay 15.29%. In Arbaminch and Boreda the percent of seroreactors were 23.01 and 32.23% respectively. Out of 44 pastoral and 111 sedentary flocks, 50.45% of pastoral and 65.91% of sedentary flocks had at least one seroreactor goat per flock respectively. Both in the univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis, seropositivity was found to have strong association with sedentary production system (P < 0.05, OR = 2.24) and adult age (P < 0.05, OR = 1.77). In microbiological study, two broth cultures from thoracic fluid and two broth cultures from lung tissue samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae (MccP). In conclusion, both the serological study and bacteriological isolation confirmed the disease CCPP being an important disease that demands serious attention in both production systems. PMID:19551484

  14. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  15. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of the Results of a Five-Year (2005–2009) Parasitological Examination for Common Intestinal Parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Robe Town, Southeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Chala, Bayissa

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years clinical records (2005–2009) was conducted. The study was aimed at assessing the status of common intestinal parasites from Bale-Robe Health Center, Southeastern Ethiopia, in 2009/2010. The survey involved collection of data recorded on intestinal parasite from the health center during 2005–2009. Precoded questionnaires and interviews were also supplemented for knowledge attitude practices survey (KAPs survey) to assess awareness level of treatment seekers. Analysis of the various associations and strength of significant variations among qualitative and quantitative variables were assessed. The results revealed that Entamoeba histolytica (36.1%) and Giardia lamblia (11.0%), both being protozoan parasites were found to be the most prevalent intestinal parasites encountered during 2005–2009. The least prevalent intestinal parasite recorded was Strongyloides stercoralis (1.1%). Most intestinal parasites were detected among age group of 15 years and above than 0–4 and 5–14 years as shown in Table 4. There was a significant correlation between intestinal parasites prevalence and the age of treatment seeking individuals (P < 0.05). A sharp increasing trend of E. histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was observed owing to low personal and environmental sanitation of the majority of the society. Initiation of health education at different levels could be recommended to mitigate infectious parasites in the area. PMID:27335857

  17. 77 FR 18881 - North Louisiana & Arkansas Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Southeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...--Line of Southeastern Arkansas Economic Development District North Louisiana & Arkansas Railroad, Inc... from Southeastern Arkansas Economic Development District (SAEDD), a noncarrier political subdivision...

  18. The Burden of Diarrheal Diseases among Children under Five Years of Age in Arba Minch District, Southern Ethiopia, and Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Shikur; Tamiru, Dessalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Ethiopia diarrhea is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population next to pneumonia and it is also more common in rural than in urban areas. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch District. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. To identify predictors of diarrhea the negative binomial regression model was used to predict and control the effect of confounders. Results. The prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was 30.5%. This study showed children whose mothers did not attend any formal education were 89% more likely to develop diarrhea (APR = 1.89, [95% CI: 1.35, 2.53]) compared to their counterparts. Similarly, children's being in age category 6-23 months (APR = 2.78 [95% CI: 1.72, 4.55]) and mothers' poor hand washing practice (APR = 2.33 [95% CI: 1.80, 4.15]) were found predictors of diarrhea. The study also showed that, out of 180 mothers whose child had got diarrhea, about 31% of mothers could not give anything to manage the diarrhea. Conclusions. In this study the prevalence of diarrhea was high which was significantly associated with maternal education level, age of the child, and personal hygiene practices. Therefore, women's education level of at least primary school and enhancing community based behavioral change communications using multiple channels (radio) and community health workers are recommended to reduce the occurrence and consequences of childhood diarrhea in the study area.

  19. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used for human ailments in Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankober District has long been inhabited by people who have a long tradition of using medicinal plants to treat human ailments. Overexploitation of medicinal plants coupled with an ever-increasing population growth, deforestation and agricultural land expansion threatens plants in the area. Hence, this study aimed at documenting and analyzing the plant-based ethnomedicinal knowledge of the people in order to preserve the dwindling indigenous knowledge. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values. Statistical tests were used to compare the indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants among different informant categories. Results A total of 135 medicinal plant species belonging to 128 genera and 71 botanical families were reported to treat human diseases in the District. Families Asteraceae (12 species, 9%) and Fabaceae (10, 7.4%) were found to be best represented in the area. About 44% of preparations were reported to be obtained from roots. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed on the mean number of medicinal plants reported by groups of respondents compared within age, literacy level and experience parameters. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal & parasitic and dermatological disease categories (0.70 each) indicating best agreement among informants knowledge on medicinal plants used to treat aliments in these categories. Highest fidelity level values were recorded for Zehneria scabra (95%) and Hagenia abyssinica (93.75%) showing conformity of knowledge on species of best healing potential. Podocarpus falcatus was ranked first in a direct matrix ranking exercise of multipurpose medicinal plants. The output of preference ranking exercise indicated that Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata was the most preferred species to

  20. Constraints and challenges of meeting the water requirements of livestock in Ethiopia: cases of Lume and Siraro districts.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Roessler, Regina; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna; Abebe, Girma; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-10-01

    Compared to the total water use in livestock production systems, water for livestock drinking is small in amount but is an important requirement for health and productivity of animals. This study was carried out to assess constraints and challenges of meeting drinking water requirements of livestock in rural mixed smallholder crop-livestock farming districts in the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. Data was collected by individual interviews with randomly selected respondents and farmer group discussions. Farmers ranked feed and water scarcity as the two most important constraints for livestock husbandry, although the ranking order differed between districts and villages. Poor quality water was a concern for the communities in proximity to urban settlements or industrial establishments. Water provision for livestock was challenging during the dry season, since alternative water sources dried up or were polluted. Though rainwater harvesting by dugout constructions was practiced to cope with water scarcity, farmers indicated that mismanagement of the harvested water was posing health risks on both livestock and people. A sustainable water provision for livestock in the area, thus, depends on use of different water sources (intermittent or perennial) that should be properly managed. Industrial establishments should adopt an environment-friendly production to minimize pollution of water resources used for livestock consumption. Technical support to farmers is required in proper design and use of existing rainwater harvesting systems. Further investigations are recommended on effect of poor quality water (perceived by farmers) on performance of livestock. PMID:23543119

  1. What Is Your Bench Strength? An Exploration of Succession Planning in Three Large School Districts in a Southeastern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddick, Francine Piscitelli

    2009-01-01

    Large school districts face a number of challenges due to their sheer size. One of these challenges involves staffing the role of the principal. With Baby Boomers reaching retirement age, large school districts, especially those experiencing growth, have to fill numerous leadership positions. In order to fill these positions efficiently and…

  2. Factors Affecting Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kombolcha District, Eastern Hararghe Zone, Oromia Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belayihun, Bekele; Teji, Kedir; Admassu Ayana, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. World health organization estimates that more than half a million women lose their lives in the process of reproduction worldwide every year and most of these mortalities are avoidable if mothers have access to maternal health care services. Objectives. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of utilization of maternal health care services and identifying factors affecting it. Methodology. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six kebeles of Kombolcha district. A total of 495 women of reproductive age participated in the study and their selection was made using simple random sampling technique and data was collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. A total of 495 women were included in this study and from these women about 86.1% had at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy. About 61.7% of mothers had less than four visits which is less than the recommended and 46.2% started it in the second trimester. Only 25.3% of respondents gave birth in health institutions and rural women were less likely to use institutional delivery 20.9% compared to urban women 35.9%. Recommendations. More efforts should be given to educate society in general and mothers in particular, to strengthen community participation and to increase the accessibility of maternal health care services. Moreover, providing accurate information about the services provided in the health institutions is required from the concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  3. Groundwater Geochemistry in the Southeastern Part of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, with Special Reference to Fluoride Distribution and Its Impact on Health.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, V; Reddy, B Muralidhara; Khan, J Abdullah; Reddy, M Ramakrishna

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater is the major water-source for drinking and irrigation in drought-prone southeastern part of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh (India). Geochemically, the groundwater is characterized by alkaline nature, higher contents of Na+ over K+, Ca2+ over Mg2+ and Cl- over NO3- more or less equal amounts of HCO3- and SO4(2-), and fluoride 0.5 to 5.51 mg/L, that is ~2-5 times over the W.H.O. (2004) prescribed limit of 1.5 mg/L for drinking. Due to high F in water, this region is severely affected by endemic fluorosis. High fluoride content in groundwater is attributed to release of F- into water from F-bearing rocks in this tropical region during their weathering and partial evaporation of such water. Use of this groundwater with high F- for drinking and irrigation for dry crops led to many health problems, viz. dental and skeletal-fluorosis, and deformation of bones, manifested in both children and adults. This calls for effective regional-scale defluoridation of water in this part to bring to permissible limit prior to its use, besides adoption of methods like rainwater harvesting. PMID:26563061

  4. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  5. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Mammoth breccia pipe, Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona: Evidence for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Atkinson, W.W., Jr.; Marsh, T.; Iriondo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona, contains more than 500 mineralized breccia pipes, buried porphyry-style, copper-bearing stockworks, and distal lead-silver veins. The breccia pipes are hosted by the Copper Creek Granodiorite and the Glory Hole volcanic rocks. The unexposed Mammoth breccia pipe, solely recognized by drilling, has a vertical extent of 800 m and a maximum width of 180 m. The pipe consists of angular clasts of granodiorite cemented by quartz, chalcopyrite, bornite, anhydrite, and calcite. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar dates suggest a minimum age of 61.5??0.7 Ma for the host Copper Creek Granodiorite and 40Ar/39Ar dates on hydrothermal sericite indicate an age of 61.0??0.5 Ma for copper mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that a supercritical fluid with a salinity of approximately 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. condensed to a dilute aqueous vapor (1-2.8 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and a hypersaline brine (33.4-35.1 wt.% NaCl equiv.). Minimum trapping temperatures are 375??C and trapping depths are estimated at 2 km. Sulfur isotope fractionation of cogenetic anhydrite and chalcopyrite yields a temperature of mineralization of 469??25??C. Calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope values for fluids in equilibrium with quartz and sericite range from 10.2??? to 13.4??? and -60??? to -39???, respectively, suggesting that the mineralizing fluid was dominantly magmatic. Evidence from the stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses suggests that the fluids responsible for Cu mineralization within the Mammoth breccia pipe exsolved from a gray porphyry phase found at the base of the breccia pipe. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  7. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-10-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care

  8. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1-28.2), 16.2% (12.7-20.1), and 1.0% (0.3-2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  9. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  10. Institutional Delivery Service Utilization among Women from Rural Districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones, Southern Ethiopia; a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arba, Mihiretu Alemayehu; Darebo, Tadele Dana; Koyira, Mengistu Meskele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The highest number of maternal deaths occur during labour, delivery and the first day after delivery highlighting the critical need for good quality care during this period. Therefore, for the strategies of institutional delivery to be effective, it is essential to understand the factors that influence individual and household factors to utilize skilled birth attendance and institutions for delivery. This study was aimed to assess factors affecting the utilization of institutional delivery service of women in rural districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done among mothers who gave birth within the past one year preceding the survey in Wolaita and Dawro Zones, from February 01 –April 30, 2015 by using a three stage sampling technique. Initially, 6 districts were selected randomly from the total of 17 eligible districts. Then, 2 kebele from each district was selected randomly cumulating a total of 12 clusters. Finally, study participants were selected from each cluster by using systematic sampling technique. Accordingly, 957 mothers were included in the survey. Data was collected by using a pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared by including socio-demographic variables and variables of maternal health service utilization factors. Data was entered using Epi-data version 1.4.4.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were applied to identify candidate and predictor variables respectively. Result Only 38% of study participants delivered the index child at health facility. Husband’s educational status, wealth index, average distance from nearest health facility, wanted pregnancy, agreement to follow post-natal care, problem faced during delivery, birth order, preference of health professional for ante-natal care and maternity care were predictors of institutional delivery. Conclusion The use of

  11. Cross-Sectional Study of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among School Aged Children in Rural and Urban Settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. Methods In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. Results The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23–2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29–0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27–0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09–10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03–1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09–0.65) in the urban setting. Conclusion The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness

  12. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Amhara Regional State

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Buño, Antonio; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel; de Armas, Lisset Fernandez; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Moreno, Javier; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May–December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. Results More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7–9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35–0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19–6.48) and 4.91 (2.47–9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.8) and 0.2 (0.1–0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3–0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition

  13. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Addisu Workineh; Tamiru, Mulugojjam Andualem; Yeshanew, Addisu Gize

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs) and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS) operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village) the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17) of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163) of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236) of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920) of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely. PMID:26171274

  14. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia. PMID:23883834

  15. The Effectiveness of a District-Wide Training Initiative on Determining Preparedness of Educational Leaders in a Large, Southeastern Louisiana School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeanne Bordelon

    2012-01-01

    A nationwide shortage of qualified, experienced applicants to fill the roles of educational leaders has led to a hiring crisis among school districts across America. The diminishing pool of applicants, accompanied by a high turnover rate of practicing administrators and increasing accountability demands, has revealed the importance of recruitment…

  16. Middle-Late Devonian radiolarians from Klaeng District, Rayong Province, southeastern Thailand: Geotectonic significance of the Rayong area as a continental margin of the Sibumasu Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Yoshihito; Kato, Miyako; Ueno, Katsumi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2015-05-01

    A fine clastics-siliceous succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet, approximately 20 km southwest of Klaeng, Rayong area, southeastern Thailand was examined based on lithology, radiolarian biostratigraphy, and geological correlation. In the study section, thinly bedded chert layers are intercalated with black carbonaceous shale, light-colored tuffaceous shale, brown glassy tuff, and quartz-rich sandstone layers. A horizon of the chert in the section yielded poorly preserved radiolarians, however, several forms including Palaeoscenidium cladophorum Deflandre, Stigmosphaerostylus cf. pusilla (Hinde), and Entactiniidae gen. et spp. indet. were identified. This fauna is probably referable to the Middle-Late Devonian. The study section had been assigned to various stratigraphic units, such as Silurian-Devonian or Carboniferous-Permian, due to a poor fossil occurrence. However, the occurrence of the Devonian radiolarians in this study provides concrete evidence for the sedimentary age of the succession, and supports assignment to the Silurian-Devonian. Although the study succession exposed at Laem Krabang Phet is coeval with the Devonian part of the Fang chert, northern Thailand, the lithological assemblage is dissimilar, and the post-Devonian radiolarian chert is absent. These lithological, chronological, and stratigraphic results indicate that the depositional environment of the study section was close to the continental margin, such as a continental slope or rise.

  17. Community Knowledge and Perceived Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Malaria: Implications for Sustained Use of Malaria Interventions in Rufiji District, Southeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, Donath S

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides treated-nets (ITNs) and artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), crucial for malaria elimination, depend on perceived effectiveness in reducing malarial fevers. We examined community knowledge and perceived effectiveness of ITNs and ALu for reducing malaria in Rufiji district. Heads of households were interviewed on causes of fever in underfives, fever history, and antimalarial use during the last 2 weeks, perceived effectiveness of, and willingness to continue using ALu and ITNs. A total of 1,885 respondents were interviewed, a majority (88.2%) females. Illnesses with fever (malaria-76.1% and respiratory conditions-58.9%) were major health problems. There was a very high recognition of fever as malaria symptom (95.1%). There were mixed perceptions on effectiveness of ALu and ITNs: ALu (52.8%) and on ITNs as highly effective (48.1%). Both ALu and ITNs were judged partially effective. Reorientation of social marketing to increase demand for ALu and ITNs for malaria control consolidation is crucial. PMID:26470397

  18. Assessment and comparison of 1976-77 and 2002 water quality in mineshafts in the Picher Mining District, northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.

    2003-01-01

    The Picher mining district was the site of lead and zinc mining from about 1900 to the mid-1970's. The primary sources of lead and zinc were the sulfide minerals, galena and sphalerite, disseminated in the cherty limestone of the Boone Formation. Water was pumped from the mines while still in operation; however, when mining ceased the mines began to fill with water. Elevated concentrations of metals with depth indicate there may be a substantial quantity of dissolved metals in the ground water. There is concern that the mine water may continue to seep to adjoining portions of the Boone aquifer and to creeks and streams in the area. Water was sampled from abandoned mineshafts in 2002 in the Picher mining area to assess water quality in the mines and to determine how water quality has changed since the late 1970s when similar sampling was conducted. Specific conductance in 2002 increased with depth in the mineshafts. The increases in specific conductance were very slight until the bottom 20 to 40 feet of the shaft where substantial increases occurred. The pH values in 2002 were generally uniform at the top of the water column and were generally neutral. The lowest pH values were measured at the base of most mineshafts. Concentrations of metals and major ions from samples in 2002 varied with depth and between shafts. Specific conductance in 2002 samples was less than in 1976-77 samples. The 1976-77 and 2002 data sets for pH had similar median values; however, the pH values from the 1976- 77 had a much greater range. Concentrations of metals, except copper, from water samples collected from the mineshafts in 2002 were significantly less than concentrations of metals from samples in 1976-77.

  19. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  20. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  1. Full-Day Kindergarten: A Case Study on the Perceptions of District Leaders in Four Suburban Pennsylvania School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the reasons why suburban district leaders opted for full-day or half-day kindergarten programming in a sample of four local suburban districts operating such programs in Southeastern, Pennsylvania. The primary data source was interviews with key district leaders including school board members, superintendents,…

  2. Hydrological research in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

  3. First confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype SAT-1 in cattle and small ruminants in Ethiopia in 2007/08.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Yoseph; Asfaw, Yilkal; Sahle, Mesfin; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and the Southern Nations Nationalities and people regional state from August 2007 to April 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in the region. Two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of Ethiopia. Serotype O FMDV was identified in Girar Jarso, Yabello, and Ankesha Guagusa districts while SAT-1 was isolated in Surma and Maji districts from tissue samples and this was the first report of the FMDV serotype in Ethiopia. Similarly, the OP fluid samples were found positive for SAT-1 FMDV in Maji and Surma districts. PMID:23250672

  4. Public Schooling in Southeastern Wisconsin: 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jeff; Smith, Annemarie; Dickman, Anneliese; Henken, Rob

    2010-01-01

    For 24 consecutive years, the Public Policy Forum has compiled and analyzed data from southeastern Wisconsin's public school districts in order to better inform policymakers and the public about the effectiveness of the region's K-12 education system. This analysis of the 2009-10 academic year, like many of the previous reports, indicates cause…

  5. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (p<0.0001) compared with that in Am. variegatum and Am. gemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (p<0.0001); however, the prevalence of R. africae was relatively high in the central (Ada'a, Wolmara and Arsi) and eastern (Arero, Moyale and Yabelo) districts, where Am. variegatum and Am. gemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832

  6. A Unique Plasmodium falciparum K13 Gene Mutation in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Alemu, Abebe; Getie, Sisay; Mohon, Abu Naser; Pillai, Dylan R

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is the first line to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Artemisinin treatment failures are on the rise in southeast Asia. Delayed parasite clearance after ACT is associated with mutations of the P. falciparum kelch 13 gene. Patients (N = 148) in five districts of northwest Ethiopia were enrolled in a 28-day ACT trial. We identified a unique kelch 13 mutation (R622I) in 3/125 (2.4%) samples. The three isolates with R622I were from Negade-Bahir and Aykel districts close to the Ethiopia-Sudan border. One of three patients with the mutant strain was parasitemic at day 3; however, all patients cleared parasites by day 28. Correlation between kelch 13 mutations and parasite clearance was not possible due to the low frequency of mutations in this study. PMID:26483118

  7. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  8. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  9. Pass Over Southeastern Asia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Southeastern Asia was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 7, 2011, from 12:41:10 to 12:50:46 GMT, on ...

  10. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0. Results Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001). The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001), appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001) was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June. Conclusion Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of

  11. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Methodology Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008–2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices’ reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Principal Findings Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2–51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3–64.8% of Ethiopia’s national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Conclusions Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental

  12. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  13. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  14. Rights of the Child in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's…

  15. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  16. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  17. Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with superintendents of eight charter-school districts in four states: California, Florida, Georgia, and New Mexico. Describes advantages and disadvantages. Includes a list (with website addresses) of all current charter-school districts. (PKP)

  18. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  19. Tropical pyomyositis in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Selassie, F G

    1995-01-01

    Seventy-two cases of pyomyositis are reported from the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. The majority (76.4%) came from highland areas over 1,800 meters above sea level. The clinical picture of the disease was similar to that seen in other East African countries. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 69 of 72 pus cultures. Spontaneous rupture of abscesses was seen in two cases. Four of the five deaths were assumed to be due to complications of the pyomyositis. Further search into non-altitudinal factors is implicated to get a better insight into the nature of the disorder. PMID:8553441

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  1. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Susuman, A Sathiya

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

  2. Quakertown Community School District: A Systematic Approach to Blended Learning That Focuses on District Leadership, Staffing, and Cost-Effectiveness. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jiye Grace; Ableidinger, Joe; Hassel, Bryan C.; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Quakertown Community School District, or QCSD, is a traditional K-12 public school district in rural southeastern Pennsylvania, located in Bucks County, about an hour north of Philadelphia. QCSD has ten schools, including one high school, and serves approximately 5,500 students, 24 percent of whom are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch…

  3. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum. PMID:26531747

  4. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  5. 40 CFR 81.248 - Southeastern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southeastern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.248 Section 81.248 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Districts 1-6, inclusive, as described in Article XIV, section 3 of the Constitution of the State of Alaska....

  6. Emergent Literacy Skills Achievement of Kindergarteners in Relation to Sample Demographics in Southeastern Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, KellyAnn

    2010-01-01

    This ex post facto, quasi-experimental study was conducted at a single-site, kindergarten through eighth grade district in rural, southeastern Connecticut. Of the single cohort of kindergarten students (N = 35) participating, eight students received fall intervention from a trained paraprofessional using "Stepping Stones to Literacy" and winter…

  7. Arts Education Policy Lessons Learned from the Southeastern College Art Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides functional, moderate, and constructive arts education policy lessons drawn from the development of two Southeastern College Art Conference (SECAC) visual arts education policy statements over the past fifteen years. These lessons can help formulate action-oriented school, district, state, and national pre-kindergarten-20…

  8. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  9. The Impact of a District Assistant Principal Leadership Preparation Program on Perceptions of Effective Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States found that leaders supplied by universities lacked skills needed to meet its accountability challenges. Because the school district demands highly effective leaders for its growing schools, an Aspiring Leader Program (ALP) was established to train its future assistant…

  10. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  11. Beyond the Biomedical: Community Resources for Mental Health Care in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Selamu, Medhin; Asher, Laura; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Hailemariam, Maji; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2015-01-01

    Background The focus of discussion in addressing the treatment gap is often on biomedical services. However, community resources can benefit health service scale-up in resource-constrained settings. These assets can be captured systematically through resource mapping, a method used in social action research. Resource mapping can be informative in developing complex mental health interventions, particularly in settings with limited formal mental health resources. Method We employed resource mapping within the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME), to systematically gather information on community assets that can support integration of mental healthcare into primary care in rural Ethiopia. A semi-structured instrument was administered to key informants. Community resources were identified for all 58 sub-districts of the study district. The potential utility of these resources for the provision of mental healthcare in the district was considered. Results The district is rich in community resources: There are over 150 traditional healers, 164 churches and mosques, and 401 religious groups. There were on average 5 eddir groups (traditional funeral associations) per sub-district. Social associations and 51 micro-finance institutions were also identified. On average, two traditional bars were found in each sub-district. The eight health centres and 58 satellite clinics staffed by Health Extension Workers (HEWs) represented all the biomedical health services in the district. In addition the Health Development Army (HDA) are community volunteers who support health promotion and prevention activities. Discussion The plan for mental healthcare integration in this district was informed by the resource mapping. Community and religious leaders, HEWs, and HDA may have roles in awareness-raising, detection and referral of people with mental illness, improving access to medical care, supporting treatment adherence, and protecting human rights. The diversity of

  12. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. Results There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Conclusion Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four

  13. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  14. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  15. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  16. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shanko, W; Wolday, M; Assefa, N; Aro, A R

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting to expose the issue and not knowing where to go. PMID:23520901

  18. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  19. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  20. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy–related deaths? One–year operational assessment in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Kinsman, John; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background To maximise the potential benefits of maternity care services, pregnant women need to be able to physically get to health facilities in a timely manner. In most of sub–Saharan Africa, transport represents a major practical barrier. Here we evaluate the extent to which an innovative national ambulance service in Ethiopia, together with mobile phones, may have been successful in averting pregnancy–related deaths. Methods An operational assessment of pregnancy–related deaths in relation to utilisation of the new national ambulance service was undertaken in six randomly selected Districts in northern Ethiopia. All 183 286 households in the six randomly selected Districts were visited to identify live–births and deaths among women of reproductive age that occurred over a one–year period. The uptake of the new ambulance transport service for women’s deliveries in the same six randomly selected Districts over the same period was determined retrospectively from ambulance log books. Pregnancy–related deaths as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO 2012) verbal autopsy tool [13] and the InterVA–4 model [14] were analysed against ambulance utilisation by District, month, local area, distance from health facility and mobile network coverage. Findings A total of 51 pregnancy–related deaths and 19 179 live–births were documented. Pregnancy–related mortality for Districts with above average ambulance utilisation was 149 per 100 000 live–births (95% confidence interval CI 77–260), compared with 350 per 100 000 (95% CI 249–479) for below average utilisation (P = 0.01). Distance to a health facility, mobile network availability and ambulance utilisation were all significantly associated with pregnancy–related mortality on a bivariable basis. On a multivariable basis, ambulance non–utilisation uniquely persisted as a significant determinant of mortality (mortality rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05–3.69; P = 0

  1. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  2. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P.; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2–59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9–25.7%) and comparison (23.3–29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services. PMID:26787148

  3. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2-59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9-25.7%) and comparison (23.3-29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services. PMID:26787148

  4. Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye

    2013-07-01

    The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and

  5. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  6. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  7. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n = 577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n = 290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n = 287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n = 85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  8. Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR = 83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

  9. Community-based survey of podoconiosis in Bedele Zuria woreda, west Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Alemu, Getahun; Davey, Gail; Ahrens, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease resulting in progressive bilateral swelling of the lower legs in barefoot individuals exposed to red-clay soil derived from volcanic rocks. It is a considerable public health problem in countries across tropical Africa, Central America and northern India. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical features of podoconiosis, and patients' experience of disease prevention and treatment, in Bedele Zuria woreda (district), west Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted during 2011 and involved a house-to-house survey in all 2285 households of five randomly selected rural kebeles (villages). Results The prevalence of podoconiosis was 5.6% (379/6710) (95% CI 5.1–6.2%) and was significantly greater among women than men (6.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.001). A total of 311 (16.9%) households had at least one member with podoconiosis, and 128 (33.8%) study participants reported having a blood relative with podoconiosis. Two hundred and forty-three (76.4%) podoconiosis patients were in the economically productive age group of 15–64 years. On average, a patient experienced at least six episodes of adenolymphangitis per year resulting in a loss of 25 working days per year. Conclusion This study has revealed a high burden of podoconiosis in west Ethiopia, and suggests that disease prevention and treatment programmes are needed. PMID:24030111

  10. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption. PMID:26160752

  11. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D.; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S.; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Ruslanova, Inna; Goswami, Jaya; Sow, Samba O.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys. Methods Households with children aged 12–23 (N = 300) or 6–8 months (N = 100) in each of three districts (woredas) were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall) and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine). Findings Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87%) also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results. Conclusion Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness. PMID:26934372

  12. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and risk factors in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Garuma; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tuli, Getachew; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is one of the most important threats to cattle health and production in Ethiopia. At the livestock farm of the Bako Agricultural Research Center, an outbreak of respiratory disease of cattle occurred in May 2011, and many animals were affected and died before the disease was diagnosed. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CBPP antibodies in selected districts of Western Oromia Region and to assess the potential risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. A crosssectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in three selected districts of Western Oromia Region. A total of 386 sera were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony (MmmSC), using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The risk factors that were evaluated in this study were geographical location, age, sex, breed and body condition. The overall seroprevalence in this study was 28.5%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma mycoidesmycoides small colony antibodies at the district level was 40.3%, 19.0% and 5.7% in Gobbu Sayyo, BakoTibbe and Horro districts, respectively. There was a statistically significant variation ( p < 0.05) in the prevalence of antibodies amongst the districts. However, animal-related risk factors, such as age, sex, breed and body condition, were not significantly associated ( p > 0.05) with the serological status of the animal. This study showed that the overall prevalence of CBPP in Western Oromia Zones was high. This warrants the implementation of appropriate preventive and control measures to minimise the economic losses associated with the disease. PMID:27247066

  13. The geographic distribution of fluoride in surface and groundwater in Ethiopia with an emphasis on the Rift Valley.

    PubMed

    Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Melaku, Zenebe; Kloos, Helmut; Reimann, Clemens; Fantaye, Wondwossen; Zerihun, Legesse; Bjorvatn, Kjell

    2006-08-15

    This paper analyzes the most extensive database on fluoride distribution in Ethiopia. Of the total 1438 water samples tested, 24.2% had fluoride concentrations above the 1.5 mg/l recommended optimum concentration recommended by WHO. Regionally, by far the highest fluoride levels were recorded in the Rift Valley, where 41.2% of all samples exceeded the 1.5 mg/l level. Only 1.0% of the samples from the central and northwestern highlands and 10.0% in the southeastern highlands exceeded 1.5 mg/l. Larger proportions of deep wells (50.0%) and hot springs (90.0%) than shallow wells (27.2%) and cold springs (12.6%) exceeded the 1.5 mg/l level. The highest fluoride concentrations were recorded for Rift Valley lakes Shala (264.0 mg/l) and Abijata (202.4 mg/l) and the lowest in Lake Tana, and rivers, wells and springs in the highlands. The fluoride concentrations of the Awash River, which originates in the highlands and flows through the Rift Valley, increase downstream, giving concern over the current diversion of high-fluoride water from Lake Beseka. Of the various flourosis prevention methods tried in Ethiopia, the treatment of surface water has been shown to be the most feasible and effective for towns and large commercial farms in the Rift Valley, although defluoridation methods should be considered for smaller rural communities. PMID:16360195

  14. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  15. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  16. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  17. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  18. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  19. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  20. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  1. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHEASTERN MYOTIS (MYOTIS AUSTRORIPARIUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) is a medium-sized bat with grayish-brown, woolly fur. This species primarily is found in the southeastern United States. Its range extends from southeastern North Carolina south to peninsular Florida, west to eastern Texas and Oklah...

  2. Cambrian rocks of the Pioche mining district, Nevada, with a section on Pioche shale faunules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, Charles Warren; Palmer, Allison R.

    1964-01-01

    The Pioche mining district in the Ely Range, southeastern Nevada, is one of several districts in the Great Basin where Cambrian rocks are hosts of important ore deposits. Cambrian strata underlying the Ely Range are intruded by porphyritic granite and other dikes. Tertiary volcanic rocks and Pliocene fresh-water clastic deposits of the Panaca Formation occupy adjacent valleys and extend over the Cambrian strata on the south and east.

  3. An NGO at work: CARE-Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families. PMID:12349450

  4. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740

  5. Current views on liver diseases in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tsega, E

    1977-04-01

    The chief causes of liver disease in Ethiopia are reviewed, considering hospital data on admissions for hepatitis, cirrhosis, ascites and hepatoma. Liver diseases account for 11.4% of all medical admissions in 3 medical wards in Addis Ababa. The causes are viral hepatitis, post- hepatic and post necrotic and mixed cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcoholic cirrhosis is rare. Viral hepatitis with shivering, rigor and fever and elevated direct bilirubin levels are common in Ethiopians, especially in child-bearing women. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is often associated with hepatitis. The disease may be transmitted by several species of mosquitoes, placental transmission, or feces, urine, saliva or semen. Blood products are not screened for hepatitis B. Cirrhosis is common, and causes significant mortality, usually from esophageal varices and hepatic coma. Chronic active hepatitis patients may live for a time, especially if they are near a hospital and are treated with steroids. In Ethiopia presenting symptoms for hepatoma are anorexia, weight loss, persistent, burning, right upper quadrant pain, and a hard, nodular, tender RUQ mass. Over 5% of malignancies seen are primary hepatocellular carcinomas. 50% have HBsAG, compared to 3.8% of controls. 65% have alpha-fetoglobulins. It is suggested that some viral hepatitis cases progress to cirrhosis, of which some go on to hepatocellular carcinoma. Herbal medicines, aflatoxins and other toxins may also contribute to liver disease. PMID:201462

  6. View of southeastern Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of southeastern Washington States as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The Snake River flows into the Columbia River in the most southerly corner of the picture. The Wallula Lake is below the junction of the two rivers. The Yakima Valley is at the southwestern edge of the photograph. The Columbia Basin is in the center of the picture. The Cascade Range extends across the northwest corner of the photograph.

  7. "Immunization mobile" brings protection to children in southeastern Idaho.

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, L

    1987-01-01

    The problem that needs to be addressed is the 58 percent immunity level among 2-year-olds in southeastern Idaho, a level created by the indifference or fear of parents. Southeastern Idaho has the highest birth rate of any region in the State, and this situation has created a large group of children susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. The mobile unit, which consists of a specially equipped motor home, allows easy access to immunizations for groups of children and their parents. A search of the computerized record system installed in the mobile unit can provide data on past immunizations for each registered child. The target audience for the mobile unit's visits is church groups because of the particular cultural demographics of this region. In 1987, the District Seven Health Department, a State- and county-funded agency, expects to increase the number of doses of vaccine given by 3,000 over the 19,953 given in 1986. The "Shots for Tots" program is unique in the State of Idaho. Its expansion may be anticipated as the unit becomes better known in the region. The alternative to using aggressive, innovative techniques to motivate people to become immunized is disease. Images p545-a PMID:3116586

  8. 7 CFR 953.123 - Reestablishment of districts and reapportionment of committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... committee membership. 953.123 Section 953.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... and reapportionment of committee membership. (a) Pursuant to § 953.12: (1) The counties of James City... reestablished as a part of District No. 2; (2) the membership of the Southeastern Potato Committee shall...

  9. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  10. Bovine trypanosomosis and Glossina distribution in selected areas of southern part of Rift Valley, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sheferaw, Desie; Birhanu, Belay; Asrade, Biruhtesfa; Abera, Mesele; Tusse, Turist; Fikadu, Amha; Denbarga, Yifat; Gona, Zemedkun; Regassa, Alemayehu; Moje, Nebyou; Kussito, Engida; Mekibib, Berhanu; Asefa, Teshome; Woldesenbet, Zerihun

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional study was conducted in 9 selected districts of the southern part the Rift Valley, Ethiopia to estimate the dry period prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis as well as assessment of Glossina species. From a total of 1838 cattle examined for trypanosomosis by buffy coat technique 133 (7.2%) were found infected by trypanosome species. From the total positive animals 66.9 and 33.1% of them accounted to Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence (19.4%., P<0.05) was recorded at Arba-Mnch district. Black colored cattle were the most highly affected (χ(2)=79.35, P<0.05) animals. The overall average PCV value for parasitaemic and aparasitaemic animals was 22.2 (95% CI=21.6-22.7) and 27% (95% CI=26.8-27.2), respectively. The fly caught per trap per day was 1.4 for Glossina species and 2.8 for other biting flies. Two species of Glossina identified namely Glossina pallidipes and Glossina fuscipes. PMID:26581831

  11. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia: Reemerging or Emerging?

    PubMed

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Tsegaw, Teshome; Kejella, Asfaw; Mulugeta, Abate; Worku, Dagimlidet; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-07-01

    Kala-azar is a growing public health problem in Ethiopia. Benishangul-Gumuz regional state was previously not known to be endemic for the disease. In response to a case report from the region, we conducted a rapid assessment survey. A pretested questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic and clinical histories pertinent to kala-azar. Study participants with complaints of fever and headache for 2 weeks or more were tested for kala-azar and malaria. All participants were screened with the leishmanin skin test and the direct agglutination test for exposure to Leishmania, defined as a positive result with either or both tests. Of 275 participants, 20 were exposed giving an overall leishmaniasis seroprevalence rate of 7.3%. Among the 20 positive individuals, 19 were farmers and nine of them reported no travel history outside their district. It appears that kala-azar is emerging in Dangur and Guba districts of Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, probably in connection with human encroachment into one or several previously out-of-reach zoonotic foci. We recommend integrated epidemiological surveys for confirmation and early containment of disease transmission in the area. PMID:27139445

  12. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Highest seroprevalence was found in crossbreed of chicken (91.4 %) while the lowest was recorded in indigenous breed of chicken (81.4 %). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) among the three breeds of chickens, but sex was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:22639033

  13. Ethnomedicinal uses of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel. among rural communities of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopian communities highly depend on local plant resources to secure their subsistence and health. Local tree resources are exploited and used intensively for medicinal purposes. This study provides insight into the medicinal importance of Hagenia abyssinica as well as the degree of threat on its population. An ethnobotanical study was carried out to document medicinal uses of Hagenia abyssinica by rural communities of North and Southeastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted using an integrated approach of group discussions, observation, a local market survey and interviews. A total of 90 people were interviewed among whom elderly and traditional healers were the key informants. Societies in the study sites still depend on Hagenia abyssinica for medicine. All plant parts are used to treat different aliments. Tree identification, collection and utilization were different among the studied communities. In spite of its significance, interest in utilizing flowers of Hagenia abyssinica as an anthelmintic seems to be diminishing, notably among young people. This is partly because the medicine can be harmful when it is taken in large quantities. Nowadays, the widely used Hagenia abyssinica is endangered primarily due to various anthropogenic impacts. This in turn may become a threat for the associated knowledge. It is recommended to assist communities in documenting their traditional knowledge. Measures for conserving species are urgently needed. PMID:20701760

  14. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  15. Magmatic degassing at Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, G. M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Tsanev, V. I.; Yirgu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report measurements of the chemical composition and flux of gas emitted from the central lava lake at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) made on 15 October 2005. We determined an average SO 2 flux of ˜ 0.69 ± 0.17 kg s - 1 using zenith sky ultraviolet spectroscopy of the plume, and molar proportions of magmatic H 2O, CO 2, SO 2, CO, HCl and HF gases to be 93.58, 3.66, 2.47, 0.06, 0.19 and 0.04%, respectively, by open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Together, these data imply fluxes of 7.3, 0.7, 0.008, 0.03 and 0.004 kg s - 1 for H 2O, CO 2, CO, HCl and HF, respectively. These are the first FTIR spectroscopic observations at Erta 'Ale, and are also some of the very few gas measurements made at the volcano since the early 1970s (Gerlach, T.M., 1980b. Investigation of volcanic gas analyses and magma outgassing from Erta 'Ale lava lake, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 7(3-4): 415-441). We identify significant increases in the proportion of H 2O in the plume with respect to both CO 2 and SO 2 across this 30-year interval, which we attribute to the depletion of volatiles in magma that sourced effusive eruptions during the early 1970s and/or to fractional magma degassing between the two active pit craters located in the summit caldera.

  16. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Ashenafi; Cano, Jorge; Deribe, Kebede; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Shafi, Oumer; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.; Kebede, Amha; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated. Methodology/Principal Finding A two-stage cluster purposive sampling was used to conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey for an integrated mapping of LF and podoconiosis, in seven regional states and two city administrations. Two communities in each woreda were purposely selected using the World Health Organization (WHO) mapping strategy for LF based on sampling 100 individuals per community and two purposely selected communities per woreda. Overall, 130 166 people were examined in 1315 communities in 658 woredas. In total, 140 people were found to be positive for circulating LF antigen by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) in 89 communities. Based on WHO guidelines, 75 of the 658 woredas surveyed in the nine regions were found to be endemic for LF with a 2016 projected population of 9 267 410 residing in areas of active disease transmission. Combining these results with other data it is estimated that 11 580 010 people in 112 woredas will be exposed to infection in 2016. Conclusions We have conducted nationwide mapping of LF in Ethiopia and demonstrated that the number of people living in LF endemic areas is 60% lower than current estimates. We also showed that integrated mapping of multiple NTDs is feasible and cost effective and if properly planned, can be quickly achieved at national scale. PMID:26539700

  17. Prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Olani, Abebe; Habtamu, Yitbarek; Wegayehu, Teklu; Anberber, Manyazewal

    2016-03-01

    A study was made to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and its associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia during 2013-2014. A total of 2400 blood samples were collected and examined by the buffy coat and thin blood film laboratory methods, and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The overall prevalence of camel trypanosomosis in the area was found to be 2.33 %. Prevalence was significantly different among the surveyed districts (P = 0.000), the pastoral associations (F = 6.408, P = 0.000), altitudinal divisions (P = 0.000), age groups (P = 0.034), and between animals possessing packed cell volume (PCV) values greater than 25 % and less than 25 % (P = 0.000); whereas, prevalence of the disease was not statistically significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.311) and among the body condition score groups (P = 0.739). The PCV of trypanosome positive and trypanosome negative camels differ significantly (P = 0.001), and prevalence of trypanosomosis was seen to be negatively correlated with packed cell volume (r = -0.069, P = 0.000) revealing the effect of camel trypanosomosis on anemia state of parasitized animals. In conclusion, camel trypanosomosis is a serious and economically important disease hampering camel production and productivity in southern Ethiopia. Further studies involving more sensitive molecular techniques to reveal the precise magnitude of the disease and to identify the vector species of the parasite are recommended. PMID:26627690

  18. The impact of podoconiosis on quality of life in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, which untreated, causes considerable physical disability and stigma for affected individuals. Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of patients with podoconiosis. This study aimed to assess the QoL of patients with podoconiosis in comparison with healthy controls in Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012, among 346 clinically confirmed adult patients with podoconiosis, and 349 healthy adult neighbourhood controls in Dembecha woreda (district) in northern Ethiopia. QoL was assessed using the validated Amharic version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) scale; in addition, mental health and stigma were assessed by the Kessler-10 scale and podoconiosis stigma scale respectively. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with QoL. Results Patients with podoconiosis had significantly lower mean overall QoL than the controls (52.05 versus 64.39), and this was also true in all four sub domains (physical, psychological, social and environmental). Controls were 7 times more likely to have high (above median) QoL (Odds Ratio = 6.74, 95% Confidence Interval 4.62 to 9.84) than cases. Factors associated with lower QoL were: experiencing high levels of stigma, living in an urban area, being illiterate, having additional co-morbidities, and being unmarried. Mental illness was associated with lower scores in psychological and physical domains. Conclusions Programs targeting podoconiosis interventions should include QoL as an indicator for monitoring progress. Interventions targeting improvement of QoL among patients with podoconiosis should address depression, stigma and other co-morbidities. PMID:23866905

  19. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul. PMID:23520733

  20. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96%) respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women). The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent) who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4%) sisters who had died, 819 (32%) occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769) per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia. PMID:23176124

  1. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  2. Community-wide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets can halt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank O; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Ukaga, Chinyere N; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S

    2013-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  3. Community-Wide Distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Can Halt Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M.; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E. B.; Ukaga, Chinyere N.; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  4. Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  5. Epidemiology and Individual, Household and Geographical Risk Factors of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: Results from the First Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1–6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9–4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  6. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  7. Pertussis Outbreak, Southeastern Minnesota, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Theofiles, Alexander G.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio R.; Quest, Daniel J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Patel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical and laboratory findings from the 2012 southeastern Minnesota pertussis outbreak. Patients and Methods Patients were selected for 2 parts of the study. In the first part, nasopharyngeal swabs from a convenience sample of 265 unique patients were used for both the clinician-requested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and culture. B pertussis isolates were tested for macrolide susceptibility and typed using whole genome sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Pertactin gene sequences were analyzed to identify pertactin-deficient B pertussis. In the second part, all patients seen at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, who had PCR results positive for Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, were analyzed for patient demographic features and vaccination records. Results One hundred sixty patients had results positive for B pertussis, and 21 patients had results positive for B parapertussis. Among the 265 swabs cultured, B pertussis was detected by both culture and PCR in 11. One swab was positive for B pertussis by culture alone, and 13 were positive by PCR alone. Polymerase chain reaction detected B pertussis more frequently than did culture (P=.001). No macrolide resistance was detected. All 12 isolates tested had an altered pertactin gene, including 9 with a signal sequence deletion, 2 with insertion sequence disruptions, and 1 with a premature stop codon. Nine and 3 isolates were pertactin types prn1 and prn2, respectively. Whole genome sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis detected the presence of multiple B pertussis strains. The mean age of patients with pertussis was younger than that of those without pertussis (15.6 and 25.5 years, respectively; P=.002). Compared with those whose test results were negative for B pertussis, fewer patients with positive results had received whole-cell pertussis vaccine (P=.02). In the subgroup who had received acellular

  8. Establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. Third quarter report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    This report contains a description of the planning and activities completed for the third quarter report (April - June 1994) of the 1993-1994 United States Department of Energy/Southeastern Consortium for Minorities in Engineering (SECME) grant for {open_quotes}Establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia.{close_quotes} The program continues to have outstanding success in Establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia Public Schools. Exhibits of supporting documentation are included.

  9. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  10. Ethiopia's health extension program: improving health through community involvement.

    PubMed

    Banteyerga, Hailom

    2011-07-01

    The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010. PMID:21778960

  11. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  12. Assessment of Current Malaria Status in Light of the Ongoing Control Interventions, Socio-Demographic and Environmental Variables in Jiga Area, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Seble; Mamo, Hassen; Animut, Abebe; Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Following substantial decline in malaria burden in Ethiopia, the country is planning to eliminate malaria in certain low transmission settings by 2020. To evaluate the attainability of this goal in-depth examination of malaria parasite carriage at community level is necessary. This study was, therefore, aimed at assessing the current situation of malaria in relation to ongoing control interventions in Jiga area, Jabi Tehnan District in northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional household (HH) survey was conducted in November-December 2013. Out of 2,574 HHs (11,815 people) in the entire Jabi Tehnan District, 392 (accommodating 1911 people) were randomly selected from three purposely selected villages. One randomly selected member from each selected HH was tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). All participants tested for malaria (n = 392) were afebrile (axillary temperature <37.5°C). Eleven individuals (2.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.2–4.4%) were found to be mRDT positive. Most HHs (95.9%, 95% CI: 93.5–97.5%) had at least 1 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Insecticide residual spraying (IRS) coverage the last six months was 85.5% (95% CI: 82.0–88.9%). Malaria prevalence remains unexpectedly high despite high HH coverage of control interventions. PMID:26751687

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  14. Factors That Determine the Career Stability of Assistant Principals in a Large Urban School District in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Danielle Felder

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the career stability (career choices assistant principals intend to make over the next five to ten years) in a large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States in order to identify factors significantly related to their career aspirations. The study invited a purposive sample (n = 177) of assistant…

  15. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  16. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  17. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  18. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  19. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  20. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  1. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  2. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  3. Household Constraints on Schooling by Gender: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline; Al-Samarrai, Samer

    2001-01-01

    Examines individual and household characteristics that affect the probability of a boy or girl attending and completing primary school in two regions of Ethiopia. Finds that school attendance was related to household wealth, parents' education, and child's nutritional status, while completion was affected more by economic constraints and, for…

  4. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  5. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  6. Household Demand for Primary Schooling in Ethiopia: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Benson

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined the role of economic, social, and logistical factors on Ethiopian parents' decisions whether or not to enroll their children in public primary school. Data were obtained from a survey of four rural regions in Ethiopia--130 households per region. Findings indicate that parents made enrollment…

  7. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  8. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  9. 75 FR 62530 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 1, 2010. Take.... and Replacement-2-A for the sale of power from Southeastern Power Administration's...

  10. Paleomagnetism of Lake Sediments, Chew Bahir, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Foerster, V. E.; Schäbitz, F.

    2011-12-01

    Quasi-continuous variations of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in lake sediments can provide detailed time series describing the evolution of the geomagnetic field. To make robust conclusions about underlying geodynamo processes an improvement in the global coverage of recording sites is required. Current lake data for the late Brunhes are biased towards Europe and North America with only five studies reporting paleomagnetic results from equatorial Africa. We present inclination and relative paleointensity from Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia; a saline mudflat located in the East African Ridge System, previously covered by a ~2000 km2 lake. Discrete measurements were made on two ten meter cores, which we continuously sub-sampled at 2 cm intervals. Calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages constrain the base of the cores to ~45 ka. NRM was demagnetized in ten steps up to 100 mT and well defined characteristic remanence directions, with MAD < 3°, were determined for the majority of specimens. Secondary components of magnetization were generally removed after alternating field demagnetization to 15 mT. Inclination is compared with previously obtained directional records from Lake Turkana, northern Kenya (~60 km to the southwest of Chew Bahir), and we discuss differences between these records. The ratio of NRM to ARM intensity at 20 mT was used as a proxy for relative paleointensity. Broad similarities in variations in relative paleointensity are seen between Chew Bahir and other globally distributed sites; most evidently through the Holocene. The magnetic mineralogy of the cores has been determined using a number of rock magnetic methods and has been used to assess the fidelity of the paleomagnetic records.

  11. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and

  12. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  13. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  14. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  15. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  16. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  17. Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K N; Hailu, Asrat

    2012-04-01

    Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo District of West Wellega zone during a period of 1 month: from mid-August to mid-September 2006. Data on socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire prepared for this purpose. All persons were examined clinically for skin signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. Two skin snips, one from each side of the gluteal fold were taken using blood lancet and sterilized razor blade and examined for microfilaria. All data were categorized, coded, entered in a data base and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. for windows. A total of 1114 individuals ≥15 years were examined for microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and onchocercal skin disease (OSD). The prevalence of onchocercal (mf) carrier was 74.8% (833/1114). In both genders, the prevalence of onchocerciasis showed direct correlations with the age of individuals (R (2) = 0.79, P < 0.05). The infection rate varied with the occupation of the study subjects, with preponderance among farmers. Among the subjects with onchocerciasis, the mf density ranged from 1.0 to 711.0 per mg of skin snip with a mean density (SD) and median values of 32.1 (61.5) and 10.4 respectively. The overall community microfilariae load (CMFL), the most sensitive parasitological indicator of onchocerciasis was 19.6. The pervasiveness of OSD among the study subjects was 26.4%. OSD was more frequent in males (32.4%) than their female counterparts (20.8%, P < 0.05). The overall prevalence of onchocercal nodule carrier, the

  18. Low Prevalence of Leishmania Infection in Post-Epidemic Areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4–15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0–4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary. PMID:22665599

  19. Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: assessment and comparison of knowledge and attitude of health workers and rural inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Haileyesus; Lambein, Fernand; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2002-05-01

    A cross sectional community based study was done in the Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia in 1999-2000 to assess and compare knowledge and attitude towards neurolathyrism among health workers and the rural community. A sample of 217 health workers selected by probability proportional to size and randomly selected 589 heads of household from a rural district were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Neurolathyrism was widely known among the health workers and the community. More than half of community respondents associated the disorder with walking or lying on the straw and the stalks of grass pea. In a multivariate analysis. poor neurolathyrism knowledge among the community was associated with illiteracy and with presence of a neurolathyrism patient at home. Among health workers, contact with vapour or steam of grass pea foods was the commonest cause cited. In a multivariate analysis nurses had the poorest knowledge among the health workers. Depending on the subject, health workers and community respondents had more or less knowledge than the other. The prevailing recurrent adverse climatic conditions might promote grass pea as a 'friendly' crop to the poor peasants in marginal areas who otherwise rely on it only during times of food shortages and could increase the incidence of neurolathyrism. The poor knowledge among health workers and the community and the general neglect of neurolathyrism requires urgent intervention. Appropriate strategies for the dissemination of information education, and communication (IEC) are needed. PMID:12061485

  20. Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

  1. Conservation of socioculturally important local crop biodiversity in the Oromia region of Ethiopia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested. PMID:22729809

  2. Microbial quality of water in rural households of Ethiopia: implications for milk safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Spengler, Marisa; Markemann, André; Zárate, Anne Valle

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogenic agents affect the health of people either by direct consumption of contaminated water or by its indirect use in food production and/or processing. Studies on the microbiological quality of water in rural areas of Ethiopia are still limited, especially at the household level. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbial quality of water from different sources in rural households in two districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. The correlation between E. coli counts in water and milk was also investigated. In total, 233 water samples (126 collected in dry and 107 in wet season) and 53 milk samples (19 from raw milk and 36 from processed milk products) were analyzed for E. coli contamination. The overall prevalence of E. coli in water samples was 54.9% (n = 233). In most of the analyzed samples, a higher prevalence of E. coli was recorded during the wet compared to the dry season. The highest load of E. coli was detected in water samples from dugouts. The quality of raw milk and traditionally-processed milk products showed variations between districts, and the traditionally-processed milk products were found to contain higher E. coli loads than raw milk. The correlation between the E. coli counts in water and milk only showed a weak but positive relationship (r = 0.1). Taking E. coli as a proxy for water quality, the microbiological quality of water consumed in the study area was found to be very poor, posing a potential food safety and health risk to the rural communities. PMID:25076657

  3. Multisensor earth observations to characterize wetlands and malaria epidemiology in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Senay, Gabriel B.; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2014-11-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The spatial heterogeneity of malaria can be affected by factors such as hydrological processes, physiography, and land cover patterns. Tropical wetlands, for example, are important hydrological features that can serve as mosquito breeding habitats. Mapping and monitoring of wetlands using satellite remote sensing can thus help to target interventions aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The objective of this study was to map wetlands and other major land cover types in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and to analyze district-level associations of malaria and wetlands across the region. We evaluated three random forests classification models using remotely sensed topographic and spectral data based on Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, respectively. The model that integrated data from both sensors yielded more accurate land cover classification than single-sensor models. The resulting map of wetlands and other major land cover classes had an overall accuracy of 93.5%. Topographic indices and subpixel level fractional cover indices contributed most strongly to the land cover classification. Further, we found strong spatial associations of percent area of wetlands with malaria cases at the district level across the dry, wet, and fall seasons. Overall, our study provided the most extensive map of wetlands for the Amhara region and documented spatiotemporal associations of wetlands and malaria risk at a broad regional level. These findings can assist public health personnel in developing strategies to effectively control and eliminate malaria in the region.

  4. Microbial Quality of Water in Rural Households of Ethiopia: Implications for Milk Safety and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Marisa; André, Markemann; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Waterborne pathogenic agents affect the health of people either by direct consumption of contaminated water or by its indirect use in food production and/or processing. Studies on the microbiological quality of water in rural areas of Ethiopia are still limited, especially at the household level. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbial quality of water from different sources in rural households in two districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. The correlation between E. coli counts in water and milk was also investigated. In total, 233 water samples (126 collected in dry and 107 in wet season) and 53 milk samples (19 from raw milk and 36 from processed milk products) were analyzed for E. coli contamination. The overall prevalence of E. coli in water samples was 54.9% (n=233). In most of the analyzed samples, a higher prevalence of E. coli was recorded during the wet compared to the dry season. The highest load of E. coli was detected in water samples from dugouts. The quality of raw milk and traditionally-processed milk products showed variations between districts, and the traditionally-processed milk products were found to contain higher E. coli loads than raw milk. The correlation between the E. coli counts in water and milk only showed a weak but positive relationship (r=0.1). Taking E. coli as a proxy for water quality, the microbiological quality of water consumed in the study area was found to be very poor, posing a potential food safety and health risk to the rural communities. PMID:25076657

  5. Multisensor earth observations to characterize wetlands and malaria epidemiology in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Senay, Gabriel B; Wimberly, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The spatial heterogeneity of malaria can be affected by factors such as hydrological processes, physiography, and land cover patterns. Tropical wetlands, for example, are important hydrological features that can serve as mosquito breeding habitats. Mapping and monitoring of wetlands using satellite remote sensing can thus help to target interventions aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The objective of this study was to map wetlands and other major land cover types in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and to analyze district-level associations of malaria and wetlands across the region. We evaluated three random forests classification models using remotely sensed topographic and spectral data based on Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, respectively. The model that integrated data from both sensors yielded more accurate land cover classification than single-sensor models. The resulting map of wetlands and other major land cover classes had an overall accuracy of 93.5%. Topographic indices and subpixel level fractional cover indices contributed most strongly to the land cover classification. Further, we found strong spatial associations of percent area of wetlands with malaria cases at the district level across the dry, wet, and fall seasons. Overall, our study provided the most extensive map of wetlands for the Amhara region and documented spatiotemporal associations of wetlands and malaria risk at a broad regional level. These findings can assist public health personnel in developing strategies to effectively control and eliminate malaria in the region. Key Points Remote sensing produced an accurate wetland map for the Ethiopian highlands Wetlands were associated with spatial variability in malaria risk Mapping and monitoring wetlands can improve malaria spatial decision support PMID:25653462

  6. Umbilical cord care in Ethiopia and implications for behavioral change: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. Methods In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? Results The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. Conclusions This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling. PMID:24742223

  7. 75 FR 65624 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) Rate Order No. SEPA- 53, for the sale of power...

  8. Southeastern Scarp of Olympus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 4 June 2002) The Science The movement pathways of molten rock, or lava, is demonstrated in this image of a portion of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system. These now-solid lava flows all show nearly the same orientation, having flowed from northeast to southwest, down the slope of the volcano's southeastern flank. Throughout the image, narrow pairs of lineaments can be observed ? these are called levees, and are essentially channel walls formed by the solidification and buildup of the edges of the lava flows. We can determine that the high-standing mountains must be older than the flows because they blocked their passage, causing the flows to change direction and go around the taller mountains. As in other THEMIS images, the lack of bright-dark contrast in this image indicates that a layer of dust covers these surfaces. The surfaces of the lava flows are virtually uncratered, attesting to the relatively recent formation of the flows, where ?recent? is within the last 500 million years or so. Several meteorites found on Earth appear to have come from volcanic regions on Mars ? their ages are as young as 180 million years, leading many scientists to suggest that volcanoes of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, may be the source regions of these meteorites. A prominent pear-shaped bowl is apparent on a hill in the lower right third of the image ? the collapse and mass movement of material down slope, which also formed a debris pile below and southeast of the bowl, likely formed this feature. The Story Millions and millions of years ago, a huge impact blasted a crater into the surface of Mars, sending particles of the Martian surface scattering into space at great speeds, where they spent millions and millions of years calmly in space before encountering a nearby orbiting planet: our own planet Earth. Hurtling down through Earth's atmosphere, these pieces of Mars landed in various regions of our world and were discovered by modern

  9. Southeastern Scarp of Olympus Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 4 June 2002) The Science The movement pathways of molten rock, or lava, is demonstrated in this image of a portion of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system. These now-solid lava flows all show nearly the same orientation, having flowed from northeast to southwest, down the slope of the volcano's southeastern flank. Throughout the image, narrow pairs of lineaments can be observed ? these are called levees, and are essentially channel walls formed by the solidification and buildup of the edges of the lava flows. We can determine that the high-standing mountains must be older than the flows because they blocked their passage, causing the flows to change direction and go around the taller mountains. As in other THEMIS images, the lack of bright-dark contrast in this image indicates that a layer of dust covers these surfaces. The surfaces of the lava flows are virtually uncratered, attesting to the relatively recent formation of the flows, where ?recent? is within the last 500 million years or so. Several meteorites found on Earth appear to have come from volcanic regions on Mars ? their ages are as young as 180 million years, leading many scientists to suggest that volcanoes of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, may be the source regions of these meteorites. A prominent pear-shaped bowl is apparent on a hill in the lower right third of the image ? the collapse and mass movement of material down slope, which also formed a debris pile below and southeast of the bowl, likely formed this feature. The Story Millions and millions of years ago, a huge impact blasted a crater into the surface of Mars, sending particles of the Martian surface scattering into space at great speeds, where they spent millions and millions of years calmly in space before encountering a nearby orbiting planet: our own planet Earth. Hurtling down through Earth's atmosphere, these pieces of Mars landed in various regions of our world and were discovered by modern

  10. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23–4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60–126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18–10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58–4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81–13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  11. Insect destroyers of Tamarisk in southeastern Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This monograph contains the results of research work on the insect herbivores of tamarisk in southeastern Kazakhstan, which were conducted annually for last 12 years (1994-2006), and also the information, obtained by one of the authors (Mityaev) in the mid-1950s. Studies were conducted within the f...

  12. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  13. Southeastern Europe: A Guide to Basic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horecky, Paul L., Ed.

    This annotated area guide presents a judicious evaluation of those writings which are particularly relevant to the contemporary political, socio-economic, and intellectual life of Southeastern Europe. It contains more than 3,000 bibliographic entries, together with additional citations for collateral reading. The entries include basic publications…

  14. Southeastern New Mexico Bilingual Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Henry P.

    Academic growth and personal-social growth of 20 second grade children in the Southeastern New Mexico Bilingual Program at Artesia are compared to 20 second grade children in the standard program. The groups were matched by chronological and mental age, IQ, family income, family situation (both parents, only father, or only mother), number of…

  15. Water usage in southeastern bioenergy crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...

  16. SOIL CHANGE IN SOUTHEASTERN USA ULTISOLS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Documentation of soil change due to management is needed to improve soil survey map unit interpretations and for population of resource databases. The southeastern US is a vital region for documenting soil change due to intensive cultivation and utilization of soil resources, dynamic land management...

  17. Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) General Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Library Network, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The computer and telecommunications services of the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) are specified in this introduction to the Network. Since members of SOLINET may participate in the services of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), a description of these services is included. Membership requirements, fees and dues, and charges to SOLINET…

  18. Southeastern Community College Strategic Plan, August 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Community Coll., West Burlington, IA.

    This report highlights a 1996 strategic plan developed by Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, after an exhaustive review of an existing plan and the identification of new institutional goals. Following SCC's educational philosophy statement, mission statement, and definitions of terms, the plan provides charts of SCC strengths and areas…

  19. Tephrochronology of the Western Margin, Gona, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinsasser, L. L.; Quade, J.; Levin, N.; McIntosh, W.; Simpson, S. W.; Semaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project (GPRP) area includes many rich fossil localities that are of great consequence to the study of human evolution. Genetic estimates of the divergence between human and chimpanzee lineages indicate that this split happened between 5 and 7 Mya. The sedimentary deposits at Gona range in age from .15 Ma to 4.5 Ma at the base of the Sagantole Formation, with additional minor sedimentary deposits in the underlying Adu-Asa Formation. These older sedimentary deposits occur as small, disconnected packages interlayered with lava flows and are repeated due to NS-trending, west-dipping normal faults that accommodated extension in the Afar rift. New 40Ar-39Ar dates on tuffs from the Adu-Asa Formation indicate that the oldest hominid fossils thus found at Gona are around 5.5 Ma, and that all of the fossil sites in the Adu-Asa Formation identified thus far are approximately the same age. One tuff, named the Belewa, is dated at 5.51+/- .03 Ma, while the Kobo'o tuff, which outcrops to the west and thus is lower in the section, is dated at 5.42 +/-.07 Ma. Both dates are from sanidine and errors are at the 2 sigma level. In addition to these 40Ar-39Ar dates for the Adu-Asa Formation, the relative ages of many deposits have been clarified through studies of the major element geochemistry of glass shards from ashfall tuffs, which occur as beds within the sedimentary deposits. These geochemical comparisons, along with detailed stratigraphic sections through many sedimentary packages, have allowed the identification and correlation of four major tuffs, including the Belewa and Kobo'o tuffs, throughout the pre-4.5 Ma deposits of the Gona project area. Such studies may also lead to larger-scale correlations between the Gona project and other paleoanthropological projects in Ethiopia. Additional work on the tephrochronology and stratigraphy in the younger Sagantole, Hadar, and Busidima Formations has furthered our understanding of those deposits

  20. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  1. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district) of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH) of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8%) and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia, is valued as a remedy

  2. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority. PMID:23715736

  3. Investigation of major cattle production constraints in Kembata Tambaro zone of Southern Ethiopia using participatory epidemiology methods.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Birhanu; Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has enormous livestock resources from which rural households derive their livelihoods. A cross-sectional study based on participatory appraisal methods was conducted in Kembata Tambaro zone to assess major constraints to livestock production and major diseases of cattle and their treatment options. Four districts were selected purposively for this study, and 18 peasant associations were randomly sampled from the selected districts. Focus group discussion, semistructured interviews, simple ranking and scoring, proportional piling, pairwise ranking, and matrix scoring were the participatory epidemiological tools used in the study. Feed and free grazing land shortages and diseases were found to be the major constraints to cattle production in the area. Mastitis was ranked as the most serious disease of cattle. Modern veterinary treatments are used alongside traditional herbal remedies. Matrix scoring showed strong agreement between focus groups in identifying the major diseases using their indicators (clinical signs). Hence, it was concluded that indigenous knowledge complemented with participatory methods and approaches allow community and field researchers to jointly study specific livestock problems and help identify appropriate solutions. PMID:26477032

  4. Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major

  5. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country’s decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. Discussion and evaluation The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key

  6. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9%) were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042), not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs) during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007), those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01) and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001) had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, P< 0.001), Ascaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P < 0.001) and Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P < 0.001) and decreasing hematocrit values. Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly

  7. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  8. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  9. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  10. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  11. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  12. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  13. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  14. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  15. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  16. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  17. Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC

  18. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  19. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  20. Perceptions of households on purpose of keeping, trait preference, and production constraints for selected goat types in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Dereje; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2014-02-01

    A study was carried out to understand the needs and perception of goat keepers in selected areas of Ethiopia in order to identify the breeding objectives, traits of preference, and production constraints that may be required in designing improvement programs. The study was conducted in three districts (Bati, Meta, and Kebri-Beyah) representing the lowland crop-livestock (LLCL), highland cereal-livestock (HLCL), and pastoral/agropastoral (P/AP) systems, respectively. The study targeted the three goat types (Bati, Hararghe Highland, and Short-eared Somali) found in Ethiopia. Households in all systems considered meat production, milk production, and income generation as major purpose of keeping goats. However, those in the low rainfall and arid environments of P/AP systems gave high ranking to adaptability to harsh environments and also to building social and religious values. In LLCL and HLCL systems, goat skin and manure were more valued than in P/AP systems. Principally, in P/AP systems, the awareness of households to skin utilization and marketing was very low. Despite diverse multiple breeding objectives identified, household breeding practices were affected by constraints related to disease prevalence, feed shortage and water scarcity, and lack of awareness on skin management, utilization, and marketing. Thus, designing and implementing of sustainable goat improvement programs is an overriding priority and should take into account the breeding objectives and knowledge of goat keepers in all production systems. Along with the breed improvement, a strategy should also be devised to enhance the utilization and marketing of goat skin at all levels of production. PMID:24202735

  1. Factors Associated with Leishmania Asymptomatic Infection: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Highland Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4–15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. Conclusions/Significance A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection. PMID:23029576

  2. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P < 0.001) during the wet season than during the dry season and higher (P = 0.002) in Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha woreda (74%) than in Ada'a woreda (60%). Area and season had no significant effect on the seroprevalence of ND, IBD, and PM, indicating the widespread presence of those pathogens throughout the year in the study area. Of all the chickens tested, 85.6% had antibodies concurrently to more than one of the pathogens investigated. Birds were concurrently seropositive to more diseases during the wet season (median = 3) than during the dry season (median = 2; P = 0.002). As serology is not able to distinguish between strains, further studies are warranted to better understand the circulating strains, their interactions, and their economic effect on backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. PMID:22399725

  3. Substance use and associated factors among preparatory school students in Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of cigarettes, alcohol, khat, and other substances is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and which is also common among the youth of Ethiopia. However, its prevalence and associated factors have not been addressed well yet. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of substance use among preparatory school students in Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 603 randomly selected students from five of eight preparatory schools of Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia, in March 2013. The sample size was calculated by a single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally for the schools based on the number of students. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors of substance use. Result The overall current prevalence of substance use among the respondents was 34.8% (210). Specifically, 23.6% (102) and 4.6% (28) of the respondents chewed khat and smoked cigarette, respectively. Sex, age, and substance use status of the respondents’ father, mother, siblings, and best friend had an association with substance use. Male respondents were about ten times more at risk of practicing substance use compared to female respondents [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.42–29.23]. Respondents whose sibling(s) smokes cigarette were four times more likely to use substance (AOR 4.44, 95% CI 1.11–17.79). Respondents whose best friend chews khat were 11 times more likely to use substance when compared with those whose best friend does not practice the given factor (AOR 11.15, 95% CI 4.43–28.07). Conclusion Respondents whose family uses one or more substances were more likely use substance

  4. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  5. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229

  6. Barriers to Cataract Surgical Uptake in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mehari, Zelalem Addisu; Zewedu, Redda Tekle Haimanot; Gulilat, Fitsum Bekele

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the factors that delay surgical intervention in patients suffering from age related mature cataract in Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A short term descriptive study was performed that evaluated patients with mature cataract presenting to outreach eye care clinics in rural central Ethiopia. Patients were interviewed to determine the reasons for delay in their cataract surgeries. Result: A total of 146 subjects (57 male and 89 females) with operable age related cataract were evaluated at 31 outreach clinics. Over 86% of the respondents were above 55 years of age, (range, 45–78 years). The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and 30.2% of the subjects were blind bilaterally (best corrected visual acuity <3/60). The majority of the respondents were farmers (53.4%) and 86.3% were illiterate. The major factors that delayed cataract surgery included: Cost of surgery (91.8%), insufficient family income (78.1%), good vision in the fellow (unaffected) eye (39.7%), and the distance to hospital from their village (47.9%). Conclusion: Surgical cost, insufficient family income, and the distance to an eye care centre were the major factors delaying cataract surgery in rural Ethiopia. PMID:24014987

  7. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  8. Evaluation of district mental healthcare plans: the PRIME consortium methodology

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Rathod, Sujit D.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Breuer, Erica; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Prince, Martin; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the implementation and impact of real-world mental health programmes delivered at scale in low-resource settings. Aims To describe the cross-country research methods used to evaluate district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. Method Multidisciplinary methods conducted at community, health facility and district levels, embedded within a theory of change. Results The following designs are employed to evaluate the MHCPs: (a) repeat community-based cross-sectional surveys to measure change in population-level contact coverage; (b) repeat facility-based surveys to assess change in detection of disorders; (c) disorder-specific cohorts to assess the effect on patient outcomes; and (d) multilevel case studies to evaluate the process of implementation. Conclusions To evaluate whether and how a health-system-level intervention is effective, multidisciplinary research methods are required at different population levels. Although challenging, such methods may be replicated across diverse settings. PMID:26447175

  9. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  10. Regional assessment of pumpage in southeastern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Pixie A.

    1988-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey investigation was conducted, in cooperation with the Virginia Water Control Board, to analyze the hydrogeology and groundwater flow system in the Coastal Plain physiographic province of southeastern Virginia, and to assess the continued reliability of groundwater as a freshwater resource. To provide a more detailed analysis of water-level decline and groundwater flow, a three-dimensional, digital, groundwater flow model, which incorporates hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers and confining units, was developed to simulate prepumping and pumping conditions. The results of this modeling effort provide a broad regional perspective on the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow in the confined system in the Coastal Plain physiographic province of southeastern Virginia.

  11. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  12. Determinants of Utilization of Health Extension Workers in the Context of Scale-Up of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P; Tsui, Amy O; Bryce, Jennifer; Tafesse, Mengistu; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-09-01

    Ethiopia has invested significant resources in integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness. In Oromia Region, iCCM scale-up was phased in, allowing for comparisons between districts providing iCCM and routine services. We assessed the determinants of utilization of health extension workers (HEWs) delivering iCCM services at rural health posts by caregivers of sick, under-five children in a cross-sectional survey. We found low utilization of HEWs with only 9.3% of caregivers of a child sick with diarrhea, fever, and/or pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks taking their child to HEWs in both iCCM and routine areas. There was a higher likelihood of utilization of HEWs in iCCM areas (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97-2.12; P = 0.07), but this effect disappeared after accounting for confounders. In iCCM areas, maternal education, illness type, and distance were associated with utilization. Perceptions of illness severity and service quality were the primary reasons given for not utilizing the health post. Our findings suggest that though iCCM is reaching some vulnerable populations, there remain significant barriers to use of HEWs delivering iCCM services. Efforts for demand generation and minimization of remaining barriers are urgently needed for the sustained success of the iCCM strategy in Ethiopia. PMID:26195461

  13. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  14. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  15. Effects of climate change on southeastern forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harcombe, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    Forests of the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States are among the most productive in North America. Because they form the basis of a large timber and wood products industry, these forests are of considerable economic importance. Also, the forests are rich in plant and animal species. Because they are diverse as well as productive, they have considerable conservation importance. Therefore, understanding potential impacts of climate change on southern forests is critical.

  16. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  17. To See and Be Seen: Exploring Layers of Instructional Leadership and Supervision in the Enactment of a District-Wide Teacher Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes instructional leadership and evaluation protocols from a large, diverse district in the Southeastern United States in order to investigate layers of accountability and tensions created when principals are asked to fill the dual roles of both instructional leader and supervisor in a newly implemented teacher evaluation…

  18. VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. Douglas Aircraft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHEASTERN INTERIOR SPACE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Maternal Mortality in Rural South Ethiopia: Outcomes of Community-Based Birth Registration by Health Extension Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Yaliso; Data, Tadesse; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rural communities in low-income countries lack vital registrations to track birth outcomes. We aimed to examine the feasibility of community-based birth registration and measure maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in rural south Ethiopia. Methods In 2010, health extension workers (HEWs) registered births and maternal deaths among 421,639 people in three districts (Derashe, Bonke, and Arba Minch Zuria). One nurse-supervisor per district provided administrative and technical support to HEWs. The primary outcomes were the feasibility of registration of a high proportion of births and measuring MMR. The secondary outcome was the proportion of skilled birth attendance. We validated the completeness of the registry and the MMR by conducting a house-to-house survey in 15 randomly selected villages in Bonke. Results We registered 10,987 births (81·4% of expected 13,492 births) with annual crude birth rate of 32 per 1,000 population. The validation study showed that, of 2,401 births occurred in the surveyed households within eight months of the initiation of the registry, 71·6% (1,718) were registered with similar MMRs (474 vs. 439) between the registered and unregistered births. Overall, we recorded 53 maternal deaths; MMR was 489 per 100,000 live births and 83% (44 of 53 maternal deaths) occurred at home. Ninety percent (9,863 births) were at home, 4% (430) at health posts, 2·5% (282) at health centres, and 3·5% (412) in hospitals. MMR increased if: the male partners were illiterate (609 vs. 346; p= 0·051) and the villages had no road access (946 vs. 410; p= 0·039). The validation helped to increase the registration coverage by 10% through feedback discussions. Conclusion It is possible to obtain a high-coverage birth registration and measure MMR in rural communities where a functional system of community health workers exists. The MMR was high in rural south Ethiopia and most births and maternal deaths occurred at home. PMID:25799229

  20. Seasonal Dynamics, Longevity, and Biting Activity of Anopheline Mosquitoes in Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lelisa, Kidane; Emana, Daniel; Asale, Abebe; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. Thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in Seka district, southwestern Ethiopia, from June to December 2012. Mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from June to December 2012. Differences in mean mosquito density, parity rates before, and after indoor residual spraying (IRS) operation were compared. In total, 1,136 adult female anopheline mosquitoes were collected during the study period. All anopheline mosquitoes collected belong to three species. Anopheles gambiae senso lato Giles was the most predominant (69.7%) followed by Anopheles coustani s.l. Laveran (22.7%) and Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (7.6%). There was significant variation in mean mosquito density among An. gambiae s.l., An. coustani s.l., and An. pharoensis. Parity rate of An. gambiae s.l. before spray operation was significantly higher than after spray operation. The highest peak biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. was between 1800 and 2100 hours. The longevity of An. gambiae s.l. ranged from 3.4 to 12.5 d. The highest vector abundance and parity rate were recorded in July and August. In conclusion, the behavioral plasticity and early biting activity of An. gambiae s.l. could affect current vector control tools (IRS and long lasting insecticidal nets). Hence, it is imperative to explore intervention tools for outdoor malaria vector control in addition to the existing IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets. PMID:26798142

  1. Maternal Complications and Women's Behavior in Seeking Care from Skilled Providers in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles) using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders. Results Out of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7%) reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6%) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. Conclusion Nearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved in not using skilled

  2. The cost of Child Health Days: a case study of Ethiopia's Enhanced Outreach Strategy (EOS).

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Chuko, Tesfaye

    2008-07-01

    Child Health Days (CHDs) are twice-annual campaign-style events designed to increase the coverage of vitamin A and one or more other child health services. Although more than two dozen countries have had a CHD, little has been published about them. This paper presents an activity-based costing study of Ethiopia's version of CHDs, the Enhanced Outreach Strategy (EOS). The December 2006 round reached more than 10 million beneficiaries at an average cost per beneficiary of US$0.56. When measles is added, the cost of the package doubles. Given the way the distribution day delivery system and the service package are structured, there are economies of scope. Because most of the costs are determined by the number of delivery sites and are independent of the number of beneficiaries, other things equal, increasing the beneficiaries would reduce the average cost per beneficiary. Taking into account only the mortality impact of vitamin A, EOS saved 20,200 lives and averted 230,000 DALYs of children 6-59 months. The average cost per life saved was US$228 and the cost per DALY averted was equivalent to 6% of per capita GDP (US$9), making the EOS cost-effective, according to WHO criteria. While CHDs are generally construed as a temporary strategy for improving coverage of supply-constrained systems, inadequate attention has been paid to demand-side considerations that suggest CHDs have an important role to play in changing care-seeking behaviour, in increasing community organization and participation, and in promoting district autonomy and capacity. Recognition of these effects suggests the need for decisions about where and when to introduce, and when to end, a CHD to take into account more than 'just' health sector considerations: they are more broadly about community development. UNICEF played a key role in initiating the EOS and finances 68% of costs, raising concern about the programme's long-term sustainability. PMID:18562457

  3. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, B; Hailu, Y; Tilahun, G; Ashenafi, H; Vitale, M; Di Marco, V; Gebremedhin, E Z

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2013 to September 2013 to determine the seroprevalence and possible risk factors for human Toxplasma gondii infection in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Serum samples were analysed using direct agglutination test, and immunosorbent agglutination assay for detecting IgG (n = 354) and IgM (n = 167) T. gondii antibodies. The T. gondii IgG and IgM seroprevalences were 65·8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 60·62-70·75] and 8·98% (95% CI 5·11-14·38), respectively. Gender difference in IgG seroprevalence was not significant (P > 0·05), but 69·5% of adults exhibited an IgG seroresponse to T. gondii. Pregnant women showed 76·4% and 9·3% seropositivity to IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seropositivity were district [odds ratio (OR) 2·24, 95% CI 1·25-4·01, P = 0·007], pipe water source (OR 6·70, 95% CI 2·70-16·64, P < 0·001), age, with adults (OR 4·32, 95% CI 1·91-9·75, P < 0·001), and keeping cats in the home (OR 2·01, 95% CI 1·11-3·65, P = 0·021). The high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the human population in the study area and the corresponding level of IgM seropositivity may be indicative of reactivation or recent infection and further studies on the status of congenital toxoplasmosis in the study area merit consideration. PMID:26072985

  5. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  6. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  7. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  8. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  9. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716

  10. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Hiwot; Petros, Beyene; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Elhassan, Ibrahim; Muchohi, Simon; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. Methods An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit from June to August 2006. Eighty-seven patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax malaria, aged between 8 months and 52 years, were recruited and treated under supervision with CQ (25 mg/kg over three days). Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed during the 28 day follow-up period. CQ and desethylchloroquine (DCQ) blood and serum concentrations were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in patients who showed recurrent parasitaemia. Results Of the 87 patients recruited in the study, one was lost to follow-up and three were excluded due to P. falciparum infection during follow-up. A total of 83 (95%) of the study participants completed the follow-up. On enrolment, 39.8% had documented fever and 60.2% had a history of fever. The geometric mean parasite density of the patients was 7045 parasites/μl. Among these, four patients had recurrent parasitaemia on Day 28. The blood CQ plus DCQ concentrations of these four patients were all above the minimal effective concentration (> 100 ng/ml). Conclusion Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax parasites are emerging in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. A multi-centre national survey is needed to better understand the extent of P. vivax resistance to CQ in Ethiopia. PMID:18959774

  11. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; den Boer, Margriet; Aseffa, Abraham; Jorge, Alvar

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia with over 3.2 million people at risk and estimated up to 4000 new cases per year. Historically, VL was known as the diseases of the lowlanders; in the lower and upper Kola agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. The 2005-07 out breaks in highlands of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, in the Woina Degas, that affected thousands and claimed the life of hundreds misdiagnosed as drug resistance malaria marked that VL is no more the problem of the lowlanders. The Kola (lower and upper) and the Woina Dega are the most productive agroecological zones, supporting both the ongoing and planned expansions of large or small scale agriculture and/or agriculture based industries. Thus, the (re)emergence of VL is not only a public health and social problem but also have a direct implication on the country's economy and further development. Thus is high time for its control and/or elimination. Yet, the available data seem incomplete to plan for a cost-effective and efficient VL control strategy: there is a need to update data on vector behaviour in specific ecosystems and the roles of domestic animals need to be ascertained. The effectiveness and social acceptability of available vector control tools need be evaluated. There is a need for identifying animal reservoir(s), or establish the absence of zoonosis in Ethiopia. The planning of prevention of (re)emergence and spread of VL to areas adjacent to endemic foci need be supported with information from spatio-temporal mapping. In affected communities, available data showed that their knowledge about VL is generally very low. Thus, well designed studies to identify risk factors, as well as better tools for social mobilization with the understanding of their knowledge, aptitude and practice towards VL are necessary. PMID:26187584

  12. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  13. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  14. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  15. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  16. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  17. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  18. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  19. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  20. A District Level Planning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, W. E.; Achilles, C. M.

    This report examines school district planning models in South Carolina. It focuses on three questions: (1) Of those school districts conducting some type of systematic planning, how many are producing strategic plans? Long-range plans? Accountability reports? (2) In those same districts, how many are preparing adequate program-management…

  1. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  2. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  3. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  4. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  5. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  6. Andoma segment of southeastern margin of fennoscandian shield: Structure and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodyazhny, S. Yu.; Baluev, A. S.; Terekhov, E. N.

    2016-07-01

    The components of deformation related to endogenic (tectonic) and exogenic (glaciotectonic, gravitational sliding) factors are considered in the sedimentary platform cover by a study of Andoma dislocations in the Upper Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Lake Onega district. These structures are localized in the eponymous segment of the southeastern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield; indications of high tectonic activity are noted along this margin. As has been shown by a structural study, the development of the Andoma structure is caused by long-term (Late Devonian-Quaternary) multistage deformations related to tectonic factors and, to a lesser degree, glaciotectonics. The consecutive stages of synsedimentation normal faulting and landsliding, bedding-plane gliding, various forms of shear flow in a regime of transpression, glaciotectonic thrusting, and neotectonic transpression are recognized in the deformation history.

  7. Potash ore reserves in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Charles B.; Cheeseman, R.J.; Lorenz, J.C.; Millgate, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area includes about 18,960 acres in Tps. 22 and 23 S., Rs. 30 and 31 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico. It is located within the Carlsbad Mining District about 25 miles east of Carlsbad. The WIPP area is immediately south of the Capitan Limestone subcrop, which formed the northern margin of the Delaware basin in Permian time. During Late Permian (Ochoan) time, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite were deposited in the seas of the Delaware basin to form the Castile Formation. These deposits have a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet and grade upward into the more argillaceous beds of the Salado Formation. The Salado Formation contains abundant sulfate minerals, notably anhydrite and polyhalite. The potash ore minerals, langbeinite and sylvite, occur in the upper part of the Salado Formation in the McNutt potash zone, a local name applied to a potassium-rich zone.

  8. Imaging crustal structure variation across southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.

    2013-01-01

    A broad-band seismic network of 28 three-component seismometers was deployed in southeastern Australia to examine variations in crustal thickness across the transition between Precambrian and Phanerozoic lithosphere. Receiver function observations and modelling of P-to-S conversions at the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) have been employed to investigate: (i) the variations in the Moho depth across southeastern Australia, and (ii) the nature of the transition between crust and mantle. Data from temporary deployments were used together with data from the few permanent broad-band stations in the region. The extraction of P-receiver functions from high-quality seismic data recorded on these stations has enabled the determination of the crustal thickness across the region. The crustal thicknesses lie in the range 28-48 km. The Moho depth is generally well correlated with the Earth surface elevation in the southeastern Australia. The Moho estimates from receiver functions are in good agreement with results from reflection profiling. The average crustal thickness is found to be around 39 km beneath the Precambrian area in the west and even thicker beneath the Lachlan Orogen in the east (~ 43 km). The average crustal thickness in between, beneath the Murray Basin is thinner ~ 32 km. Interestingly, the crust in the Mount Gambier volcanic area is rather thick ~ 41 km, suggesting that the limit between the Delamerian and western Lachlan orogens is located east of Mount Gambier. Our results favour a position for the Tasman Line generally consistent with the interpretation by Direen and Crawford (2003) and thus to the east of the location favoured by many authors. The broader crust-mantle transition and thicker crust beneath the Lachlan Orogen suggest the presence of magmatic underplating at the base of the lower crust. The intermediate nature of the crust-mantle transition also suggests magmatic underplating beneath the Gawler Craton and the Curnamona Province.

  9. Erosion-driven environmental degradation in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300

  10. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  11. Pliocene volcano-tectonics and paleogeography of the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Brown, Francis H.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Haileab, Bereket

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of hominin fossil sites in the Turkana Basin, Kenya is intimately linked to the history of the Omo River, which affected the paleogeography and ecology of the basin since the dawn of the Pliocene. We report new geological data concerning the outlet channel of the Omo River between earliest Pliocene and final closure of the Turkana Basin drainage system in the latest Pliocene to earliest Quaternary. Throughout most of the Pliocene the Omo River entered the Turkana Basin from its source in the highlands of Ethiopia and exited the eastern margin of the basin to discharge into the Lamu embayment along the coast of the Indian Ocean. During the earliest Pliocene the river's outlet was located in the northern part of the basin, where a remnant outlet channel is preserved in basalts that pre-date eruption of the Gombe flood basalt between 4.05 and 3.95 Ma. The outlet channel was faulted down to the west prior to 4.05 Ma, forming a natural dam behind which Lake Lonyumun developed. Lake Lonyumun was drained between 3.95 and 3.9 Ma when a new outlet channel formed north of Loiyangalani in the southeastern margin of the Turkana Basin. That outlet was blocked by Lenderit Basalt lava flows between 2.2 and 2.0 Ma. Faulting that initiated either during or shortly after eruption of the Lenderit Basalt closed the depression that is occupied by modern Lake Turkana to sediment and water. Several large shield volcanoes formed east of the Turkana Basin beginning by 2.5-3.0 Ma, volcanism overlapping in time, but probably migrating eastward from Mount Kulal on the eastern edge of the basin to Mount Marsabit located at the eastern edge of the Chalbi Desert. The mass of the volcanic rocks loaded and depressed the lithosphere, enhancing subsidence in a shallow southeast trending depression that overlay the Cretaceous and Paleogene (?) Anza Rift. Subsidence in this flexural depression guided the course of the Omo River towards the Indian Ocean, and also localized

  12. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Methods Data on 11,030 children aged 0–59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15–49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. Results In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2–2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers’ age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Conclusions Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children. PMID:26560469

  13. 76 FR 60015 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 8, 2011, the Southeastern Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. SEPA-54...

  14. 76 FR 60015 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 14, 2011, the Southeastern Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. SEPA-55...

  15. 27 CFR 9.72 - Southeastern New England.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southeastern New England. 9.72 Section 9.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.72 Southeastern New England. (a) Name. The...

  16. 75 FR 67960 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 28, 2010. Take notice that on October 6, 2010, the Southeastern Power Administration, pursuant to Order No....

  17. 77 FR 56838 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 5, 2012, the Southeastern Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. SEPA-56...

  18. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  19. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W J; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Inman, W Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S; Pena, Maria T; Marcos, Luis A; Scollard, David M; Cole, Stewart T; Truman, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae-infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  20. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  1. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448

  2. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  3. Regionalization and Prediction of Seasonal Precipitation in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfed agriculture continues to be an important part of Ethiopia's livelihoods and economy. Highly variable inter-annual precipitation, however, presents a serious challenge to sustainable production and subsistence survival. An improved understanding of what drives hydroclimatic extremes and an effective prediction system may help to buffer resulting impacts through improved decision-making. Precipitation data from the National Meteorological Agency at 0.1 x 0.1 grids for 1983 - 2011 during the June-September rainy season over western Ethiopia is evaluated through a cluster analysis to investigate homogeneous regions with similar rainfall patterns for subsequent prediction of seasonal precipitation for each region. A k-means clustering method is applied with the optimal number of clusters (K) selected by the within cluster sum of square errors (WSS) metric. Homogenous regions are defined with relatively clear and smooth boundaries, low inter-cluster correlations, and high intra-cluster correlations. The precipitation prediction models are statistically based, with a seasonal total prediction for each cluster; grid-based predictions are subsequently conditioned on the cluster level prediction through regression. Prospective model predictors include large-scale ocean-land-atmospheric climate variables and local variables and conditions. These predictions will be used in economic and water management models.

  4. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  5. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  6. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  7. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions. PMID:27542289

  8. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  9. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping

  10. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  11. Comparison of Partec Rapid Malaria Test with Conventional Light Microscopy for Diagnosis of Malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the key for effective disease management. Diagnosis of malaria infection requires rapid, sensitive, and specific test methods with an affordable cost. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of Partec rapid malaria test with reference to light microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 180 febrile patients were tested for malaria using Giemsa stain microscopy and Partec rapid malaria test from June to July 2013 at Gendewuha health centers, Metema district. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. Result. The sensitivity and specificity of Partec rapid malaria test were 93.8% (95% CI = 87.1%–100%) and 87.9% (95% CI = 79.7%–96.1%), respectively, while the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 6.4% (95% CI = 77.2%–95.5%) and 94.6% (95% CI = 88.7%–100%), respectively. There was also an excellent agreement between two tests with Kappa value of 0.811 (95% CI = 0.625–0.996). Conclusion. Partec rapid malaria test showed good sensitivity and specificity with an excellent agreement to the reference light microscopy. Therefore PT can be considered as alternative diagnostic tools in malaria endemic areas. PMID:26881056

  12. Camelus dromedarius brucellosis and its public health associated risks in the Afar National Regional State in northeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was carried out in four districts of the Afar region in Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in camels, and to identify risky practices that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. This study involved testing 461 camels and interviewing 120 livestock owners. The modified Rose Bengal plate test (mRBPT) and complement fixation test (CFT) were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. SPSS 16 was used to analyze the overall prevalence and potential risk factors for seropositivity, using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results In the camel herds tested, 5.4% had antibodies against Brucella species, and the district level seroprevalence ranged from 11.7% to 15.5% in camels. The logistic regression model for camels in a herd size > 20 animals (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.16-6.62) and greater than four years of age (OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.45-16.82) showed a higher risk of infection when compared to small herds and those ≤ 4 years old. The questionnaire survey revealed that most respondents did not know about the transmission of zoonotic diseases, and that their practices could potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Conclusions The results of this study revealed that camel brucellosis is prevalent in the study areas. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and increasing public awareness in the prevention methods of brucellosis. PMID:24344729

  13. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

  14. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797

  15. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singhasivanon, P; Thimasarn, K; Yimsamran, S; Linthicum, K; Nualchawee, K; Dawreang, D; Kongrod, S; Premmanisakul, N; Maneeboonyang, W; Salazar, N

    1999-09-01

    During the past three decades almost half of the existing natural tropical forests in Thailand were destroyed and replaced by cash crops, rubber, coffee, fruit orchards (durian, rambutan, mangosteen) and other commercial plantations. In order to determine the proportion of malaria cases contracted from such commercial plantations, an epidemiological study was conducted between June 1996 to May 1997 in two districts, one in Pong Nam Ron, located in a south-eastern province near the Cambodian border and another in Sai Yok, in a western province along the Myanmar border. Data were collected by passive case detection from patients attending the existing malaria clinics and active case detection by monthly malariometric survey in selected villages. All malaria cases were thoroughly investigated and classified according to exposure to different ecotypes prior to onset of malaria symptoms in the preceding two weeks. Malaria cases acquired from commercial plantations accounted for 35.2% and 11.2% in Pong Nam Ron and in Sai Yok districts respectively. In such plantations, most of the malaria cases were contracted from fruit orchards and to a lesser extent from rubber and teak plantations. From this study it is evident that commercial plantations provide a significant site of malaria transmission in addition to the forest and foothills areas in Southeast Asia where efficient vectors such as An. dirus and An. minimus are prevalent and have adapted to such changed ecosystems. PMID:10774642

  16. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in southeastern New England.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J P; Zaroulis, C G; O'Shea, P A; Clark, D D

    1983-05-01

    Eight patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) originating within a 25-mile radius had their conditions diagnosed in a three-year period at a community teaching hospital in southeastern New England. In the preceding ten years, only one case of TTP had occurred in the same hospital. A niece-uncle relationship was present in two patients, and lymphocyte typing showed that they both shared an HLA haplotype. In the remaining patients, no social, familial, or environmental connection was established. Three patients died, all of whom were female. Six patients received exchange plasmapheresis with excellent responses in five. Autopsies in the three fatal cases showed widespread organ involvement with TTP but did not disclose evidence of any common underlying disease. This unusual occurrence should alert physicians to the possibility of localized outbreaks of TTP and the necessity of considering this diagnosis in all patients with unexplained thrombocytopenia. PMID:6383244

  17. Climate Dynamics of Regional US Southeastern drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J.

    2008-12-01

    The phenomena of droughts both regional and continental have received considerable attention from both science and policy. Understanding the larger scale dynamics of these events is critical to improving predictability, management and mitigation strategies. The history of drought in the United States shows both long (multi-decadal) and short (seasonal or yearly) droughts in various regions. Some of the most severe droughts, such as those with the largest economic losses or that have received the most attention both from the scientific and broader communities have occurred in the Midwest/Great Plains (e.g. the "Dust Bowl" years, the 1988 drought) and generally correlate with continent-wide anomalies. The Southeast region of the US, while generally having a more humid temperature climate than the rest of the country, also is subject to periods of drought conditions. In this study we analyze long term records of PDSI in the southeastern United States. While some occurrences correlate with larger continental scale droughts, many severe southeastern droughts occur during a synoptic pattern correlating with wetter conditions through the greater Midwest, have a seasonal pattern different than larger continental scale anomalies, and show correlations with patterns in Atlantic tropical activity. While winter and spring deficits may initiate a drought, we find a proportionally larger decrease in summertime precipitation during severe drought periods. Some of this decrease may be related to the contribution of tropical systems, which increases in the periods following droughts. We suggest that the dynamics of drought in this region differ from the larger US pattern, and particularly need to account for the interaction between continental and tropical contributions. With an increasing population and areas of high agricultural productivity, we argue this region deserves further attention from both the scientific and larger community, that understanding these dynamics will

  18. The Rio Doce Orogeny, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, M. C. Campos; Figueiredo, M. C. H.

    1995-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic superposed orogenic system of Southeastern Brazil, which was active during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Cycle during the assembly of this sector of the Gondwana Supercontinent, includes distinct terranes such as the Guanhães, Curitiba, Apiaí-Guaxupé and Serra do Mar microplates and the Juiz de Fora Thrust Belt. These orogenic systems also affected the reworked border of the São Francisco Craton. The collisional or ocean plate subduction-controlled "Brasiliano I" Orogeny was responsible for the generation of fold belts along the southeastern border of the São Francisco Craton, the accretion of different microplates and the formation of a magmatic arc associated with the roots of a northwestward trending thrust belt. The "Brasiliano I" evolution occurred during the Neoproterozoic and by 600 Ma was already in a post-orogenic stage in the Apiaí-Guaxupé Microplate, with the intrusion of rapakivi-like granitoids. The Rio Doce Orogeny is best characterized in the Serra do Mar Microplate by a magmatic arc, active between 590 and 570 Ma, with batholithic calc-alkaline plutonism exhibiting subduction zone components and a chemical zonation indicative of northwestward subduction. The collisional stage (560-530 Ma) accounted for the accretion of the Serra do Mar Microplate to the former orogenic domains. Anatexis of mostly metasediments producing peraluminous migmatites and granites, began at the calc-alkaline magmatic arc stage and culminated during crustal thickening associated with the northwesterly piling-up of large thrust slices. The post-collisional plutonism (520-480 Ma) is characterized by plutons and dikes of mainly alkali-calcic granitoids enriched in incompatible elements.

  19. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  20. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  1. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  2. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  3. Male Partners' Involvement in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Marelign; Mohamed, Shikur

    2015-01-01

    Background. Male involvement is an important determinant of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ethiopia is not well known. Objectives. To assess male partners involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria woreda. Methods. Community based study was conducted in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district. Multistage sampling technique was used and data were collected using interviewer administered standard questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the presence of statistically significant associations between the outcome variable and the independent variables. Results. The level of male involvement in PMTCT program in Arba Minch town and Zuria district was 53%. Several factors appear to contribute to male involvement in the PMTCT program including age, residence, education level, knowledge on HIV, knowledge on PMTCT, accessibility of health facility, having weak perception for male involvement in PMTCT, having perception of ANC attendance being females' responsibility, ever use of khat, and ever use of cigarette. Conclusion. Geographical accessibility of health facility and male's knowledge on PMTCT should be improved to increase their involvement in PMTCT. PMID:26146631

  4. Can a community-based maternal care package in rural Ethiopia increase the use of health facilities for childbirth and reduce the stillbirth rate?

    PubMed Central

    Atnafu, Habtamu; Belete, Zelalem; Kinfu, Hirut; Tadesse, Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport for referral, and equipment and accommodation for the midwives. Ten health centers without the package but in the same districts as the intervention centers and eight without the package in different districts were randomly selected as the comparison groups. Women living in the catchment areas of the 26 health centers, who delivered a baby in the past 12 months, were randomly selected to complete a face-to-face survey about maternal health experiences. Results The maternal package did not significantly affect the stillbirth or facility delivery rates. Women were positively influenced to deliver in a health facility if their husbands were involved in the decision concerning the place of birth and if they had prior maternal experience in the health center. Barriers to delivering in a health facility included distance and ability to read and write. Conclusion Women served by health centers with a maternal health package did not have significantly fewer stillbirths and were not more likely to deliver their babies in a health facility. Husbands played an important role in influencing the decisions to deliver in a health facility. PMID:27574471

  5. A Venue-Based Survey of Malaria, Anemia and Mobility Patterns among Migrant Farm Workers in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Schicker, Rebekah Stewart; Hiruy, Neway; Melak, Berhanu; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Bezabih, Belay; Stephenson, Rob; Patterson, Amy E.; Tadesse, Zerihun; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O.; Noland, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations present unique challenges to malaria control and elimination efforts. Each year, a large number of individuals travel to northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia to seek seasonal employment on large-scale farms. Agricultural areas typically report the heaviest malaria burden within Amhara thereby placing migrants at high risk of infection. Yet little is known about these seasonal migrants and their malaria-related risk factors. Methods and Findings In July 2013, a venue-based survey of 605 migrant laborers 18 years or older was conducted in two districts of North Gondar zone, Amhara. The study population was predominantly male (97.7%) and young (mean age 22.8 years). Plasmodium prevalence by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 12.0%; One quarter (28.3%) of individuals were anemic (hemoglobin <13 g/dl). Nearly all participants (95.6%) originated from within Amhara Region, with half (51.6%) coming from within North Gondar zone. Around half (51.2%) slept in temporary shelters, while 20.5% regularly slept outside. Only 11.9% of participants had access to a long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Reported net use the previous night was 8.8% overall but 74.6% among those with LLIN access. Nearly one-third (30.1%) reported having fever within the past two weeks, of whom 31.3% sought care. Cost and distance were the main reported barriers to seeking care. LLIN access (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P = 0.04) and malaria knowledge (OR = 0.50, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with reduced Plasmodium infection among migrants, with a similar but non-significant trend observed for reported net use the previous night (OR = 0.16, P = 0.14). Conclusions High prevalence of malaria and anemia were observed among a young population that originated from relatively proximate areas. Low access to care and low IRS and LLIN coverage likely place migrant workers at significant risk of malaria in this area and their return home may facilitate parasite transport to other

  6. Trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Regassa; Andualem, Yimer; Getachew, Terefe; Menten, Joris; Hasker, Epco; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chifra and Dewe districts of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. An overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively Giemsa stained thin blood smear, CATT/T. evansi, RoTat1.2 PCR, 18S PCR and ITS-1PCR in a cohort of 399 animals. Only one T. vivax infection was confirmed by TvPRAC PCR indicating T. evansi as the predominant species affecting camels in the study area. No single animal was positive when tested with T. evansi type B specific EVAB PCR. There was slight agreement between the CATT/T. evansi and the molecular tests. Among the PCR methods, RoTat 1.2 PCR yielded a significantly higher positivity rate compared to 18S PCR and ITS-1 PCR. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate observed in each gender of camels (p>0.05). The positivity rate was significantly higher in camels with poor body condition and in older animals when tested using the CATT/T.evansi or RoTat 1.2 PCR (p>0.05). Camels that tested positive with all tests had significantly lower PCV's (p<0.05). This study provides further evidence that T. evansi is endemic in the Afar region of Ethiopia. The latent class analysis indicated an estimate overall prevalence of 19% (95% CI: 13-28). Moreover, the model indicated low sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (43%) and the PCR tests (39-53%) but higher specificity of the PCR tests (86-99%) and low specificity of CATT/T. evansi (80%). This study suggests that improved sensitivity and reliability of the tests would help diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of clinical disease and losses due to trypanosomosis. PMID:26071981

  7. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  8. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Researchers tested male and female infants from rural Ethiopia to investigate relations among hemoglobin, anthropometry, and attention. They utilized a longitudinal design to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron status and growth delays. Stunting (length-for-age z-scores < −2.0) and attention performance [t(30) = −2.42, p = .022] worsened over time. Growth and hemoglobin predicted attention at 9 months [R2 = .15, p < .05], but not at 6. The use of the attention task at 9 months was supported. The study contributes to the knowledge base of hemoglobin, growth, and attention. PMID:21545582

  9. District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

  10. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  11. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  12. Desertification? Northern Ethiopia re-photographed after 140 years.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, Jan; Haile, Mitiku; Naudts, Jozef; Munro, Neil; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Pankhurst, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various environmental indicators and show a significant improvement of vegetation cover. New eucalypt woodlands, introduced since the 1950s are visible and have provided a valuable alternative for house construction and fuel-wood, but more importantly there has also been locally important natural regeneration of indigenous trees and shrubs. The situation in respect to soil and water conservation measures in farmlands has also improved. According to both historical information and measured climatic data, rainfall conditions around 1868 and in the late 19th century were similar to those of the late 20th/early 21st century. Furthermore, despite a ten-fold increase in population density, land rehabilitation has been accomplished over extensive areas by large-scale implementation of reforestation and terracing activities, especially in the last two decades. In some cases repeat photography shows however that riparian vegetation has been washed away. This is related to river widening in recent degradation periods, particularly in the 1970s-1980s. More recently, riverbeds have become stabilized, and indicate a decreased runoff response. Environmental recovery programmes could not heal all scars, but this study shows that overall there has been a remarkable recovery of vegetation and also improved soil protection over the last 140 years, thereby invalidating hypotheses of the irreversibility of land degradation in semi-arid areas. In a highly degraded environment with high pressure on the land, rural communities were left with no alternative but to improve land husbandry: in northern

  13. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5–11 yrs) and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044- 1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044 - 1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022 -1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. Conclusion About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children. PMID:25902055

  14. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  15. Water Allocation Modeling of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, D. H.; Berhe, F.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Awash River basin is one of the twelve basins of Ethiopia which is highly utilized and the first basin to be introduced to modern agriculture. A study was conducted on water allocation modeling of Awash River basin, Ethiopia using MODSIM, a river basin management decision support system (DSS) designed as a computer-aided tool for developing improved basin wide planning. This study was conducted to analyze the water balance of the Awash basin under different levels of irrigation development and also determine the water allocation in the Upper, Middle and Lower Valleys in the basin. Awash basin includes Koka Dam and two dams under completion: Kessem and Tendaho Reservoirs. Four scenarios were set: Scenario I-present withdrawal rate in the basin; Scenario II-Scenario I plus Downstream Tendaho Dam Operational; Scenario III-Scenario II plus expansion of middle valley farms and Kessem Dam Operational; and Scenario IV-Scenario III plus additional expansion in the middle valley. Analysis of flow records within the basin was done for a period of 1963-2003. Estimation of system losses, runoff from ungauged tributaries, and Gedebessa Swamp model parameters were considered in the flow process study. Simulation was conducted based on four scenarios. Consumptive and non-consumptive uses were considered in allocation modeling. The results of MODSIM model depict that there will be incremental release from Koka Dam from 2.8% to 5.7% in years 2018 and 2038, respectively. Due to increased diversions in Scenario III when compared to scenario I, losses in to Gedebessa Swamp will significantly decrease by an average of 27.6%. In the year 2038, owing to less capacity of upstream reservoirs due to sedimentation, water will be lost in the swamp complex causing slight decrease of inflow to Tendaho Dam. Additional storage at or upstream of Koka Dam will be mandatory in the future. Unaccounted water diversions upstream of Koka and water losses in Gedebessa Swamp should be considered in the

  16. Healthcare situation dismal, says government official. International (Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    1997-05-12

    According to Dr. Kebede Tadesse, Minister of Social and Administrative Affairs, as stated in a speech before the Consultative Group Meeting in Addis Ababa in December 1996, the health status of Ethiopia is one of the worst in the world because of "backward socio-economic development, poor environmental quality, high fertility rate, repeated natural and man-made disasters, and inadequate health services." An article in the April 11, 1997, Addis Tribune supports this claim by describing the horrific conditions found in a public hospital in Addis Ababa. Patients returned home to die because of the shortage of beds. Dr. Kebede gave the following statistics: the average daily per capita food intake is 1750 calories, 80% of that recommended; 5% of children show signs of wasting; 64% of children have stunted growth; 17% of pregnant and lactating women are anemic; the average national fertility rate is 6.1%; the percentage of AIDS cases per 100,000 people is 10.7; 18% of people have access to potable water; 14% of births are attended; 16% of people receive antenatal care; 40% of the population is immunized; 8% of the population receives family planning services; the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births; the maternal mortality rate is 500-700/100,000 live births; there is 1 physician per 33,333 Ethiopians; and the life expectancy at birth is 48 years. The article recommended the following "basic principles and guidelines" to improve the situation: 1) the population should be educated about good hygiene; 2) family planning should be popularized by the government; 3) the health budget should be increased to meet overall demand for health services and to target diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis; 4) private investment in health care is needed; 5) a safe drinking water supply must be made available; and 6) domestic conditions should be made favorable so that Ethiopian doctors educated abroad will return to practice in Ethiopia. PMID:12320872

  17. Factors associated with place of death in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying at home is highly prevalent in Africa partly due to lack of accessibility of modern health services. In turn, limited infrastructure and health care deliveries in Africa complicate access to health services. A weak infrastructure and limited health facilities with lower quality in Ethiopia resulted poor health service utilization and coverage, high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined whether people in Addis Ababa died in health facilities and investigated the basic factors associated with place of death. Methods We used verbal autopsy data of 4,776 adults (age>14 years) for the years 2006–2010 from the Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program (AAMSP). The main data source of AAMSP is the burial surveillance from all cemeteries in Addis Ababa. We provide descriptive statistics of place of adult deaths and discussed their covariates using multivariate analyses. Results Only 28.7% died at health facilities, while the remaining died out of health facilities. There was an increase trend in the proportion of health facility deaths from 25.3% in 2006 to 32.5% in 2010. The risk of health facility death versus out of health facility deaths decreased with age. Compared with those who had no education educated people were more likely to die at health facilities. The chance of in health facility death was a little higher for females than males while religion, occupational status and ethnicity of the deceased had no any significance difference in place of death. Conclusion Both demographic and social factors determine where adults will die in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The majority of people in Addis Ababa died out of health facilities. The health system should also give special attention to the emerging non communicable diseases like cancer for effective treatment of patients. PMID:23530478

  18. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  19. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  20. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  1. ESTIMATING AND PROJECTING IMPERVIOUS COVER IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban/suburban land use constitutes the fastest growing land use class in the Southeastern United States. Predominant development practices increase impervious surface--areas preventing infiltration of water into the underlying soil. Uncontrolled increase of impervious areas (ro...

  2. 8. Detail, lower chord, looking west from southeastern abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail, lower chord, looking west from southeastern abutment - Hayden Bridge, Spanning McKenzie River at Southern Pacific Railroad (moved from Springfield, Lake County, OR), Springfield, Lane County, OR

  3. 6. EAST CORNERShowing alley (southeastern) side and front. The Sixteenth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EAST CORNER--Showing alley (southeastern) side and front. The Sixteenth Street Mall is in the foreground. West - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  4. ESTIMATING AND PROJECTING IMPERVIOUS COVER IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban/suburban land constitutes the fastest growing land use class in the Southeastern United States. Predominant development practices increase impervious surface--areas preventing infiltration of water into the underlying soil. Uncontrolled increase of impervious areas (roads,...

  5. 10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS AT LEFT AND RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. INVASION DYNAMICS OF RED SHINERS (CYPRINELLA LUTRENSIS) IN SOUTHEASTERN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red shiners have invaded a range of North American ecosystems, including several southeastern U.S. river drainages. A principle consequence of these invasions is extirpation of native congeners, either through competition or hydridization. We are conducting research to identify...

  7. Operationalization of National Objectives of Ethiopia into Educational Objectives. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation. No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adaye, Abebe Alaro

    This paper reports on past educational objectives of the old political regime in Ethiopia and new educational objectives of revolutionary Ethiopia. It is reported that these new objectives focus on education for production, scientific research, and socialist consciousness, and that all subjects are based on Marxism-Leninism. Curricular objectives…

  8. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  9. Determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children aged 12 to 23 months in south Ethiopia: unmatched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Abiyot Getachew; Koye, Digsu Negese; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost effective interventions of vaccine preventable disease. There is still, 2.5 million children die by vaccine preventable disease every year in developing countries. In Ethiopia, default to fully completion of child immunization is high and determinants of default to completions are not explored well in the study setting. The aim of the study was to identify determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children between ages 12 to 23 months in Sodo Zurea District, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based unmatched case-control study was conducted. Census was done to identify cases and controls before the actual data collection. A total of 344 samples (172 cases and 172 controls) were selected by simple random sampling technique. Cases were children in the age group of 12 to 23 months old who missed at least one dose from the recommended schedule. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinant factors. Odds ratio, 95%CI and p - value less than 0.05 was used to measure the presence and strength of the association. Results Mothers of infants who are unable to read and write (AOR=8.9; 95%CI: 2.4, 33.9) and attended primary school (AOR=4.1; 95% CI:1.4-15.8), mothers who had no postnatal care follow up (AOR=0.4; 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), good maternal knowledge towards immunization (AOR= 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) and maternal favorable perception towards uses of health institution for maternal and child care (AOR= 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) were significant determinant factors to default to fully completion of immunization. Conclusion Working on maternal education, postnatal care follow up, promoting maternal knowledge and perception about child immunization are recommended measures to mitigate defaults to complete immunization. PMID:27222689

  10. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Watiro, Aklilu Habte; Awoke, Worku

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH) level. Materials and methods A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690) had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361) had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. PMID:27330332

  11. Effect of an innovative community based health program on maternal health service utilization in north and south central Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Among Millennium Development Goals, achieving the fifth goal (MDG-5) of reducing maternal mortality poses the greatest challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world with unacceptably low maternal health service utilization. The Government of Ethiopia introduced an innovative community-based intervention as a national strategy under the Health Sector Development Program. This new approach, known as the Health Extension Program, aims to improve access to and equity in essential health services through community based Health Extension Workers. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the role of Health Extension Workers in improving women’s utilization of antenatal care, delivery at health facility and postnatal care services. Methods A cross sectional household survey was conducted in early 2012 in two districts of northern and south central parts of Ethiopia. Data were collected from 4949 women who had delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy and use of maternal health services, controlling for the effect of other confounding factors. Results The non–adjusted analysis showed that antenatal care attendance at least four times during pregnancy was significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers [Odds Ratio 3.46(95% CI 3.07,3.91)], whereas health facility delivery (skilled attendance at birth) was not significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy [Odds Ratio 0.87(95% CI 0.25,2.96)]. When adjusted for other factors the association of HEWs visit during pregnancy was weaker for antenatal care attendance [Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.35(95% CI: 1.05, 1.72)] but positively and significantly associated with health facility delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.96(1.25,3.06)]. Conclusion In general HEWs visit during

  12. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  13. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  14. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

  15. Presumptions against School District Secession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Dale

    2009-01-01

    While political philosophers have paid a great deal of attention to providing a theory of secession for cases of nations breaking away from nation-states, little has been said about perhaps the most common type of secession--school district secession. I argue that while there is no principled prohibition against school district secession, there…

  16. Characteristics of District Evaluation Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, Pamela

    This study provides information about the actual functions and activities of school district evaluation units by examining an integral product of the units. This product, an evaluation report, was examined from a nationwide sample of district evaluation organizations (N=116). Reports were checked for the presence of particular evaluation report…

  17. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  18. Electoral Competition in Heterogeneous Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callander, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers a model of elections in which parties compete simultaneously for multiple districts. I show that if districts are heterogeneous, then a unique two-party equilibrium exists under plurality rule in which further entry is deterred. The equilibrium requires that parties choose noncentrist policy platforms and not converge to the…

  19. Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P < 0.001] and midland (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.76, 7.49; P < 0.001) than from lowland (<1500 meters above sea level), in females than in males (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.43, P = 0.033), in adult than in young animals (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.35, P < 0.001), in small than in large flocks (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.26, 8.86, P = 0.016), and in sheep that were given tap water (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 15.42, P = 0.039) and river water (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.54, 11.35, P = 0.005) than in those that drunk water from mixed sources (i.e., river, well, lake and pond). Conclusions The high flock and animal

  20. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Byass, Peter; Graham, Wendy J.; Kinsman, John; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality. Results Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women’s Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04–4.11), as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14–4.18). Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17–14.30), as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37–4.85). Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman’s lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women’s Development Army, enhancing husbands’ involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous

  1. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Afework; Tessema, Masresha; H/sellasie, Kiday; Seid, Omer; Kidane, Gebremedhin; Kebede, Aweke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending) adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD) age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4) years. Four hundred forty seven (54%), 355 (42.9%) and 26 (3.1%) of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%), of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%), health centers (27%) and health posts (26%) were the preferred public facilities for provision of iron

  2. Self-treatment of malaria in rural communities, Butajira, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, A.; Enqusellassie, F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southern Ethiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial drugs at home (112, 17.8%), visiting health services after taking medication at home (294, 46.7%), and taking malaria patients to health care facilities without home treatment (210, 33.3%). Although 406 (64.5%) of the households initiated treatment at home, the use of modern drugs was higher (579, 92%) than that of traditional medicine (51, 8%). Modern drugs used included chloroquine (457, 73.5%) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (377, 60.6%). Malaria control programmes were the main sources of antimalarials. In most cases of malaria, treatment was started (322, 52.3%) or health services visited (175, 34.7%) within two days of the onset of symptoms. Cases of malaria in the lowland areas started treatment and visited health services longer after the onset of malaria than those in the midland areas (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.64; and adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.56, respectively). Similarly, those further than one hour's walk from the nearest health care facility initiated treatment later than those with less than one hour's walk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.87). This might be because of inaccessibility to antimalarial drugs and distant health care facilities in the lowland areas; however, statistically insignificant associations were found for sex, age, and religion. CONCLUSION: Self-treatment at home is the major action taken to manage malaria. Efforts should be made to improve the availability of effective antimalarials

  3. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (P<0.05). Average economic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (P<0.01). The losses due to rabies in cattle are relatively high for pastoral households, due to their complete dependency on livestock for their livelihoods. Although the current estimates only account for the direct losses

  4. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  5. Snow Storm Blankets Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new year's storm brought heavy snow to portions of the southeastern United States, with some regions receiving more than a foot in less than two days. By Friday, January 4, 2002, the skies had cleared, and MODIS captured this false-color image showing the extent of the snowfall. Snow cover is red, and extends all the way from Alabama (lower left), up through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, including the southern reaches of the Delmarva Peninsula (upper right). Beneath some clouds in West Virginia (top center), snow is also visible on the Allegheny Mountains and the Appalachian Plateau, although it did come from the same storm. Though red isn't the color we associate with snow, scientists often find 'false-color' images more useful than 'true-color' images in certain situations. True-color images are images in which the satellite data are made to look like what our eyes would see, using a combination of red, green, and blue. In a true-color image of this scene, cloud and snow would appear almost identical-both would be very bright white-and would be hard to distinguish from each other. However, at near-infrared wavelengths of light, snow cover absorbs sunlight and therefore appears much darker than clouds. So a false-color image in which one visible wavelength of the data is colored red, and different near-infrared wavelengths are colored green and blue helps show the snow cover most clearly.

  6. Channel degradation in southeastern Nebraska Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Kenneth L.; Weiss, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Many stream channels in southeastern Nebraska were dredged and straightened during 1904-15. The resulting channels were both shorter and steeper than the original channels. Tests for time trends were conducted using the nonparametric Kendall tau test to see if the channels have responded to these changes. Tests were conducted on the stages associated with specific discharges and on measurement characteristics at gaging stations. Tests also were conducted on hydrologic forcing variables (annual mean precipitation, annual peak discharges, annual mean discharge, and annual mean base flows). The null hypothesis (that the data were free from trend) was rejected for stages associated with the mean of the annual discharges for 6 of 7 gaging stations in the study area, but was accepted for all 3 gages on the main stem of the Missouri River. The trends at the 6 streamflow gaging stations were for decreasing stages (degrading channels) for specific discharges. The rates of change ranged from about 0.2 to 0.5 m per decade. Mean stream bed elevations computed for individual discharge measurements at these streamflow gaging stations confirmed that the channels are degrading. However, neither the precipitation nor flow variables show evidence of trends. The tendency for the channels to degrade thus cannot be attributed to changes in runoff characteristics and are assumed to be a response to the channel modifications in the early 1900's. Indications are that the channels presently are continuing to degrade.

  7. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  8. Tectonics and terranes of the Southeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The southeastern Caribbean plate (Ca) is comprised of the following terranes: Tobago, Grenada Basin, St. Vincent, Araya-Margarita, and Paria-Trinidad-Barbardos (PTB). All are alient relative to South America (SA) east of Caracas except for PTB, which is of continental provenance and parautochthonous and lies within the principal movement zone of the Ca-Sa plate boundary. The Tobago terrane extends between the eastern Venezuelan coastline and the Grenada Basin. On its south, the Tobago terrane overrode PTB and the South American passive margin during Neogene oblique collision. The Mesozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Tobago terrane is not unlike that of the Colombian Basin, suggesting the Tobago may belong to the Pacific-derived Caribbean plate. The Grenada Basin terrane consists of Eocene and older oceanic crust that now occupies the southern Lesser Antilles arc platform and the southern Grenada Basin. Such crust abducted southward below the Tobago terrane in mid-Cenozoic time, probably taking up boundary-normal shortening during oblique collision of the Ca and Sa plates. The oceanic crust of the GB terrane arose by backarc spreading of unknown orientation. The St. Vincent terrane extends north in the Antilles from St. Vincent; it is defined by thick crust, perhaps an old arc basement. The Araya-Margarita terrane is a probable subduction complex of Mesozoic age of metamorphism that has been transported far eastward from an unknown site with the Ca plate.

  9. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Migration behavior of pronghorn in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.; Tester, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) were radio-collared out of 232 captured on 3 winter ranges in southeastern Idaho. Radioed pronghorn were followed for up to 21 months each, from December 1975 through August 1977. Winter home ranges showed a difference (P < 0.005) in size among valleys the 1st winter and were different in size and location within valleys between years. Snow covered the ground 1 week earlier and lasted 3 weeks longer in 1975 to 1976 than in 1976 to 1977. Spring migration began more than 1 month earlier in 1977 than 1976, and appeared related to loss of snow cover on the winter ranges in both years. Distances that pronghorn migrated in spring 1976 were different among valleys (P < 0.05) but directions were, in general, upward to areas near the heads of the valleys. Summer home ranges of all radioed pronghorn averaged 2033 +- 322 (SE) ha. Yearlings wandered during summer and their home ranges were 2 to 5 times as large as ranges of adults. Fall migration in 1976 began after 1 October and was not prompted by snowfall. Percent moisture in vegetation is suggested as a stimulus for onset of fall migration, and snowfall is suggested as a factor influencing distance migrated and location of winter.

  11. Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  12. Ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Igel, Petra; Treiber, Moritz; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

    2012-10-01

    A large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. However, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern Bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. In the course of the present study, more than 5,300 ectoparasites were collected by flag dragging and handpicking of livestock, dogs, and rodents in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in southeastern Bangladesh. Three tick species were identified: Haemaphysalis bispinosa (flagging, cattle, goats, and dogs), Rhipicephalus microplus (cattle, goats), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs, goats, and flagging). H. bispinosa was the dominant tick species on mammalian hosts as well as on vegetation. Furthermore, Ctenocephalides canis (dogs, goats) and Linognatus sp. (goat) were found. Overall, 73 rodents of eight different species (e.g., Mus musculus, Rattus sikkimensis, Bandicota bengalensis, and Niviventer sp.) hosted a variety of ectoparasites such as mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Lyponissoides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), and one myiasis-causing dipteran species. Monitoring the ectoparasite burden of livestock and other mammals is urgently needed in order to control ectoparasites associated with social and economic burden (e.g., reduced milk production, weight loss). Several zoonotic diseases can be transmitted by ectoparasites in this area, where the majority of the population live in basic housing conditions and in direct contact with livestock, dogs, and rodents. PMID:22576854

  13. Turbine modifications for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

  14. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  15. Projection of school district enrollments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dillen, S. L.; Friedman, L. D.; Cheng, W. K.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives were to provide a better statistical basis for enrollment projections, to attempt to model the school district's enrollment, and to produce a single estimate of enrollment for each grade, grade group, and ethnic group, and for the total by year. Efforts were also made to provide error estimates for the projections, to design a simple, user-oriented computer program for use by school district administrators, and to work with real data from local school districts and aid them in making projections on an experimental basis. The study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory was concerned with projection methodology and production of a generally usable computer program.

  16. Malaria diagnostic capacity in health facilities in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment is one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria in Ethiopia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric and require different treatment regimens. Microscopy is the standard for malaria diagnosis at the health centres and hospitals whereas rapid diagnostic tests are used at community-level health posts. The current study was designed to assess malaria microscopy capacity of health facilities in Oromia Regional State and Dire Dawa Administrative City, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2011 in 122 health facilities, where health professionals were interviewed using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool and facilities’ laboratory practices were assessed by direct observation. Results Of the 122 assessed facilities, 104 (85%) were health centres and 18 (15%) were hospitals. Out of 94 health facilities reportedly performing blood films, only 34 (36%) used both thin and thick smears for malaria diagnosis. The quality of stained slides was graded in 66 health facilities as excellent, good and poor quality in 11(17%), 31 (47%) and 24 (36%) respectively. Quality assurance guidelines and malaria microscopy standard operating procedures were found in only 13 (11%) facilities and 12 (10%) had involved in external quality assessment activities, and 32 (26%) had supportive supervision within six months of the survey. Only seven (6%) facilities reported at least one staff’s participation in malaria microscopy refresher training during the previous 12 months. Although most facilities, 96 (79%), had binocular microscopes, only eight (7%) had the necessary reagents and supplies to perform malaria microscopy. Treatment guidelines for malaria were available in only 38 (31%) of the surveyed facilities. Febrile patients with negative malaria laboratory test results were managed with artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine in 51% (53

  17. Genotype diversity of Mycobacterium isolates from children in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is poorly addressed in Ethiopia and information about its magnitude and the genotype distribution of the causative Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains responsible for its spread are scanty. Methods Gastric lavage or sputum samples were collected from consecutively enrolled TB suspect children visiting Jimma University Hospital in 2011 and cultured on Middlebrook 7H11 and Löwenstein-Jensen media. Acid fast bacterial (AFB) isolates were subjected to molecular typing targeting regions of difference (RDs), 16S rDNA gene and the direct repeat (DR) region using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), gene sequencing and spoligotyping, respectively. Molecular drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates was performed by Genotype®MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) (Hain Life Sciences, Germany). Results Gastric lavage (n = 43) or sputum (n = 58) samples were collected from 101 children and 31.7% (32/101) of the samples were positive for AFB by microscopy, culture and/or PCR. Out of 25 AFB isolates, 60% (15/25) were identified as M. tuberculosis by PCR, and 40% isolates (10/25) were confirmed to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by genus typing and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lineage classification assigned the M. tuberculosis strains into Euro-American (EUA, 66.7%; 10/15), East-African-Indian (EAI; 2/15), East-Asian (EA; 1/15) and Indio-Oceanic (IO; 1/15) lineages. Seven M. tuberculosis strains were new to the SpolDB4 database. All of the M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), except for one strain (of spoligotype SIT-149 or T3_ETH family) which had a mutation at the inhA locus which often confers resistance to INH (low level) and ethionamide. Conclusions Analysis of the genetic population structure of paediatric M. tuberculosis strains suggested similarity with that of adults, indicating an on-going and active transmission of M. tuberculosis from adults to children

  18. Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Habtamu; Mulate, Belay; Nazir, Shahid; Alemayehu, Alula

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats) slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02%) sheep and 17 (6.80%) goats. In sheep 13 (4.96%) of the lungs, 10 (3.81%) livers and 1 (0.381%) heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0%) and 8 (3.2%) respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85%) and 15 (31.91%) respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%]) was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]). For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients) followed by spleen (11.1%) and kidney (7.4%). Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05) as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease. PMID:26304166

  19. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.

    Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.

    Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.

    This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  20. Regional Wave Propagation in Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemberie, A. L.; Langston, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    Broad band seismograms from the April 29, 2003, M4.6 Fort Payne, Alabama earthquake are analyzed to infer mechanisms of crustal wave propagation, crust and upper mantle velocity structure in southeastern United States, and source parameters of the event. In particular, we are interested in producing deterministic models of the distance attenuation of earthquake ground motions through computation of synthetic seismograms. The method first requires constraining the source parameters of an earthquake and then modeling the amplitude and times of broadband arrivals within the waveforms to infer appropriate layered earth models. A first look at seismograms recorded by stations outside the Mississippi Embayment (ME) show clear body phases such P, sP, Pnl, Sn and Lg. The ME signals are qualitatively different from others because they have longer durations and large surface waves. A straightforward interpretation of P wave arrival times shows a typical upper mantle velocity of 8.18 km/s. However, there is evidence of significantly higher P phase velocities at epicentral distances between 400 and 600km, that may be caused by a high velocity upper mantle anomaly; triplication of P-waves is seen in these seismograms. The arrival time differences between regional P and the depth phase sP at different stations are used to constrain the depth of the earthquake. The source depth lies between 9.5 km and 13km which is somewhat more shallow than the network location that was constrained to 15km depth. The Fort Payne earthquake is the largest earthquake to have occurred within the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone.

  1. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  2. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.20 Districts. For the purpose of... are hereby initially established: District No. 1: The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county of Willacy...

  3. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.20 Districts. For the purpose of... are hereby initially established: District No. 1: The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county of Willacy...

  4. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Metadel; Koye, Digsu N.; Tariku, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3%) of urban and 85 (18.6%) of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89), presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18), and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89) were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33), those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81), and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62) were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community there is a

  5. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  7. Preliminary report on radioactive conglomerates of Middle Precambrian age in the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert Stroud; Graff, P.J.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Root, Forrest

    1977-01-01

    Middle Precambrian miogeosynclinal metasedimentary rocks o# the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming contain radioactive quartz-pebble conglomerates of possible economic interest. These conglomerates do not contain ore-grade uranium in surface outcrops, but an earlier report on the geochemistry of the Arrastre Lake area of the Medicine Bow Mountains shows that ore-grade deposits may be present in the subsurface. This report describes the stratigraphy of the host metasedimentary rocks and the stratigraphic setting of the radioactive conglomerates in both the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow Mountains, and compares these rock units with those of the Blind River-Elliot Lake uranium district in Canada. The location of radioactive .conglomerates is given so that further exploration may be undertaken by interested parties.

  8. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  9. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  10. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  11. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  12. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  13. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don...

  14. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241...

  15. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative,...

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Communities of Amhara State: A Longitudinal Study in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    López-Perea, Noemí; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Cruz, Israel; Hailu, Tsegaye; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    Background In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. Methodology/Principal findings Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009) and at the end (February 2011) of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001), knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001), and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001). Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them). Conclusions/Significance In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall. PMID:24743328

  17. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  18. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2009 in Girar Jarso and Dera Districts of North Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A total of 768 stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount with saline and formalin ether concentration methods. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15. Results Out of 384 children examined, 53 (13.8%) and 28 (7.3%) were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections, respectively. Similarly, of the total 384 cattle examined, 9 (2.3%) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 30 (7.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The prevalence of giardiasis was significantly higher among children who had close contact with cattle 33 (18.7%) compared to children who had no contact with cattle 20 (9.6%) (P < 0.05). Higher number of Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in children who had close contact with cattle 15 (8.5%). Difference in prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis among children was not statistically significant between males and females. On the other hand, difference in the prevalence of giardiasis among children was statistically significant between age groups. Conclusions Higher prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection detected among children was significantly associated with contact with cattle and manure that the children had. Further analysis using molecular techniques is needed to explain the existence of zoonotic transmission in the study area. PMID

  19. Spousal discordance on fertility preference and its effect on contraceptive practice among married couples in Jimma zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess spousal agreement levels regarding fertility preference and spousal communication, and to look at how it affects contraceptive use by couples. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from March to May 2010 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia, using a multistage sampling design covering six districts. In each of the 811 couples included in the survey, both spouses were interviewed. Concordance between the husband and wife was assessed using different statistics and tests including concordance rates, ANOVA, Cohen’s Κ and McNemar’s test for paired samples. Multivariate analysis was computed to ascertain factors associated with contraceptive use. Results Over half of the couples wanted more children and 27.8% of the spouses differed about the desire for more children. In terms of sex preference, there was a 48.7% discord in couples who wanted to have more children. At large, spousal concordance on the importance of family planning was positive. However, it was the husband’s favourable attitude towards family planning that determined a couple’s use of contraception. Overall, contraceptive prevalence was 42.9%. Among the groups with the highest level of contraceptive users, were couples where the husband does not want any more children. Spousal communication about the decision to use contraception showed a positive association with a couple’s contraceptive prevalence. Conclusions Family planning programs aiming to increase contraceptive uptake could benefit from findings on spousal agreement regarding fertility desire, because the characteristics of each spouse influences the couple’s fertility level. Disparities between husband and wife about the desire for more children sustain the need for male consideration while analysing the unmet need for contraception. Moreover, men play a significant role in the decision making concerning contraceptive use. Accordingly, involving men in family planning programs could

  20. Meeting Community Health Worker Needs for Maternal Health Care Service Delivery Using Appropriate Mobile Technologies in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Little, Alex; Medhanyie, Araya; Yebyo, Henock; Spigt, Mark; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile health applications are complex interventions that essentially require changes to the behavior of health care professionals who will use them and changes to systems or processes in delivery of care. Our aim has been to meet the technical needs of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) and midwives for maternal health using appropriate mobile technologies tools. Methods We have developed and evaluated a set of appropriate smartphone health applications using open source components, including a local language adapted data collection tool, health worker and manager user-friendly dashboard analytics and maternal-newborn protocols. This is an eighteen month follow-up of an ongoing observational research study in the northern of Ethiopia involving two districts, twenty HEWs, and twelve midwives. Results Most health workers rapidly learned how to use and became comfortable with the touch screen devices so only limited technical support was needed. Unrestricted use of smartphones generated a strong sense of ownership and empowerment among the health workers. Ownership of the phones was a strong motivator for the health workers, who recognised the value and usefulness of the devices, so took care to look after them. A low level of smartphones breakage (8.3%,3 from 36) and loss (2.7%) were reported. Each health worker made an average of 160 mins of voice calls and downloaded 27Mb of data per month, however, we found very low usage of short message service (less than 3 per month). Conclusions Although it is too early to show a direct link between mobile technologies and health outcomes, mobile technologies allow health managers to more quickly and reliably have access to data which can help identify where there issues in the service delivery. Achieving a strong sense of ownership and empowerment among health workers is a prerequisite for a successful introduction of any mobile health program. PMID:24204872

  1. Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Livelihoods: The Case of Recurrent Droughts among Nomadic Pastoralist of Southeastern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.; Desanker, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    Drought is the most injurious impact of climate change that decimates lives and hinders socioeconomic development in most rangelands of Kenya. Several scientific evidences indicate that global climate change will increase frequency and intensity of droughts. This will have important ramification for ecosystems and social systems in the rangelands of southeastern Kenya, and correctly so. These rangelands are fragile and degraded; and the inhabitants are mostly poverty-stricken. Nomadic pastoralism is the chief source of livelihood in this region; it relies on local natural pastures. Besides, pressures from land use change constitute an additional exposure, of nomadic pastoralism, to vulnerabilities of this climatic hazard. This region is highly prone to droughts; it is currently recovering from a devastating drought that started in early 2005 and terminated at the start this year. Most important, and like most societies in sub-Saharan Africa, inadequate adaptive capacity among nomadic pastoralists of Kenya, exacerbates deleterious impacts of drought. The livelihood of these pastoralists, therefore, stands to be destabilized. This study presents findings from an on-going research in Kajiado District of southeastern Kenya. Impacts of and adaptation strategies to recurrent and prolonged droughts among the nomadic Maasai pastoralist are presented. The study concludes with possible future scenarios of this form of pastoralism from which climate change actors can draw from.

  2. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

    2002-03-21

    The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

  3. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  4. Entomologic inoculation rates of Anopheles arabiensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-09-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density. PMID:23878184

  5. Diagnosing potential discrepancies in satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Matthew; Williams, Charles; Chiu, Christine; Maidment, Ross; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Reliable satellite precipitation estimates are vital over many regions of Africa because of the importance of rainfall monitoring for rain-fed agriculture and water resources. In particular, regions with mountainous terrain pose a major challenge for satellite-based rainfall algorithms because retrievals based upon thermal infrared and microwave observations tend to miss orographic precipitation, often associated with warm temperatures and a weak scattering signal. To investigate the skill of satellite rainfall retrievals over mountainous terrain, we evaluate several satellite-based rainfall algorithms against rain gauge measurements over the mountainous Oromia region in Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the skill of rainfall retrieved from algorithms that only use thermal infrared observations and algorithms that combine both thermal infrared and microwave observations. We also investigate the dependency of retrievals on topography by classifying the relationship between the retrieval errors and elevation. Furthermore, we conduct high resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) during days with significant retrieval errors to determine how the errors relate to the characteristics of precipitation. A qualitative assessment of the vertical atmospheric structure and microphysical content of simulations reveals the potential sources of underestimation and overestimation in the rainfall algorithms. This study will highlight the importance of understanding regional precipitation systems causing uncertainties in satellite rainfall estimates, with a view toward using this knowledge to improve rainfall algorithms.

  6. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  7. Pictorial approaches for measuring time use in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832

  8. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  9. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

  10. Strengthening Pharmaceutical Care Education in Ethiopia Through Instructional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720

  11. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  12. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa. PMID:25752566

  13. Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Valerio

    2006-10-01

    Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.

  14. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  15. Study on coccidiosis of scavenging indigenous chickens in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashenafi, H; Tadesse, S; Medhin, G; Tibbo, M

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made into coccidiosis of 190 scavenging indigenous chickens between September 2000 and April 2001 in three selected agroclimatic zones, in central Ethiopia. This was done through clinical, postmortem and microscopic examinations. Data were processed by chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The study indicated that 25.8% (49/190) of the chickens were infected with coccidiosis and found to harbour one to four different species of Eimeria. Of these infected chickens, 30 (15.8%) and 19 (10.0%) were positive for clinical and sub-clinical coccidiosis, respectively. There was a significant altitude difference (chi2 = 14.7, p <0.001) in coccidiosis prevalence: 42.2% in chickens from highland region followed by 21.5% in mid-altitude and 13.1% in low-altitude areas. When quantified, the prevalence of coccidiosis was 2.66 and 4.83 times higher in the high-altitude than in mid-altitude (odds ratio, OR = 2.66, p<0.05) and low-altitude (OR = 4.83, p<0.001) chickens. The pathogenic Eimeria species responsible for clinical coccidiosis were E. necatrix, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella. With increasing demand for poultry products in developing countries, knowledge of production constraints in traditional management practices could help devise control strategies for constraints on backyard poultry production systems. PMID:15563030

  16. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in staple cereals from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, Amare; Fehrmann, Hartmut; Lepschy, Johann; Beck, Robert; Abate, Dawit

    2006-07-01

    The occurrence of mycotoxins in barley, sorghum, teff (Eragrostis tef) and wheat from Ethiopia has been studied. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and for fumonisins (FUM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFB1 and OTA were detected in samples of all the four crops. AFB1 was detected in 8.8% of the 352 samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from trace to 26 microg kg(-1). OTA occurred in 24.3% of 321 samples at a mean concentration of 54.1 microg kg(-1) and a maximum of 2106 microg kg(-1). DON occurred in barley, sorghum and wheat at 40-2340 microg kg(-1) with an overall incidence of 48.8% among the 84 mainly 'suspect' samples analyzed; NIV was co-analyzed with DON and was detected at 40 microg kg(-1) in a wheat sample and at 50, 380, and 490 microg kg(-1) in three sorghum samples. FUM and ZEN occurred only in sorghum samples with low frequencies at concentrations reaching 2117 and 32 microg kg(-1), respectively. The analytical results indicate higher mycotoxin contamination in sorghum, which could be related to the widespread storage of sorghum grain in underground pits leading to elevated seed moisture contents. This is the first report on the occurrence of OTA in teff. PMID:16830193

  17. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S

    2010-05-11

    A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified. PMID:20138432

  18. Onchocerciasis in Gilgel Ghibe River Valley southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, A; Gebre-Michael, T; Taticheff, S

    2000-02-01

    400 people in Gilgel Ghibe, southwestern Ethiopia, were subjected to parasitological and clinical examination to determine the prevalence and intensity of onchocerciasis. Its association with entomological transmission indices such as the parous rate and annual transmission potential (ATP) were determined simultaneously. Two skin snips per person were taken and examined for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. In addition, collections of adult blackfly were done from human baits seated in pairs at 4 representative sites at the riverbank and away from the riverbank. Flies were then dissected for parity and infections with O. volvulus. Among the 228 people examined, the prevalence of the disease was low (17%), being higher in males than in females (19% vs. 14%). The geometric mean of microfilarial density was 11.1 mf per skin snip. Itching and skin changes were the most common signs and symptoms of the disease. The predominant anthropophilic blackfly species was Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. The annual parous rate was 74.7%, while ATP was 1669.5, being higher at the riverbank than at farther sites, suggesting a greater risk of infection by the riverside. In conclusion, the low prevalence of onchocerciasis vis-a-vis the high ATP level could be caused by the possible presence of bovine onchocerciasis in the area. Further studies employing molecular techniques are needed to identify O. volvulus from other filariae in flies. PMID:10774086

  19. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  20. The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury

    2013-04-01

    The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.

  1. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  2. District-level local measuring program of the urban environment in Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dian, Csenge; Pongrácz, Rita; Dezsö, Zsuzsanna; Bartholy, Judit

    2016-04-01

    The natural environment and thus, the climatic conditions are modified by the concentrated human presence of urban areas. In our research we aim to analyze the resulting urban climatic effects in a downtown district of Budapest, Hungary. For this purpose, we have started a measuring program of in-situ measurements in the southern central located district called Ferencváros, which can be found near the river Danube, and mainly consists of 3- and 4-storey older and newly built buildings. The newly built buildings are mainly the results of the Ferencváros local government's efforts to improve the environment for the citizens. Within the framework of the block rehabilitation program, inner parts of the old house blocks were demolished, and inside the blocks common green areas have been created. In our urban climate measurement program air temperature and relative humidity are recorded along a pre-defined path consisting of 22 measuring points, which covers the studied area. The measuring sites are located in different characteristical points of the district, such as green parks, narrow streets, paved squares and roads. In order to calculate the urban heat island intensity, temperature measurements are compared to the hourly recorded data of the Budapest synoptic station (ID number: 12843) located in the southeastern suburb district of the city. After completing an entire year of measurements, the seasonal cycle of temperature and relative humidity differences are analyzed as well, as the diurnal changes and the spatial structure within the study area.

  3. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  4. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks

  5. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion...

  6. District mental healthcare plans for five low- and middle-income countries: commonalities, variations and evidence gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Honikman, Simone; Lund, Crick; Prince, Martin; Raja, Shoba; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the service and system interventions required for successful integration of mental healthcare into primary care across diverse low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To examine the commonalities, variations and evidence gaps in district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) developed in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Uganda and South Africa for the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). Method A comparative analysis of MHCP components and human resource requirements. Results A core set of MHCP goals was seen across all countries. The MHCPs components to achieve those goals varied, with most similarity in countries within the same resource bracket (low income v. middle income). Human resources for advanced psychosocial interventions were only available in the existing health service in the best-resourced PRIME country. Conclusions Application of a standardised methodological approach to MHCP across five LMIC allowed identification of core and site-specific interventions needed for implementation. PMID:26447169

  7. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  8. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  9. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. 40 CFR 81.123 - Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.123 Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  12. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

  13. Baseline Survey of Educational Technology Access and Application in Southeastern Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Kathleen; And Others

    Utah's Southeastern Education Service Center has devised a five-phase vision plan for improving the educational technology infrastructure in the southeastern region of the state. The fourth phase involves the creation of the Southeastern Utah Regional Wide Area Network (SURWAN), which will link all K-12 schools to the Internet by 1996. This…

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  19. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  20. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  1. The Impacts of an Integrated Community Development Program in Southern Ethiopia--A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning

    2013-01-01

    With funding through grants and donations, an international development organization has provided developmental services to a woreda in southern Ethiopia since the early 1980s. This study is intended to assess the outcome and impact of the program and address the following questions: (1) Did direct beneficiaries of the CDTP program exhibit better…

  2. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic glasses associated with early Homo sapiens in Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58–2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  4. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  5. From "Deep Knowledge" to "The Light of Reason": Sources for Philosophy of Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, David; Asgedom, Amare; Kenaw, Setargew

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores some of the indigenous sources available in Ethiopia as a resource for philosophy and philosophy of education. In the process it makes a small contribution to the ongoing debate among philosophers as to whether there is a distinctive African philosophy. The paper illustrates, first, what is sometimes referred to as the "deep…

  6. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  7. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  8. Non-Formal Education in Ethiopia. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education. Team Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehoff, Richard O.; Wilder, Bernard D.

    Within the context of the total educational system of Ethiopia nonformal educational activities are described. These activities, undertaken by several government ministries and quasi-governmental and private organizations, are being conducted for the purpose of maintaining governmental services, improving living standards, and providing the…

  9. Ethiopia: The Role of Literacy Instructors in Changing Attitudes. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammo, Gudeta

    One of the reasons for the rapid advancement of literacy activities in Ethiopia is that different nationalities learn in their own mother tongues in their own cultures. The literacy rate before the 1974 revolution was 7 percent. The 1990 literacy rate is 75 percent. Literacy instructors in the current literacy campaign do more than instruct…

  10. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  11. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  12. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fikadu, Girma; Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58-2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  14. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  15. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  16. Human papillomavirus related cervical cancer and anticipated vaccination challenges in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, TeweldeTesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia. This may be due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of HR-HPV genotypes. The HR-HPV-16, -18, -52, -56, -31 and -58 were the most common genotypes reported in Ethiopia. The introduction of HPV vaccines in Ethiopia is likely to go a long way in reducing cervical cancer deaths. However, there are few challenges to the introduction of the vaccines. The target population for HPV vaccination is at the moment not well-defined. Besides, the current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific (HPV-16 and -18) immunity, leaving a small proportion of Ethiopian women unprotected against other HR-HPV genotypes such as 52, 56, 31 and 58. Thus, future HPV vaccines such as the nanovalent vaccine may be more useful to Ethiopia as they will protect women against more genotypes. PMID:27004064

  17. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  18. Application of Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Intervention Program with Deaf Immigrant Children from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Lea; Kozulin, Alex

    R. Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) Program was used as a tool of cognitive educational intervention with 10 deaf children (ages 7 to 15), all recent immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel. The group's special education needs resulted from their deafness, lack of formal educational experience, lack of previous exposure to sign language or…

  19. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  20. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  1. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  2. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  3. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  4. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  5. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  6. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  7. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  8. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  9. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  10. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  11. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  12. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  13. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  14. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  15. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  16. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  17. Reflections on the Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO) Program in Ethiopia: Promises, Pitfalls, and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Dawit M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced significant structural changes and promised to bring a "paradigm shift" in the Ethiopian educational…

  18. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  19. Socio-Economic and Educational Reforms in Ethiopia (1942-1974): Correspondence and Contradiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayehgn, Desta

    Using the theory of correspondence and contradiction, the author analyzes the interaction between socioeconomic and educational changes in Ethiopia from 1942 to 1974. An introductory section sets forth the principles of correspondence and contradiction, which refer to how the means of economic production determine conditions in the noneconomic…

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…