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Sample records for district western nepal

  1. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal. PMID:26466410

  2. Knowledge and Practice on Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Kaski District, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kc, Vikash Kumar; Jha, Nisha; Sharma, Damodar

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practice can transmit various blood borne infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of injection safety among injection providers, to obtain information about disposal of injectable devices, and to compare the knowledge and practices of urban and rural injection providers. Methods The study was conducted with injection providers working at primary health care facilities within Kaski district, Nepal. Ninety-six health care workers from 69 primary health care facilities were studied and 132 injection events observed. A semi-structured checklist was used for observing injection practice and a questionnaire for the survey. Respondents were interviewed to complete the questionnaire and obtain possible explanations for certain observed behaviors. Results All injection providers knew of at least one pathogen transmitted through use/re-use of unsterile syringes. Proportion of injection providers naming hepatitis/jaundice as one of the diseases transmitted by unsafe injection practice was significantly higher in urban (75.6%) than in rural (39.2%) area. However, compared to urban respondents (13.3%), a significantly higher proportion of rural respondents (37.3%) named Hepatitis B specifically as one of the diseases transmitted. Median (inter-quartile range) number of therapeutic injection and injectable vaccine administered per day by the injection providers were 2 (1) and 1 (1), respectively. Two handed recapping by injection providers was significantly higher in urban area (33.3%) than in rural areas (21.6%). Most providers were not aware of the post exposure prophylaxis guideline. Conclusion The knowledge of the injection providers about safe injection practice was acceptable. The use of safe injection practice by providers in urban and rural health care facilities was almost similar. The deficiencies noted in the practice must be addressed. PMID:27540325

  3. Rural Education: A Case Study of Two Districts in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Madhav P.

    In 1952 Nepal launched a rural development program to improve economic, social, and educational conditions in rural villages, which comprise 91% of the nation's population. This paper examines school characteristics and educational participation in two districts and discusses a national evaluation of the rural education program. Lungruppa village…

  4. Lake sediment records of late Holocene monsoon variability in western Nepal (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazoui, Zakaria; Bertrand, Sebastien; Sachse, Dirk; Nomade, Jerome; Prasad Gajurel, Ananta; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In Nepal, high altitude paleoclimatological and limnological studies face many logistical challenges due to remoteness, accessibility, and altitude of potential lake sampling sites. Therefore, paleolimnological investigations in the Nepalese Himalaya remain scarce, and most of our understanding of past Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) variability relies on a low-density network of speleothems and ice cores. Here we report preliminary new data from three high-altitude lakes in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to improve our understanding of climate variability in western Nepal during the late Holocene three lakes were investigated and sampled in autumn 2014: Rara Lake, Mugu District; Phoksundo Lake, Dolpa District; Dhumba Lake, Mustang District. The sediment cores are being studied using a multi-proxy approach combining radiocarbon, 210Pb and 137Cs chronologies, physical properties (Geotek multi-sensor core logger), grain size (Malvern Mastersizer 3000) inorganic geochemistry (major and selected trace elements by ICP-AES and ITRAX XRF core scanning), bulk organic geochemistry (C, N concentrations and stable isotopes) and hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax long-chain n-alkanes (δDwax). These sediment records will provide important new insights into the late-Holocene variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon in Nepal, including the recent latitudinal shift of the rainbelt due to climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Easow, Joshy Maducolil; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Rajamony, Asish Purushothaman; Dhungel, Banodita Acharya; Shivananda, P G

    2011-07-01

    We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. This study was conducted from January 2000 to August 2007 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal. The isolates were identified based on standard bacteriological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing used the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; penicillin resistance was confirmed by agar dilution method. During the study period, there were 312 S. pneumoniae isolates. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance were observed in 5, 34.3, 7.4, 11.1 and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. Resistance to all tested antibiotics declined with time except for penicillin, in which resistance increased. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were significantly co-resistant to erythromycin. Co-resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin were observed in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant isolates. Penicillin resistance is increasing; therefore, measures to ensure judicious use of beta-lactams and macrolides (inducers of penicillin resistance) should be advocated to control the development of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:22299473

  6. Control of Trachoma from Achham District, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Nepal National Trachoma Program

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Bidya Prasad; Bhatta, Ramesh C.; Chaudhary, J. S. P.; Awasthi, Suresh; Mishra, Sailesh; Sharma, Shekhar; Cuddapah, Puja A.; Gwyn, Sarah E.; Stoller, Nicole E.; Martin, Diana L.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The WHO seeks to control trachoma as a public health problem in endemic areas. Achham District in western Nepal was found to have TF (trachoma follicular) above 20% in a 2006 government survey, triggering 3 annual mass drug administrations finishing in 2010. Here we assess the level of control that has been achieved using surveillance for clinical disease, ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection, and serology for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of children aged 1–9 years in communities in Achham District in early 2014 including clinical examination validated with photographs, conjunctival samples for Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor PCR), and serological testing for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens pgp3 and CT694 using the Luminex platform. Findings In 24 randomly selected communities, the prevalence of trachoma (TF and/or TI) in 1–9 year olds was 3/1124 (0.3%, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8%), and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/1124 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.3%). In 18 communities selected because they had the highest prevalence of trachoma in a previous survey, the prevalence of TF and/or TI was 7/716 (1.0%, 95% CI 0.4 to 2.0%) and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/716 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%). In 3 communities selected for serological testing, the prevalence of trachoma was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%), the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%), the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen pgp3 was 1/68 (1.5%, 95% CI 0.04% to 7.9%), and the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen CT694 was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%). Conclusion/Significance This previously highly endemic district in Nepal has little evidence of recent clinical disease, chlamydia trachomatis infection, or serological evidence of trachoma

  7. Economic uses of forest plant resources in western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, Dharma R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses economic uses of forest plant resources documented from 117 forest plots and neighboring areas of western Chitwan, Nepal. The paper lists information on the plant species (1) that provide valuable food, vegetable and medicinal products that maintain human health and general well-being of the households; (2) that are economically valuable to farmers such as high-grade fodder, useful plants for crop management (e.g., pesticide, compost, green manure); (3) that are used as piscicide (harvest fish from rivers and streams), (4) that provide materials for use in household construction (e.g. building materials, thatch) and tool making; and (5) that have aesthetic value. The access to forest resources is important for many households, especially those living in remote and poor agricultural areas such as Western Chitwan. This paper also highlights the availability of the species wherever possible based upon the field data. PMID:23066332

  8. School-based sex education in Western Nepal: uncomfortable for both teachers and students.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Shreejana; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Shakya, Sujeeta

    2006-11-01

    The National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy (2000) of Nepal considers adolescents a key target group for information and services. The extent to which sex education is being provided in schools has received little attention, however. At higher secondary level, students are supposed to be taught basic sex education using a chapter in a textbook called Health, Population and Environment. Little is known about how or how well this material is covered. In a study in 2002 among adolescents in eight schools in the Nawalparasi District in the Western Region of Nepal, we interviewed eight teachers responsible for teaching this subject. We also collected survey data from 451 students and held four focus group discussions with 26 of them. We found that adolescents in these schools did not appear to be getting the information they needed. Most of the teachers did not want to deal with sensitive topics and feared censure by their colleagues and society. Some lacked the skills to give such instruction. Many students also felt uncomfortable with the topics. The challenge is to strengthen sex education, make it more appropriate for the students and ensure that teachers are more comfortable and able to give instruction on the topic. PMID:17101434

  9. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  10. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A; Lee, Andy H; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  11. Nepal.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  12. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Nepal, Bal K; Kshhetri, Hari B; Rai, Sanjeev K; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species. PMID:16749924

  13. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of

  14. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Wilson, Godwin; Chawla, Kiran; VS, Binu; Shivananda, PG

    2008-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children (< 15 years) visiting the hospital from Kaski and 7 surrounding districts. Samples were also collected from children in the community from different medical camps. Three stool samples from every child were processed using direct and concentration methods. The Kato-Katz technique was used for measuring the intensity of infection. Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y) and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y) children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection. PMID:18366807

  15. What Caused the Winter Drought in Western Nepal during Recent Years?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S-Y; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Gillies, R.; Cho, Changrae

    2013-11-01

    Western Nepal has experienced consecutive and worsened winter drought conditions since 2000 culminating in a severe drought episode during 2008-2009. In this study, the meteorological conditons and a historical pespective of the winter droughts in western Nepal were analyzed using respectively instumental records and a paleoclimatic drought index. Althought decadal-scale drought conditions were found to be recurrent in the paleoclimate record, the severity of the recent decadal drought (since 2000) clearly stands out in the 700 years of record and, this is suggestive of potential anthropogenic influences in the recent decades. Meteorological diagnosis using atmospheric reanalysis in the recent decades revealed that (1) winter drought in western Nepal is linked to the Arctic Oscillation and its decadal variability, which initiates a tropospheric short-wave train across the Europe, Eurasia and South Asia, and that (2) the persistent warming of the Indian Ocean likely contributes to the suppression of rainfall through enhanced local Hadley circultion. It is therefore conceivable that the recent spells of decadal drought in Nepal drought are symptomatic of both natural variability and anthropogenic influences.

  16. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

  17. Barriers to using skilled birth attendants’ services in mid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) provide important interventions that improve maternal and neonatal health and reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, utilization and coverage of services by SBAs remain poor, especially in rural and remote areas of Nepal. This study examined the characteristics associated with utilization of SBA services in mid- and far-western Nepal. Methods This cross-sectional study examined three rural and remote districts of mid- and far-western Nepal (i.e., Kanchanpur, Dailekh and Bajhang), representing three ecological zones (southern plains [Tarai], hill and mountain, respectively) with low utilization of services by SBAs. Enumerators assisted a total of 2,481 women. All respondents had delivered a baby within the past 12 months. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess the association between antenatal and delivery care visits and the women’s background characteristics. Results Fifty-seven percent of study participants had completed at least four antenatal care visits and 48% delivered their babies with the assistance of SBAs. Knowing the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery (e.g., premature labor, prolonged labor, breech delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, severe headache) associated positively with four or more antenatal care visits (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.41-2.07). Living less than 30 min from a health facility associated positively with increased use of both antenatal care (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.18-1.77) and delivery services (OR = 1.25; CI: 1.03-1.52). Four or more antenatal care visits was a determining factor for the utilization of SBAs. Conclusions Less than half of the women in our study delivered babies with the aid of SBAs, indicating a need to increase utilization of such services in rural and remote areas of Nepal. Distance from health facilities and inadequate transportation pose major barriers to the utilization of SBAs. Providing women with transportation funds before they go to a

  18. Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs were conducted in Nepali languages. These were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. A theoretical framework was identified and thematic analysis conducted. Results Three focus group discussions, with a total of 27 participants, took place. Participants were able to identify examples of child injuries which took place in their community but these generally related to fatal and severe injuries. Participants identified risk factors such as the child’s age, gender, behaviours and whether they had been supervised. Consequences of injuries such as physical and psychological effects, impact on household budgets and disturbance in household plans were identified. Suggestions were made about culturally appropriate prevention measures, and included; suitable supervision arrangements, separation of hazards and teaching about safety to the parents and children. Conclusion Community members in Nepal can provide useful information about childhood injuries and their prevention but this knowledge is not transferred into action. Understanding community perceptions about injuries and their prevention can contribute to the development of preventive interventions in low income settings. PMID:24886124

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis clinical management in endemic districts of India, Nepal, and bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Banjara, Megha Raj; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Kumar, Narendra; Kansal, Sangeeta; Huda, M Mamun; Das, Pradeep; Rijal, Suman; Gurung, Chitra Kumar; Malaviya, Paritosh; Arana, Byron; Kroeger, Axel; Mondal, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Background. National VL Elimination Programs in India, Nepal and Bangladesh face challenges as home-based Miltefosine treatment is introduced. Objectives. To study constraints of VL management in endemic districts within context of national elimination programs before and after intervention. Methods. Ninety-two and 41 newly diagnosed VL patients were interviewed for clinical and provider experience in 2009 before and in 2010 after intervention (district training and improved supply of diagnostics and drugs). Providers were assessed for adherence to treatment guidelines. Facilities and doctor-patient consultations were observed to assess quality of care. Results. Miltefosine use increased from 33% to 59% except in Nepal where amphotericin was better available. Incorrect dosage and treatment interruptions were rare. Advice on potential side effects was uncommon but improved significantly in 2010. Physicians did not rule out pregnancy prior to starting Miltefosine. Fever measurement or spleen palpation was infrequently done in Bangladesh but improved after intervention (from 23% to 47%). Physician awareness of renal or liver toxicity as Miltefosine side effects was lower in Bangladesh. Bio-chemical monitoring was uncommon. Patient satisfaction with services remained low for ease of access or time provider spent with patient. Health facilities were better stocked with rK39 kits and Miltefosine in 2010. PMID:22649459

  20. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns. PMID:22950751

  1. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  2. Climate change and adverse health events: community perceptions from the Tanahu district of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mani Bhandari, Parash; Issa, Rita; Neupane, Dinesh; Gurung, Swadesh; Khanal, Vishnu

    2015-03-01

    Nepal is a country economically dependent on climate-sensitive industries. It is highly vulnerable to the environmental, social, economic and health impacts of climate change. The objective of this study is to explore community perceptions of climate variability and human health risks. In this letter, we present a cross sectional study conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in the Tanahu district of Nepal. Our analysis is based on 258 face-to-face interviews with household heads utilizing structured questionnaires. Over half of the respondents (54.7%) had perceived a change in climate, 53.9% had perceived an increase in temperature in the summer and 49.2% had perceived an increase in rainfall during the rainy season. Half of the respondents perceived an increase in the number of diseases during the summer, 46.5% perceived an increase during the rainy season and 48.8% during winter. Only 8.9% of the respondents felt that the government was doing enough to prevent climate change and its impact on their community. Belonging to the Janajati (indigenous) ethnic group, living in a pakki, super-pakki house and belonging to poor or mid-level income were related to higher odds of perceiving climate variability. Illiterates were less likely to perceive climate variability. Respondents living in a pakki house, super-pakki, or those who were poor were more likely to perceive health risks. Illiterates were less likely to perceive health risks.

  3. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nonyane, Bareng As; Kc, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-05-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared usingt-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: -0.15 (-0.24, -0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [-0.026(-0.06, -0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [-0.05(-0.11, -0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [-0.25(-0.04, -0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [-0.15(-0.19, -0.10)] and birth preparedness [-0.09(-0.12, -0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  4. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nonyane, Bareng AS; KC, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared using t-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: −0.15 (−0.24, −0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [−0.026(−0.06, −0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [−0.05(−0.11, −0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [−0.25(−0.04, −0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [−0.15(−0.19, −0.10)] and birth preparedness [−0.09(−0.12, −0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  5. Neotectonics of the Western Nepal Fault System: Implications for Himalayan strain partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Calvin R. P.; Murphy, Michael A.; Taylor, Michael H.; Gosse, John; Baltz, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Oblique convergence at the Himalayan margin is hypothesized to be partitioned by orogen-normal thrusting and orogen-parallel strike-slip faulting. We conducted field mapping and remote sensing in the Dhaulagiri Range of Nepal, and the results reveal an active regional fault system termed the Western Nepal Fault System (WNFS). Right and normally offset Quaternary deposits and brittly deformed bedrock demarcate dextral slip along two strike-slip faults striking N40-50°W linked via an extensional right step over striking N10-20°E. The strike-slip attitudes subparallel bedrock foliation, while the step over cuts at a high angle (~70°). Fault slip data along the strike-slip segments trend N70°W with minor dip component, top to north. Fault slip data and observed kinematics along the WNFS support our interpretation that the WNFS formed via arc-parallel stress. On the basis of geometry, kinematics, and structural position we correlate the WNFS to active faults between the Karakoram and Bari Gad faults. This suggests an ~350 km long dextral fault system extending obliquely across the Western Nepal Himalaya which appears to intersect the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) near 83°30'E, coinciding with a large gradient in the arc-parallel component of GPS velocities. We interpret the WNFS to represent a class of orogen-parallel strike-slip faults working with subduction to accommodate obliquely convergent plate motion. Our observations support the hypothesis that the region lying between the MFT and the WNFS is a continental version of a fore-arc sliver bounded at its base by the Main Himalayan Thrust.

  6. Monitoring of a recurring glacial lake outburst flood in north-western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Niklas; Kropacek, Jan; Schröter, Benjamin; Tyrna, Bernd; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Since 2004 an almost annual recurring glacial lake outburst flood threatens Halji Village, located in Limi valley in one of the most remote regions of north-western Nepal. So far a considerable extent of rare fields and several houses have been destroyed. A cultural heritage site, the Halji Monastery which is the oldest Buddhist monastery in western Nepal is located only 30 m from the flood path. A supra-glacial lake at an altitude of 5300 m a.s.l. located approximately 6 km away from the village was identified as the source of the flood from recent satellite imagery. In November/December 2013 we carried out a field survey in this region in order to understand the drainage paths of the lake, to measure the volume of the glacial lake and to set up an Automatic Weather Station (AWS). To assess both the filling and draining of the glacial lake a terrestrial time-lapse camera was installed taking six photographs every day. These show the glacial lake and parts of the feeding water channels. The images combined with the AWS data will help us to understand the dependency of magnitude and timing of the outburst event to the temperature, snow conditions and glacier movements. The collected data will also help us to learn more about the flooding event and serve as the input for a two dimensional hydrodynamic model which simulates the flood extent under different flooding scenarios.

  7. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that

  9. The Byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, A E; Dahal, D R; Rai, N K

    1976-09-01

    The Byanshi who live in the district of Darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of Nepal. The Byanshi, close to the borders of Nepal, India, and Tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the Himalayas and over the border into Pithoragarh district and even down into the Terai. The Byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. In the summer they live in their traditional homeland in Byana panchayat in the northern section of Darchula, close to Nepal's border with China. The major settlements in the area are Tinkar and Chhangru. The entire panchayat has a population of about 2000. In the winter, when snow makes life difficult in the high mountains, the Byanshi migrate down to Khalanga panchayat. Of greater importance than agriculture is animal husbandry, which is the backbone of trade in the Himalayas. Most important is that husbandry supports trade. The Byanshi social organization is somewhat confusing. An attempt is made to explain the clan structure as simply as possible. Upon the birth of a child the women from the village bring local beer, meat, and other food to the mother. Up to the 11th day after childbirth, the new mother and child are considered to be polluted. On the 8th day after delivery a ceremony known as "malengkho kormo" is performed, where the mother and child are ritually bathed. From this point, both the mother and child may enter the hearth area of their house, but the house itself is considered polluted. On the 11th day, all villagers are invited to attend the ceremony known as "chhyosimo" which purifies the house and the people. The Byanshi practice 3 forms of marriage: marriage by capture; love marriage, a form of elopmement; and the arranged marriage. The latter is becoming most common. Death rituals have always been the most exaggerated and costly ceremonies for the Bayanshi. The religion of the Byanshi combines features of Tibetan Buddhism, hill animism, and Hinduism in a very

  10. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Annu; Pathak, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD), 5398 (22.5%) were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1); most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (n = 3308; 61.3%). Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%), eczema (14.4%), and acne (10.1%). Fungal infections (n = 653; 65.4%) and acne (n = 284; 51.9%) were common in males, whereas eczema (n = 402; 51.7%) was more common in females. Fungal infection (P < 0.001), eczema (P < 0.001), pigmentation disorders (P < 0.001), and acne (P < 0.01) were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (P < 0.001). Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively. PMID:27247564

  11. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Yogesh; Ranjit, Annu; Pathak, Santosh; Chaudhary, Nagendra

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD), 5398 (22.5%) were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1); most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (n = 3308; 61.3%). Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%), eczema (14.4%), and acne (10.1%). Fungal infections (n = 653; 65.4%) and acne (n = 284; 51.9%) were common in males, whereas eczema (n = 402; 51.7%) was more common in females. Fungal infection (P < 0.001), eczema (P < 0.001), pigmentation disorders (P < 0.001), and acne (P < 0.01) were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (P < 0.001). Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively. PMID:27247564

  12. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes. PMID:26633439

  13. Spectral Color Indices Based Geospatial Modeling of Soil Organic Matter in Chitwan District, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    Space Technology provides a resourceful-cost effective means to assess soil nutrients essential for soil management plan. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of valuable controlling productivity of crops by providing nutrient in farming systems. Geospatial modeling of soil organic matter is essential if there is unavailability of soil test laboratories and its strong spatial correlation. In the present analysis, soil organic matter is modeled from satellite image derived spectral color indices. Brightness Index (BI), Coloration Index (CI), Hue Index (HI), Redness Index (RI) and Saturation Index (SI) were calculated by converting DN value to radiance and radiance to reflectance from Thematic Mapper image. Geospatial model was developed by regressing SOM with color indices and producing multiple regression model using stepwise regression technique. The multiple regression equation between SOM and spectral indices was significant with R = 0. 56 at 95% confidence level. The resulting MLR equation was then used for the spatial prediction for the entire study area. Redness Index was found higher significance in estimating the SOM. It was used to predict SOM as auxiliary variables using cokringing spatial interpolation technique. It was tested in seven VDCs of Chitwan district of Nepal using Thematic Mapper remotely sensed data. SOM was found to be measured ranging from 0.15% to 4.75 %, with a mean of 2.24 %. Remotely sensed data derived spectral color indices have the potential as useful auxiliary variables for estimating SOM content to generate soil fertility management plans.

  14. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  15. Serological and Entomological Study of Dengue in Dang and Chitwan Districts of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rojina; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Gc, Ganga; Thapa, Srinivas; Neupane, Biswas; Shah, Yogendra; Gautam, Ishan; Pandey, Basu Dev

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 264 suspected dengue patients in two districts (Dang and Chitwan) of Nepal from June 2013 to November 2013. The anti-dengue IgM positivity was found to be (51/264)19.31% by capture ELISA, of which 21 (41.2%) were male and 30 (58.8%) were female. Symptoms of seropositive cases were fever, anorexia, nausea, headache, retro-orbital pain, skin rashes, and myalgia. Hematological features like thrombocytopenia and leucopenia were found to be significantly associated with the dengue fever (DF). Discarded tires were found as the commonest breeding habitats for the dengue vectors. Higher sero-positivity was recorded from the area having higher Breteau index (BI). The pH, chloride ion concentration and the salinity of the water from breeding habitats were found to be ranging from 6.9±0.82 to 8, 103.33±17.52 mg/L to 140.65 mg/L, and 0.19±0.032 ppt to 0.25 ppt respectively. This study may be helpful for the health authorities and public health workers for early diagnosis of DF and for the improved preventive measures to be adopted in the epidemic and possible epidemic areas. PMID:26828951

  16. Serological and Entomological Study of Dengue in Dang and Chitwan Districts of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rojina; Pant, Narayan Dutt; GC, Ganga; Thapa, Srinivas; Neupane, Biswas; Shah, Yogendra; Gautam, Ishan; Pandey, Basu Dev

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 264 suspected dengue patients in two districts (Dang and Chitwan) of Nepal from June 2013 to November 2013. The anti-dengue IgM positivity was found to be (51/264)19.31% by capture ELISA, of which 21 (41.2%) were male and 30 (58.8%) were female. Symptoms of seropositive cases were fever, anorexia, nausea, headache, retro-orbital pain, skin rashes, and myalgia. Hematological features like thrombocytopenia and leucopenia were found to be significantly associated with the dengue fever (DF). Discarded tires were found as the commonest breeding habitats for the dengue vectors. Higher sero-positivity was recorded from the area having higher Breteau index (BI). The pH, chloride ion concentration and the salinity of the water from breeding habitats were found to be ranging from 6.9±0.82 to 8, 103.33±17.52 mg/L to 140.65 mg/L, and 0.19±0.032 ppt to 0.25 ppt respectively. This study may be helpful for the health authorities and public health workers for early diagnosis of DF and for the improved preventive measures to be adopted in the epidemic and possible epidemic areas. PMID:26828951

  17. Karnali and Jajarkot Klippen in Western Nepal Himalaya Inconsistent with Tectonic Wedging Model Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy La Roche, R.; Godin, L.; Cottle, J. M.; Kellett, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayan metamorphic core, exposed between two opposite sense shear zones, is locally preserved in a series of foreland klippen. The upper shear zone, the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), is a key element in many competing tectonic models. One of these models, tectonic wedging, requires that the STD merges with the reverse-sense basal shear zone towards the foreland. We tested this hypothesis in two foreland klippen in western Nepal. The Karnali klippe is a doubly-plunging synform underlain by a folded reverse-sense shear zone. It comprises amphibolite metamorphic facies rocks overlain by greenschist to subgreenschist facies sedimentary rocks. The contact is marked by a folded ca. 1 km thick normal-sense shear zone, which we correlate with the STD. Quartz and calcite recrystallization textures and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations suggest an abrupt decrease in temperature of deformation from ~750 °C in the footwall to 580 and 475 °C at the base and top of the shear zone, respectively, and to 150-200 °C in the hanging wall. In-situ monazite petrochronology indicates prograde metamorphism between 36 and 30 Ma in the immediate footwall of the STD, followed by tectonic exhumation from 28 to <24 Ma, possibly starting as early as 30 Ma. Preliminary muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages suggest that deformation along the STD ceased by ca. 18 Ma. Field data from the adjacent Jajarkot klippe indicate a similar first order structural architecture, although protoliths, metamorphic grade and deformation temperature differ significantly. Transport-parallel exposure of the STD in this area implies a minimum slip of 165 km. The presence of the STD on both flanks of the Karnali and the Jajarkot klippen is inconsistent with predictions that the STD merges at depth with the basal shear zone in the Karnali klippe and north of the Jajarkot klippe. Our observations are consequently not compatible with the tectonic wedging model proposed for western Nepal.

  18. Transmission of Leishmania donovani in the Hills of Eastern Nepal, an Outbreak Investigation in Okhaldhunga and Bhojpur Districts

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Das, Murari L.; Rai, Keshav; Tersago, Katrien; Pokhrel, Yubraj; Durnez, Lies; Marasini, Baburam; Van der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Coosemans, Marc; Argaw, Daniel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Indian subcontinent, Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in a geographical area coinciding with the Lower Gangetic Plain, at low altitude. VL occurring in residents of hill districts is therefore often considered the result of Leishmania donovani infection during travel. Early 2014 we conducted an outbreak investigation in Okhaldhunga and Bhojpur districts in the Nepal hills where increasing number of VL cases have been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house survey in six villages documented retrospectively 35 cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Anti-Leishmania antibodies were found in 22/23 past-VL cases, in 40/416 (9.6%) persons without VL and in 12/155 (7.7%) domestic animals. An age- and sex- matched case-control study showed that exposure to known VL-endemic regions was no risk factor for VL, but having a VL case in the neighbourhood was. SSU-rDNA PCR for Leishmania sp. was positive in 24 (5%) of the human, in 18 (12%) of the animal samples and in 16 (14%) bloodfed female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. L. donovani was confirmed in two asymptomatic individuals and in one sand fly through hsp70-based sequencing. Conclusions/Significance This is epidemiological and entomological evidence for ongoing local transmission of L. donovani in villages at an altitude above 600 meters in Nepal, in districts considered hitherto non-endemic for VL. The VL Elimination Initiative in Nepal should therefore consider extending its surveillance and control activities in order to assure VL elimination, and the risk map for VL should be redesigned. PMID:26252494

  19. Home delivery and newborn care practices among urban women in western Nepal: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Joshi, Hari S; Sreekumaran, Binu V; Giri, Sabitri; Chuni, Neena

    2006-01-01

    Background About 98% of newborn deaths occur in developing countries, where most newborns deaths occur at home. In Nepal, approximately, 90% of deliveries take place at home. Information about reasons for delivering at home and newborn care practices in urban areas of Nepal is lacking and such information will be useful for policy makers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the immunisation clinics of Pokhara city, western Nepal during January and February, 2006. Two trained health workers administered a semi-structured questionnaire to the mothers who had delivered at home. Results A total of 240 mothers were interviewed. Planned home deliveries were 140 (58.3%) and 100 (41.7%) were unplanned. Only 6.2% of deliveries had a skilled birth attendant present and 38 (15.8%) mothers gave birth alone. Only 46 (16.2%) women had used a clean home delivery kit and only 92 (38.3%) birth attendants had washed their hands. The umbilical cord was cut after expulsion of placenta in 154 (64.2%) deliveries and cord was cut using a new/boiled blade in 217 (90.4%) deliveries. Mustard oil was applied to the umbilical cord in 53 (22.1%) deliveries. Birth place was heated throughout the delivery in 88 (64.2%) deliveries. Only 100 (45.8%) newborns were wrapped within 10 minutes and 233 (97.1%) were wrapped within 30 minutes. Majority (93.8%) of the newborns were given a bath soon after birth. Mustard oil massage of the newborns was a common practice (144, 60%). Sixteen (10.8%) mothers did not feed colostrum to their babies. Prelacteal feeds were given to 37(15.2%) newborns. Initiation rates of breast-feeding were 57.9% within one hour and 85.4% within 24 hours. Main reasons cited for delivering at home were 'preference' (25.7%), 'ease and convenience' (21.4%) for planned deliveries while 'precipitate labor' (51%), 'lack of transportation' (18%) and 'lack of escort' during labor (11%) were cited for the unplanned ones. Conclusion High-risk home delivery and newborn care

  20. Are Birth-preparedness Programmes Effective? Results From a Field Trial in Siraha District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Robert A.; Moore, Judith M.; Sharma, Meena

    2006-01-01

    The birth-preparedness package (BPP) promotes active preparation and decision-making for births, including pregnancy/postpartum periods, by pregnant women and their families. This paper describes a district-wide field trial of the BPP implemented through the government health system in Siraha, Nepal, during 2003–2004. The aim of the field trial was to determine the effectiveness of the BPP to positively influence planning for births, household-level behaviours that affect the health of pregnant and postpartum women and their newborns, and their use of selected health services for maternal and newborn care. Community health workers promoted desired behaviours through inter-personal counselling with individuals and groups. Content of messages included maternal and newborn-danger signs and encouraged the use of healthcare services and preparation for emergencies. Thirty-cluster baseline and endline household surveys of mothers of infants aged less than one year were used for estimating the change in key outcome indicators. Fifty-four percent of respondents (n=162) were directly exposed to BPP materials while pregnant. A composite index of seven indicators that measure knowledge of respondents, use of health services, and preparation for emergencies increased from 33% at baseline to 54% at endline (p=0.001). Five key newborn practices increased by 19 to 29 percentage points from baseline to endline (p values ranged from 0.000 to 0.06). Certain key maternal health indicators, such as skilled birth attendance and use of emergency obstetric care, did not change. The BPP can positively influence knowledge and intermediate health outcomes, such as household practices and use of some health services. The BPP can be implemented by government health services with minimal outside assistance but should be comprehensively integrated into the safe motherhood programme rather than implemented as a separate intervention. PMID:17591345

  1. Knowledge of Maternal and Newborn Care Among Primary Level Health Workers in Kapilvastu District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R; Gautam, K; Gautam, S; Upadhyaya, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher maternal and neonatal deaths are common in low- and middle-income countries; due to less access to skilled help. Adequate knowledge and skills on maternal and newborn care (MNC) of community health workers can improve maternal and newborn health. Aims: To identify the knowledge of primary level health workers on some components of MNC. Subjects and Methods: Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, enumerators visited health institutions for 2 months from 1st October to 31st November 2012, and structured interview schedule was used to gather the information. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of one hundred and thirty-seven primary level health workers in Kapilvastu district, Nepal. The Chi-square test was employed to examine the association between the knowledge of health workers on MNC and designation and work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: In a total of 137 primary level health workers, more than half 53.2% (73/137) were senior auxiliary health workers/health assistant. Health workers having correct knowledge on contents of MNC were-registration 32.1% (44/137), major components of antenatal care 57.7% (79/137), danger signs of pregnancy 39.4% (54/137), five cleans 59.1% (81/137), postnatal health problems 54.0% (74/137), majority to health action to newborn care, newborn bath and meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a statistical association between designation of health workers and above-mentioned components of MNC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The differentials in the knowledge of MNC among primary level health suggest improving knowledge of the grass root level health workers with appropriate training and development programs. PMID:27144073

  2. Mothers’ beliefs and barriers about childhood diarrhea and its management in Morang district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developing countries, mothers usually manage diarrhea at home with the pattern of management depending on perceived disease severity and beliefs. The study was carried out with the objective of determining mothers’ beliefs and barriers about diarrhea and its management. Methods Qualitative methods involving two focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to collect the data. The study was conducted at the following places: Tankisinuwari, Kanchanbari and Pokhariya of Morang district, Nepal during the months of February and March 2010. Purposive sampling method was adopted to recruit twenty mothers based on the inclusion criteria. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct the interviews. Written informed consent was obtained from all of the participants before conducting the interviews. The interviews were moderated by the main researcher with the support of an expert observer from Nobel Medical College. The interviews were recorded with the permission of the participants and notes were written by a pre trained note-taker. The recordings were transcribed verbatim. All the transcribed data was categorized and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results Twenty mothers participated in the interviews and most (80%) of them were not educated. About 75% of the mothers had a monthly income of up to 5000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 60.92). Although a majority of mothers believed diarrhea to be due to natural causes, there were also beliefs about supernatural origin of diarrhea. Thin watery diarrhea was considered as the most serious. There was diversity in mothers’ beliefs about foods/fluids and diarrhea management approaches. Similarly, several barriers were noted regarding diarrhea prevention and/or management such as financial weakness, lack of awareness, absence of education, distance from healthcare facilities and senior family members at home. The elderly compelled the mothers to visit traditional healers. Conclusions

  3. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Shandesh; Chaudhary, Ram P; Taylor, Robin SL

    2006-01-01

    Background The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m) is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented. Methods Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners), local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas'), plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders) regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005). When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering. Results This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species. Conclusion This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama), who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and the quick disappearance

  4. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57), husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03) on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy. PMID:26799217

  5. Constraints on the geometry and recent evolution of the Main Himalayan Thrust in western Nepal from U-Th/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has revealed an along-strike topographic discontinuity in the Himalaya of western Nepal. We interpret this discontinuity as reflecting a change in geometry and architecture of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Specifically, the ~4-km high Greater Himalayan mountainfront that characterizes much of the central Himalaya diffuses into a gentler, two-step mountainfront in western Nepal. This observation suggests that the belt of rapid rock uplift that has been identified along much of the range front (commonly interpreted as a result of of transport of the orogenic wedge over a mid-crustal ramp in the MHT) widens or bifurcates into two bands in western Nepal. This tectonic discontinuity could perhaps be explained by recent southward migration of the Main Himalayan Thrust ramp in western Nepal, a hypothesis supported by the presence of several high-elevation, low-relief landscape remnants between the two topographic steps. In an effort to test the above hypothesis, we will present a suite of apatite and zircon U-Th/He cooling ages collected along several relief transects in western Nepal. Transects were situated such that they will capture exhumation histories above the southern and northern topographic steps as well as the high elevation, low-relief plateau between them. Exhumation rates and histories will be interpreted with the aid of thermo-kinematic modeling. This work will: 1) provide important constraints on possible tectonic models explaining the anomalous topography of western Nepal; 2) allow comparison with cooling ages collected along strike to the NW and E; and 3) ultimately provide insight into the mechanisms of orogen growth and evolution. If this work confirms the presence of a bifurcation or recent forward propagation of the MHT in western Nepal, it will have key implications for the seismic hazard presented by the plate boundary as well as for our understanding of the longevity of mid-crustal structures within the Himalaya.

  6. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  7. Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. Methods V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal

  8. Active Deformation in the Greater Himalayan Zone in Western Nepal from Inversion of New (U-Th)/He Cooling Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the central Himalaya features an abrupt rise in mean elevation from ~1.5 km in the Lesser Himalaya to ~4-5 km Greater Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. This physiographic transition is known as PT2, and is often interpreted as the surface expression of transport over a ramp in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In western Nepal, however, the same rise in elevation occurs over two distinct topographic steps (PT2-N and PT2-S). In previous work, Harvey et al. (2015) argue that this anomalous topography is the result of recent southward-migration of mid-crustal deformation along the MHT. Due to the seismogenic potential of the MHT it is important to constrain its geometry in the western Nepal seismic gap, which has not had a large earthquake in over 600 years. To test the above hypothesis, we perform [U-Th]/He dating on 39 apatite and 47 zircon samples collected along seven relief transects throughout western Nepal. We constrain exhumation histories by inverting these new cooling ages with the 3-D thermo-kinematic model Pecube. Five transects collected from the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N are best fit by relatively rapid exhumation rates (~1-2 km/Myr) since ~4 Ma. The other two, collected from farther south near PT2-S, require rapid (~1-2 km/Myr) exhumation until around 8-11 Ma, followed by much slower (~0.1-0.2 km/Myr) exhumation until at least the late Pliocene. Assuming that exhumation rates reflect uplift rates, the rapid Plio-Pleistocene exhumation in the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N suggest that this physiographic transition is similar to that at the foot of the Greater Himalaya in central Nepal. It follows that active deformation is occurring along a NW-trend as much as 100 km farther north than would be expected if simply projecting PT2 across western Nepal. This finding is consistent with transport over a more northerly MHT ramp or perhaps oblique slip along the recently identified, surface-breaking WNFZ. Although the geomorphology and microseismicity

  9. Women’s Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V. Raman; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women’s autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women’s autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women’s autonomy using a recently developed women’s autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women’s autonomy was 23.34± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple’s education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women’s education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77–17.57), husband’s education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69–4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01–2.03) on women’s autonomy. When we adjusted women’s education for husband’s education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77–17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77–14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women’s autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women’s autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband’s education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women’s autonomy which have a mediator effect on women’s autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women’s autonomy. PMID:26799217

  10. Measuring impacts of community forestry program through repeat photography and satellite remote sensing in the Dolakha district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Niraula, Rabin Raj; Gilani, Hammad; Pokharel, Bharat Kumar; Qamer, Faisal Mueen

    2013-09-15

    During the 1990's community-based forest management gained momentum in Nepal. This study systematically evaluates the impacts that this had on land cover change and other associated aspects during the period 1990-2010 using repeat photography and satellite imagery in combination with interviews with community members. The results of the study clearly reflect the success of community-based forest management in the Dolakha district of the mid-hills of Nepal: during the study period, the rate of conversion of sparse forest into dense forest under community-based management was found to be between 1.13% and 3.39% per year. Similarly, the rate of conversion of non-forest area into forest was found to be between 1.11% and 1.96% per year. Community-based forest management has resulted in more efficient use of forest resources, contributed to a decline in the use of slash-and-burn agricultural practices, reduced the incidence of forest fires, spurred tree plantation, and encouraged the conservation and protection of trees on both public and private land. The resulting reclamation of forest in landside areas and river banks and the overall improvement in forest cover in the area has reduced flash floods and associated landslides. PMID:23659797

  11. Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S; Pradhan, B; Smith, L; Shrestha, J; Tuladhar, S

    2012-03-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater from Rautahat District of Nepal were randomly isolated by standard plate count method on the basis of viable growth on plate count agar amended with arsenate ranging from 0, 0.5, 10, 40, 80 to 160 milligram per liter (mg/l). With respect to the morphological and biochemical tests, nine morphologically distinct potent arsenate tolerant bacteria showed relatedness with Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus smithii 1 and Bacillus smithii 2. The isolates were capable of tolerating more than 1000 mg/l of arsenate and 749 mg/l of arsenite. Likewise, bioaccumulation capability was highest with M. roseus (85.61%) and the least with B. smithii (47.88%) indicating the potential of the organisms in arsenic resistance and most probably in bioremediation. PMID:21868146

  12. Repeated glacial lake outburst flood threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in north-western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropáček, J.; Neckel, N.; Tyrna, B.; Holzer, N.; Hovden, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Schneider, C.; Buchroithner, M.; Hochschild, V.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2004, Halji village, home of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in north-western Nepal, has suffered from recurrent glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). A sudden englacial drainage of a supraglacial lake, located at a distance of 6.5 km from the village, was identified as the source of the flood. The topography of the lake basin was mapped by combining differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) measurements with a structure-from-motion (SFM) approach using terrestrial photographs. From this model the maximum filling capacity of the lake has been estimated as 1.06 ×106 m3 with a maximum discharge of 77.8 m3 s-1, calculated using the empiric Clague-Mathews formula. A simulation of the flooded area employing a raster-based hydraulic model considering six scenarios of discharge volume and surface roughness did not result in a flooding of the village. However, both the village and the monastery are threatened by undercutting of the river bank formed by unconsolidated sediments, as it already happened in 2011. Further, the comparison of the GLOF occurrences with temperature and precipitation from the High Asia Reanalysis (HAR) data set for the period 2001-2011 suggests that the GLOF is climate-driven rather than generated by an extreme precipitation event. The calculation of geodetic mass balance and the analysis of satellite images showed a rapid thinning and retreat of Halji Glacier which will eventually lead to a decline of the lake basin. As the basin will persist for at least several years, effective mitigation measures should be considered. A further reinforcement of the gabion walls was suggested as an artificial lake drainage is not feasible given the difficult accessibility of the glacier.

  13. Suicidal ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Subba, S H; Sathian, Brijesh; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Pant, Sadip; Arun, M; Kundapur, Rashmi; Jain, Animesh; Lobo, Stany Wilfred; Ravi Shankar, P

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the developed countries to know the magnitude and factors influencing suicidal ideation among medical students, but such data are sparse in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to find out the prevalence of suicidal ideation and factors influencing such ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal. A total of 206 students were selected using random sampling and questioned about their socio-demographic factors, other risk factors and suicidal ideation using a preformed validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were applied for the statistical methodology. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between different variables. Suicidal ideation in the last one year was present in nearly one tenth of the study population and in almost one fifth of them life-time suicidal ideation was present. Factors that were associated with suicidal ideation were primarily dissatisfaction with academic performance, being in the clinical semesters, having history of drug abuse and feeling neglected by parents. Most common reason reported for suicidal ideation was family related followed by self-related. Recognition of suicidal ideation among students and their associated factors can help in detecting it on time, making the right interventions and controlling the problem. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and their epidemiology via scientific study like this would be the first step in this process. PMID:22522041

  14. Analgesic use in dentistry in a tertiary hospital in western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chayna; Das, Biswadeep; Baral, P

    2004-10-01

    The present study had been planned to determine the pattern of drug utilization of analgesics (non-opioid and opioid analgesics) in dental outpatients in a referral hospital in western Nepal. A total of 1820 prescriptions of dental patients attending the dental outpatient at Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), Fulbari, Pokhara, Nepal were collected by a random once-weekly survey between March 2001 and February 2002. The analgesic-containing prescriptions (n = 1346) were separated from the total prescriptions collected. This information was compiled, scored and analyzed in consultation with dentists using WHO guidelines. There were more female patients (56%) than male patients (44%) in this study. The dental disorders most frequently reported in our study were diseases of pulp and periapical tissue (36.5%), gingivitis and periodontal diseases (28.5%) and dental caries (16%) etc. In total, 74% prescriptions contained analgesics which are the second-most commonly prescribed drugs after anti-microbials (44.9%) in dental OPD. The total analgesics prescribed were 1358 that account for 36.7% of total drugs prescribed. Only 5 and 37.8% of analgesics were prescribed generically and from the essential drug list of WHO respectively. All the analgesics were administered orally which included 89.7 and 10.3% of non-opioid analgesics and opioid analgesics (propoxyphene and dextropopoxyphene) respectively. The average duration of analgesic use was 3.5 +/- 0.3 days. The most commonly prescribed non-opioid analgesic was ibuprofen (41%) followed by nimesulide (22%). A total of 38.9% analgesics were fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of two drugs and the most common analgesic combination used was ibuprofen + paracetamol and paracetamol + opioid analgesics. All opioid analgesics were prescribed in combination with paracetamol (10.3%) only. In total, 1.6% analgesics were prescribed concomitantly with gastroprotective agents. All gastroprotective agents (n = 22) were prescribed concomitantly

  15. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p = 0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p = 0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p = 0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p = 0.025), knowledge about the causes (p = 0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p = 0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p = 0.014), ulcers (p = 0.022) and odorous ulcers (p = 0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and

  16. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Jeevan; Kaehler, Nils; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Subedi, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study. Results The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar) and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%), clothes (9.8%) and transport (7.3%). For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of “days of work loss” were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007), employed house head (p = 0.011), monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees) (p = 0.014), private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001), C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001), longer duration (>5days) of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001), longer distance (>15km) from house to hospital (p = 0.0001) and longer travel time (>240 minutes) from house to hospital (p = 0.007) showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs). Conclusion Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time) were associated

  17. HIV/AIDS: A Persistent Health Issue for Women and Children in Mid and Far Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, K R; Adefemi, K; Tamrakar, M

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the effect of male migration on the spread of HIV infections in mid and far-western Nepal. It explains the link between male mobility and HIV in women and children. Materials were collected by a systematic search of the databases and the websites of national and international agencies. HIV infection amongst male migrants was found to be high. Their risk behaviors such as unprotected sex with multiple partners and sex workers increase the risk of HIV infection. Substance abuse, loneliness, separation from families, peer pressure, long working hours and poor living conditions are factors that promote unsafe sex. Literacy and awareness about HIV is a key measure to decrease the prevalence of the disease and reduce social stigma among people affected. HIV is a major public health issue especially in Nepal with migration playing a major role in its spread. Negligence to sexual health and lack of comprehensive knowledge on the disease among male migrants are the major obstacles that have exacerbated the disease. There is a need for further research on the existing HIV cases affecting women and children of these two regions to get a clear picture of the gravity of the disease. PMID:26620758

  18. The components of self-perceived health in the Kailali district of Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  19. The Components of Self-Perceived Health in the Kailali District of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards medicines among school teachers in Lalitpur district, Nepal before and after an educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies regarding Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards medicines among school teachers have been carried out in Nepal. Obtaining baseline KAP is important to note deficiencies and plan appropriate interventions. School teachers have to know about medicines as they can be an important source of information about rational and safe use of medicines. The department of Clinical Pharmacology, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, conducted a study regarding KAP of school teachers about medicines before and after an educational intervention from April 2011 to December 2011. Methods The study was done in selected schools of Lalitpur district. Teachers were selected on a voluntary basis after obtaining written informed consent. Gender, ethnic or caste group, native place, age, educational qualifications, subject taught were noted. An educational intervention using a combination of methods like presentations, brainstorming sessions, interactive discussions using posters and distribution of information leaflets about the use of medicines was conducted. The KAP and overall scores among subgroups according to gender, age, level of education, subject, ethnicity, type of school (primary vs. secondary and government vs. private school) were studied. KAP and overall scores before and after the intervention was compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test as the scores were not normally distributed. Results A total of 393 teachers participated before and after the intervention. The median (interquartile range) knowledge, attitude and practice scores before the intervention were 63 (10), 23 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score was 356. The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores after the intervention were 71 (10), 28 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score increased to 369. Maximum possible score of knowledge, attitude and practice were 100, 40 and 320 respectively. Scores improved significantly for knowledge (p<0.001), attitude

  1. Pharmacovigilance Knowledge among Patients at a Teaching Hospital in Lalitpur District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073

  2. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  3. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Flora in Forest, Grassland and Common Land Ecosystems of Western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    DANGOL, Dharma Raj; MAHARJAN, Keshav Lall

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes changes of species composition and population of flora in space and time in western Chitwan, Nepal. This paper also discusses on the changes in flora due to flood and human activities. To illustrate these changes, we used survey data collected from January to April of 1996, 2000, and 2007 from the Barandabhar forest, National Park forest and the forests along the Narayani River banks, grasslands of National Park and common lands of western Chitwan as a part of longitudinal study on “reciprocal relation of population and the environment”. From these data, density values were calculated to analyze spatial and temporal changes in flora species composition and population. We also noted the changes of top species in time and space in due course of time. If the species and its rank not changed, their densities (population) values of flora species changed. We found that changes in species composition, population, appearance or disappearance of flora from a particular space (research plot) were noted as a result of natural forces or human activities. PMID:25061414

  4. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  5. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  6. Can drug utilization help in promoting the more rational use of medicine? Experiences from Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Mishra, P; Subish, P; Upadhyay, D K

    2007-07-01

    Drug utilization research describes the extent, nature and determinants of drug use in populations and aims to facilitate the more rational use of medicines. The departments of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal are committed to promoting the more rational use of medicines. The departments run a Drug Information Center and a Pharmacovigilance Center in the teaching hospital. Over the last eight years, the departments have conducted drug utilization studies in the teaching hospital and the community. A few of these were of the intervention type and drug use was studied before and after the intervention. Members of the departments are on the hospital Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Educational initiatives to improve prescribing have been carried out in a few instances. Restricting the number of brands in the hospital pharmacy and creation of a hospital drug list has been carried out. The impact of these initiatives has been studied only in a few cases. Generic prescribing was found to be low. The educational initiatives to improve prescribing had only limited success. The hospital is in the process of framing antimicrobial use guidelines for various departments. A hospital formulary is under preparation. The influence of drug utilization studies on the prescribing patterns has been low to moderate. The department of Clinical Pharmacy runs a Medication Counseling Center in the hospital and teaches appropriate use of medicines to patients. The studies and initiatives to promote the more rational use of medicines should be continued and strengthened. PMID:17545111

  7. Perceptions of users and providers on barriers to utilizing skilled birth care in mid- and far-western Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Shrestha, Binjwala; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Gajananda P.; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Although skilled birth care contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, utilization of such care is poor in mid- and far-western Nepal. This study explored the perceptions of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care. Design We conducted 24 focus group discussions, 12 each with service users and service providers from different health institutions in mid- and far-western Nepal. All discussions examined the perceptions and experiences of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care and explored possible solutions to overcoming such barriers. Results Our results determined that major barriers to skilled birth care include inadequate knowledge of the importance of services offered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs), distance to health facilities, unavailability of transport services, and poor availability of SBAs. Other barriers included poor infrastructure, meager services, inadequate information about services/facilities, cultural practices and beliefs, and low prioritization of birth care. Moreover, the tradition of isolating women during and after childbirth decreased the likelihood that women would utilize delivery care services at health facilities. Conclusions Service users and providers perceived inadequate availability and accessibility of skilled birth care in remote areas of Nepal, and overall utilization of these services was poor. Therefore, training and recruiting locally available health workers, helping community groups establish transport mechanisms, upgrading physical facilities and services at health institutions, and increasing community awareness of the importance of skilled birth care will help bridge these gaps. PMID:25119066

  8. Surface ruptures of large Himalayan earthquakes in Western Nepal: Evidence along a reactivated strand of the Main Boundary Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossler, T.; Bollinger, L.; Sapkota, S. N.; Lavé, J.; Gupta, R. M.; Kandel, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The chronology of the seismic ruptures along the active faults of Western Nepal remains almost unconstrained despite their high seismogenic potential. We present here a slip history of one of these structures, a 120 km-long reactivated segment of the Main Boundary Thrust named the Surkhet-Gorahi fault. This slip history is based on geomorphologic and neotectonic mapping of active faults deduced from the analysis of a high resolution total station digital elevation model and 15 detrital charcoals radiocarbon ages constraining the age of deposition or abandonment of 4 alluvial terraces of the Bheri river in Botechaur. Our results show that the last two earthquakes occurred on this fault after 1860 and 640 BP, respectively, and accommodated slip greater than 8 m each, a value corresponding to the incremental vertical offset of the terraces. Such events released a significant part of the slip deficit accumulated on the Main Himalayan thrust fault. However, given the geometry of this fault system as well as the date of occurrence of the last events, the ruptures could be associated with major earthquakes also rupturing the Main Frontal Thrust, such as the great 1505 earthquake.

  9. Tobacco Chewing and Associated Factors Among Youth of Western Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Subba, SH; Binu, VS; Menezes, RG; Ninan, J; Rana, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco is found to be as addictive and harmful as smoking but have not been explored into, especially among youth. Objectives: This study was conducted to find the prevalence of tobacco chewing among college students in Nepal and the factors that have influence over their use. Study design: A cross-sectional study with a self-administered questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Five colleges of different streams in Pokhara city were selected for the study. A total of 816 students participated. The study was conducted during the period of May 2006–February 2007, using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Results: Overall prevalence of ever tobacco chewing was 21.3% (males 30.2% and females 10.9%) among the youth with average age of initiation 15.7 years. Pan masala and gutka were used by 63.6% and frequency of use varied widely and only 5.7% said they were daily users. Reasons cited for chewing were most commonly ‘just like it’ or ‘friends chew’. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age, ever smoking status, being ever alcoholic, and having friends or family members who chewed were significantly associated with students’ tobacco chewing. Almost one-tenth of the students believed they were addicted to chewing tobacco and 42.5% of them had tried to quit the habit. Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of tobacco chewing by Nepali youth. Important factors that influenced the habit were having chewer friends, their own smoking and alcohol status and having family members who chewed. It is pertinent to consider these when formulating cessation and prevention programs PMID:21976798

  10. Program Organization in Western Australia's District High Schools. Research Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John

    A study conducted in 1981-82 examined program organization in the secondary division of Western Australia's district high schools. Because small secondary schools throughout the Western World are increasing in number, the study had as its genesis a concern for such schools and an appreciation of the difficulties they face in maintaining viable…

  11. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  12. A Geochronological Study of Paleogene -Neogene Foreland Basin Sediments Western Nepal Himalaya: Implication of Provenance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, U.; Lin, D.; Chamlagain, D.

    2015-12-01

    After the collision between the Indian and Asian plates, during early Cenozoic several south propagating thrusts were active and the sediments deposited at the northern tip of the Greater India have been reworked, recycled and metamorphosed, and were subsequently exhumed and transported to the foreland basin. Petrography, detrital zircon (DZ) dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis, and trace element analysis were conducted from two sections of Nepal Himalaya for the determination of change in provenance, and constrain the possible timing of Indo-Asiacollision. The U-Pb ages of the DZ grains from Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene Amile Formation are older than early Mesoproterozoic with dominant number of grains showing ƐHf (t) value between 0 to +10. The trace element data shows that the sediments are from passive margin with northward paleoflow direction. These finding conclude that the sediments during this time was sourced from northern margin of Indian Plate that elucidate the possibility of the Ind0-Asia collisionsomewhere between late Paleocene to early Eocene (~58-50 Ma).The U-Pb ages from the marine Eocene Bhainskati Formation dominantly clusters between ~1000 and 500 Ma and the ƐHf (t) values ranges from -10 to +10. The trace element result shows that the sediments were from both the passive and active continental margin. The transition of deposition from marine Bhainskati Formation to continental Dumri Formation is marked by 3-4 m thick Oxisol layer with a ~10-15 Mya deposition gap during the Oligocene. The U-Pb ages of detritus from Early to mid-Miocene Dumri Formation have a wide range of detritus ranging from Archean to Mesozoic age with dominant numbers resembling the age of the Tethys Himalaya (TH) and Upper Lesser Himalaya (ULH). The presence of younger grains of Cenozoic age (~80-50 Ma) put the possibility of the Gangdase arc source deposited directly in Dumri Formation or first deposited in the TH and later transported to it. The ƐHf (t) value ranges

  13. Ambiguous Loss in a Non-Western Context: Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous loss has become a standard theory for understanding the impact of situations where the presence of a family member is subject to ambiguity. A number of studies of ambiguous loss have been made in a range of situations of ambiguity, but almost all have been firmly located within a Western cultural context. Here, ambiguous loss is explored…

  14. Self-medication and non-doctor prescription practices in Pokhara valley, Western Nepal: a questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, PR; Partha, P; Shenoy, N

    2002-01-01

    Background Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing of drugs is common in developing countries. Complementary and alternative medications, especially herbs, are also commonly used. There are few studies on the use of these medications in Pokhara Valley, Western Nepal. Methods Previously briefed seventh semester medical students, using a semi-structured questionnaire, carried out the study on 142 respondents. Demographic information and information on drugs used for self-medication or prescribed by a non-allopathic doctor were collected. Results Seventy-six respondents (54%) were aged between 20 to 39 years. The majority of the respondents (72 %) stayed within 30 minutes walking distance of a health post/medical store. 59% of these respondents had taken some form of self-medication in the 6-month period preceding the study. The common reasons given for self-medication were mild illness, previous experience of treating a similar illness, and non-availability of health personnel. 70% of respondents were prescribed allopathic drugs by a non-allopathic doctor. The compounder and health assistant were common sources of medicines. Paracetamol and antimicrobials were the drugs most commonly prescribed. A significantly higher proportion of young (<40 years) male respondents had used self-medication than other groups. Conclusions Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing are common in the Pokhara valley. In addition to allopathic drugs, herbal remedies were also commonly used for self-medication. Drugs, especially antimicrobials, were not taken for the proper duration. Education to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required. PMID:12236905

  15. Western Molybdenum Company mine, Chewelah District, Stevens County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, John R.

    1954-01-01

    The Western Molybdenum Co. mine was opened many years ago to obtain copper. The only production was several carloads of crude copper ore shipped during World War I. An unsuccessful attempt to produce molybdenum was made in 1939-1941.

  16. Reactions of Nepali Adults to Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: A Survey with Employee and Medical Students of a Tertiary Care Medical College of Western Region of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Badri; Paudel, Klara; Timilsina, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Background: For the past 30 years, there have been no changes in the text-only cigarette warning labels in Nepal. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of the current study was primarily to compare the differences in reactions to different types of warning labels on cigarette packages, with a specific focus on whether the new warning label adopted by WHO FCTC was better than the text only label used by Nepal. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital (GMCTH) in 2012, in a tertiary care hospital located in the western region of Nepal. Eligible study participants included in this survey were those aged 18 years and over and those who are studying MBBS/Nursing or who were employees of GMCTH. 500 participants finished the survey. Participants were shown nine types of warning labels found on cigarette packages.They comprised one text only warning label used within Nepalese market and eight foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking. Results: On comparing the Nepalese warning label with other foreign labels with regards to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were found to be more effective. Both smokers and non–smokers thought that warning labels with text plus graphics were substantially more of a deterrent than text-only labels. Conclusion: The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus graphic warning labels were more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels.Warning labels are one of the component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger Nepalese public health educational efforts

  17. Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3

  18. Prescribing patterns of antibiotics and sensitivity patterns of common microorganisms in the Internal Medicine ward of a teaching hospital in Western Nepal: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi Pathiyil; Partha, Praveen; Shenoy, Nagesh Kumar; Easow, Joshy Maducolil; Brahmadathan, Kottallur Narayanan

    2003-01-01

    Background Information about antibiotic use and resistance patterns of common microorganisms are lacking in hospitals in Western Nepal. Excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. The parameter: Defined daily dose/100 bed-days, provides an estimate of consumption of drugs among hospital in-patients. This study was carried out to collect relevant demographic information, antibiotic prescribing patterns and the common organisms isolated including their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods The study was carried out over a 3-month period (01.04.2002 to 30.06.2002) at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Western Nepal. The median number of days of hospitalization and mean ± SD cost of antibiotics prescribed during hospital stay were calculated. The use of antibiotics was classified for prophylaxis, bacteriologically proven infection or non-bacteriologically proven infection. Sensitivity patterns of the common organisms were determined. Defined daily dose/100 bed-days of the ten most commonly prescribed antibiotics were calculated. Results 203 patients were prescribed antibiotics; 112 were male. Median duration of hospitalization was 5 days. 347 antibiotics were prescribed. The most common were ampicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and benzylpenicillin. Mean ± SD cost of antibiotics was 16.5 ± 13.4 US$. Culture and sensitivity testing was carried out in 141 patients. The common organisms isolated were H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance is becoming a problem in the Internal Medicine ward. Formulation of a policy for hospital antibiotic use and an educational programme especially for junior doctors is required. PMID:12904265

  19. Survival on antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV-infected patients in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study in far-western Region, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though financial and policy level efforts are made to expand antiretroviral treatment (ART) service free of cost, survival outcome of ART program has not been systematically evaluated in Nepal. This study assesses the mortality rates and determinants among adult HIV-infected patients on ART in Far-western region of Nepal. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 1024 (51.2% men) HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years, who started ART between May 15th 2006 and May 15th 2011 in five ART sites in the Far-western region, Nepal. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of ART initiation to date of death or censoring (loss to follow-up, transferred out, or 15 November 2011). Mortality rates (per 100 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore determinants of mortality. Results The median follow-up time was 19.1 months. The crude mortality rate was 6.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.6) but more than three-times higher in first 3 months after ART initiation (21.9 (95% CI 16.6- 28.8)). About 12% (83% men) of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. The independent determinants of mortality were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 4.55, 95% CI 2.43-8.51), poor baseline performance scale (bedridden <50% of the day during the past month, HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.19-3.52; bedridden >50% of the day during the past month, HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.67-6.98 compared to normal activity), one standard deviation decrease in baseline bodyweight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), and poor WHO clinical stage (stage III, HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.31-6.69; stage IV, HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.29 compared to WHO clinical stage I or II). Conclusions High mortality was observed within the first 3 months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had higher mortality, especially men. Earlier initiation of ART through expanded testing and counselling should be encouraged in HIV-infected patients. PMID

  20. Urban Profiles in Prevention: A Descriptive Summary of Prevention Programs in Urban School Districts in the Western Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    This document describes 18 drug use prevention progams in metropolitan urban school districts in the following seven western states: (1) California; (2) Hawaii; (3) Idaho; (4) Montana; (5) Nevada; (6) Oregon; and (7) Washington. Each description outlines the level of commitment of each urban district, abilities within each program to collaborate…

  1. The 2014 Karnali River Floods in Western Nepal: Making Community Based Early Warning Systems Work When Data Is Lacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, S.; MacClune, K.; Venkateswaran, K.; Yadav, S.; Szoenyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing Community Based Flood Early Warning System (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal is challenging. Complex topography and geology combined with a sparse network of river and rainfall gauges and little predictive meteorological capacity both nationally and regionally dramatically constrain EWS options. This paper provides a synopsis of the hydrological and meteorological conditions that led to flooding in the Karnali River, West Nepal during mid-August 2014, and analyses the effectiveness of flood EWS in the region. On August 14-15, 2014, a large, slow moving weather system deposited record breaking rainfall in the foothills of the Karnali River catchment. Precipitation depths of 200 to 500 mm were recorded over a 24-hour period, which led to rapid rise of river heights. At the Chisapani river gauge station used for the existing EWS, where the Karnali River exits the Himalaya onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, water levels rapidly exceeded the 11 meter danger level. Between 3 to 6 am, water levels rose from 11 to 16. 1 meters, well beyond the design height of 15 meters. Analysis suggests that 2014 floods may have been a one-in-1000 year event. Starting with the onset of intense rainfall, the Chisapani gauge reader was in regular communication with downstream stakeholders and communities providing them with timely information regarding rising water level. This provided people just enough time to move to safe places with their livestock and key assets. Though households still lost substantial assets, without the EWS, floodwaters would have caught communities completely unaware and damage would almost certainly have been much worse. In particular, despite the complications associated with access to the Chisapani gauge and failure of critical communication nodes during the floods, EWS was instrumental in saving lives. This study explores both the details of the flood event and performance of the early warning system, and identifies lessons learned to help

  2. Subsurface geology of Tertiary rocks of northeastern district of Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Elzarka, M.H.; Radwan, I.A.

    1983-03-01

    The lithofacies analysis of the Tertiary rocks reveals two ancient subbasins at the north and southeast of the northeastern district, Western Desert. The lithofacies of the Paleocene and early and middle Eocene sections are mainly calcareous. Shale predominates in the late Eocene rocks. The Paleocene rocks seem to have accumulated in a lagoonal environment of epineritic depths. The Paleocene rocks of the northern subbasin indicate accumulation on an unstable shelf. The Paleocene environmental conditions seem to have prevailed during the early and middle Eocene. During the late Eocene, rocks of shallow-water and current-agitated environments accumulated. The lower clastic layers of the Oligocene, having a sand/shale ratio less than one, indicate a clastic shoreline environment-lagoonal subenvironment. The Oligocene clastics are overlain by a basaltic sheet at the eastern part of the district. The middle Miocene lithofacies indicate rock accumulation in a contemporaneously subsiding basin under lagoonal or delta-front conditions at the southern part of the district. Marine stagnant-bottom-water conditions prevailed during the accumulation of the middle Miocene rocks at the norther parts. The Pliocene rocks seem to have accumulated in lagoons, where the inflow exceeded evaporation and alternating periods of exposure and flooding by either fresh or saline water of poor circulation prevailed. The tectonic instability of the district was initiated by volcancity during the late Oligocene.

  3. Pyrethroid susceptibility of malaria vectors in four Districts of western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has been reported in western Kenya where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the mainstays of vector control. To ensure the sustainability of insecticide-based malaria vector control, monitoring programs need to be implemented. This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3–5 years using pyrethroids. This study is part of a programme aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria epidemiology. Methods Three day old adult mosquitoes from larval samples collected in the field, were used for bioassays using the WHO tube bioassay, and mortality recorded 24 hours post exposure. Resistance level was assigned based on the 2013 WHO guidelines where populations with <90% mortality were considered resistant. Once exposed, samples were identified to species using PCR. Results An. arabiensis comprised at least 94% of all An. gambiae s.l. in Bondo, Rachuonyo and Nyando. Teso was a marked contrast case with 77% of all samples being An. gambiae s.s. Mortality to insecticides varied widely between clusters even in one District with mortality to deltamethrin ranging from 45-100%, while to permethrin the range was 30-100%. Mortality to deltamethrin in Teso District was < 90% in 4 of 6 clusters tested in An arabiensis and <90% in An. gambiae s.s in 5 of 6 clusters tested. To permethrin, mortality ranged between 5.9-95%, with <90% mortality in 9 of 13 and 8 of 13 in An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. respectively. Cluster specific mortality of An. arabiensis between permethin and deltamethrin were not correlated (Z = 2.9505, P = 0.2483). Conclusion High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in western Kenya. This

  4. SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, LIFE FORMS AND FOLK NOMENCLATURE OF FOREST AND COMMON LAND PLANTS OF WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper enumerates 349 plant species belonging to 77 families of vascular plants collected in the winter seasons of 1996 and 2000 by the flora teams of the Population and Ecology Research Laboratory, Nepal. Of the total species, 249 species belong to dicotyledons, 87 species to monocotyledons and 13 species to pteridophytes. Among the families, dicotyledons contributed the highest number of families (55 in number) followed by monocotyledons and pteridophytes. In the study areas, species composition varies with the type of habitats in the study plots. Some species are unique in distribution. The highest unique species are contributed by common lands (87 spp.), followed by the Chitwan National Park forest (36 spp.) and Tikauli forest (32 spp.). Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees, Saccharum spontaneum L. and Thelypteris auriculata (J. Sm.) K. Iwats are the most common species across all the research blocks. Of the listed plants, many plants have local names either in Nepalese or other tribal languages. Plants are named in different ways on the basis of habit, habitat, smell, taste, and morphological characters of the plants, which are also the basis of nomenclature in plant taxonomy. PMID:22962539

  5. SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, LIFE FORMS AND FOLK NOMENCLATURE OF FOREST AND COMMON LAND PLANTS OF WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Dangol, D R

    2005-01-01

    This paper enumerates 349 plant species belonging to 77 families of vascular plants collected in the winter seasons of 1996 and 2000 by the flora teams of the Population and Ecology Research Laboratory, Nepal. Of the total species, 249 species belong to dicotyledons, 87 species to monocotyledons and 13 species to pteridophytes. Among the families, dicotyledons contributed the highest number of families (55 in number) followed by monocotyledons and pteridophytes. In the study areas, species composition varies with the type of habitats in the study plots. Some species are unique in distribution. The highest unique species are contributed by common lands (87 spp.), followed by the Chitwan National Park forest (36 spp.) and Tikauli forest (32 spp.). Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees, Saccharum spontaneum L. and Thelypteris auriculata (J. Sm.) K. Iwats are the most common species across all the research blocks. Of the listed plants, many plants have local names either in Nepalese or other tribal languages. Plants are named in different ways on the basis of habit, habitat, smell, taste, and morphological characters of the plants, which are also the basis of nomenclature in plant taxonomy. PMID:22962539

  6. Women’s experiences and health care-seeking practices in relation to uterine prolapse in a hill district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although uterine prolapse (UP) occurs commonly in Nepal, little is known about the physical health and care-seeking practices of women with UP. This study aimed to explore women’s experiences of UP and its effect on daily life, its perceived causes, and health care-seeking practices. Methods Using a convenience sampling method, we conducted 115 semi-structured and 16 in-depth interviews with UP-affected women during September–December 2012. All interviews occurred in outreach clinics in villages of the Dhading district. Results Study participants were 23–82 years of age. Twenty-four percent were literate, 47.2% had experienced a teenage pregnancy, and 29% had autonomy to make healthcare decisions. Most participants (>85%) described the major physical discomforts of UP as difficulty with walking, standing, working, sitting, and lifting. They also reported urinary incontinence (68%) bowel symptoms (42%), and difficulty with sexual activity (73.9%). Due to inability to perform household chores or fulfill their husband’s sexual desires, participants endured humiliation, harassment, and torture by their husbands and other family members, causing severe emotional stress. Following disclosure of UP, 24% of spouses remarried and 6% separated from the marital relationship. Women perceived the causes of UP as unsafe childbirth, heavy work during the postpartum period, and gender discrimination. Prior to visiting these camps some women (42%) hid UP for more than 10 years. Almost half (48%) of participants sought no health care; 42% ingested a herb and ate nutritious food. Perceived barriers to accessing health care included shame (48%) and feeling that care was unnecessary (12.5%). Multiple responses (29%) included shame, inability to share, male service provider, fear of stigma and discrimination, and perceiving UP as normal for childbearing women. Conclusions UP adversely affects women’s daily life and negatively influences their physical, mental, and

  7. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in the Nalut District of Western Libya: A Clinico-epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rabie M.; Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H.; Belal, Usama S.; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

    2014-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area that has not yet been fully documented in western Libya. The present study describes the clinico-epidemiologic profile of CE in western Libya’s Nalut district. From April 2008 to July 2011, 36 cases of CE were confirmed following surgical removal of cysts. The cysts were most frequently found in the liver (61.1%), followed by the lungs (19.4%), kidneys (11.1%), peritoneal cavity (11.1%), and spleen (5.6%). Among the 36 patients, 6 possessed plural cysts and 3 had cysts in 2 organs. Blood samples from this group were examined for the presence of serum anti-hydatid IgG antibodies, which revealed positivity in 25 patients (69.4%). An additional 300 blood samples were collected randomly from the inpatient and outpatient clinics at Nalut Hospital. Twenty-seven samples (9%) were found to be positive for the anti-hydatid IgG antibody among which the prevalence of infection tended to be higher in men (12%) than in women (6%). This study demonstrates that CE is a major parasitic infectious disease of public health significance in Libya, notably in the western part of the country, and that disease awareness needs to be raised nationwide. PMID:25589882

  8. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered

  9. Public knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy in Kabarole district, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Walter Eigen; Alibhai, Arif; Saunders, Duncan; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Ruhunda, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A study on knowledge about HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted in the general population of a rural district in western Uganda. Three hundred seventy-two participants were selected by random cluster sampling and interviewed with an interview-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed quantitatively with descriptive, univariate and linear multivariate statistical analysis with the knowledge score about ART as the dependent variable. The results indicate that the mean knowledge was 7.7 in a scale from 0 to 13. Predictor for better ART knowledge was a higher educational status of the participants. Older participants over 50 years were less ART knowledgeable. Only 19% of the participants have been tested for HIV. The conclusions are that the ART knowledge in this population is remarkably high which is reaffirming and important for achieving a high adherence to ART. Of concern is the low proportion of persons tested for HIV in this general population. Kabarole district seems to be receptive and capable for intensifying HIV testing which is a precondition for the ART roll-out. PMID:19085228

  10. Spring temperatures in the far-western Nepal Himalaya since AD 1640 reconstructed from Picea smithiana tree-ring widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Udya Kuwar; Shah, Santosh K.; Gaire, Narayan Prasad; Bhuju, Dinesh Raj

    2015-10-01

    We developed a new, 422-year long tree-ring width chronology (spanning AD 1591-2012) from Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss in Khaptad National Park, which is located in the far-western Nepalese Himalaya. Seasonal correlation analysis revealed significant indirect relationship with spring temperature and lead to the reconstruction of March-May average temperature for the past 373 years (AD 1640-2012). The reconstruction was found significant based on validation statistics commonly used in tree-ring based climate reconstruction. Furthermore, it was validated through spatial correlation with gridded temperature data. This temperature reconstruction identified several periods of warming and cooling. The reconstruction did not show the significant pattern of cooling during the Little Ice Age but there were few cold episodes recorded. The spring temperature revealed relationship with different Sea Surface Temperature index over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which showed linkages with climatic variability in a global scale.

  11. Analysis of Provenance of Siwalik Group in Western Nepal Himalaya Using Petrography and U-Pb Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, U.; Lin, D.; Chamlagain, D.

    2014-12-01

    The east-west trending southernmost litho-tectonic unit, Siwalik, is about 5 Km thick fluvial coarsening upward sequence, which was deposited during middle Miocene to early Pleistocene. This fluvial sediment is excellent archives of the Himalayan exhumation, tectonic events and mountain building processes. This paper deals with the possible provenance of the middle Miocene to early Pleistocene fluvial sediments along the Karnali River section as well as added some knowledge of the Himalayan orogeny by the means of petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb dating under LA-ICP-MS. The petrographic studies shows the detritus grain of sandstones from the Karnali River section falls on 'recycled orogeny' field on QFL plots. The detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological study shows that the sediments were mostly derived from entire three litho units ;Tethys, Higher, and Lesser Himalaya during the time of deposition of Siwalik whereas the erosion process of Lesser Himalayan sediment increased after ~10 Ma. Overall, the combined studies show the mixed type of provenance as seen in the western Himalaya of India. Key words: U-Pb geochronology, Provenance, Siwalik Group

  12. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, January-June 2011.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Sarah J; Sheppeard, Vicky K; Paterson, Jen M; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-09-01

    We undertook a study of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica enterica subtypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, presenting in residents of the Western Sydney Local Health District for the period January-June 2011. Twelve cases of S. Typhi and eight of S. Paratyphi A were notified. Patients were predominantly young adults (median age 26 years, 70% female) who had been visiting friends and relatives in India, Samoa, Bangladesh or Sri Lanka. No cases were associated with travel for less than 3 weeks; 17 (85%) required hospitalisation. None received pre-travel vaccination; reasons cited for this included pregnancy, expense, being too busy, or considering the disease too mild to warrant vaccination. Three S. Typhi isolates acquired at large social gatherings in Samoa had the same phage [corrected] type and susceptibility profiles; these results were communicated to Samoan public health personnel. There are opportunities to strengthen enteric fever prevention, including pre-travel health advice and S. Typhi vaccination for people visiting endemic areas for 3 or more weeks, especially those in the vulnerable 'visiting friends and relative' category. PMID:23043747

  13. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions. PMID:25522499

  14. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  15. Structural control on the shape of intrusions in the Koktokay ore district, Chinese Altai, north western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Qin, Ke Zhang; Zhou, Qi Feng; Paterson, Greig

    2016-02-01

    The Koktokay pegmatite-type rare-metal-bearing ore district in the Altai orogen is famous for both its large scale and its diversity of rare metals. However, the emplacement mechanisms of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions in the Koktokay ore district are still unclear. Based on field observations, the emplacement of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions falls into two types. The first type is typical of the formation of dykes and sills, whereby they intruded into fan shaped, moderate dipping, joints within plutonic rocks. The second type involves the formation of a punched laccolith that was fed by a pegmatite sill. Magmatic stoping is the main mechanism of the laccolith emplacement. The peripheral faults played an important role in helping the emplacement of the laccolith. The trend of dykes and sills indicate two potential prospecting areas, which are located in the western and northern regions of the Koktokay ore district.

  16. Epidemiological situation of Japanese encephalitis in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bista, M B; Shrestha, J M

    2005-01-01

    A human Japanese encephalitis (JE) case is considered to have elevated temperature (over 380 C) along with altered consciousness or unconsciousness and is generally confirmed serologically by finding of specific anti-JE IgM in the cerebro spinal fluid. No specific treatment for JE is available. Only supportive treatment like meticulous nursing care, introduction of Ryle's tube if the patient is unconscious, dextrose solution if dehydration is present, manitol injection in case of raised cranial temperature and diazepam in case of convulsion. Intra venous fluids, indwelling catheter in conscious patient and corticosteroids unless indicated should be avoided. Pigs, wading birds and ducks have been incriminated as important vertebrate amplifying hosts for JE virus due to viremia in them. Man along with bovines, ovines and caprines is involved in transmission cycle as accidental hosts and plays no role in perpetuating the virus due to the lack of viremia in them. The species Cx tritaeniorhyncus is suspected to be the principal vector of JE in Nepal as the species is abundantly found in the rice-field ecosystem of the endemic areas during the transmission season and JE virus isolates have been obtained from a pool of Cx tritaeniorhyncus females. Mosquito vector become infective 14 days after acquiring the JR virus from the viremic host. The disease was first recorded in Nepal in 1978 as an epidemic in Rupandehi district of the Western Development Region (WDR) and Morang of the Eastern Region (EDR). At present the disease is endemic in 24 districts. Although JE as found endemic mainly in tropical climate areas, existence and proliferation of encephalitis causing viruses in temperate and cold climates of hills and valleys are possible. Total of 26,667 cases and 5,381 deaths have been reported with average case fatality rate of 20.2% in an aggregate since 1978. More than 50% of morbidity and 60% mortality occur in the age group below 15 years. Upsurge of cases take place

  17. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote…

  18. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people. PMID:19055723

  19. The Paddy's Flat Gold District (Murchison, Western Australia), insight on a rheologically and structurally control lode gold deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, N.; Hollingsworth, D.; Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.

    2007-12-01

    In the North-West of the world class gold producer Yilgarn craton lies the Murchison Goldfield (Western Australia). Several rich deposits mined since the turn of the 19th century suggest that this late-Archaean terrane is highly prospective for gold exploration. Located in the northern part of the Murchison goldfield, the Paddy's Flat District recorded a production of ~2 Moz. The Paddy's Flat Gold District area is located on an N-S trending, steeply east dipping shear on the north western limb of an upright isoclinal fold known as the Polelle syncline. It is hosted in a strained and metamorphosed volcanic and minor sedimentary sequence. Mineralisation within the Paddy's Flat District is not limited to a particular rock type and it is associated with a wide range of lithologies including: (i) intermediate to felsic extrusive volcanics, (ii) intrusive porphyrytic microgranite, (iii) ultramafic volcanic assemblage and (iv) iron rich banded chert. Instead, the mineralisation is highly structurally controled by the Paddy's Flat shear zone which provided fluid-pathways for the mineralising fluid. Regardless of the lithological composition, the mineral assemblage associated with the gold mineralisation consists of quartz, carbonate (ankerite, siderite), sulphides (pyrite, arsenopyrite), fuchsite and sericite assemblage suggesting the introduction of an oxidizing fluid rich in Au, S, As and K ± SiO2. At Paddys Flat the mineralisation is spatially associated with rheologicaly competent units or with domains located at the boundary between rheologically distinct lithologies within the main shear. The fluid pathways provided by the shear zone and the rheological contrast are suggested to be key parameters in the formation of economic lode gold deposit in the Paddy's Flat district.

  20. The Role of Obstetric Knowledge in Utilization of Delivery Service in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkee, Rajendra; Baral, Om Bahadur; Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) program has been promoted in Nepal to equip pregnant women with obstetric knowledge so as to motivate them to seek professional care. Using a prospective design of 701 pregnant women of more than 5 months gestation in a central hills district of Nepal, we evaluated if having obstetric knowledge…

  1. Parent Decision-Making When Selecting Schools: The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Priyadarshani

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the parent decision-making processes underlying school selection in Nepal. The analysis is based on primary survey and focus group data collected from parent meetings in diverse local education markets in two districts of Nepal in 2011. It highlights three main arguments that are less frequently discussed in the context of…

  2. Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among Seasonal Dalit Migrant Laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study’s objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. Methods The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Results Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Conclusions Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread. PMID:24040359

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; De Silva, Mary J; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Luitel, Nagendra; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2014-10-01

    Three-quarters of the global mental health burden exists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet the lack of mental health services in resource-poor settings is striking. Task-sharing (also, task-shifting), where mental health care is provided by non-specialists, has been proposed to improve access to mental health care in LMICs. This multi-site qualitative study investigates the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing mental health care in LMICs by examining perceptions of primary care service providers (physicians, nurses, and community health workers), community members, and service users in one district in each of the five countries participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Thirty-six focus group discussions and 164 in-depth interviews were conducted at the pre-implementation stage between February and October 2012 with the objective of developing district level plans to integrate mental health care into primary care. Perceptions of the acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing were evaluated first at the district level in each country through open-coding and then at the cross-country level through a secondary analysis of emergent themes. We found that task-sharing mental health services is perceived to be acceptable and feasible in these LMICs as long as key conditions are met: 1) increased numbers of human resources and better access to medications; 2) ongoing structured supportive supervision at the community and primary care-levels; and 3) adequate training and compensation for health workers involved in task-sharing. Taking into account the socio-cultural context is fundamental for identifying local personnel who can assist in detection of mental illness and facilitate treatment and care as well as training, supervision, and service delivery. By recognizing the systemic challenges and sociocultural nuances that may influence task-sharing mental health care

  4. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  5. Impacts of climate change on shallow landslide and sediment runoff in Kyushu district, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, T.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-04-01

    1. Objective In mountainous forest areas, roads or railroads and local inhabitants often suffer from shallow landslides and debris flows along torrents, while rainfall in the area obviously increase supposedly due to climate change. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide and sediment runoff to climate change. Therefore, time series analysis of shallow landslide distribution in a sample area, monitoring of the sediment runoff including debris flow from shallow landslides, analysis of its response to rain, and long term rainfall fluctuation analysis were conducted, in order to evaluate the impact of rain increment induced by climate change on shallow landslides and sediment discharge. 2. Method and target areas Rain observation by pluviometer for 30 years and sediment discharge (periodical observation) monitoring over 3 years with sediment trap facilities were conducted in Fukuoka (Northern Kyushu). On the other hand, shallow landslide analysis using aerial photographs for typical 3 years, rain and sediment discharge monitoring were conducted in Miyazaki (Southern Kyushu) for 30 years at hydroelectric power dams. Both of these areas are located in Kyushu district, western Japan where they often have severe landslide disasters. The geology in research areas consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks (mainly schist, Phyllite, sand stone) and the vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Theoretical analysis with physical equation and statistic analysis with Kendall's rank correlation are conducted with the data obtained in these areas. 3. Result and consideration 1) Increase of heavy rainfalls and their frequency observed They are obviously increasing in every point for 30 years. In particular, extremes of daily and hourly rain often have clear tendency confirmed by Kendall's rank correlation analysis with statistic test. Their increasing rate is almost up to 20mm/hr or 40mm/day in 30 years, and frequency of extreme

  6. Imaging the western Skellefte Ore District with MT and reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Ángeles García Juanatey, M.; Hübert, J.; Tryggvason, A.; Juhlin, C.; Pedersen, L. B.

    2012-04-01

    Our area of study is the Skellefte Ore District, a very rich mining area in northern Sweden. The main deposits consist of volcanic-hosted massive sulphides (VHMS) rich in zinc, copper, lead, gold and silver. The most relevant geological units are the ore bearing volcanic rocks of the Skellefte Group, early granitoid intrusions coeval with the previous, sedimentary rocks of the Vargfors Group, and late post-orogenic granitoid intrusions (e.g. the Revsund granites). All these units are metamorphosed to greenschist and lower amphibolite facies. Within the district, the structural relationships and contacts between the geological units are obscured by the great areal extension of the Revsund granites, and a minimal number of outcrops, leaving the general knowledge of the geological setting rather limited. Aiming at a better understanding of the district and a successful future exploration, new geological and geophysical data have been collected in key areas within the framework of the "VINNOVA 4D modelling" project. In this contribution we will focus on the outcomes from magnetotelluri (MT) and seismic reflection data. The MT data were acquired with broadband stations yielding transfer functions between 700 Hz and 200 s. The achieved penetration depth was around 10 km, depending on the conductivity of the ground. The seismic reflection surveys were about 20 km long, with a crooked line geometry, and shot and receiver spacing of 25 m. The resulting seismic sections show distinctive reflections between 600 m and 7 km depth, and by applying pseudo-3D processing routines it was possible to obtain more information about their real 3D geometry. Using the 3D geometries of the reflectors as a priori information in the inversion of the MT data produced resistivity models with more defined features than if no a priori information was used. The combination of both, seismics and MT, turned out to be a very valuable tool to determine the extension and depth of the main geological

  7. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Basic Science Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical School in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi; Poudel, Phanindra Prasad; Saha, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown self-medication to be common among medical students. These studies are however, few in Nepal. The present study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication among second and fourth semesters’ undergraduate medical students and studied differences in knowledge and attitude (if any) among different subgroups of the respondents. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire among basic science medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Nepal. Semester of study, gender, age, nationality, and the profession of their parents were noted. Students’ knowledge and attitude about self-medication was studied by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 40 statements using a Likert-type scale. The average scores and frequency of occurrence of particular behaviors among different categories of respondents were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results Two hundred and seventy-six of the 295 (93.6%) students participated. The mean (SD) knowledge, attitude, and total scores were 74.54 (6.92), 67.18 (5.68), and 141.73 (10.76) with maximum possible scores 100, 100 and 200, respectively. There was no significant difference in scores according to respondents’ gender, age, and the profession of their parents. However, the mean knowledge, attitude and total scores were significantly different among students of different nationalities. Mean scores of fourth semester students were significantly higher compared to second semester students. There were differences in knowledge and total scores among students of different nationalities. Eighty two percent of respondents had self-medicated during the one year period preceding the study; 149 respondents (54%) shared that previous experience with the medicine was one of the information sources for self-medication. Prevalence of self-medication among respondents according to semester of study, gender, age, and profession of

  9. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms <10 cfu/100 mL, temperature, and free chlorine levels were associated with TTC contamination of household drinking water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination. PMID:27441861

  10. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  11. Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria transmission in Uyui District, western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sindato, Calvin; Kabula, Bilali; Mbilu, Togolai J N K; Manga, Chacha; Tungu, Patrick; Kazimoto, John P; Kibonai, Stafford N; Kisinza, William N; Magesa, Stephen M

    2011-10-01

    An entomological survey to determine resting behaviour and species composition of malaria vectors was carried out in Uyui District in western Tanzania in May 2009. Mosquitoes were collected using indoor resting catch, window exit trap and outdoor "bed-net" techniques. The mosquitoes were identified using morphological key and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 672 Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were collected. Of these, 661 (98.4%) were collected outdoor whereas few (1.6%) were collected indoor. The exit trap catch: mechanical aspirator catch ratio was 1:1.75. The overall indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.l. as determined by mechanical aspirator and exit trap was 0.7 and 0.5 mosquitoes per room, respectively. The overall density of the host-seeking as determined by bed net trap outdoor was 44.1 mosquitoes per person. A sample of 44 specimens taken randomly from morphologically identified An.gambiae s.l. population was further analyzed to species level using PCR techniques. Of these 44 specimens 26 (59%) and 18 (41%) were Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto respectively. This study contributes to the understanding of the distribution of malaria vectors with respect to species composition and their resting behaviour that could contribute to vector control operations in western Tanzania. A longitudinal study considering dry and wet seasons is recommended to provide more information on the seasonal distribution, abundance and biting behaviour of malaria vectors in the study area. PMID:26592058

  12. Mobile Learning Practice in Higher Education in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parajuli, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of…

  13. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  14. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  15. Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Veigas, Javier; Helvacı, Cahit

    2013-05-01

    The Miocene boratiferous district of Kırka, in western Anatolia (Turkey), is the most important Na-borate (borax) resource in the world. Two separate deposits in the Kırka district are located near the villages of Sarıkaya and Göcenoluk (Eskişehir Province). Borax is intensively exploited in open-pit mines in the Sarıkaya deposit while only small quarries of colemanite are known in the Göcenoluk deposit. Recent exploratory drilling in the Göcenoluk area intersected a thick succession of dolostones, tuffs and three borate-bearing units (Lower, Intermediate and Upper Borate Units). In them, the most abundant borate mineral is ulexite (Ca-Na-borate) passing at depth to probertite. Borax (Na-borate) is only present in the Intermediate Borate Unit. Minor amounts of colemanite (Ca-borate) and hydroboracite (Ca-Mg-borate) occur at the base, and/or top, of each mineralized unit. Pyroclastic layers within the borate units show intense alteration by alkaline, boron-bearing waters and formation of diagenetic clay minerals (smectites), zeolites (analcime) and borosilicates (searlesite). The Göcenoluk succession is interpreted as a shallow, ephemeral, alkaline lake deposit in which carbonates formed as stromatolites and travertines. Borate precipitation in the Göcenoluk area took place interstitially within muddy and carbonate sediments in a lateral progression from marginal Ca-borates towards Na-Ca-borates and rarely to Na-borates in the center of the lake. Authigenic silicate mineral distribution shows parallel changes toward the center of the lake that reflect increasing pH gradient.

  16. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lelisa, Kumela; Shimeles, Shihun; Bekele, Jemere; Sheferaw, Desie

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes) and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus) were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%). Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% - 14.3%) were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%), Trypanosoma brucei (23.8%) and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%). The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV) and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05). About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity. PMID:25686018

  17. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo. PMID:21298457

  18. Reliability of clinical diagnosis in identifying infectious trachoma in a low-prevalence area of Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Baral, K.; Osaki, S.; Shreshta, B.; Panta, C. R.; Boulter, A.; Pang, F.; Cevallos, V.; Schachter, J.; Lietman, T.

    1999-01-01

    The WHO Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 has increased the need to identify ocular chlamydial infections by clinical examination in areas of both high and low prevalence. The relationship between clinically active trachoma (as defined by clinical examination) and chlamydial infection is known for areas with hyperendemic trachoma, but not for areas with a low prevalence of the clinical disease. In the present study, we examined, photographed, and DNA tested the conjunctivae of children in the Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal, an area known to have a low prevalence of clinically active trachoma. Although 6% of the children aged 10 years and under were found to have clinically active trachoma, none were found to have chlamydia infection by the most sensitive DNA amplification tests available. A very low prevalence of clinically active trachoma is not necessarily evidence of the presence of chlamydial infection. Therefore, the WHO policy of not recommending an intensive trachoma control effort when the prevalence of clinically active trachoma is less than 10% in children is appropriate for this area of Nepal. PMID:10427930

  19. Guineaworm infection in the Wa district of north-western Ghana.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G R

    1972-01-01

    The Ghana-5 schistosomiasis project is situated in an exclusively rural area of north-western Ghana. Since the inhabitants rely for the most part on natural sources of drinking water the transmission of both urinary schistosomiasis and guineaworm infection must often occur at the same sites, and the epidemiology and the problems of control of these diseases might be expected to have features in common. An epidemiological survey of 8 300 people in 1967-68 showed that guineaworm had a scattered distribution, 35 of 43 villages having an annual incidence of less than 10%. Intensive study of 5 of the most seriously affected villages over a period of 3 years has shown that there is a delicate balance between the parasite and its human host in this area, largely as a result of the impermanent nature of the principal transmission sites, i.e., ponds and the smaller riverine pools. The timing, duration, and intensity of transmission have been shown to vary widely from one locality to another, as well as from year to year. These characteristics are determined by the type and extent of the local source of drinking water, the availability of alternative sources, and the monthly pattern of rainfall. PMID:4267016

  20. Reproductive status of western mosquitofish inhabiting selenium- contaminated waters in the Grassland Water District, Merced County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study was implemented to determine if western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in the Grassland Water District suffer from impaired reproduction because of seleniferous inflows of agricultural drainwater from the Grassland Bypass Project. During June to July 2001, laboratory trials with pregnant female fish collected from two seleniferous treatment sites exposed to selenium-laden drainwater and two nonseleniferous reference sites yielded fry that averaged >96% survival at birth. In addition, none of the newborn fry exhibited evidence of teratogenesis, a typical consequence of selenium toxicity. Chemical analysis of postpartum female fish and their newborn fry indicated that mosquitofish from seleniferous sites accumulated relatively high body burdens of selenium (3.96 to 17.5 ??g selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 5.35 to 29.2 ??g selenium/g in their fry), whereas those from nonseleniferous sites contained lower body burdens (0.40 to 2.72 ??g selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 0.61 to 4.68 ??g selenium/g in their fry). Collectively, these results strongly suggest that mosquitofish inhabiting selenium- contaminated waters are not experiencing adverse reproductive effects at current levels of selenium exposure.

  1. Community knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its relationship with sexual practices in Tabora and Igunga Districts, Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nkya, G M; Sindato, C; Mcharo, J; Kibona, S N

    2006-09-01

    HIV/AIDS represents one of the critical challenges to human development in sub Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its relationship with sexual practices among communities in Tabora and Igunga Districts in western Tanzania. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods, which included interviews and group discussions. A total of 568 participants (female = 49%; males = 51%) were involved in the study. Two hundred and eighty-four of the respondents were adults (> 25 years) and 284 were youths of 12 - 25 years. The results showed although the knowledge of the disease and its prevention was high (90%) among the community, some gaps regarding the knowledge on modes of transmission were observed. About 17.2% of the respondents reported to have multiple sexual partners and only about half of the respondents reported the use of condoms. The level of education correlated significantly with the individual knowledge on HIV/AIDS (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference between urban and rural communities on their knowledge on HIV/AIDS (P > 0.05). Health education on HIV/AIDS prevention needs to be strengthened and improved to include cognitive behavioural interventions that emphasize attitude changes, negotiation skills and decision-making skills that could be effective in changing and maintaining safe sexual behaviour. PMID:18254510

  2. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  3. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  4. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33) plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies) while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies). Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species) followed by roots (13 species) while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further enhances the validity of

  5. Scientific publications in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Magar, A

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications have become a mainstay of communication among readers, academicians, researchers and scientists worldwide. Although, its existence dates back to 17 th century in the West, Nepal is still struggling to take few steps towards improving its local science for last 50 years. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, the challenges remains as it were decades back regarding role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and even publishers in Nepal. Although, there has been some development in terms of the number of articles being published and appearances of the journals, yet there is a long way to go. This article analyzes the past and present scenario, and future perspective for scientific publications in Nepal. PMID:23281460

  6. Measles deaths in Nepal: estimating the national case–fatality ratio

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anand B; Luman, Elizabeth T; Nandy, Robin; Subedi, Bal K; Liyanage, Jayantha BL

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the case–fatality ratio (CFR) for measles in Nepal, determine the role of risk factors, such as political instability, for measles mortality, and compare the use of a nationally representative sample of outbreaks versus routine surveillance or a localized study to establish the national CFR (nCFR). Methods This was a retrospective study of measles cases and deaths in Nepal. Through two-stage random sampling, we selected 37 districts with selection probability proportional to the number of districts in each region, and then randomly selected within each district one outbreak among all those that had occurred between 1 March and 1 September 2004. Cases were identified by interviewing a member of each and every household and tracing contacts. Bivariate analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for a high CFR and determine the time from rash onset until death. Each factor’s contribution to the CFR was determined through multivariate logistic regression. From the number of measles cases and deaths found in the study we calculated the total number of measles cases and deaths for all of Nepal during the study period and in 2004. Findings We identified 4657 measles cases and 64 deaths in the study period and area. This yielded a total of about 82 000 cases and 900 deaths for all outbreaks in 2004 and a national CFR of 1.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.5–2.3). CFR ranged from 0.1% in the eastern region to 3.4% in the mid-western region and was highest in politically insecure areas, in the Ganges plains and among cases < 5 years of age. Vitamin A treatment and measles immunization were protective. Most deaths occurred during the first week of illness. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first CFR study based on a nationally representative sample of measles outbreaks. Routine surveillance and studies of a single outbreak may not yield an accurate nCFR. Increased fatalities associated with political insecurity are a

  7. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  8. Innovation in Primary School Construction: Community Participation in Seti Zone, Nepal. Educational Building Report 20. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamang, H. D.; Dharam, K. C.

    Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world. In 1981 the Education for Rural Development in Seti Zone Project--more commonly known as the "Seti Project"--was part of the Nepalese government's effort to develop a system of basic education in that far western region of Nepal. The early success of the project provided the impetus for the…

  9. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal. PMID:21423821

  10. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  11. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  12. Isolation of influenza A viruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in District, Western Japan, in the winter of 1982-1983.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, K; Takemoto, O; Fujimoto, R; Yamazaki, K; Kubota, N; Hosaki, H; Kawaoka, Y; Tsubokura, M

    1987-09-01

    From November 1982 to March 1983, winter migratory waterfowls of some species staying in San-in District, Western Japan, were surveyed for influenza virus at five stations. A total of eight influenza A viruses were isolated from 354 faeces samples of whistling swans; in contrast, no virus was isolated from any sample of 261 black-tailed gulls, of 113 pintails and of 10 mallards. Five of eight isolates belonged to human pandemic subtype H2N2, two isolates belonged to fowl plague subtype H7N7, and the remaining one to subtype H4N6. PMID:2891283

  13. Design and implementation of a patient navigation system in rural Nepal: Improving patient experience in resource-constrained settings.

    PubMed

    Raut, Anant; Thapa, Poshan; Citrin, David; Schwarz, Ryan; Gauchan, Bikash; Bista, Deepak; Tamrakar, Bibhu; Halliday, Scott; Maru, Duncan; Schwarz, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Patient navigation programs have shown to be effective across multiple settings in guiding patients through the care delivery process. Limited experience and literature exist, however, for such programs in rural and resource-constrained environments. Patients living in such settings frequently have low health literacy and substantially lower social status than their providers. They typically have limited experiences interfacing with formalized healthcare systems, and, when they do, their experience can be unpleasant and confusing. At a district hospital in rural far-western Nepal, we designed and implemented a patient navigation system that aimed to improve patients' subjective care experience. First, we hired and trained a team of patient navigators who we recruited from the local area. Their responsibility is exclusively to demonstrate compassion and to guide patients through their care process. Second, we designed visual cues throughout our hospital complex to assist in navigating patients through the buildings. Third, we incorporated the patient navigators within the management and communications systems of the hospital care team, and established standard operating procedures. We describe here our experiences and challenges in designing and implementing a patient navigator program. Such patient-centered systems may be relevant at other facilities in Nepal and globally where patient health literacy is low, patients come from backgrounds of substantial marginalization and disempowerment, and patient experience with healthcare facilities is limited. PMID:26699353

  14. USAID in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Weiss, D

    1987-09-01

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended. PMID:12341727

  15. Teachers interact with radio in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, P A

    1987-01-01

    The Nepal Radio Education Teacher Training Project (RETT) is an interactive program for upgrading underqualified primary school teachers, 27% of whom lack the 10th grade school leaving certificate. Nepal is so mountainous that reaching rural areas is too expensive to train teachers effectively. This program uses curriculum principles such as systematic planning, distributed learning, cyclical instruction, and radio techniques such as intensive broadcasting, interactive learning, immediate reinforcement and an engaging instructional pace for this adult audience. With the help of USAID, Radio Nepal operates a 100,000 watt shortwave transmitter from a studio in suburban Kathmandu. As of August 1980, 5593 teachers from 72 of 75 districts have enrolled, and 2944 have been certified. The 1st phase of the program taught Nepali, mathematics, social studies, health, physical education and art. The 2nd phase emphasizes the content taught in years 7-10, added English, mathematics, science and Nepali. There are major differences in this interactive program compared to those instituted in Kenya, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Thailand, with young audiences. These adults are teachers, unmonitored, individual listeners, in a home setting, usually studying in the evenings in competition with other radio programming, and learning secondary school subject matter. In contrast, prior programs elsewhere have had captive children in primary school monitored by teachers. Incentives are being provided to keep teachers in the courses, such as discounted radios, job security, pay increments and certification. The use of repetition and rapid feedback inherent in interactive radio programming helps to meet the challenges in voluntary participation. PMID:12315027

  16. False Teeth Still a Public Health Problem among Children in Kanungu District--South Western Uganda 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Sebudde

    2006-01-01

    False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…

  17. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2015-12-01

    Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the world, and education has been a major focus of the government. Half of the population is female, and providing education to women has been one of the biggest challenges to the government. Encouraging science education for girls, with a focus on physics, is even more of a Herculean task. Enrollment of girls in higher education is just over 25%. Data from 2002 to mid-2014 shows that the number of women in physics is increasing gradually, although their numbers are still very low.

  18. Mental health and psychosocial support aspects in disaster preparedness: Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank

    2006-12-01

    To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended. PMID:17162702

  19. The "Iron Gate": High-Stakes Assessment at Age 16 in Nepal and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In Nepal, the School Leaving Certificate (SLC) assessment taken by 16-year-olds at the end of Grade 10 of formal schooling performs a similar function to the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination in England in that it summarises individual, school, district and national achievement and acts as a filtering mechanism to the…

  20. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  1. Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-12-01

    Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). PMID:25025757

  2. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues. PMID:26268778

  3. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and composition of Paleozoic strata in the western Brooks Range may have played a fundamental role in Zn-Pb mineralization of the Red Dog district. In our model, deposition and early lithification of biogenic chert and bedded siliceous rocks in the upper part of the Kuna Formation served as a regional hydrologic seal, acting as a cap rock to heat and hydrothermal fluids during Late Mississippian base-metal mineralization. Equally important was the iron-poor composition of black shales of the Kuna Formation (i.e., low Fe/Ti ratios), which limited synsedimentary pyrite formation in precursor sediments, resulting in significant H2S production in pore waters through the interaction of aqueous sulfate with abundant organic matter. This H2S may have been critical to the subsurface deposition of the huge quantities of Zn and Pb in the district. On the basis of this model, we propose that low Fe/Ti and S/C ratios in black shale sequences are potential basin-scale exploration guides for giant sediment-hosted, stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposits.

  4. New climatic classification of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  5. New climatic classification of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  6. Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shailbala; Gogate, Parikshit; Vora, Siddharth; Ainapure, Sachin; Hingane, Ramkrishna N; Kulkarni, Anil N; Shammanna, B R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim: To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects: Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ≥ 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion: Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness. PMID:24618491

  7. Medical adventure in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Boon, D A

    1980-12-01

    In 1977 a request for teaching of otologic surgery from a Nepalese doctor to a Canadian colleague resulted in Doctor David Boon and his wife, Joan, travelling to Nepal in February, 1979, as volunteers. They participated in the "Lions Club of Kathmandu First Free Ear Camp" sponsored jointly by the International Sound Foundation Society and the Lions Club of Kathmandu. Fifteen hundred patients were seen and otosclerosis was one of the commonest ear diseases encountered. Adhesive otitis media with attic cholesteatoma was prevalent and a few cases of childhood serous otitis media were diagnosed. Severe sensorineural hearing loss was also prevalent and related to heredity, post febrile illness, and ototoxic drugs. Seventy surgical procedures were performed consisting of mastoidectomy, stapes reconstruction, tympanoplasty and myringotomy. PMID:7206040

  8. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2013-03-01

    Women constitute more than half of the total population of Nepal but are far behind men in all aspects of life. There is a wide gender gap socially, economically, and politically. Data for 1960 through 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied at the postgraduate level and there was no woman with a PhD degree. From 2002 through mid-2010 the number of female students increased gradually at both the MSc and in PhD levels, due to study opportunities abroad. We expect that this trend will continue, with significant improvement in furthering the education of women as a whole, and will lead to an increase in women physicists in the country.

  9. Surveillance of the health status of Bhutanese refugees--Nepal, 1992.

    PubMed

    1993-01-15

    From February 1991 through July 1992, 67,000 Bhutanese of Nepalese ethnic origin entered the Jhapa and Morang districts of southeastern Nepal (Figure 1) because of ethnic persecution in Bhutan. Six refugee camps were established along the Nepal-India border to accommodate the refugees. In July 1992, to assess the public health needs of these refugees, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Save the Children Fund (SCF), and CDC established a surveillance system to monitor morbidity and mortality. This report describes the surveillance system implemented in these six camps in July 1992 and presents mortality data collected from March through July 1992. PMID:8418396

  10. Nepal: From Kathmandu to Mt. Everest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkovich, Marilyn; Mueller, Peggy; Bubolz, Linda

    This book is intended to help teachers introduce the country of Nepal to their students. The teacher sections offer suggestions for: (1) "Fitting Nepal into the Global Jigsaw"; (2) "Zeroing In"; and (3) "Himalayan Majesty." Additional sections of the book feature: (1) "The Mountains"; (2) "The People"; and (3) "The Issues." Nepal is set as a…

  11. Using Inexpensive Technology and Multimedia to Improve Science Education in Rural Communities of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neupane, Sujaya

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…

  12. Children from the Dalit Community in Rural Nepal: A Challenge to Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Damodar

    2015-01-01

    Based on empirical research carried out in public secondary schools in the western part of Nepal, this article examines how Dalit children experience secondary-level education. Their experiences are explored using in-depth interviews with Dalit children, their parents and teachers. The findings reveal that Dalit children's inclusion is affected by…

  13. A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kriti A.; Rajderkar, Shekhar S.; Naik, Jayashree D.; Behere, Vivek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In present scenario, the legal profession has gained utmost importance, which makes the job of a lawyer the most challenging, with lots of mental and physical strain. The rewards can be great, but so are the pressures. High job demands lead to imbalance between what is expected and what is received (job dissatisfaction) which, in turn, leads to job strains. So, the present study focused on the impact of certain variables on job satisfaction of the judiciaries. Objectives: To study the level of job satisfaction among judicial personnel; to identify the impact of job level (hierarchy) in the experience of job satisfaction; to find the gender difference (if any) for the level of job satisfaction; and to examine the pattern of relationship of certain variables with job satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 year duration, in total 965 judicial personnel of different courts in the district of Sangli, which involved data collection using predesigned proforma. A scale, having 15 different independent predictors was used as a validated screening tool, to calculate their job satisfaction score. The most contributing variable and its correlation with job satisfaction was found by stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis using SPSS Version-16. Results and Conclusion: Out of the total, Class I judiciaries were 692 (71.7%). A majority (71.4%) of the study subjects were male. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.38 ± 2.7. Twenty-three percent females, compared with only 9% males, had low job satisfaction (P < 0.5). The best predictor of job satisfaction in males and females was emotional exhaustion (β = 0.191) and conflicts between values and practice (β = 0.252), respectively. Higher is the job satisfaction score, lesser the level of job satisfaction. The findings of the study revealed that job satisfaction was found to be significantly (P < 0.0005) and positively correlated with all the variables in the

  14. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  15. Risk Factors and Spatial Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among Primary School Children in Mbita District, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Sachiyo; Chadeka, Evans A.; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Mutungi, Faith; Justin, Yombo K. Dan; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Njenga, Sammy M.; Hashizume, Masahiro; Shimada, Masaaki; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8%) children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3%) had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%). High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors. Conclusions/Significance Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water. PMID:25058653

  16. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P < 0.05) improved the farmers cash income than non-tree based garden. With insignificant garden size; homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden. PMID:24790810

  17. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:27526045

  18. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  19. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  20. English Language Teaching Profile: Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This is a summary in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Nepal. Among the educated Nepalese, English has for a number of years been almost a second language. Its chief uses are as a medium of instruction in certain subjects at degree level, as the principal language for the growing tourist industry and as the medium of…

  1. Seismic slip deficit along Nepal Himalayas: implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, Laurent; Tapponnier, Paul; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Klinger, Yann

    2016-04-01

    In 1255, 1344 and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934 and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar, is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's "Inbuilt-ages", we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites, to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and seismic moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit, on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, East of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected Western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal ruptured during a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries and propagated the rupture up to the surface from East to West. Today's situation in the himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the 14th century.

  2. Nepal mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Regmi, S K; Pokharel, A; Ojha, S P; Pradhan, S N; Chapagain, G

    2004-01-01

    The Kingdom of Nepal is situated in the heart of Asia, between its two big neighbours China and India. Nepal is home to several ethnic groups. The majority of the 23 million population reside in the countryside. Although figures on many of the health and socio-economic indicators are non-existing, some existing ones show gradual improvement over the years. However the figures for illiteracy and infant mortality are still one of the highest in the world. As per GDP, and population living below the poverty line and per capita income, Nepal still remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Despite this, it provides shelter to thousands of Bhutanese refugees in its land. Frequent natural disasters and recent violent conflicts in Nepal have further added hardship to life. Less than 3% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Mental health receives insignificant attention. The Government spends about 1% of the health budget on mental health. There is no mental health act and the National Mental Health Policy formulated in 1997 is yet to be fully operational. Mental ill health is not much talked about because of the stigma attached. The roles of the legal and insurance systems are almost negligible. The financial burden rests upon the family. The traditional/religious healing methods still remain actively practiced, specifically in the field of mental health. The service, comprising little more than two-dozen psychiatrists along with a few psychiatric nurses and clinical psychologists (mainly practicing in modern health care facilities) has started showing its impact--however this is limited to specific urban areas. The majority of the modern health care facilities across the country are devoid of a mental health facility. The main contextual challenges for mental health in Nepal are the provision of adequate manpower, spreading the services across the country, increasing public awareness and formulating and implementing an adequate policy. PMID

  3. Challenges to improving maternal health in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S

    1996-05-01

    In the remote village of Martadi, in Bajura district of western Nepal, the total fertility rate is 7. 20% of newborns die before they reach age 1. Temporary migration, mainly to India, is common due to the inability of the rugged and rocky terrain to supply enough food. The existence of temporary migration and a high frequency of remarriage suggest a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases. The relatively new hospital is very much under used (e.g., only 35 patients in 1995). The office in Kolti that supplies vaccines to Martadi has gone at least six months without receiving any new child immunization drugs, despite the presence of an air service. During and after delivery, no one, not even family members or traditional birth attendants, can touch a woman, who is confined to a cow-shed to deliver and care for her child and herself alone. Yet sick animals receive care. A new mother also is required to bathe herself, often requiring a walk of many hours. Women often identify access to water as their top priority. Pregnant or postpartum women are forbidden from eating green vegetables because of the belief that they cause diarrhea. Sanitation is better now in Martadi than in the past. Diarrhea and vomiting were once very prevalent. The international organization, CARE, along with the Ministry of Local Development operate the Remote Area Basic Needs Project, which revolves around community organization, agroforestry, rural infrastructure, and primary health care. The project has helped villagers construct low-cost toilets. It provides training in basic hygiene. Households have kitchen-gardens. Many families are now eating green vegetables regularly. Fruit trees are being introduced. Villagers recognize the value of child immunization. Some small-scale drinking water systems are operating. Villagers are trained in repair and management of these systems. About 33% of women aged 15-49 want no more children. A first-ever outreach program for female sterilization services

  4. Suicide prevention in Nepal: a comparison to Australia—a personal view

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is a crisis of unknown proportions in much of the developing world. The majority of research into suicide has been done in high-resource countries such as Australia, and most intervention protocols have been drawn up using Western models. There appear to be a number of differences in the aetiology, presentation and treatment options for mental health problems between high-resource and low-resource countries. This review compares suicide in a high-resource country, Australia, and low-resource country, Nepal. Many low-resource countries such as Nepal struggle to address barriers to mental health care due to limited mental health resources and issues such as stigma, workforce and mental health literacy. Issues relating to suicide prevention are raised, contrasting a low-resource country, Nepal, with a high-resource country, Australia. PMID:22477866

  5. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  6. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  7. The Nepal experience.

    PubMed

    Kaikobad, N F

    1977-01-01

    Nepal's panchayat system of partyless democracy with 5 class organizations of peasants, youth, women, labor, and ex-servicemen, is an effort in community development. Panchayat training centers train panchayat secretaries and women workers. The government tried out the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) methodology to train panchayat training center instructors in 1974-75 when 5 courses were given for 76 participants. The MTS methodology included several new assumptions: the necessity of knowing the field situation, a realistic problem solving orientation, learning by actual field experience, and interdependence rather than teacher dependence. The multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was studied and clarified. Role performance led to the development of a realistic job description from which a task-focused curriculum could be developed. Field work tools included maintaining a daily diary, collecting information and developing a present and past project history, and compiling a village profile. The trainees played the roles of front line workers in the field when they returned from the villages played the roles of supervisors and trainers. The key concept in the multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was collaboration. The panchayat secretary-trainee had to understand the social roles in the community, and work within the social context to get cooperation from other agencies, village and informal organizations, in order to fulfill their role. Tutorial and team teaching methods were used to provide partnership in learning; the old roles of lecturer and lectured were seen as ineffective when actual field experience was the criteria. The role performing and role analysis group analyzed the front line workers' roles and evolved job descriptions which led to course outlines. The teaching methods and materials group produced indigenous teaching materials for classroom use based on problems faced in the field. The action research and technical collaboration groups

  8. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  9. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea. PMID:25995718

  10. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, portions of the North Platte and South Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Ball, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2009 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Flight lines for the survey totaled 937 line kilometers (582 line miles). The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., is to improve the understanding of the relation between surface-water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. A unique aspect of the survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines was flown in a zig-zag pattern extending along the length of the previously collected airborne data. The success of this survey design depended on a well-understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin and the airborne geophysical data collected in 2008. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines, separated by about 400 meters were carried out for three blocks in the North Platte NRD, the South Platte NRD and in the area of Crescent Lakes. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. An additional survey was flown over the Crescent Lake area. The objective of this survey, funded by the USGS Office of Groundwater, was to map shallow hydrogeologic features of the southwestern part of the Sand Hills that contain a mix of fresh to saline lakes.

  11. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Jared R; Lilieholm, Robert J; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities-one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain-compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy. PMID:26920157

  12. Population mobility and spread of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Binod

    2007-09-01

    The article reviews information on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and behavioural networking to examine the role of population mobility in spreading HIV across the Indo-Nepal border. Documents were collected through a systematic search of electronic databases and web-based information resources, and the review focuses on studies about types of the virus, prevalence of HIV, and sexual and injecting networking. HIV-1 (subtype C) and HIV-2 were identified in Nepal. The prevalence of HIV was higher among male labour migrants and female sex workers (FSWs) who returned from India, especially from Mumbai, than in similar non-migrant groups. In the early 2000s, about 6-10% of Mumbai returnee men, compared to up to 4% of India returnee men and up to 3% of non-migrant men in the far-west Nepal, were identified with HIV. Likewise, when the prevalence of HIV among sex workers in Kathmandu was found to be 17% in 1999-2000, up to 44% of India returnee and 73% of Mumbai returnee FSWs were identified with the virus. These data are, however, based on small samples with questionable representativeness of the target populations and need to be interpreted cautiously. They also generate a biased impression that HIV was coming into Nepal from India. Recently, the possibility of a two-way flow of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border through injecting and sexual networking have been indicated by serological and behavioural data from a south-eastern cluster of Nepal and a north-eastern district of India. Although similar behavioural networks exist along other segments of the border, serological data are unavailable to assess whether and how extensively this phenomenon has caused the spread of HIV. Collaborative research and interventions covering both sides of the border are desirable to fully understand and address the prospect of HIV epidemics associated with cross-border population mixing. PMID:18330059

  13. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  14. Evaluation of a monitoring program for assessing the effects of management practices on the quantity and quality of drainwater from the Panoche Water District, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Fio, John L.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation was made of an existing monitoring program in the Panoche Water District for 1986-93. The Panoche Water District is an agricultural area located in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. Because irrigation drainage from this area has high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium, management strategies have been developed to improve the quality of drainwater discharge. The purpose of the Panoche Water District's monitoring program is to assess the effects of water- and land-use practices on local ground water and drain flow from the district. Drainflow from the district consists of the discharge from 50 separate on-farm underground tile-drainage systems. The Panoche Water District maintains information on water deliveries, planned and actual crop types, and planned and actual acreages planted each year. In addition, the water district monitors ground-water and drainage-system discharges using a variety of data-collection methods. A total of 62 observation well sites are used to monitor ground-water level and quality. A total of 42 sites were monitored for drainflow quantity, and drain flow quality samples were collected from the outlets of each of the 50 drainage systems. However, these data were collected inconsistently and (or) intermittently during the period studied. All data obtained from the water district were compiled and stored in a geographic information system database. Water delivered for irrigation by the Panoche Water District is a mix of imported water and local ground water pumped directly into delivery canals. Although delivered water is a mix, information on the proportion of water from the two sources is not reported. Also, individual growers pump directly to their crops unknown quantities of ground water, the total of which could be greater than 60 percent of total applications during years when water district deliveries are greatly reduced (for example, the years during and following a drought). To evaluate the

  15. Impact and Implications of Litigation on Small Rural School Districts: A Study of Selected Western Pennsylvania Public School Superintendents' Perception and Knowledge of School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinopoli, Henry D.

    2010-01-01

    The need for superintendents to respond correctly to the myriad of legally charged situations is vital to the success of a school district. In small rural school districts, without the benefit of extensive financial resources or large administrative bureaucracies, many of the day-to-day legal challenges are handled solely by the superintendent of…

  16. Rights of the Child in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonveld, Ben

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the country of Nepal. The report's introductory summary asserts that although the Nepal government's passage of the Act to…

  17. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in SEAR by 2020. Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019. This report updates a previous report and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and ensuring timely transport of

  18. Towards midwifery education and regulation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    John, Asha

    2015-09-01

    This is a short reflection of four wonderful weeks spent in Nepal supporting, advocating and strengthening the existing work of the Midwifery Society of Nepal and the Global midwifery twinning project (GMTP) with the Royal College of Midwives. Although Nepal is on target to achieve reduction in its maternal mortality rate for millennium goal 5 there is still no registered protected title of 'midwife' In order to establish a strong midwifery workforce in Nepal, the three pillars that need to be highlighted are: midwifery education, midwifery regulation and professional midwifery association. The four-week programme led by GMTP volunteers helped towards building capacity in leadership, advocacy and campaigning skills in Nepal. PMID:26547996

  19. Increasing Science Literacy in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    Nepal, a small landlocked and one of the least developed countries in south Asia is curious with its neighbor's giant space missions. As for now, space mission is not imminent to Nepal at least for decade. Due to lack of proper education and the resources; space education is also not very effective. In the curriculum of Nepal, basic astronomy is included in the science book of middle school which consist only 5% of the total course and 10% in high school. However the total course has been mostly theoretical which has made this subject uninteresting and difficult among the students. The examinations in all education levels are practiced on the rote memorization of contents. Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) introduced new techniques in teaching with more practical approach. We helped students to construct bamboo telescopes and observe the night sky which brought tremendous interest in studying astronomy in middle school. Similarly in high schools we organized different kinds of webinar with renowned scientist from different parts of the world. We screened documentaries of space activities; we helped them to use online robotic telescopes by using internet. This eventually is creating more interest in students to study science and particularly astronomy in their higher studies. The use of mobile Apps and different satellite tracking website helped students determine the location of space objects and created more interest for detail study of them. We are now reaching thousands of students with different proceedings to popularize astronomy and generating interest to pursue higher education in this subject. As well as creating the scientific awareness and understanding among others who are not choosing science in their higher studies. This paper highlights the comparative study of advanced and practical approach of teaching over traditional approach. The results of survey suggest most students are interested in choosing science in their higher studies where practical

  20. Malaria control in Nepal 1963–2012: challenges on the path towards elimination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is still a priority public health problem of Nepal where about 84% of the population are at risk. The aim of this paper is to highlight the past and present malaria situation in this country and its challenges for long-term malaria elimination strategies. Methods Malariometric indicator data of Nepal recorded through routine surveillance of health facilities for the years between 1963 and 2012 were compiled. Trends and differences in malaria indicator data were analysed. Results The trend of confirmed malaria cases in Nepal between 1963 and 2012 shows fluctuation, with a peak in 1985 when the number exceeded 42,321, representing the highest malaria case-load ever recorded in Nepal. This was followed by a steep declining trend of malaria with some major outbreaks. Nepal has made significant progress in controlling malaria transmission over the past decade: total confirmed malaria cases declined by 84% (12,750 in 2002 vs 2,092 in 2012), and there was only one reported death in 2012. Based on the evaluation of the National Malaria Control Programme in 2010, Nepal recently adopted a long-term malaria elimination strategy for the years 2011–2026 with the ambitious vision of a malaria-free Nepal by 2026. However, there has been an increasing trend of Plasmodium falciparum and imported malaria proportions in the last decade. Furthermore, the analysis of malariometric indicators of 31 malaria-risk districts between 2004 and 2012 shows a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of confirmed malaria and of Plasmodium vivax, but not in the incidence of P. falciparum and clinically suspected malaria. Conclusions Based on the achievements the country has made over the last decade, Nepal is preparing to move towards malaria elimination by 2026. However, considerable challenges lie ahead. These include especially, the need to improve access to diagnostic facilities to confirm clinically suspected cases and their treatment, the development of

  1. Non-governmental organizations: their roles in family planning program in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pyakuryal, B

    1989-01-01

    Nepal is a poor country which is short on food and suffering from a low level of child survival. High population growth further impedes social and economic development in the country. As such, population policy and socioeconomic policy should work together to create voluntary demand for a smaller family norm and family planning. Both government and non-government organizations (NGO's) have thus far worked to check population growth. NGOs have made important contributions in the health, population, and anti-poverty arenas. While successful on a small scale, however, NGO programs have only limited potential for expansion. Successful NGO efforts have therefore served mainly as examples of that which might be achieved elsewhere. Broader potential exists for NGO participation in health care and family planning. NGOs have in fact worked to reduce population growth in Nepal since the late 1950s. This paper reviews the role of NGOs in family planning programs with special attention to the work of the Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN). The FPAN has 17 branch offices, 4 action units, and 8 special projects working in 25/75 districts with over 700 staff and a substantial body of volunteers. The association particularly emphasizes contraception for the young, child spacing, and child and maternal welfare. The conceptual framework of population growth and the role of NGOs, the structure of population growth in Nepal, and practical strategic suggestions are presented. PMID:12286120

  2. Plasma zinc levels, anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics of school children in eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in many developing countries including Nepal. The present study was designed to assess the prevalence of zinc deficiency and to study the association of zinc deficiency with anthropometric and socio-demographic variables, in school children of eastern Nepal. Methods This cross-sectional study included total 125 school children of age group 6–12 years from Sunsari and Dhankuta districts of eastern Nepal. Plasma zinc level was estimated by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Results The Median interquartile range (IQR) values of zinc in the two districts Sunsari and Dhankuta were 5.9 (4.4, 7.9) μmol/L and 5.8 (4.3, 8.4) μmol/L respectively. A total of 55 children (87.3%) in Sunsari and 52 (83.9%) in Dhankuta had zinc deficiency, no significant difference was observed in the Median (IQR) plasma zinc levels (p = 0.9) and zinc deficiency patterns (p = 0.3) of the two districts. Significant differences were observed in the plasma zinc levels (p = 0.02) and zinc deficiency patterns (p = 0.001), of the school children having age groups 6–8 years than in 9–10 and 11–12 years of age, and zinc deficiency patterns between male and female school children (p = 0.04) respectively. Conclusions The present study showed higher prevalence of zinc deficiency among school children in eastern Nepal. In our study, zinc deficiency was associated with both sex and age. The findings from the present study will help to populate data for policy implementation regarding consumption and supplementation of zinc. PMID:24401366

  3. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

  4. Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Choi, Eun Hee; Aryal, Anu; Park, Myung Bae; Doh, Young Ah

    2015-10-01

    Different sociocultural barriers concerning women's health are still prevalent. Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. Our study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling and analyzed using SPSS. Reproductive health problems were observed according to the World Health Organization reproductive health protocol. Regression analysis was performed to show the association between relevant variables. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women's health. Further research on appropriate strategies against Chhaupadi and menstrual hygiene should be undertaken. PMID:26316503

  5. What does distance matter? Leprosy control in West Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M

    1988-01-01

    One of the major planks of leprosy control strategies is that distance from established treatment centres deters leprosy cases from seeking treatment. The integration of leprosy care with locally available primary health care services is therefore a common feature of leprosy control programmes. Within these guidelines, a National Leprosy Control Programme was established in Nepal in 1975, with intensive case-finding surveys and the provision of leprosy care in government basic health posts. A study of one district, Lamjung, in West Nepal suggests that far from being a deterrent, distance afforded welcome anonymity for leprosy cases anxious to disguise their diagnosis and thereby avoid the social ostracism which could result. Cases from ethnic groups in which the stigma of leprosy was high travelled farther for treatment. Gender differences in distance travelled suggest that women's mobility was restricted, but the local availability of care did not increase attendance for regular treatment. It is suggested that this was more the result of poor quality of care than fear of being known locally as a leprosy case. PMID:3353751

  6. Application of geologic-mathematical 3D modeling for complex structure deposits by the example of Lower- Cretaceous period depositions in Western Ust - Balykh oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertailo, T.; Nedolivko, N.; Prisyazhnyuk, O.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The complex structure of the Lower-Cretaceous formation by the example of the reservoir BC101 in Western Ust - Balykh Oil Field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District) has been studied. Reservoir range relationships have been identified. 3D geologic- mathematical modeling technique considering the heterogeneity and variability of a natural reservoir structure has been suggested. To improve the deposit geological structure integrity methods of mathematical statistics were applied, which, in its turn, made it possible to obtain equal probability models with similar input data and to consider the formation conditions of reservoir rocks and cap rocks.

  7. Typhoid vaccine introduction: An evidence-based pilot implementation project in Nepal and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Khan, Ghulam Mustafa; Bajracharya, Deepak; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Bhutta, Waqaas; Tahir, Rehman; Soofi, Sajid; Thapa, Chandra B; Joshi, Nilesh; Puri, Mahesh K; Shrestha, Parisha; Upreti, Shyam Raj; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-06-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 recommended the use of currently licensed typhoid vaccines using a high risk or targeted approach. The epidemiology of disease and the vaccine characteristics make school-based vaccination most feasible in reducing typhoid disease burden in many settings. To assess feasibility of school-based typhoid vaccination, two districts in Kathmandu, Nepal and two towns in Karachi, Pakistan were selected for pilot program. Vaccination campaigns were conducted through the departments of health and in partnerships with not-for-profit organizations. In total 257,015 doses of Vi polysaccharide vaccine were given to students in grades 1-10 of participating schools. The vaccination coverage ranged from 39 percent (38,389/99,503) in Gulshan town in Karachi, to 81 percent (62,615/77,341) in Bhaktapur in Kathmandu valley. No serious adverse event was reported post vaccination. The coverage increased for vaccination of the second district in Pakistan as well as in Nepal. There was an initial concern of vaccine safety. However, as the campaign progressed, parents were more comfortable with vaccinating their children in schools. Supported and conducted by departments of health in Pakistan and Nepal, a school-based typhoid vaccination was found to be safe and feasible. PMID:25937612

  8. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Nepal: A review.

    PubMed

    Kafle, M P; Lee, Vws

    2016-08-01

    Nepal is a small country that is landlocked between India and China. Several ethnic groups live within the 147,181 km(2) of this country. Geographic diversity ranges from the high Himalayas to the flatlands of the Ganges plains. Lupus nephritis (LN), a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a common kidney problem in Nepal; but the real incidence and prevalence of SLE in Nepal is largely not known. Here, it more commonly affects people (mostly women) living in the southern flatlands, but SLE is reported to be uncommon further south in India. Even though the disease appears to be common, good quality research is uncommon in Nepali literature. This article was written to provide a review of the articles published to date about SLE in Nepal and to discuss the gaps in knowledge that require further evaluation. PMID:26957353

  10. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  11. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-06-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  13. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  14. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  15. Projected integrated farm in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, K.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed integrated crop-livestock agro-processing complex to be based at Janakpur, Nepal is described. This project was proposed by the Agricultural Development Bank and is a small effort towards creating a self-sufficient rural community similar to one reported in China. The plan of the farm aims to achieve the integration of several agricultural, aquacultural, solar energy and biogas energy components with complete recycling of waste. These include biogas plants with associated slurry and storage tanks for operating a 3-kW generator, a 3.7-kW pump, providing domestic cooking, as well as energy to operate a fruit-processing plant. Energy for water heating, crop drying and refrigeration will be supplied by solar energy. Fish, livestock, fruits and vegetables will be produced by the farm.

  16. Non-surgical interventions for pelvic organ prolapse in rural Nepal: a prospective monitoring and evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Bhatta, Surya; Sherpa, Tenzing Y; Malla, Bishwo S; A Fitchett, Elizabeth J; Samen, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major cause of morbidity in Nepal, particularly affecting women in the rural communities. Women with POP in Nepal may suffer from symptoms for decades. At present, the Government of Nepal advocates surgical intervention but access to surgical care is inadequate. This report evaluated the feasibility of a non-surgical public health programme in rural Nepal, and describes risk factors associated with POP in this setting. Design Prospective monitoring and evaluation study of a new public health programme. Setting Baglung district, rural Nepal. Participants Women with gynaecological symptoms of POP. Main outcome measures Risk factors for disease progression were assessed using Fisher’s exact test, Pearson’s χ2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 74 women included in this analysis, 70.8% were diagnosed with stage 2 POP or greater. The majority of women did not have any further children following the onset of POP symptoms (63.5%). Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 months to 60 years, with 73.4% of women suffering for over 5 years and 28.4% suffering for over 20 years. Univariate analyses identified age at screening, age at onset of symptoms, the duration of symptoms and an associated rectocele as factors associated with increasing POP severity (p < 0.05). Kegel exercises were taught to 25 (33.8%) women with POP and ring pessaries were offered to 47 (63.5%) women with POP. Conclusions Non-surgical interventions may provide an opportunity to address the significant burden of POP in rural Nepal. PMID:26664731

  17. Navigating Diagnoses: Understanding Mind–Body Relations, Mental Health, and Stigma in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind–body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind–body holism in non-Western cultures, mind–body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind–body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind–body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, lastly, the role of mind–body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind–body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental healthcare. PMID:18784989

  18. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan

  19. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  20. Disabled women׳s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective there is little evidence about disabled women׳s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women׳s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

  1. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  2. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag ± Cu prospects in the western Fortymile district are spatially associated with splays of the northeast-trending Kechumstuk sinistral-normal fault zone and with ca. 68-66 Ma felsic intrusions and dikes. The similarity between Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from the Late Cretaceous igneous bodies and sulfides from the epithermal prospects suggests a Late Cretaceous age for most of the mineralization. Fluid flow along the faults undoubtedly played a major role in mineralization. We interpret displacement on the northeast-trending faults to be a far-field effect of dextral translation along Late Cretaceous plate-scale boundaries and faults that were roughly parallel to the subsequently developed Denali and Tintina fault systems, which currently bound the region.

  3. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  4. A staff support programme for rural hospitals in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sharada; Shakya, Rabina; Sundar Chansi, Bal; Shah, Kashim; Munday, Daniel; Eyal, Nir; Hayes, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem District hospitals in Nepal struggle to provide essential services such as caesarean sections. Approach Retention of health workers is critical to the delivery of long-term, quality health-care services. To promote retention and enhance performance in rural public hospitals, the Government of Nepal and the Nick Simons Institute progressively implemented a rural staff support programme in remote hospitals. After competitive selection for a compulsory-service scholarship and training, family practice doctors who could do basic surgery, orthopaedics and obstetrics were hired under a binding three-year contract in each participating hospital. Comfortable living quarters and an Internet connection were provided for the resident doctors; in-service training for all staff and capacity development for each hospital’s management committee were provided. Local setting Nepal’s mountainous landscape, poverty and inequitable rural/urban distribution of health workers pose barriers to adequate health care. Relevant changes Between 2011 and 2015 family practice doctors were maintained in all seven programme hospitals. All hospitals became providers of comprehensive emergency obstetric care and served more patients. Compared with hospitals not within the programme, deliveries increased significantly (203% versus 71% increase, respectively; P = 0.002). The programme recently expanded to 14 hospitals. Lessons learnt A package of human resource supports can improve the retention of doctors and the use of remote hospitals. Factors contributing to the success of this programme were compulsory-service scholarship, central personnel management, performance-based incentives and the provision of comfortable living quarters. PMID:26769998

  5. Operationalizing crop monitoring system for informed decision making related to food security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Shah, S. N. Pd.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Baidar, T.; Dhonju, K.; Hari, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    In Nepal, two thirds of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and more than one third of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes from the agriculture sector. However, effective agriculture production across the country remains a serious challenge due to various factors, such as a high degree of spatial and temporal climate variability, irrigated and rain-fed agriculture systems, farmers' fragile social and economic fabric, and unique mountain practices. ICIMOD through SERVIR-Himalaya initiative with collaboration of Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) is working on developing a comprehensive crop monitoring system which aims to provide timely information on crop growth and drought development conditions. This system analyzes historical climate and crop conditions patterns and compares this data with the current growing season to provide timely assessment of crop growth. Using remote sensing data for vegetation indices, temperature and rainfall, the system generated anomaly maps are inferred to predict the increase or shortfall in production. Comparisons can be made both spatially and in graphs and figures at district and Village Developmental Committee (VDC) levels. Timely information on possible anomaly in crop production is later used by the institutions like Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal and World Food Programme, Nepal to trigger appropriate management response. Future potential includes integrating data on agricultural inputs, socioeconomics, demographics, and transportation to holistically assess food security in the region served by SERVIR-Himalaya.

  6. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  7. Literacy and motivation for the prevention and control of hypertension among female community health volunteers: a qualitative study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Dinesh; Mclachlan, Craig S.; Gautam, Rupesh; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Thorlund, Michael; Schlütter, Mette; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Nepal. Thus, there is a need for a programme to improve primary healthcare. One possibility is to assign prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension to female community health volunteers (FCHVs). Objective To assess literacy and motivation to be involved in a hypertension prevention and control programme in Nepal among FCHVs. Design Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with a total of 69 FCHVs in Lekhnath municipality, Kaski district, Nepal. Seven themes were developed on the basis of data collection: 1) knowledge about hypertension; 2) risk factors of hypertension; 3) prevention and control of hypertension; 4) access to treatment for hypertension in the community; 5) learning about blood pressure measurement; 6) ability to raise blood pressure awareness in the community; 7) possible challenges for their future involvement. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Results FCHVs have some knowledge about diagnosis, risk factors, and complications of hypertension. General unanimity was observed in the understanding that hypertension and risk factors needed to be addressed. The willingness of FCHVs to contribute to prevention, control, and management was strong, and they were confident that with some basic training they could obtain skills in hypertension management. Conclusions Despite limited knowledge about hypertension, FCHVs expressed willingness and readiness to be trained in hypertension management. This study supports the possibility of involving FCHVs in prevention and control of hypertension in Nepal. PMID:26679406

  8. Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: Implications for Public Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people’s personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

  9. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

  10. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  11. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  12. Antenatal Care in Nepal: A Socioecological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Maleku, Arati; Pillai, Vijayan K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of women die during pregnancy and childbirth due to preventable causes. In Nepal, although significant improvements have been made in the availability of routine antenatal care (ANC), the need for effective initiatives still persists. Using the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the relationship between ecological and socioeconomic variations on the effect of ANC services between three distinct ecological zones in Nepal. We make a case for the consideration of socioecological niches in designing effective policies and programs to achieve positive maternal health outcomes. Most importantly, we demonstrate how sociocultural perspective can be one alternative for examining the cultural and contextual effects on women's health, contributing to the methodological literature on women's health. Since geography and culture are components of human ecology and form the larger socioecological system, we highlight the importance of these contextual effects on women's health in general, and the conditions under which women from diverse backgrounds may experience similar health issues. PMID:25412263

  13. An exemplary developing astronomy movement in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Sudeep

    2015-03-01

    Astronomy and space science education had been given least importance by Nepalese government in the past. The modern astronomy movement is believed to have started when an official observation programme of Haley's comet was organized by Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) in 1986. Following the huge pressure from the scientific community, the Nepal government (Kingdom of Nepal at that time) established B.P. Koirala Memorial Planetarium, Observatory and Science Museum Development Board in 1992. Initiatives of the project started with observatory set up and the development of astrophysics syllabus for university students. Astrophysics is included as an elective paper in the Physics masters course. The lead astrophysicist of Nepal Dr. Binil Aryal is running a research group in Tribhuvan University since 2005 which has a significant number of international publications. The developing government initiatives and achievements will be discussed. In 2007, a group of astronomy enthusiastic students along with amateurs working independently in past established Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO), which surprisingly increased the amateur activities and inspired other amateur groups to revive. During IYA 2009, more than 80 outreach and observation events were organized solely by NASO. NASO was able to collaborate with many international programmes and projects like GHOU/GTTP, EurAstro, AWB, UNAWE, SGAC, Star Peace, TWAN etc during and beyond IYA2009. Currently Nepal is recognized as the most eventful country of outreach and astronomy education among the amateur community. The success story of the astronomy movement and the local difficulties while organizing the events will be explained.

  14. Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with superintendents of eight charter-school districts in four states: California, Florida, Georgia, and New Mexico. Describes advantages and disadvantages. Includes a list (with website addresses) of all current charter-school districts. (PKP)

  15. Demand and access to mental health services: a qualitative formative study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is experiencing a significant ‘treatment gap’ in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. Methods This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. Conclusions This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME’s integrated care plan advocate strategic

  16. The organisation of health care in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bentley, H

    1995-06-01

    The focus of this paper is to examine the organisation of health care in Nepal from the literature available. After setting the study in context and examining health care in general, a more in-depth, look is taken at Primary Health Care (PHC) and how this recent emphasis is affecting nurse education. This leads into an analysis of whether or not nurses are the most appropriate personnel to deliver PHC. The fundamental issues of improving adult female literacy rates and providing a clean water supply are suggested as means whereby Nepal's health provision could be greatly improved. PMID:7665314

  17. Biogas in Nepal--Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, D.K.

    1983-12-01

    The tremendous need and potential of biogas in Nepal, supported by a very large cattle population, seems to be primarily limited by manpower and budgetary constraints and poor planning and implementation. Besides cooking and lighting, considerable potential, particularly at the rural level exists for biogas powered agro-processing applications such as rice hulling, oil expelling and flour grinding. Experience has shown that such applications, for which equipment is easily available, can be better served by community Biogas plants. The government of Nepal, with assistance from international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank, is strengthening the Biogas Company and taking other appropriate measures to disseminate and establish biogas on a firm footing.

  18. Communicating Astronomy With Public in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the mode of communications that Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) implemented during 2007-2014 for promoting science and technology in Nepal with astronomy as a key tool.Camparatve study between the role of old media and new media for astronomy communication will be discussed. The role of new media and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to foster astronomy communication with the public with some case studies will be discussed in detail. Proposed model of integrating both old and old media with smooth transition between these communication channels will be presented and discuss in brief.

  19. NASA Response to Nepal Quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, E.; Webb, F.; Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Goodman, H. M.; Molthan, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the hours following the magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake on April 25, 2015, NASA and its partners began the process of assessing their ability to provide actionable data from a variety of space resources and scientific capabiltiies in order to provide responders with actionable information to assist in the relief and humanitarian operations. Working with the USGS, NGA, ASI, and JAXA, in the hours and days following the event, the team generated a number of scientific data products that were distributed to organizations responding to the event. Data included, ground based geodetic observations, optical and radar data from international and domestic partners, to compile a variety of products, including "vulnerability maps," used to determine risks that may be present, and "damage proxy maps," used to determine the type and extent of existing damage. This talk will focus on the response process, highlighting some of the products generated and distributed and lessons learned that would be useful for responding to future events that would improve the effectiveness of such a broad, agency wide response.

  20. Monsoon Rainfall and Landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, R. K.; Hasegawa, S.; Bhandary, N. P.; Yatabe, R.

    2009-12-01

    A large number of human settlements on the Nepal Himalayas are situated either on old landslide mass or on landslide-prone areas. As a result, a great number of people are affected by large- and small-scale landslides all over the Himalayas especially during monsoon periods. In Nepal, only in the half monsoon period (June 10 to August 15), 70, 50 and 68 people were killed from landslides in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. In this context, this paper highlights monsoon rainfall and their implications in the Nepal Himalaya. In Nepal, monsoon is major source of rainfall in summer and approximately 80% of the annual total rainfall occurs from June to September. The measured values of mean annual precipitation in Nepal range from a low of approximately 250 mm at area north of the Himalaya to many areas exceeding 6,000 mm. The mean annual rainfall varying between 1500 mm and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. In Nepal, the daily distribution of precipitation during rainy season is also uneven. Sometime 10% of the total annual precipitation can occur in a single day. Similarly, 50% total annual rainfall also can occur within 10 days of monsoon. This type of uneven distribution plays an important role in triggering many landslides in Nepal. When spatial distribution of landslides was evaluated from record of more than 650 landslides, it is found that more landslides events were concentrated at central Nepal in the area of high mean annual rainfall. When monsoon rainfall and landslide relationship was taken into consideration, it was noticed that a considerable number of landslides were triggered in the Himalaya by continuous rainfall of 3 to 90 days. It has been noticed that continuous rainfall of few days (5 days or 7 days or 10 days) are usually responsible for landsliding in the Nepal Himalaya. Monsoon rains usually fall with interruptions of 2-3 days and are generally characterized by low intensity and long duration. Thus, there is a strong role of

  1. Major Delays in the Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis Patients in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Roshan Kumar; Vaeteewootacharn, Kriangsak; Koju, Rajendra; Bhattarai, Ratna

    2015-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis is a determining factor for spread of tuberculosis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis geometrically increases spread and infectivity of the disease and is associated with higher risk of mortality. Aim The present study aimed to investigate the length of delays in diagnosis and treatment among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in central development region of Nepal. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of structured questionnaire interview and reviewing the medical records of the new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases during January–May 2015. Simple random sampling was applied to select samples from 5 districts of 19 districts comprising at least one each from 3 ecological regions of Nepal. Results A total of 374 new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were included in the study. The median patient delay, health system delay, and total delay were 32 days, 3 days and 39.5 days respectively. The unacceptable patients delay was 53.21% (95% CI: 48.12-58.29) of all new patients, whereas it was 26.74% (95% CI: 22.23-31.24) for the unacceptable health system delay and the unacceptable total delay was 62.83% (95% CI: 57.91-67.75). Conclusion TB diagnosis and treatment is still a significant problem of Nepal. Majority of unacceptable delays were from patients. Identifying factors influencing delays and developing evidence-based approaches to address those delays will help in advancing tuberculosis prevention and management in low-income settings. PMID:26557545

  2. Girls' and Women's Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…

  3. Issues in Nursing Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Data from questionnaires and interviews indicated that nursing education in Nepal faces issues similar to those faced in Canada. These include changing student attitudes, getting men into the profession, maintaining standards, and coping with changed nurses' roles as economic changes transform health care. (SK)

  4. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  5. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  6. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  7. Internationalizing the Curriculum: Study in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenaar, Theodore C.; Subedi, Janardan

    1996-01-01

    Describes a program of summer study in Nepal that exposes students to a multicultural and international perspective. Examines the content, goals, and objectives of the program. The objectives include active learning, structuring learning communities, and developing higher-order thinking skills. Provides suggestions for setting up similar programs.…

  8. Comparative Education and Development: Reflections from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parajuli, Mahesh Nath; Wagley, Mana Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Relation between education and development has been recognized in Nepal since the beginning of planned development efforts and the modern schooling at mass level. Both were initiated during 1950s. Beginning of Development Studies in MPhil and PhD in Education in School of Education, Kathmandu University focused exploring such relationships in a…

  9. Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, B

    1993-01-01

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize

  10. Population Genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the Origin of the Haitian Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Price, Lance B.; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Engelthaler, David M.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E.; Prasad Upadhyay, Bishnu; Devi Shrestha, Sirjana; Adhikari, Shailaja; Shakya, Geeta; Keim, Paul S.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks. PMID:21862630

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Dengue Fever among the Healthy Population of Highland and Lowland Communities in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences. Principal Findings Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001). Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001). Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05), and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05). Conclusion Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country. PMID:25007284

  12. Population genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: evidence on the origin of the Haitian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Price, Lance B; Schupp, James M; Gillece, John D; Kaas, Rolf S; Engelthaler, David M; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Adhikari, Shailaja; Shakya, Geeta; Keim, Paul S; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks. PMID:21862630

  13. Malaria and Helminth Co-Infections in School and Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Magu District, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. Methodology School and pre-school children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Stool samples were examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH infections using Kato Katz technique. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium using the urine filtration method. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemoque methods, respectively. Principal Findings Out of 1,546 children examined, 1,079 (69.8%) were infected with one or more parasites. Malaria-helminth co-infections were observed in 276 children (60% of all children with P. falciparum infection). Malaria parasites were significantly more prevalent in hookworm infected children than in hookworm free children (p = 0.046). However, this association was non-significant on multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 1.320, p = 0.064). Malaria parasite density decreased with increasing infection intensity of S. mansoni and with increasing number of co-infecting helminth species. Anaemia prevalence was 34.4% and was significantly associated with malaria infection, S. haematobium infection and with multiple parasite infections. Whereas S. mansoni infection was a significant predictor of malaria parasite density, P. falciparum and S. haematobium infections were significant predictors of anaemia. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that multiple parasite infections are common in school and pre-school children in Magu district. Concurrent

  14. Assessment of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis and community directed treatment with Ivermectin in Quara District, north western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has been working with ultimate goal of reducing the public health and socio-economic problems associated with onchocerciasis within a period of 12–15 years. Although dedicated community engagement is crucial for the success of the program, there is little/no information on the levels of community’s knowledge, attitude and practice about onchocerciasis as well as about the ongoing control program in Ethiopia. In this study, we have assessed the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Quara district residents about onchocerciasis and the current control strategies in the area. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2012 and January 2013 in Quara District, Amhara Regional State, North West of Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from randomly selected kebeles (small administrative units) of the study area and were interviewed about onchocerciasis and about community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) using structured questionnaire. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using EpiData software, V.3.1. The data were transferred to SPSS soft-ware V.16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results Out of 418 respondents, 401 (95.9%) of the respondents have heard about onchocerciasis (locally known as ‘wara’) and 11.2% said that they knew about the etiology of the disease, which was named as filarial worm. However, 356 (88.8%) had at least one misconception about the causative agent of onchocerciasis. More than half (69.4%) knew that the transmission of the disease is related to black fly biting. Overall, 93.3% participants believed that onchocerciasis is preventable, of whom 49.5% indicated use of drug as the means of preventing the disease. Majority (95.5%) of the participants perceived CDTI as very useful program. Conclusion Although onchocerciasis is endemic disease in the study area, large

  15. Slip deficit in central Nepal: omen for a repeat of the 1344 AD earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sapkota, S. N.; Klinger, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In 1255, 1344, and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934, and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's age inheritance, we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, east of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal broke in a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries, with ruptures that propagated up to the surface from east to west. Today's situation in the Himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the fourteenth century.

  16. Crustal extension and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, northern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Bryan Patrick

    Silicic large igneous provinces are significant in the geologic record, due to their unusually extensive areal coverage (>100,000 km2) and large volumes (>250,000 km3), and may be characteristic of continental regions undergoing broad lithospheric extension. The Sierra Madre Occidental of northwestern Mexico is the biggest and best-preserved silicic large igneous province of the Cenozoic and is considered part of the extensive mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up that affected much of the southwestern North American Cordillera. Despite its size and preservation, very little is known about the geology of the Sierra Madre Occidental, and the timing and spatial extent of ignimbrite flare-up volcanism in relation to crustal extension is relatively unknown. This study presents new geologic mapping, stratigraphy, zircon U-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS dating, modal analysis, and geochemical data from the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, two adjacent areas of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental in western Chihuahua. The rock exposure and topographic relief in this previously unmapped ~450 km2 area make it ideal for studying the relationships between silicic large igneous province volcanism and crustal extension. Three informal formations are identified in the study area: (1) the ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, a ~1-km-thick succession of primarily welded silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets erupted from sources within ~50--100 km of the study area that were active during the Early Oligocene pulse of the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up; (2) the ca. 27--24.5 Ma Temoris formation, composed primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate lavas and associated intrusions with interbedded alluvial deposits, likely related to rocks of the Southern Cordillera basaltic andesite province that were intermittently erupted across all of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental following the Early Oligocene ignimbrite pulse; and (3) the ca. 24.5--23 Ma Sierra Guazapares

  17. Structural, mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the atypical komatiite-hosted Turret deposit in the Agnew-Mt. White district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, F.; Thébaud, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the Norseman-Wiluna belt, Yilgarn Craton, the Agnew-Mt. White district is the host of many gold deposits. Located in the hinge of the regional Lawlers anticline, the Turret gold deposit is structurally controlled by the Table Hill shear zone that transects the Agnew Ultramafic unit. Geochemistry, coupled with petrographic data, allowed the delineation of the paragenetic sequence associated with gold mineralisation and include (1) a pervasive talc-carbonate alteration assemblage, (2) a pre-mineralisation stage associated with pervasive arsenopyrite + chalcopyrite + pyrrhotite + pyrite alteration, followed by (3) a late deformation event along a dilatational segment of the main Table Hill shear zone, leading to the formation of a breccia hosting a Cu-Bi-Mo-Au (± Ag ± Zn ± Te ± W) metal assemblage. The presence of Au-Ag-Cu alloys, native bismuth, chalcopyrite and other Bi-Te-S phases in the mineralisation stage suggest that gold may have been scavenged from the hydrothermal fluids by composite Bi-Te-Cu-Au-Ag-S liquids or melts. Using this mineral paragenetic sequence, together with mineralogical re-equilibration textures observed, we show that the gold deposition at Turret occurred over a temperature range approximately between c. 350 and 270 °C. This temperature range, together with the structural control and typical mesothermal alteration pattern including carbonate-chlorite alteration, shows that the Turret deposit shares common characteristics with the orogenic gold deposit class. However, the metal association of Cu, Au, Bi, and Mo, the quartz-poor, and high copper-sulphide content (up to 15 %) are characteristics that depart from the typical orogenic gold deposit mineralogy. Through comparison with similar deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and worldwide, we propose that the Turret deposit represents an example of a porphyry-derived Au-Cu-Bi-Mo deposit.

  18. Developing community-based intervention strategies and package to save newborns in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kc, A; Thapa, K; Pradhan, Y V; Kc, N P; Upreti, S R; Adhikari, R K; Khadka, N; Acharya, B; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Starbuck, E; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Devkota, M D

    2011-10-01

    Safe Motherhood and Child survival programs that are currently operating at scale. Under Ministry of health and Population leadership, a network of academia, professional bodies and partners developed a common vision for improving newborn health and survival, and launched district-level pilot programs to demonstrate and learn how newborn health interventions could be effectively and efficiently delivered and scaled up in Nepal. PMID:22929839

  19. Risk of flood-related mortality in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; West, Keith P; Katz, Joanne; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2007-03-01

    In July 1993, severe flooding devastated Sarlahi district in Nepal. The next month, a follow-up study of a large population cohort was undertaken. The study is unique in that a prospective research database was used to verify residency prior to the flood and to confirm vital status afterwards. It evaluated 41,501 children aged between two and nine years and adults aged 15-70 in 7,252 households. Flood-related fatality rates were 13.3 per 1,000 for girls and 9.4 per 1,000 for boys, 6.1 per 1,000 for women and 4.1 per 1,000 for men. Flood-related fatality rates for children were six times higher than mortality rates in the same villages a year before the flood (relative risk (RR) = 5.9, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 5.0-6.8). Flood-related fatality was associated with low socio-economic status preflood (RR = 6.4, 95 per cent CI 2.7-20.0), and having a house constructed of thatch (RR = 5.1, 95 per cent CI 1.7-24.5). PMID:17367374

  20. Factors associated with place of delivery in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Promotion of institutional delivery is a key intervention in reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal and neonatal health. This study explored factors associated with institutional delivery in rural Nepal. Method A household survey was conducted in three rural Village Development Committees of Kavrepalanchowk district to identify the individual, household and health service factors associated with the institutional delivery. All 240 eligible mothers from the study area were interviewed during the study period. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to establish the factor associated with the institutional delivery, the outcome variable. Results Antenatal care practice, adverse pregnancy outcome, ethnicity and time taken to reach the health institution were significantly associated with the institutional delivery. Utilization of an antenatal care service had the greatest effect on institutional delivery. Conclusion Universal antenatal care service utilization may be a critical intervention for increasing institutional delivery. There is a need to raise awareness in hard-to-reach areas where adverse pregnancy outcomes is not considered a serious event. PMID:24708511

  1. Ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about HIV among Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong, Lahu and Northern Thai in a north-western Thailand border district

    PubMed Central

    Kunstadter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities. PMID:23930982

  2. Ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about HIV among Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong, Lahu and Northern Thai in a north-western Thailand border district.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities. PMID:23930982

  3. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested

  4. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  5. Structure and timing of Neoarchean gold mineralization in the Southern Cross district (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) suggest leading role of late Low-Ca I-type granite intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doublier, Michael P.; Thébaud, Nicolas; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Romano, Sandra S.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Gessner, Klaus; Mole, David R.; Evans, Noreen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of structurally controlled lode-gold deposits is a controversial subject with both magmatic and metamorphic fluids considered a feasible source for gold. Here we present a study from the Southern Cross district (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia), where structurally controlled Neoarchean gold deposits are hosted in amphibolite facies greenstones. We combine geochronological data with structural analysis to constrain the timing and structural control of ore deposition. We show that gold mineralization took place between c. 2638 and 2630 Ma, contemporaneous with the onset of voluminous intrusions of Low-Ca, I-type granites, which are ubiquitous in Southern Cross and elsewhere in the Yilgarn Craton. We argue that the timing of the intrusions, their spatial association with gold deposits, their chemical composition, and isotopic signature are consistent with Low-Ca granites being a major fluid source for mineralization. We propose that the fluid release by cooling plutons was facilitated by transport along active amphibolite facies shear zones. As gold mineralization was synchronous with Low-Ca magmatism across large areas of the Yilgarn Craton, our model may be applicable to orogenic gold deposits in other parts of the Yilgarn Craton as well as other Archean granite-greenstone terrains with a 'late granite bloom'.

  6. Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assess Climate Change Impacts to Mixed Agro-Livestock Smallholders Around the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change vulnerability depends upon various factors and differs between places, sectors and communities. People in developing countries whose subsistence livelihood depends upon agriculture and livestock are identified as particularly vulnerable. Nepal, where the majority of people are in a mixed agro-livestock system, is identified as the world's fourth most vulnerable country to climate change. However, there are few studies on how vulnerable mixed agro-livestock smallholders are and how their vulnerability differs across different ecological regions. This study aims to test two vulnerability assessment indices, livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and IPCC vulnerability index (VI-IPCC), around the Gandaki river basin of Nepal. A total of 543 households practicing mixed agro-livestock were surveyed from three districts (Dhading, Syangja and Kapilvastu) representing the mountain, mid-hill and lowland altitudinal belts respectively. Data on socio-demographics, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability were collected. Both indices differed across the three districts, with mixed agro-livestock smallholders of Dhading district found to be the most vulnerable and that of Syangja least vulnerable. This vulnerability index approach may be used to monitor rural vulnerability and/or evaluate potential program/policy effectiveness in poor countries like Nepal. The present findings are intended to help in designing intervention strategies to reduce vulnerability of mixed agro-livestock smallholders and other rural people in developing countries to climate change.

  7. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  8. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Stevenson, Jennifer; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds); five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds). Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR) at baseline and 8 wk (16 June–6 July 2012) and 16 wk (21 August–10 September 2012) post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187). We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI −1.3 to 21.7%) inside hotspots 8 wk post

  9. Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

    2011-09-01

    Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

  10. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  11. Annotated Checklist of the Terrestrial Gastropods of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is the very first checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Nepal. It includes 138 species and six subspecies, of which 22 species are endemic and four are introduced. It highlights 34 species recorded for the first time in Nepal and provides new distribution records for another 30 species. PMID:25878541

  12. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Committee, Kathmandu (Nepal).

    The 1971-76 National Education System Plan to modernize education in Nepal and the 1975-1980 Fifth Plan of His Majesty's Government, emphasizing vocational education to meet the country's technical manpower needs, are attempts to make education relevant to the needs and aspirations of Nepal by linking education with productive enterprise and…

  13. Dating and Sex among Emerging Adults in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Pramod R.; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Simkhada, Padam; Acharya, Dev R.

    2011-01-01

    Social and cultural changes in Nepal, including better communication facilities and transport, more urbanization and a rising age at which people marry, have created more opportunities for young people for "dating." Our qualitative study explores whether the existence of dating cultures influences young people's sexual behavior in Nepal. Focus…

  14. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the inequitable…

  15. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  16. Iodine status after iodized salt supplementation in schoolchildren of eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Khatiwada, Saroj; Shakya, Prem Raj; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the urinary iodine concentrations of schoolchildren at baseline and after iodized salt supplementation in eastern region of Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 to July 2011 among schoolchildren of three eastern districts of Nepal: Sunsari, Dhankuta, and Tehrathum. A sample of 828 school age children from the three districts was chosen for the study after obtaining written consent from their guardians. The schoolchildren treatment group (n=300) was provided with a supplement of iodized salt for six months. Urinary iodine concentration was estimated by ammonium persulfate digestion microplate method at baseline and after supplementation. Urinary iodine controls L1, L2 (Seronorm, Norway) were analyzed to obtain intra-assay CVs (L1 = 7.4%, L2 = 3.3%) and inter assay CVs (L1=23.5%, L2=11.26%). Median interquartile range urinary iodine concentration in the three districts: Sunsari, Dhankuta and Tehrathum at baseline versus intervention were 272.0 (131.5-473.0) microg/l versus 294.0 (265.0-304.0) microg/l (p=0.379), 247.0 (144.5-332.32) versus 361.0 (225.66-456.52) microg/l (p<0.001), and 349.5 (203.75-458.09) microg/l versus 268.76 (165.30-331.67) microg/l (p<0.001), respectively. This study indicated improved iodine status and increased median urinary iodine concentration after iodized salt supplementation. Regular monitoring of population urinary iodine concentration at national and regional levels should be performed to ensure that all individuals have optimal delivery of iodine nutrition. PMID:24450245

  17. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal. PMID:22929840

  18. Demographic situation and development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhanang, A L

    1983-01-01

    In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population

  19. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Nepal, 2001–2013: systematic review and secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of road traffic injury (RTI) in Nepal for the period 2001–2013. Methods 2 approaches, secondary data analysis and systematic literature review, were adopted. RTI data were retrieved from traffic police records and analysed for the incidence of RTI. Electronic databases were searched for published articles that described the epidemiology of RTI in Nepal. Results A total of 95 902 crashes, 100 499 injuries and 14 512 deaths were recorded by the traffic police over the 12-year period, 2001–2013. The mortality rate increased from 4/100 000 population in 2001–2002 to 7/100 000 population in 2011–2012. There were relatively more reported crashes yet fewer deaths in Kathmandu valley than the rest of the country. Of the 20 articles related to RTI, only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria, but these were mainly descriptive case series or cross-sectional hospital-based studies. The majority of RTI were reported to occur among motorcyclists and pedestrians, in males, and in the age group 20–40 years. The common sites of injury were lower and upper extremities. Only 3 articles mentioned possible causes of accidents that include pedestrian road behaviour, alcohol consumption and improper bus driving. Conclusions Nepal suffers a heavy burden of RTI, with higher fatalities on highways out of Kathmandu valley caused by bus crashes in hilly districts. The majority of published studies on RTI are descriptive and hospital based, indicating the need for more thorough investigation of causes of RTI and systematic recording of crashes for the development of effective interventions. PMID:27084283

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Achyut Raj; Devkota, Surya

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in newly declared municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal. Design, Settings, and Participants. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the municipalities of Kathmandu District, Nepal, between January and July 2015. Study participants were aged 18 to 70 years, residing permanently in the study sites. Municipalities, Wards, households, and respondents were selected randomly. Results. Of the 587 participants, 58.8% were females, mean (SD) age was 42.3 (13.5) years, 29.3% had no formal education, 35.1% were Brahmins, and 41.2% were homemakers. Prevalence of hypertension was 32.5% (95% CI: 28.7–36.3). Age, gender, education, ethnicity, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diabetes, menopausal history, and family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariable analysis, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes were identified as significant explanatory variables for hypertension. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the people living in newly established municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal, have a high burden of hypertension as well as its associated factors. Therefore, community-based preventive approaches like lifestyle modification and early detection and treatment of hypertension might bring a substantial change in tackling the burden effectively. PMID:27293880

  1. Locking degree and slip rate deficit distribution on MHT fault before 2015 Nepal Mw 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanchuan; Song, Xiaogang; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    The spatial pattern and rate of strain accumulation on a fault during the pre- and inter-seismic phases are very important for interpreting the mechanism of earthquakes and evaluating seismic potentials. Here we use global positioning system (GPS) data and the block-dislocation model to invert for the locking degree and slip rate deficit of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault in the southern margin of Tibet before the 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal earthquake. Results show that the locking depth and slip rate deficit increase from the west to the east. Along the western segment of the MHT fault (80°E-84°E), the locking depth is estimated to be 12-17 km with a slip rate deficit of 0-5 mm/a; along the central Nepal segment (84°E-87°E), the locking depth is 16-21 km with a slip rate deficit of 6-10 mm/a, whilst along the eastern segment (87°E-90°E), the locking depth increases to 23-26 km with a slip rate deficit of 8-13 mm/a. The 2015 Nepal earthquake initiated at the boundary between the western and central segments, an area with as where the slip rate deficit varies dramatically from 0 to 9 mm/a within 50 km resulting in high energy gradients. High strain concentration along the central and eastern segments leads to unilateral propagation of the rupture to the east. Given the paucity of large seismic events over the previous decades and the current high slip rate deficit, seismic hazard on the eastern Nepal segment remains high.

  2. Student feedback on the use of paintings in Sparshanam, the Medical Humanities module at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paintings have been used in Medical Humanities modules in Nepal at Manipal College of Medical Sciences and KIST Medical College. Detailed participant feedback about the paintings used, the activities carried out, problems with using paintings and the role of paintings in future modules has not been previously done. Hence the present study was carried out. Methods The present module for first year medical students was conducted from February to August 2010 at KIST Medical College, Nepal. Paintings used were by Western artists and obtained from the Literature, Arts and Medicine database. The activities undertaken by the students include answering the questions 'What do you see' and 'What do you feel' about the painting, creating a story of 100 words about the scene depicted, and interpreting the painting using role plays and poems/songs. Feedback was not obtained about the last two activities. In August 2010 we obtained detailed feedback about the paintings used. Results Seventy-eight of the 100 students (78%) participated. Thirty-four students (43.6%) were male. The most common overall comments about the use of paintings were "they helped me feel what I saw" (12 respondents), "enjoyed the sessions" (12 respondents), "some paintings were hard to interpret" (10 respondents) and "were in tune with module objectives" (10 respondents). Forty-eight (61.5%) felt the use of western paintings was appropriate. Suggestions to make annotations about paintings more useful were to make them shorter and more precise, simplify the language and properly introduce the artist. Forty-one students (52.6%) had difficulty with the exercise 'what do you feel'. Seventy-four students (94.9%) wanted paintings from Nepal to be included. Conclusions Participant response was positive and they were satisfied with use of paintings in the module. Use of more paintings from Nepal and South Asia can be considered. Further studies may be required to understand whether use of paintings

  3. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies. PMID:11915967

  4. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  5. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  6. Women's Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with Intended Future Utilization.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Deepak; Dariang, Maureen; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Poudel, Pradeep; King, Stuart; Barnett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women's satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women's satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (<0.001) showed strong associations with willingness to return to facility. The findings suggest improving physical environment and interpersonal communication skills of service providers and reducing waiting time for improving client satisfaction and intention to return to the health facility. PMID:26640814

  7. Public Health Responses to a Dengue Outbreak in a Fragile State: A Case Study of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Karolina; Banjara, Megha Raj; O'Dempsey, T.; Munslow, B.; Kroeger, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The number of countries reporting dengue cases is increasing worldwide. Nepal saw its first dengue outbreak in 2010, with 96% of cases reported in three districts. There are numerous policy challenges to providing an effective public health response system in a fragile state. This paper evaluates the dengue case notification, surveillance, laboratory facilities, intersectoral collaboration, and how government and community services responded to the outbreak. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through 20 in-depth interviews, with key stakeholders, and two focus-group discussions, with seven participants. Results. Limitations of case recognition included weak diagnostic facilities and private hospitals not incorporated into the case reporting system. Research on vectors was weak, with no virological surveillance. Limitations of outbreak response included poor coordination and an inadequate budget. There was good community mobilization and emergency response but no routine vector control. Conclusions. A weak state has limited response capabilities. Disease surveillance and response plans need to be country-specific and consider state response capacity and the level of endemicity. Two feasible solutions for Nepal are (1) go upwards to regional collaboration for disease and vector surveillance, laboratory assistance, and staff training; (2) go downwards to expand upon community mobilisation, ensuring that vector control is anticipatory to outbreaks. PMID:23690789

  8. Seasonal Dietary Intakes and Socioeconomic Status among Women in the Terai of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Rebecca K.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Wu, Lee S.F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite widespread nutritional deficiencies, investigations of usual diet in rural South Asia remain sparse. The present study characterizes year-round and seasonal dietary patterns of women in the Terai of Nepal by sociodemographic status, using a novel, weekly single-visit and usual food frequency questionnaire that links recall to the agricultural season. The study was conducted across seasons in 2006-2008 among 15,899 women of reproductive age in Sarlahi district. Intakes were tabulated for all foods, overall and by socioeconomic status (SES), and in and out of season, as appropriate. Foods consumed regularly [median (interquartile range) weekly frequency] were rice [13 (7-13)], potatoes [10 (5-13)], legumes [6 (2-9)], and vegetable oil [13 (13-13)]. Animal products were infrequently consumed [1 (0-2) time per week] as were fruits and vegetables, most with a median weekly intake frequency of 0. Higher SES was associated with more frequent consumption of most food-groups, including in-season fruits and vegetables. Diets of women in the Terai of Nepal lack diversity and, likely, nutrient adequacy, which may pose health risks. PMID:25076658

  9. Women's Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with Intended Future Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Deepak; Dariang, Maureen; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Poudel, Pradeep; King, Stuart; Barnett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women's satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women's satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (<0.001) showed strong associations with willingness to return to facility. The findings suggest improving physical environment and interpersonal communication skills of service providers and reducing waiting time for improving client satisfaction and intention to return to the health facility. PMID:26640814

  10. Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850

  11. Communicating Climate Change - Weather Forecast Need Assessment and Information Dissemination Mechanism to Farmers in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate Change is becoming one of the major threats to the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. It is affecting all sectors mainly fresh water, agriculture, forest, biodiversity and species. The subsistence agriculture system of Nepal is mainly rain-fed; therefore, climate change and climate extremes do have direct impacts on it. Weather extremes like droughts, floods and landslides long-lasting fog, hot and cold waves are affecting the agriculture sectors of Nepal. As human-induced climate change has already showing its impacts and it is going to be there for a long time to come, it is paramount importance to move towards the adaptation. Early warning system is an effective way for reducing the impacts of disasters. Forecasting of weather parameters (temperature, precipitation, and wind) helps farmers for their preparedness activities. With consultation with farmers and other relevant institutions, a research project was carried out, for the first time in Nepal, to identify the forecast information need to farmers and their dissemination mechanism. Community consultation workshops, key informant survey, and field observations were the techniques used for this research. Two ecological locations: Bageshwori VDC in Banke (plain) and Dhaibung VDC in Rasuwa (mountain) were taken as the pilot sites for this assessment. People in both the districts are dependent highly on agriculture and the weather extremes like hailstone, untimely rainfall; droughts are affecting their agriculture practices. They do not have confidence in the weather forecast information disseminated by the government of Nepal currently being done because it is a general forecast not done for a smaller domain and the forecast is valid only for 24 hours. The weather forecast need to the farmers in both the sites are: rainfall (intensity, duration and time), drought, and hailstone but in Banke, people wished to have the information of heat and cold waves too as they are affecting their wheat and tomato crops

  12. Spectrum of surgical trauma and associated head injuries at a university hospital in eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, A; Agrawal, A; Yam, BR; Agrawal, CS; Lewis, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trauma is one of the common surgical emergencies presenting at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal, a tertiary referral center catering to the needs of the population of Eastern Nepal and nearby districts of India. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude, epidemiological, clinical profile and outcome of trauma at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive case series study includes all patients with history of trauma coming to BPKIHS emergency and referred to the surgery department. We noted the detailed clinical history and examination, demographics, mechanism of injury, nature of injury, time of reporting in emergency, treatment offered (operative or non operative management) and analyzed details of operative procedure (i.e. laparotomy, thoracotomy, craniotomy etc.), average length of hospital stay, morbidity and outcome (according to Glasgow outcome scale). Collected data were analyzed using EpiInfo 2000 statistical software. Results: There were 1848 patients eligible to be included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 28.9 ± 19.3 years. Majority of the patients (38%) belonged to the age group of 21 - 40 years and the male to female ratio was 2.7:1. Most of the trauma victims were students (30%) followed by laborers (27%) and farmers (22%) respectively. The commonest causes of injury were fall from height (39%), road traffic accident (38%) and physical assault (18%); 78% of the patients were managed conservatively and 22% underwent operative management. Postoperative complications were seen in 18%. Wound infection 7.5%, neurological deficit including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otrorrhea was seen in 2.2% patients. Good recovery was seen in 84%, moderate disability in 5.2% patients and severe disability in 1.4% patients. The mortally was 6.3% and most of the deaths were related to traumatic brain injuries. Conclusions: In Nepal, trauma-related injury

  13. Nepal Earthquake: Exploring some of the Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Pranab; Sundar De, Syam; Paul, Suman; Ghosh, Abhijit; Guha, Gautam

    2016-07-01

    The characteristic variations of different meteorological parameters during the period of Nepal earthquakes having M=7.8 occurred on April 25, 2015 and M=7.3 on May 12, 2015 are presented. The results are interpreted in terms of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling processes occurred due to thermal anomalies in the event of major earthquakes. These are reported in terms of thermodynamic properties within the lower ionosphere. The differences in the results are explained through the emission of α-particle from Rn ^{222}.

  14. Promoting Landspace Astrophotography for Dark Sky Preservation in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwa, Manisha; Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper will present astrophotography and dark sky preservation initiatives and its impact in Nepal. It will highlight the astrophotography and the dark skies Initiatives of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since 2007. Some case studies from the landspace astrophotography by TWAN, EurAstro Mission and others promoted by NASO will be discussed in details. It will also present our collaborative approach with the media to take the idea of dark sky peservation to Nepalese Community in the country and abroad. Some success stories linked with UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Nepal will be discussed in brief. Our appreach of introducing such photography as a tool for astronomy communication will be discussed.

  15. Predictors of micronutrient powder sachet coverage in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Perrine, Cria G

    2015-12-01

    Many countries implement micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes to improve the nutritional status of young children. Little is known about the predictors of MNP coverage for different delivery models. We describe MNP coverage of an infant and young child feeding and MNP intervention for children aged 6-23 months comparing two delivery models piloted in rural Nepal: distributing MNPs either by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or at health facilities (HFs). Cross-sectional household cluster surveys were conducted in four pilot districts among mothers of children 6-23 months after starting MNP distribution. FCHVs in each cluster were also surveyed. We used logistic regression to describe predictors of initial coverage (obtaining a batch of 60 MNP sachets) at 3 months and repeat coverage (≥2 times coverage among eligible children) at 15 months after project launch. At 15 months, initial and repeat coverage were higher in the FCHV model, although no differences were observed at 3 months. Attending an FCHV-led mothers' group meeting where MNP was discussed increased odds of any coverage in both models at 3 months and of repeat coverage in the HF model at 15 months. Perceiving ≥1 positive effects in the child increased odds of repeat coverage in both delivery models. A greater portion of FCHV volunteers from the FCHV model vs. the HF model reported increased burden at 3 and 15 months (not statistically significant). Designing MNP programmes that maximise coverage without overburdening the system can be challenging and more than one delivery model may be needed. PMID:26332845

  16. Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport in Extreme Precipitation Events in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, K.; Endreny, T. A.; Ferguson, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    In the future, IPCC global climate models project increased frequency of atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are concentrated bands of high moisture known to cause extreme precipitation and flooding events. While ARs have been studied in the United States (US) and Europe using reanalyses and satellite remote sensing, few if any studies have applied an AR analysis framework to regions in South Asia. In this research, we develop and test AR detection algorithms for Nepal by modifying a proven algorithm used in the western US and Europe. Nepal faces challenges in forecasting extreme precipitation events due to the region's complex topography and lack of forecasting infrastructure. Accordingly, any tools that can lead to enhanced lead time of extreme weather forecasts, or help guide water management decisions, will have a substantial positive impact on the region's coping ability. Our AR algorithm uses ERA-Interim reanalysis data to compute integrated water vapor transport (kg m-1s-1) and determine the latitude specific threshold values, for four seasons. After detecting AR events, we test if those events correlate with observed extreme daily precipitation events. Extreme precipitation is determined annually and for non-monsoon months. Our initial results indicate that ARs coincide with extreme precipitation mostly in the cold season. We are extending our analyses to better understand how ARs relate to extreme precipitation events in all seasons. New methods to monitor the role of ARs in precipitation events will help manage water resources, which is critical given the melting of Himalayan glaciers that feed major watersheds of Nepal. In addition to understanding extreme events, our study will also aid in a better understanding of seasonal climate anomalies and the global water cycle.

  17. Joint inversion of teleseismic, geodetic, and near-field waveform datasets for rupture process of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-04-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks caused severe damage mostly in Nepal, while countries around the Himalayan region were warned for decades about large Himalayan earthquakes and the seismic vulnerability of these countries. However, the magnitude of the Gorkha earthquake was smaller than those of historical earthquakes in Nepal, and the most severe damage occurred in the north and northeast of Kathmandu. We explore reasons for these unexpected features by performing a joint source inversion of teleseismic, geodetic, and near-field waveform datasets to investigate the rupture process. Results indicate that the source fault was limited to the northern part of central Nepal and did not reach the Main Frontal Thrust. The zone of large slip was located in the north of Kathmandu, and the fault rupture propagated eastward with an almost constant velocity. Changes in the Coulomb failure function (ΔCFF) due to the Gorkha earthquake were computed, indicating that southern and western regions neighboring the source fault are potential source regions for future earthquakes related to the Gorkha earthquake. These two regions may correspond to the historical earthquakes of 1866 and 1344. Possible future earthquakes in the regions are predicted, and the warning for Himalayan seismic hazards remains high even after the Gorkha earthquake.

  18. Undifferentiated febrile illness in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Arjyal, Amit; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Giri, Abhishek; Dolecek, Christiane; Day, Nick; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-04-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) are common in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively investigated the causes of UFIs in 627 patients presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with microbiologically confirmed enteric fever (218 of 627; 34.8%) randomized to gatifloxacin or ofloxacin treatment were previously reported. We randomly selected 125 of 627 (20%) of these UFI patients, consisting of 96 of 409 (23%) cases with sterile blood cultures and 29 of 218 (13%) cases with enteric fever, for additional diagnostic investigations. We found serological evidence of acute murine typhus in 21 of 125 (17%) patients, with 12 of 21 (57%) patients polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Rickettsia typhi. Three UFI cases were quantitative PCR-positive for Rickettsia spp., two UFI cases were seropositive for Hantavirus, and one UFI case was seropositive for Q fever. Fever clearance time (FCT) for rickettsial infection was 44.5 hours (interquartile range = 26-66 hours), and there was no difference in FCT between ofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Murine typhus represents an important cause of predominantly urban UFIs in Nepal, and fluoroquinolones seem to be an effective empirical treatment. PMID:25667056

  19. Nepal's communication policy then and now.

    PubMed

    Rai, L D

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic national communications policy emerged in Nepal in the 1951-61 period in response to the country's revolutionary political process. Interpersonal communications channels were strengthened and the mass media expanded in both public and private sectors. After 1961, communications policy began to orientate toward the emerging context of the Panchayat polity, with emphasis on democratization and indigenization. The new power structure perceived the relationship of communications to the national goals of stability, security, and development. A new Ministry dealing exclusively with information and broadcasting was established and Radio Nepal expanded both its reach and programming. It was not until 1971, however, that a National Communications Plan was designed. As a result of the sectoral communications policies and programs of the 3 economic 5-Year Plans between 1970-85, the infrastructure and technology of the national system of communication have been further strengthened to conform to the national need for a self-reliant economy. Computer-assisted communication and the emergence of a framework for regional cooperation have introduced new elements to Nepalese national communications policy planning. The establishment of a national communications planning commission within the National Development Council may represent a next step toward developing future communications structure and strategy. PMID:12281459

  20. Environmental variability and child growth in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shively, Gerald; Sununtnasuk, Celeste; Brown, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey are combined with satellite remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate whether interannual variability in weather is associated with child health. For stunting, we focus on children older than 24 months of age. NDVI anomaly averages during cropping months are evaluated during the year before birth, the year of birth, and the second year after birth. For wasting, we assess children under 59 months of age and relate growth to NDVI averages for the current and most recent growing periods. Correlations between short-run indicators of child growth and intensity of green vegetation are generally positive. Regressions that control for a range of child-, mother- and household-specific characteristics produce mixed evidence regarding the role of NDVI anomalies during critical periods in a child's early life and the subsequent probability of stunting and wasting. Overall findings suggest that the relationship between environmental conditions and child growth are heterogeneous across the landscape in Nepal and, in many cases, highly non-linear and sensitive to departures from normality. PMID:26183566

  1. Zika Virus: Yet Another Emerging Threat to Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B

    2015-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal. PMID:27005721

  2. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,P< .05). Furthermore, the effect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  3. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  4. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  5. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico K.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2009-05-01

    During the dry season of 2004-2005 we carried out field measurements of air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills of Nepal. We measured the trace gases carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) and particulates (PM10), as well as meteorological variables. In our field observations we noted a very regular pattern of morning and evening peaks in CO and PM10 occurring daily in the valley bottom, interspersed with low values in the afternoons and at night. This pattern occurred even on days with unusual timing of emissions and was influenced by the timing of ventilation from the valley. Meteorological variables showed great day-to-day similarity, with a strong westerly wind blowing through the valley from late morning until dusk. We found that the air mass on nearby mountaintops was disconnected from pollution within the valley during the night, but received significant pollution during the morning, when up-slope flows began. At a pass on the western edge of the valley we found a diurnal switch in wind direction, with an inflow from late morning until late evening, and an outflow during the rest of the time. We found that part of the morning peak in pollution was caused by recirculation of pollutants emitted the night before, which spend the night in elevated layers over the valley.

  6. Differential workloads of boys and girls in rural Nepal and their association with growth.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Miki; Ashworth, Ann

    2002-01-01

    In developing countries, heavy workloads of women adversely affect their nutritional status and that of their children. Little is known, however, about the effect of children's heavy workloads on their own well-being. In Nepal, girls are expected to help their mothers in time-consuming and energy-demanding tasks from an early age. The aim of this study was to compare work patterns and anthropometric status of boys and girls age 6-17 years in western rural Nepal. It was hypothesized that girls would work longer and harder than boys and would have poorer growth status. It was also anticipated that children's work patterns might differ between highland and lowland areas. Two study sites were therefore chosen: one in the hills and the other in the lowland terai. A time allocation study was conducted for 237 children. They were observed continuously from 7:00 AM to 7:00 PM to determine the time spent in light, moderate, and heavy activities. Body weights and heights were also measured. On average, girls worked twice as long as boys (5.8 vs. 2.8 h/day, P < 0.001) and undertook more heavy work (1.5 vs. 0.7 h/day, (P < 0.001), but they did not have poorer anthropometric status. Children in the hills worked longer hours and did heavier work than those in the terai and were more stunted in growth. PMID:12001093

  7. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  8. P-wave residuals at stations in Nepal - Evidence for a high velocity region beneath the Karakorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, M. R.; Roecker, Steven W.; Molnar, Peter

    1991-01-01

    P-wave residuals recorded at stations in Nepal from events to the northwest and closer than about 20 deg are consistently earlier than those from other directions by about 2.5 sec. These early arrivals are associated with paths confined to the upper 300 km of the earth and suggest that cold material occupies the uppermost mantle beneath the Karakorum, northwest Himalaya, and western Kunlun. Thus, these data suggest that convective downwelling occurs more vigorously in this region than beneath the rest of the Himalaya, Tibet, and their surroundings.

  9. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  10. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a material as well as spiritual

  11. Western coal marketing days

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

  12. Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the history of English language teaching English as a second or foreign language in schools and colleges in Nepal. Teaching English language and literature in Nepal is of about a half a decade, starting from the mid of twentieth century. English learners in Nepal do not have enough exposure to various techniques…

  13. Pregnancy complicated by heart disease in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Shailaja; Shrestha, Nikesh Raj; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence, characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by heart disease. Design Prospective single-centre registry. Setting Tertiary care teaching hospital in eastern Nepal. Patients Pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic and/or labour room between 1 March 2012 and 31 March 2013. Main outcome measures Prevalence, characteristics, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by heart disease. Results Fifty-three out of 9463 pregnancies (0.6%) were complicated by cardiac disease. Proportions of acquired, congenital and arrhythmic heart disease amounted to 89%, 9% and 2%, respectively. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) was the most frequent cardiac disease complicating pregnancy (n=47). Among 45 women with RHD continuing pregnancy until delivery, 30 (67%) were primigravidae. The predominant valvular pathology was mitral stenosis (62%), followed by mitral regurgitation (21%) and aortic regurgitation (13%). Twenty women (44%) underwent elective or emergency caesarean section. Maternal and fetal/perinatal mortality of pregnancies complicated by RHD amounted to 4% and 16%, respectively. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or class IV (HR 6.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 29.1, p=0.026), pulmonary hypertension (HR 9.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 51.5, p=0.012) and severe mitral stenosis (HR 7.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 34.4, p=0.017) were identified as predictors of maternal or fetal/perinatal mortality in an univariate analysis. Conclusions Rheumatic mitral stenosis was the most frequent heart disease complicating pregnancy in a consecutive cohort from a teaching hospital in Nepal. Exercise intolerance, pulmonary hypertension and severe mitral stenosis were identified as predictors of maternal or fetal/perinatal mortality. PMID:27326158

  14. Clinical and epidemiological observations on an outbreak of plague in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Laforce, F. Marc; Acharya, I. L.; Stott, Gordon; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufman, Arnold F.; Clapp, Richard F.; Shah, N. K.

    1971-01-01

    In the autumn of 1967, plague broke out among hill people in western Nepal, a country that had not previously reported human plague. Two persons were infected from an active sylvatic focus at a grazing area 5 km from Nawra, the village where the epidemic occurred. The second patient introduced plague into the village where the rest of the cases occurred. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that plague was spread both by the airborne route, resulting in 6 cases of tonsillar plague and 1 case of primary pneumonic plague, as well as by infected fleas, resulting in 17 cases of bubonic plague. Since no evidence of a rodent epizootic was uncovered in the village itself, and because of the distinct clustering of the bubonic cases, human-to-human spread of plague by infected ectoparasite vectors, presumably Pulex irritans, is thought to have occurred. This focus probably represents the most southerly boundary of the central Asian plague area yet identified. PMID:5317008

  15. Awareness and coverage of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a community based cross sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the major public health problems in Nepal. The disease is a major cause of morbidities primarily, lymphedema of legs and hydrocele and it impedes socio economic development in many endemic areas of the country. This study is aimed at exploring the understanding of people about mass drug administration (MDA) of the said disease and the status of compliance of MDA in Nepal. This study is a cross sectional study carried out among 894 household samples in three of the sixty LF endemic districts. The selected districts were Dhading, Kapilvastu and Kailali. The sentinel surveillance of sites in three districts constituted the sampling frame at the first stage. The peripheral health care centers in the sentinel sites constituted the sampling frame at the second stage of sampling. The coverage of MDA was 95.5 %. However, the compliance was less. Only 71.6 % of the respondents who took the drugs from health workers swallowed the diethyl carbamazine (DEC) completely, other did not swallow. In the present study, majority of respondents reported that they had heard or seen persons with side effects of DEC in their community. A total of 20 % of respondents reported that they had side effects after having DEC and only 3.9 % of these side effects were treated. The Female Community Health volunteers (FCHVs), health workers and radio/Television (TV) were the chief sources of MDA related information. This study recommends for a concerted public health action combining effective drug delivery mechanism and sound public awareness campaigns. The community people need to be made aware beforehand about the location, time of drug distribution. Also public awareness of the DEC should be conducted so that people would trust it and comply with the drug regime. Along with the health workers and radio/TV that has been used traditionally, we recommend mobilization of FCHVs in the public awareness campaigns the MDA campaigns. PMID:24996654

  16. Provenance analysis of Neogene sediments in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B. R.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The regional geology of the basin is dominated by a basement of Tibetan-Tethys sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age (Fort et al., 1982; Yoshida et al., 1984). Stratigraphically, the graben sediments have been divided into four formations; the Miocene Tetang and Thakkhola formations, disconformably overlain by the Plio-Pleistocene Sammargaon and Marpha formations. In the present study, the sediment provenance and the nature of the source rocks have been investigated. Field mapping, logging of 22 profiles, measurement of pebble imbrication and lithology in all possible beds and heavy mineral sampling (50 samples) were carried out. Paleocurrent data from imbricated pebbles (no other palaeocurrent indicators were seen) in the western part of the graben shows SE-directed flow while in the eastern part it shows a SSW transport. Sandstone, mudstone, quartzite and granite clasts are dominant in the Ghiling, Chaile and Dhakmar sections on the western side while carbonate clasts are dominant in the Tetang and Dhinkyo Khola sections in the southeastern part of the basin. Tourmaline, staurolite, zircon, garnet and apatite constitute a significant proportion of the heavy-minerals whereas epidote, andalusite, kyanite, chloritoid, hornblende, chrome-spinel, rutile and amphibole are less common. Paleocurrent data of imbricated conglomerates in all formations of the basin show a southward flow direction of the Kaligandaki River. All the paleocurrent data and composition analysis of the conglomerates in the northwestern part of the basin (Dhi and Tange) of the Thakkhola Formation suggest that the clasts were derived from Mesozoic rocks to the east. Mostly Paleozoic clasts, with

  17. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  18. The trajectory of methadone maintenance treatment in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ambekar, Atul; Rao, Ravindra; Pun, Anan; Kumar, Suresh; Kishore, Kunal

    2013-11-01

    There are about 28,500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nepal and HIV prevalence among this group is high. Nepal introduced harm reduction services for PWID much earlier than other countries in South Asia. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Nepal in 1994. This initial small scale MMT programme was closed in 2002 but reopened in 2007 as an emergency HIV prevention response. It has since been scaled up to include three MMT clinics and continuation of MMT is supported by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA; the nodal ministry for drug supply reduction activities) and has been endorsed in the recent National Narcotics policy. Pressure from drug user groups has also helped its reintroduction. Interestingly, these developments have taken place during a period of political instability in Nepal, with the help of strong advocacy from multiple stakeholders. The MMT programme has also had to face resistance from those who were running drug treatment centres. Despite overcoming such troubles, the MMT programme faces a number of challenges. Coverage of MMT is low and high-risk injecting and sexual behaviour among PWID continues. The finance for MMT is largely from external donors and these donations have become scarce with the current global economic problems. With a multitude of developmental challenges for Nepal, the position of MMT in the national priority list is uncertain. Ownership of the programme by government, a cost-effective national MMT scale up plan and rigorous monitoring of its implementation is needed. PMID:23845916

  19. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  20. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the resistivity pattern among different species of Campylobacters. The association between prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, prevalence rate was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with chilling and contamination of intestinal content with carcass. Conclusions The pork meat of Chitwan is highly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves

  1. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants’ opinions on and experiences with the services offered. Results It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. Conclusion The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well. PMID:22927768

  2. Hearing Loss is Associated with Decreased Nonverbal Intelligence in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K.; Karna, Sureshwar L.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between adolescent and young adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults Setting Sarlahi District, southern Nepal Patients 764 individuals aged 14–23 years Intervention Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by WHO criteria of pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally Main Outcome Measure Nonverbal intelligence, measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition (TONI-3) standardized score (mean 100; standard deviation (SD) 15) Results Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p =0.04) but not unilateral (p =0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex, higher caste, literacy, education level, occupation reported as student, and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p <0.001). Subjects with bilateral hearing loss scored an average of 3.16 points lower (95% CI: −5.56, −0.75; p =0.01) than subjects with normal hearing after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There was no difference in nonverbal intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% CI: −1.67, 3.61; p =0.47). Conclusions Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss, even at mild hearing loss levels. Social and economic well being appear compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores. PMID:25299832

  3. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Shristi; Dhakal, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV). JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future. PMID:27046998

  4. Astronomy Olympiad: An Initiative To Promote Astronomy Education In Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents National Astronomy Olympiad Program as a new initiative towards the development of astronomy education in Nepal by Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO).Innovoative components of the olympiad programs designed by NASO to engage both scince and non-science backgound people will be discussed in detail. It will discuss the first National Astronomy Olympiad 2014 and Second National Astronomy Olympiad 2015 in details. It will also present crowd funding, its effectiveness to outreach as well as collecting funds from around the world will be presented in brief. Proposed module of astronomy olympiad to promote astronnomy in the countries without formal astronomy education in high school like Nepal,will be presented in dedail. Possible strategry to strengthen such programs in developing nations and role of IAU to promote such educational program will be explored in detail.

  5. Japanese encephalitis: Challenges and intervention opportunities in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Shristi; Dhakal, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease caused by JE virus (JEV). JE has been endemic in Terai region, the lowland plains of Nepal bordering India, since 1978. However, in recent years cases of JE has been continuously reported from high altitude zones of hills and mountains. Irrigated rice farming system, expanded pig husbandry practices, inadequate vaccine coverage, low level of public awareness and climate change favoring mosquito breeding in higher altitudes might be the probable risk factors for emergence and re-emergence of JE in Nepal. Repeated outbreak in endemic areas and geographical expansion to newer areas have created huge challenge for JE prevention and control. At present, JE is one of the major public health concern of Nepal. Expanding vaccine coverage, improving agricultural practices, generating public awareness, supporting for use of mosquito avoiding practices and regional collaboration at border against JE can be helpful in getting better control over it in future. PMID:27046998

  6. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D.; Viraraghavan, T. . E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2005-07-01

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life.

  7. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal. PMID:22929718

  8. HIV and conflict in Nepal: relation and strategy for response.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R; Shrestha, D B

    2006-01-01

    Conflict and displacement make affected population more vulnerable to HIV infection. Refugees and internally displaced persons, in particular women and children, are at increased risk of exposure to HIV. In Nepal, there is considerable increase in the number of HIV infection since 1996 when conflict started. Along with poverty, stigma and lack of awareness, conflict related displacement, economic migration, and closure of HIV programmes have exacerbated the HIV situation in Nepal. Government has established "National AIDS Council" and launched HIV/AIDS Strategy. The strategy has not included the specific needs of displaced persons. While launching an HIV prevention programme in the conflict situation, the guidelines developed by Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASS) are important tools. This led to suggestion of an approach with implementations steps in the case of Nepal in this report. PMID:18603936

  9. Population growth and land use in Nepal: "the great turnabout".

    PubMed

    Hrabovszky, J P; Miyan, K

    1987-08-01

    Historically, Nepal has demonstrated a "great turnabout" trend, in which initial immigration from the lowland areas to the mountains has been replaced by accelerating migration from the hills to the plains. The reason for this reversal has been a rapid growth in population within the confines of limited availability of potentially cultivable land. Given Nepal's slow economic development, the overwhelming majority of increases in population have to be accommodated within the agricultural sector, on which 83% of Nepal's households are dependent. Fundamental land use issues in Nepal include rapid achievement of the final limit of land suitability for cultivation and the speed at which land can be brought into cultivation. The Government of Nepal has developed the objectives of increased food production to provide a satisfactory diet for the population, increased per capita income, improved regional balance in income and development, conservation of natural resources such as land and forests, and overall development of the economy through income generation, export earnings, and release of agricultural labor to other sectors. 3 perspective studies have identified a number of policies and programs that could bring Nepal closer to these goals. These studies analyzed potential land use development, agricultural production, and food availability by the year 2005. Most essential is the need to intensify land use not only in crop agriculture, but also grasslands and forest use. Land must be allocated to uses that represent the most productive use of that land without being degrading. Technologies are available for land use in each of the main types of uses--crop agriculture, livestock, and forests--that can provide protection against land degradation. Finally, irrigation is a key element in raising agricultural output. Close cooperation between the government and the people is crucial for the success of the task of finding a balance between population growth and its demand

  10. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  11. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  12. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  13. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  14. Acceptance of Wife Beating and Its Association with Physical Violence towards Women in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Couple’s Data

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Kayoko; Shakya, Tara M.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious global public health issue. Acceptance of wife beating is known to be associated with IPV, but few studies have analysed the acceptance of wife beating from both women and men’s points of view. The objective of this study was to examine whether acceptance of wife beating among couples is associated with lifetime and past one-year physical IPV perpetration towards wives in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September 2011, with 717 randomly selected couples with wives aged 18 to 49 years old from the Kirtipur municipality and Bhaktapur district of Nepal. Wives’ and husbands’ acceptance of wife beating was measured by six scale items, while physical IPV experience among wives was measured by seven physical assault scale items. To assess the association between acceptance of wife beating and physical IPV, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Results Nearly 30% of wives and husbands indicated that beating of wives is acceptable under certain circumstances. Statistically, no significant difference was detected between wives’ and husbands’ level of acceptance of wife beating. However, husbands’ acceptance of wife beating was positively associated with lifetime and past one-year perpetration of physical IPV, whereas wives’ acceptance of wife beating was neither associated with lifetime nor past one-year victimization of physical IPV. The positive association for husbands remained even after controlling for their partner’s factors. Conclusions Acceptance of wife beating is an important risk factor, which must be considered to prevent perpetration of physical IPV towards wives in Nepal. Future studies should include men to better understand the structure and dynamics of IPV in Nepal, and prevention programs should also target men to change their attitudes or to identify which couples are at more risk of physical IPV occurring toward wives. PMID:24752579

  15. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  16. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

  17. Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, James; Ruettger, Anke; Kandel, Ram Prasad; Sachse, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Commercial assays do not discriminate among all Chlamydiaceae species that might be involved in trachoma. We investigated whether a commercial Micro-ArrayTube could discriminate Chlamydiaceae species in DNA extracted directly from conjunctival samples from 101 trachoma patients in Nepal. To evaluate organism viability, we extracted RNA, reverse transcribed it, and subjected it to quantitative real-time PCR. We found that 71 (70.3%) villagers were infected. ArrayTube sensitivity was 91.7% and specificity was 100% compared with that of real-time PCR. Concordance between genotypes detected by microarray and ompA genotyping was 100%. Species distribution included 54 (76%) single infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. suis, or C. pecorum, and 17 (24%) mixed infections that includied C. pneumoniae. Ocular infections were caused by 5 Chlamydiaceae species. Additional studies of trachoma pathogenesis involving Chlamydiaceae species other than C. trachomatis and their zoonotic origins are needed. PMID:24274654

  18. Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Basu Dev; Neupane, Biswas; Pandey, Kishor; Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphaviral disease and a public health problem in South Asia including Nepal in recent years. In this study, sera were collected from patients presenting with fever, headache, muscular pain, fatigue, and joint pain of both upper and lower extremities. A total of 169 serum samples were tested for CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) by using Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method during August to November 2013. Results showed that 3.6% and 27.8% samples were positive for CHIKV and DENV IgM positive, respectively. Similarly, results of IgG showed 3.0% samples were positive for CHIKV IgG and 29.0% were for DENV IgG positive. Further, a 50% focal reduction neutralization test (FRNT50) was performed to confirm the presence of CHIKV, which demonstrated that 8.9% of CHIKV IgM and/or IgG ELISA positive possessed neutralizing anti-CHIK antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which the presence of CHIKV is confirmed in Nepalese patients by FRNT50. Basic scientists and clinicians need to consider CHIKV as a differential diagnosis in febrile Nepalese patients, and policy makers should consider appropriate surveillance and actions for control strategies. PMID:26195462

  19. Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of…

  20. 76 FR 16809 - Notice of Public Meetings, Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meetings, Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council, Idaho... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) and..., 2011. On April 27, 2011, the Twin Falls District RAC members will meet at the Best Western Sawtooth...

  1. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  2. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  3. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  4. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  5. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  6. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with

  7. Sustainable urban housing in Kathmandu, Nepal: Proposals and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Vikas

    Kathmandu Valley represents one of the oldest cultural hubs in the Himalayas. The historic towns in the valley consist of densely built traditional Chowk and Bahal houses with enclosed courtyards. With exposure to the outside world since 1951, the western style single-family detached house has become an image of the modern home and a status symbol. In the context of the exploding population, the prevailing trend of these free standing houses have exacerbated urban sprawl and led to inefficient use of the limited agricultural land in the valley. Devoid of shared open spaces, the new settlements lack play areas for children, places for social gathering and a sense of community. Building materials that are not manufactured locally must be trucked from India over the mountains. So is coal for the production of brick and cement, and diesel for transportation. Minimizing the amount of imported materials and energy used by these modern houses will reduce the environmental impact and also benefit the national economy. Kathmandu enjoys clear sky conditions during winter that makes passive solar design a potential strategy to achieve thermal comfort and eliminate kerosene heaters with their harmful effects. The abundance of rainfall during monsoon season makes rainwater collection a viable supplement to the unreliable municipal water supply. This dissertation creates three new housing prototypes that address all these issues. These prototypes are modern interpretations of the vernacular Chowk and Bahal, which create communal open space by grouping rowhouses around a common courtyard. Combining vernacular wisdom with the principles of sustainable design, these prototypes reduce land consumption; reduce resource consumption; create community open space; minimize imported materials; increase energy efficiency and thermal comfort; make homes and neighborhoods self sustainable for water supply and wastewater treatment; and altogether improve the quality of life. This dissertation

  8. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr‑1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr‑1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr‑1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km‑2 yr‑1, that by far outweigh bedrock

  9. Social care and support for elderly men and women in an urban and a rural area of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kshetri, Dan Bahadur Baidwar; Smith, Cairns S; Khadka, Mira

    2012-09-01

    This study has aimed to describe the care and support for urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. Efforts were made to identify the feeling of some features of general well-beings associated to mental health, person responsible for care and support, capability to perform daily routine activities, sources of finance and ownership to the property. More than half of the respondents were found having single or multiple features of loneliness, anxiety, depression and insomnia. The rate of point prevalence loneliness was found higher in the above 80 years of age, urban respondents. Almost 9 in 10 respondents were capable themselves to dress, walk and maintain personal hygiene and majority of them were assisted by spouse, son/daughter-in-laws. Family support was common sources of income and ownership to the property was absolutely high. PMID:22449015

  10. The Himalayas of Nepal, a natural laboratory for the search and measurement of CO2 discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    : the presence of a hot spring with high δ13C, of H2S smell, of hot spots in thermal images, of a geological contact, of self-potential anomalies (Byrdina et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009) or of large radon-222 flux. Preliminary results about the failures or successes of the various methods will be given in the Trisuli and Langtang valleys (Central Nepal), in the Kali Gandaki valley (Western Nepal) and in the Thuli Bheri valley (Lower Dolpo, Far Western Nepal). These various sites also offer an opportunity to test the optimal estimation of total CO2 flux, using the least amount of experimental measurements. Preliminary results complemented by simulations will also be given on the total CO2 flux. In parallel, monitoring methods are being studied in the Syabru-Bensi pilot site. First, CO2 flux has been studied as a function of time using repeated measurements. Furthermore, the high radon content of the geological CO2 allows cost-effective monitoring using BARASOL probes. More than two years of data are already available and give hints on the use of radon to follow CO2 discharge as a function of time. These first results show how experimental studies carried out in natural discharge zones provide a rich laboratory to test the methodological approaches useful for CO2 leakage and monitoring.

  11. Hydrological system dynamics of glaciated Karnali River Basin Nepal Himalaya using J2000 Hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, K. R.; Nepal, S.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Shrestha, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological modelling plays an important role in understanding hydrological processes of a catchment. In the context of climate change, the understanding of hydrological characteristic of the catchment is very vital to understand how the climate change will affect the hydrological regime. This research facilitates in better understanding of the hydrological system dynamics of a himalayan mountainous catchment in western Nepal. The Karnali River, longest river flowing inside Nepal, is one of the three major basins of Nepal, having the area of 45269 sq. km. is unique. The basin has steep topography and high mountains to the northern side. The 40% of the basin is dominated by forest land while other land cover are: grass land, bare rocky land etc. About 2% of the areas in basin is covered by permanent glacier apart from that about 12% of basin has the snow and ice cover. There are 34 meteorological stations distributed across the basin. A process oriented distributed J2000 hydrologial model has been applied to understand the hydrological system dynamics. The model application provides distributed output of various hydrological components. The J2000 model applies Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) as a modelling entity. With 6861 HRU and 1010 reaches, the model was calibrated (1981-1999) and validated (2000-2004) at a daily scale using split-sample test. The model is able to capture the overall hydrological dynamics well. The rising limbs and recession limbs are simulated equally and with satisfactory ground water conditions. Based on the graphical and statistical evaluation of the model performance the model is able to simulate hydrological processes fairly well. Calibration shows that Nash Sutcliffe efficiency is 0.91, coefficient of determination is 0.92 Initial observation shows that during the pre-monsoon season(March to May) the glacial runoff is 25% of the total discharge while in the monsoon(June to September) season it is only 13%. The surface runoff

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  14. Menstruation and Education in Nepal. NBER Working Paper No. 14853

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, Emily; Thornton, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a randomized evaluation that distributed menstrual cups (menstrual sanitary products) to adolescent girls in rural Nepal. Girls in the study were randomly allocated a menstrual cup for use during their monthly period and were followed for fifteen months to measure the effects of having modern sanitary products…

  15. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  16. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    PubMed

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims. PMID:26743371

  17. Musculoskeletal training for orthopaedists and nonorthopaedists: experiences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Banskota, Ashok K

    2008-10-01

    Orthopaedic surgical training in Nepal began in 1998, and four major centers now produce between 15 and 20 graduates annually. The duration of the training is four years in one center and three years in the remaining centers. Trainees have adequate trauma exposure. The major challenges include: tailoring training to suit local needs, avoiding the dangers of market driven orthopaedic surgery, adequately emphasizing and implementing time honored methods of closed fracture treatment, and ensuring uniformity of exposure to the various musculoskeletal problems. Training in research methods needs to be implemented more effectively. The evaluation process needs to be more uniform and all training programs need to complement one another and avoid unhealthy competition. Training for nonorthopaedists providing musculoskeletal care is virtually nonexistent in Nepal. Medical graduates have scant exposure to trauma and musculoskeletal diseases during their training. General surgeons provide the majority of trauma care and in the rural areas, health assistants, auxiliary health workers and physiotherapy assistants provide much needed basic services, but all lack formal training. Traditional "bone setters" in Nepal often cater to certain faithful clientele with sprains, minor fractures etc. A large vacuum exists in Nepal for trained nonorthopaedists leading to deficiencies in prehospital care, safe transport and basic, primary emergency care. The great challenges are yet to be addressed. PMID:18626724

  18. Nepal: Civic and Voter Education. Quarterly Reports, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Democratic Inst. for International Affairs, Washington, DC.

    The lack of confidence the people of Nepal feel about their political process is due, in part, to the majority's unfamiliarity with, and lack of participation in, their democratic institutions. Since 1994, the National Democratic Institute (NDI) has been partaking in a broader national effort to increase Nepalis contributions to their governing…

  19. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  20. Cultural Anarchism: The Consequences of Privileging Languages in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a "foreign" language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and economic…

  1. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crishna, Brinda; Prajapati, Surya Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    In Nepal, the estimates of the prevalence of disabilities vary, and there is sparse information specifically about people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Existing data suggest higher rates of prevalence of ID in the more remote northern area due to use of non-iodized salt, lack of health facilities, and extreme poverty. Superstitious beliefs…

  2. The Development of Distributed Learning Techniques in Bhutan and Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Frank; Mason, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses research and development work currently being conducted with universities in Bhutan and Nepal to design appropriate systems for distance and distributed learning courses among a network of campus sites. Although working from a high level of awareness of pedagogic skills, staff in the region face two significant impediments in…

  3. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  4. Differentiation, Development, (Dis)Integration: Education in Nepal's "People's War"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Robin; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    A violent conflict between Maoist insurgents and the national government has engulfed Nepal for most of the last decade, a situation that has been complicated by deep-seated instability at the highest levels of the government itself. Even with the declaration of a ceasefire in 2006, violence endures in pockets of lawless banditry and unrest at the…

  5. Existing integrated population education curriculum updated. Nepal.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A workshop in February 1994, which was organized by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), modified and updated the current population education curriculum taught by the Faculty of Education at Tribhuvan University. 23 educators from 3 campuses of the Kathmandu Valley attended the workshop, which was inaugurated by Dr. Iswar Prasad Uphadhyaya, secretary of the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Social Welfare. The previous system had incorporated the subject into other areas at the proficiency certificate, bachelor's degree, and master's degree levels. Concepts of family health, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the population situation in Nepal, determinants of population change, aging, Nepalese population policies and programs, the philosophy of population education, and studies of the major national and international organizations concerned with health and family planning were added to the health and physical education programs at all levels. Concepts of population dynamics, population and development, measures to reduce rapid population growth, and population growth were modified and added to the proficiency certificate and bachelor's degree in geography. The concepts of population dynamics and composition, determinants and measures of population change, and Nepalese programs and policies were added to all levels in economics. Concepts of environmental pollution and ecological crises were added to biology. Concepts of AIDS, infant mortality, health facilities, family size, puberty, family life education, sociocultural values and beliefs were added to education psychology. The mathematical skills necessary to determine annual population growth rates, crude birth rates (CBRs), crude death rates (CDRs), migration rates, fertility rates and family size were added to mathematics. PMID:12318971

  6. 21 Ma Eclogite From the Main Central Thrust Sheet, Eastern Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.; Parkinson, C. D.

    2007-12-01

    Though uncommon throughout the Himalaya, eclogites have been documented in the Kaghan Valley of Pakistan, the Tso Morari dome in India, the Kharta region of Tibet, and the Makalu-Everest region of the Arun River valley in eastern Nepal. The Kaghan and Tso Morari UHP eclogites have been dated at ~50 Ma, and are commonly viewed as reflecting aborted subduction of the leading edge of the Indian plate during the initial stages of Indo- Asian collision. Here we show that the Arun eclogites are significantly younger, only ~21 Ma, so reflect either different origins, or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. The Arun eclogites are stratigraphically continuous with the surrounding Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) felsic gneisses, and have been interpreted as metamorphosed basaltic sills. P-T conditions have been estimated at >14 kbar at 670-710 °C. The GHS in this region overlies Lesser Himalayan rocks along the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which can be traced for over 2000 km along strike. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite indicate an age of 20.7±0.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.2). Five garnet amphibolites from nearby were also dated via Lu-Hf, and their ages range from 14-20 Ma (13.9±2.5, 14.1±0.3, 14.5±2.8, 15.1±0.6, and 19.8±1.1 Ma). The ~21 Ma age obtained from the eclogite postdates eclogite ages from the western Himalaya (Kaghan and Tso Morari) by ~30 Myr, and has important implications for tectonic models of Himalayan orogenesis. One possible model is that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ~50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ~20 Ma in eastern Nepal, and presumably even younger in the eastern Himalaya. Alternatively, because the Arun eclogites did not reach ultra-high pressure conditions seen by western eclogites (only ≥45, not ≥90 km depth), they may simply reflect deepening or longer transport of the MCT in the Arun area. Regardless, a ~21 Ma age for these eclogites combined with

  7. Modifying and Validating the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for Use in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Chardoul, Stephanie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Axinn, William G.; Adhikari, Bishnu P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to develop and validate fully-structured diagnostic interviews of mental disorders in non-Western countries have been largely unsuccessful. However, the principled methods of translation, harmonization, and calibration that have been developed by cross-national survey methodologists have never before been used to guide such development efforts. The current report presents the results of a rigorous program of research using these methods designed to modify and validate the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for an epidemiological survey in Nepal. Methods A five-step process of translation, harmonization, and calibration was used to modify the instrument. A blinded clinical reappraisal design was used to validate the instrument. Results Preliminary interviews with local mental health expert led to a focus on major depressive episode, mania/hypomania, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder. After an iterative process of multiple translations-revisions guided by the principles developed by cross-national survey methodologists, lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses based on the final Nepali CIDI had excellent concordance with diagnoses based on blinded SCID clinical reappraisal interviews. Conclusions Valid assessment of mental disorders can be achieved with fully-structured diagnostic interviews even in low-income non-Western settings with rigorous implementation of replicable developmental strategies. PMID:23494758

  8. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER PARK IS RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD IN PHOTOGRAPH) - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  9. 10. DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, WESTERN SECTION OF MAIN BLOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, WESTERN SECTION OF MAIN BLOCK AND WEST WING, ROOF LINE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour. PMID:19813118

  11. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  12. Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

    2015-01-01

    People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7 h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5 years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and more risk (AOR > 2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

  13. Correlation of the hand length and stature in adult Musahar females of Nepal; an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Basnet, K S; Dhungel, S; Panta, P P

    2012-03-01

    Stature of a person is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for establishing identification of unknown living or a dead person. A descriptive cross sectional study was done on 165 Nepalese adult Musahar females of Aurahi Village of Mahottari district, Nepal to predict the stature from their hand length. Measurement of stature and the length of both right and left hands taken with a standard standing height measuring instrument and a slide caliper respectively showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and hand lengths. The multiplication factor which was obtained by dividing the height of the subject by the respective hand lengths was found appropriate parameter to calculate the stature of a questioned person. The importance of the hand length alone will be of a great value for anthropologists and forensic experts. As an alternative method, the coefficient of regression and intercept which were obtained from the measured height and hand length were also proved to be equally valuable to estimate the height of a questioned person. PMID:23441496

  14. Physical and chemical climate in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Arun Bhakta

    1998-10-01

    The physical climate of the Himalaya is governed by monsoon circulation, a primary source of moisture to the region. To date, little research has focused on the physical and chemical climate in the Himalaya, while not much is known about the chemical climate there. This dissertation is a first attempt to investigate both the physical and chemical aspects of climate in the Nepal Himalaya with the objective of documenting current conditions and past trends as well as laying the foundation for investigations of their inter-relationship in the future. Temperature and precipitation records from a network of meteorological station in Nepal were analyzed over the period 1971-1994. Temperature records show significant warming trends after the mid-1970's. The temperature trend in Nepal is in broad agreement with global temperature trends, while it differs from temperature trends in the neighboring Indian plains. Within Nepal, the warming trend is greater in the high elevation regions, suggesting that the mountains are more sensitive to climate change. Precipitation records from Nepal show significant variability at annual and decadal time scales, whereas long-term trends are lacking. The precipitation record from Nepal shows significant correlation with several large scale climatological parameters such as Southern Oscillation Index, sunspot numbers, temperature over Tibetan Plateau, and temperature over the Indian Ocean and southern India, while it differs considerably from the all-India precipitation record. Among others factors, El Niño events have a dominant influence on the precipitation variations in the Himalaya. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry of the eastern Himalaya are characterized by marked seasonal fluctuations. The concentrations of water soluble major ions are low and comparable to remote tropospheric concentrations during late monsoon and post-monsoon, while concentrations during pre-monsoon and early monsoon are considerably higher, comparable to

  15. Regional downscaling of global climate runs for Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granerød, M.; Mesquita, M. D.; Basnayake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Nepal is a vulnerable country to changes in climate. This is mainly due to its dependency on water resources from the Himalayas. There is evidence of significant warming in Nepal, with an average trend of around +0.06 degrees Celsius per year. Studies have shown that the warming rates are higher in higher altitudes. Such temperature trend will have an impact on the melting of the glaciers and consequently on Nepal. Precipitation has also been observed to have increased, but not at the same magnitude as temperature. The water supply is affected by more unpredictable precipitation that can lead to droughts and shorter heavy rainfall. Future projections can give an indication whether these factors will affect river runoff, which can have large impacts on agriculture and in other sectors. Global Climate Models (GCMs) have a coarse resolution and limitations in the numerical and in the physical treatment. More detailed climate datasets are needed to produce climate projections for countries like Nepal. In this study, we use the climate version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (clWRF3.1.1, developed at the University of Cantabria, Spain), which is a regional climate model (RCM), to provide a more detailed description of future climate scenarios in Nepal. The Atmospheric General Circulation Model, ARPEGE, has been used to provide lateral boundary conditions for the model evaluation. A control simulation from 1970 to 2000, and 4 future climate scenario runs from 2030 to 2060 are created based on these data. The parent domain has a horizontal grid resolution of 48 km, covering the area 68 to 100 degrees East and 1 degree South to 38 degree North. The nested domain has a horizontal grid resolution of 12 km, covering the area 79 to 90 degree East and 25 to 32 degree North. Both domains are run with 37 vertical levels reaching up to 50 hPa. In the clWRF setup, the microphysical scheme used is the WRF Single-Moment 3-class scheme and the cumulus option is the Grell

  16. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's Liberation Army of Nepal Also Known as CPN(M) as a...

  17. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-07-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29 % and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional community based study is recommended to enquire into this pattern. Data regarding early identification was encouraging as majority of the cases (56 %) were diagnosed before 4 years of age. There is a stark necessity of early screening and rehabilitation program with provision for follow-up for the affected children, which must also be accessible to the disadvantaged and marginalized groups in Nepal. PMID:26944590

  18. Bear-inflicted injuries - a report from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Acharya, Jenash

    2016-06-01

    Upper Mustang in the Northern Himalayan range of Nepal is the home of brown bears (Ursusarctos). Low-plant biomass as a result of scanty rainfall in Upper Mustang is a reason for habitat overlap of humans and wild animals. Humans who enter into the wild to collect firewood and graze cattle are liable to wild animal attacks. Such attacks, especially by brown bears, are readily identified by the type of injuries. These are more commonly confined to head and neck regions. Cutting, gnawing and tearing by sharp teeth and claws produces specific pattern of injuries, which are devastating but seldom fatal. This article reports a rare case of brown bear injury inflicted upon a man from the Upper Mustang region in Nepal. PMID:26857074

  19. Application of reliability concepts to the Nepal power system

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Pandey, M.; Aboreshaid, S.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    1995-12-31

    In many of the less industrialized countries throughout the world, reliability is incorporated in power system planning and operation using traditional deterministic techniques. This is the case with the Nepal Power System (NPS), where developed expansion plans have been based on non-probabilistic criteria. This paper illustrates the application of probabilistic methods to reliability evaluation of the NPS. Evaluations at both the generation and composite generation and transmission system levels have been performed. The overall system and nine major load centers have been assessed. These load points carry in total more than 54% of the system load. An assessment of an expansion plan proposed by the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) has been performed. The results indicate the reliability implications associated with the system and the proposed expansion plan, and show that quantitative reliability evaluation of the NPS is both possible and practical.

  20. Prevalence and Patterns of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption Assessed Using the AUDIT among Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Luitel, Nagendra P.; Jordans, Mark; Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; McCambridge, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal and to identify predictors of elevated risk in order to better understand intervention need. Methods: Hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) administered in a face-to-face interview in a census of two camps comprising ∼8000 refugees. Results: Approximately 1/5 men and 1/14 women drank alcohol and prevalence of hazardous drinking among current drinkers was high and comparable to that seen in Western countries with longstanding alcohol cultures. Harmful drinking was particularly associated with the use of other substances including tobacco. Conclusions: Assessment of the alcohol-related needs of Bhutanese refugees has permitted the design of interventions. This study adds to the small international literature on substance use in forced migration populations, about which there is growing concern. PMID:23443987

  1. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  2. Landslide distribution resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    Thousands of landslides (predominantly rock slides and rock falls) were triggered as a result of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence. Given the steep, high relief of the epicentral zones and the widely distributed population of Nepal in these regions, hundreds of fatalities occurred as a direct result of landsliding. Further, roads, hydroelectric plants, and other critical infrastructure were subjected to considerable secondary hazards including highly weakened slopes and inundation from lake impoundments that formed upslope of valley-blocking landslide dams. As part of a humanitarian and scientific mission to Nepal supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, we conducted landslide assessments throughout earthquake-affected areas (report available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) and, in the process, developed a sense for the overall landslide distribution resulting from the earthquakes. Whereas landslides were abundant near the major earthquake epicenters, few landslides were observed in many steep areas of the country where effects would normally have been expected. For example, although avalanches and ice and rock falls occurred near Mt. Everest, located approximately 220 km from the April 25 epicenter, we noted few landslides in a similar area of steep terrain located 40 km closer to the epicenter. Similarly, although we noted entire mountainsides covered by landslides within 20 km of the mainshock epicenter, we observed many other mountainsides within this same region lacking any indication of ground disturbance. Observations of shattered ridgetops with ridge parallel fractures at several locations indicate that topographically-amplified ground shaking occurred in some areas. This, along with the complex geology and the asymmetric directionality of rupture, could help explain the landslide distribution and thus where hazards are most likely from similar future earthquakes in central Nepal.

  3. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal. PMID:26300556

  4. Land Clearing on the Himalayan Lower Slopes, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This view of the Himalayan Mountain Range, Nepal (28.5N, 82.5E) shows a portion of the mountains and lower valleys filled with smoke from fires set among the subtropical temperate rainforests and alpine slope forests. Some valleys are entirely filled with smoke palls and over fifty individual point sources of burning can be delineated in this scene. These pristine forests are threatened by intensive agriculture and land clearing processes.

  5. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal. PMID:26300556

  6. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Methods Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Results Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Conclusions Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade. PMID:24004516

  7. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  8. Symptom Recognition to Diagnosis of Autism in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrestha, Merina; Shrestha, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Awareness and knowledge about autism is almost non-existent in Nepal. Children who eventually get the diagnosis often miss their opportunity for early intervention. The current study shows that medical help was seeked at mean age of 27.9 + 14.5 months and most of them were for delayed language and the first preference for parents were…

  9. Bottlenecks and opportunities for delivering integrated pediatric HIV services in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Diese, Mulamba; Shrestha, Lexman; Pradhan, Birendra; Singh, Dipendra; Raaijmakers, Hendrikus; Kisesa, Annefrida; Chamla, Dick; Ntambue, Mukengeshayi Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background In children, integration of HIV in MNCH services has been shown to incr. ease uptake of early infant diagnosis. This article examines bottlenecks and opportunities for scaling up integrated pediatric HIV services in Nepal. Methods This is a descriptive study using both mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, conducted in January 2015 in 19 facilities in five regions of Nepal most affected by HIV epidemic. The qualitative methods comprised in-depth structured interviews with key informants (leadership of The National Center for AIDS and STD Control and National Public Health Laboratory, district management teams, medical officers in charge of health facilities and HIV clinics, frontline staff at antenatal care and HIV clinics and laboratory). The quantitative methods were used to abstract data of HIV-infected pregnant women seen between January and December 2014, HIV-exposed infants aged less than 12 months, and HIV infected children aged less than 15 years who were initiated HIV treatment from 2010 to 2014. Structured tools were used to collect data which were analysed using IBM SPSS. Results Of the 19 facilities assessed, 18(98%), 18(98%), 14(75%), and 11(58%) provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), pediatric ART and nutrition rehabilitation services, respectively. However, only 1(5%) facility collected onsite dried blood spots (DBS) for PCR HIV testing and 6(32%) facilities provided counselling and referral for DBS. In 2014, of the 121 HIV-exposed infants recorded, only 21(17%) received PCR test. The median turnaround time of the PCR test results was 54 days. Of the 21 records with PCR test, 11(52.5%) were from PMTCT clinics, 7(33%) from Nutritional rehabilitation clinics, and 3(14.5%) from pediatric outpatient clinic. Conversely, 934 children were initiated ART between 2010 and 2014, of which 5% were infants and 29% aged between 1 and 5 years. 298(32%) had comorbidities of which 64% had

  10. Factors Associated with Underweight among Children of Former-Kamaiyas in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Resham B.; Mishra, Shiva R.; Khanal, Vishnu; Choulagai, Bishnu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bonded labor was a tradition in Nepal since the 16th century. In 2002, the Government of Nepal freed Kamaiyas and gave the newly freed individuals support for basic living. Many children of former-Kamaiyas live below subsistence level and are vulnerable to undernutrition. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with underweight among the children of former-Kamaiyas. Methods: We conducted the community based cross-sectional study from June to December, 2012. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires with randomly selected mothers of 280 children under 5 years of age from former-Kamaiya families residing in Banke district. We also measured the weight and height of the children. Undernutrition was defined according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. Factors associated with underweight were examined using a Chi-square test followed by multiple logistic regression. Results: Out of 280 children, 116 (41.4%) were underweight (≤2 SD weight-for-age), 156 (55.7%) were stunted (≤2 SD height-for-age), and 52 (18.6%) were wasted (≤2 SD weight-for-height). Females were more likely to be underweight than males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.696, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.026–2.804]. Children were less likely to be underweight if they were having daily bath (aOR = 0.532; 95% CI = 0.314–0.899) or if their mothers were ≥24 years of age (aOR = 0.440; 95% CI = 0.266–0.727). Conclusion: The proportion of underweight, stunting, and wasting was more than the national average among the children of former-Kamaiyas. Female children were more likely to be underweight whereas children who were being bathed daily and with mothers whose age was ≥24 years were less likely to be underweight. PMID:25688344

  11. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Banke district, Nepal in 2013 among higher secondary school students using self-administered questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A sample of 405 students, 178 females and 227 males, of the age–group 15 to 20 years from seven schools were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with participation in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results Engagement of female in leisure time physical activity was lower but mean time spent on sitting per day was higher. Students who walked to school and have playground/parks near home, younger females (OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.18-8.08), females living in nuclear families (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.01-4.62) and males who cycled to school (OR: 8.09, 95% CI: 2.35-27.80) and have provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.04-5.97) were more likely to be engaged in leisure time physical activity. On the other hand, students who did not have playground in school and lived in rural areas were more likely to sit for more than 6 hours a day. Likewise, male students of private school (OR: 6.41, 95% CI: 2.89-14.21), who used vehicle to reach school (OR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.26-27.75) and have no provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.09-8.07) had longer sitting time. Conclusion Difference in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour was found among male and

  12. Newborn Health Interventions and Challenges for Implementation in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Gelal, Khageshwor; Neupane, Subas

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal mortality is a major challenge in reducing child mortality rates in Nepal. Despite efforts by the Government of Nepal, data from the last three demographic and health surveys show a rise in the contribution of neonatal deaths to infant and child mortality. The Government of Nepal has implemented community-based programs that were piloted and then scaled up based on lessons learned. These programs include, but are not limited to ensuring safe motherhood, birth preparedness package, community-based newborn care package, and integrated management of childhood illnesses. Despite the implementation of such programs on a larger scale, their effective coverage is yet to be achieved. Health system challenges included an inadequate policy environment, funding gaps, inadequate procurement, and insufficient supplies of commodities, while human resource management has been found to be impeding service delivery. Such bottlenecks at policy, institutional and service delivery level need to be addressed incorporating health information in decision-making as well as working in partnership with communities to facilitate the utilization of available services. PMID:26904534

  13. The main determinants of infant mortality in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Suwal, J V

    2001-12-01

    Infant mortality has reached a low stable rate in developed countries while it is still high and on a slow decline in developing countries. There are many factors that contribute to the incidence of a high or low level of infant mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of infant mortality has been given to health programs by public health personnel and to the improvement in socio-economic status by social scientists, in a traditional and agricultural country such as Nepal, both these factors are found to influence infant mortality. Data on infant mortality obtained by the 1991 Demographic Health Survey of Nepal are analyzed in this study. A logistic regression model is used for analyzing the data. Several hypotheses are tested to explain the incidence of infant mortality in Nepal. The various reasons for the persistence of high infant mortality and the difficulties in lowering it are discussed. The findings suggest that among all the variables analyzed in the study, parity, place of residence, immunization, and ethnicity influence infant mortality the most. PMID:11762892

  14. Emergency medicine in Nepal: present practice and direction for future.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nishant Raj

    2016-12-01

    Emergency medicine is one of the youngest recognized specialties in Nepal, and its growth in clinical practice and academic development has been challenging. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of emergency medicine in Nepal based on review of the literature, personal observations and experience, and interviews with many Nepali and foreign emergency physicians. Most hospitals in Nepal have adopted a multi-specialist approach, where emergency room physicians are primarily general practitioners/family physicians or house officers. As physicians are receiving their training via various pathways, national standards in training and certification have not been developed. As a result, the scope of practice for emergency physicians and the quality of care vary greatly among hospitals. Difficult working conditions, physician recruitment, compensation, and academic enrichment remain major challenges in the development of emergency medicine. For the sustainable development of this specialty, more international guidance and local leadership is needed to standardize the training curriculum, to provide adequate funding opportunities for academic development and to promote the overall development of the emergency care system. PMID:27416937

  15. Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin; Pant, Sunil Babu; Comfort, Megan; Ekstrand, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Similar to other parts of Asia, the HIV epidemic in Nepal is concentrated among a small number of groups, including transgender people, or Metis. This study was conducted to explore the social context of stigma among Metis in Nepal to better understand their risk for HIV. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Metis in Kathmandu, Nepal. We found that stigma from families leading to rural-urban migration exposed Metis to discrimination from law enforcement, employers and sexual partners, which influenced their risk for HIV. Specific HIV-related risks identified were rape by law enforcement officers, inconsistent condom use and high reported numbers of sexual partners. These data point to an immediate need to work with law enforcement to reduce violence targeting Metis. HIV prevention, housing and employment outreach to Metis in rural areas and those who migrate to urban areas is also needed. Finally, there is a need for more research to determine the prevalence of HIV among Metis, to explore risk within sexual networks and to better understand of the relationship between Metis and their families in order to develop future programmes and interventions. PMID:21058085

  16. Unveiling the silence: women's sexual health and experiences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Tsang, Samantha W; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

    2015-01-01

    Rising rates of HIV in Nepal signal an impending epidemic. In order to develop culturally appropriate and effective actions and programmes to reduce HIV transmission, it is necessary to understand attitudes, behaviours and norms surrounding sexual networking and safer-sex practices in Nepal. Nepali women are thought to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, sexual violence and exploitation and other sexual health disparities due to cultural scripts limiting access to education, ability to control sexual relationships and acceptability in discussing sex and sexual health. The present study comprises a series of interviews with 25 women living in Kathmandu (13 individual interviews and 2 focus-group discussions) about their knowledge and experiences related to sex and sexual health. Interviews were translated and transcribed and two independent coders conducted a thematic analysis. Overall, the women described sex as primarily a male domain. Sex and sexual health were viewed as taboo discussion topics and formal sex education was perceived as minimally available and far from comprehensive in its scope. This formative study can inform future interventions aimed at reducing the spread of STIs/HIV in Nepal and empowering women on issues of sexual health and well-being. PMID:25036591

  17. Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin; Pant, Sunil Babu; Comfort, Megan; Ekstrand, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other parts of Asia, the HIV epidemic in Nepal is concentrated among a small number of groups, including transgender people, or Metis. This study was conducted to explore the social context of stigma among Metis in Nepal to better understand their risk for HIV. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Metis in Kathmandu, Nepal. We found that stigma from families leading to rural-urban migration exposed Metis to discrimination from law enforcement, employers and sexual partners, which influenced their risk for HIV. Specific HIV-related risks identified were rape by law enforcement officers, inconsistent condom use and high reported numbers of sexual partners. These data point to an immediate need to work with law enforcement to reduce violence targeting Metis. HIV prevention, housing and employment outreach to Metis in rural areas and those who migrate to urban areas is also needed. Finally, there is a need for more research to determine the prevalence of HIV among Metis, to explore risk within sexual networks and to better understand of the relationship between Metis and their families in order to develop future programmes and interventions. PMID:21058085

  18. Newborn Health Interventions and Challenges for Implementation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Gelal, Khageshwor; Neupane, Subas

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal mortality is a major challenge in reducing child mortality rates in Nepal. Despite efforts by the Government of Nepal, data from the last three demographic and health surveys show a rise in the contribution of neonatal deaths to infant and child mortality. The Government of Nepal has implemented community-based programs that were piloted and then scaled up based on lessons learned. These programs include, but are not limited to ensuring safe motherhood, birth preparedness package, community-based newborn care package, and integrated management of childhood illnesses. Despite the implementation of such programs on a larger scale, their effective coverage is yet to be achieved. Health system challenges included an inadequate policy environment, funding gaps, inadequate procurement, and insufficient supplies of commodities, while human resource management has been found to be impeding service delivery. Such bottlenecks at policy, institutional and service delivery level need to be addressed incorporating health information in decision-making as well as working in partnership with communities to facilitate the utilization of available services. PMID:26904534

  19. Physiology and applied sciences in Nepal: 1st annual conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of medical schools in Nepal, there is an expected increase in the number of Nepalese physiologists. The first medical school was established in the 1970s. We report here about the first annual conference of Nepalese physiologists on 27-28 September 2013 organized by the Department of Clinical Physiology of the Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences (NAIHS) and Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Nepalese physiologists are trying to form their own physiological society. In this regard, NAIHS and KUMS have played an important role to bring physiologists from different parts of Nepal involved in teaching, learning, and research activities in medical schools. There were a number of foreign invitees (India, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Sweden). There were plenary presentations on the topics that are relevant in Nepal, e.g., high-altitude physiology and wilderness medicine. The final session of the conference was an open session meeting of Nepalese physiologists. There was an open interaction about establishing Nepalese Physiological Society. After much deliberation, there was an agreement to register the society in Kathmandu with the current ad hoc committee which will elect the first executive body of the society. PMID:24580838

  20. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  1. Cranio facial anthropometric measurements among Rai and Limbu community of Sunsari District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, O; Bhattacharya, S; Jha, N; Dhungel, S; Jha, C B; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, U

    2009-09-01

    Anthropometry is applied to obtain measurements of living subjects for identifying age, stature, and various dimensions related to particular race or an individual. Population based cross sectional study was carried out in Dharan and its neighbouring areas with the help of departments of Anatomy and Community Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan. This study included 444 healthy people aged 25-50 years belonging to pure race of Rai and Limbu communities. Head length, nasal ergonomics and total stature were measured for each selected individual. Student't' test was applied to identify significance of the variables. Except nasal breadth of Limbu, the results showed a significant variation (p < 0.001) in all parameters between male and female of both the communities. It was also revealed that Limnbu males and females were taller with larger head length, longer nasal length and nasal height. Similarly nasal breadths of Limbu females were broader where as in males, Rai had broader nose than that of the Limnbu. Therefore it was concluded that anthropometric measurements can play significant role in determining the sex and ethnicity of characteristic pure races of national importance. PMID:20334066

  2. Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  3. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  4. Epidemic of Hysteria in a School of Rural Eastern Nepal: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakya, Rabi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The headmaster of a school (NRMV) in rural eastern Nepal, pleaded for help from the public health Department of Psychiatry, BKIHS, Dharan, Nepal, to prevent closure of his school as guardians of many students refused to send their children to his school, which was supposedly haunted by evil spirits. The author, along with his staff,…

  5. MYCOTOXINS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZE IN NEPAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays) is an important food crop in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya Mountains. Surveys have found that maize in Nepal is contaminated with Fusarium species, mainly F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produce fumonisins, and F. graminearum, which produces trichothecenes, main...

  6. When I Give, I Own: Building Literacy through READ Community Libraries in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Khan, Nafizuddin; Dondolo, Thamsanqa

    2008-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Reading Association, an evaluation was conducted of Rural Education and Development (READ) program of creating community libraries in Nepal. READ set out to address the high rates of illiteracy and poverty in Nepal through the development of these libraries. To examine READ's approach, a team of…

  7. Overview of Integrated Child Development Services Programme in India: Some Policy Implications for Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrestha, Kishor

    This paper presents an overview of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India, discusses the context of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Nepal, analyzes the best practices of the ICDS, and draws some policy implications for improving ECE in Nepal. The ICDS program is an integrated child development program with the…

  8. Exploring the Nature and Reasons for Sexual Violence within Marriage among Young Women in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing…

  9. School Decentralisation in Nepal: A Disjuncture between Macro-Level Advocacy and Micro-Level Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Peshal

    2010-01-01

    While school decentralisation policy in Nepal has been taking effect for more than 8 years with the financial and technical assistance of the World Bank, confusion and controversy have been prevalent in relation to its goals, outcomes and sustainability. This article explores the issues of school decentralisation in Nepal by relating the Bank's…

  10. Determinants of Child Immunization in Nepal: The Role of Women's Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lee, Hae nim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1.4 million or 13% of all children who die each year could be prevented with widely-available vaccines. Objective: We examined if women's empowerment improved child immunization using data on 1,056 mothers with young children from Nepal. Methods: The study utilized the 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a…

  11. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  12. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  13. Understanding effects of armed conflict on health outcomes: the case of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is abundance of literature on adverse effects of conflict on the health of the population. In contrast to this, sporadic data in Nepal claim improvements in most of the health indicators during the decade-long armed conflict (1996-2006). However, systematic information to support or reject this claim is scant. This study reviews Nepal's key health indicators before and after the violent conflict and explores the possible factors facilitating the progress. Methods A secondary analysis has been conducted of two demographic health surveys-Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1996 and Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2006; the latter was supplemented by a study carried out by the Nepal Health Research Council in 2006. Results The data show Nepal has made progress in 16 out of 19 health indicators which are part of the Millennium Development Goals whilst three indicators have remained static. Our analysis suggests a number of conflict and non-conflict factors which may have led to this success. Conclusion The lessons learnt from Nepal could be replicable elsewhere in conflict and post-conflict environments. A nationwide large-scale empirical study is needed to further assess the determinants of Nepal's success in the health sector at a time the country experienced a decade of armed conflict. PMID:21122098

  14. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  15. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  16. Association of Cord Blood Levels of Lead, Arsenic, and Zinc and Home Environment with Children Neurodevelopment at 36 Months Living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Umezaki, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Background Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level prenatal lead exposure and child development. Because of limited earlier epidemiological studies with birth cohort follow up design, it still remains inconclusive that either the associations of cord blood level of toxic, and essential elements, and postnatal raising environment on neurodevelopment of children remains constant throughout childhood or change over time. Aims This study aims to investigate the influence of in utero toxic [lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] and essential elements [zinc (Zn)] levels on neurodevelopment of 36 months children in Chitwan valley, Nepal taking the postnatal environment into account. Study Designs and Subjects In this birth cohort study, participants (N=100 mother-infants’ pairs) were recruited in Chitwan district, Nepal. We measured Pb, As and Zn concentrations in cord blood. Postnatal raising environment (i.e., Home score or home environment hereafter) was evaluated using Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 36 months of age (n=70) were assessed using Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariate regression was performed (n=70) to see the association of in utero toxic and essential elements level and home environment with neurodevelopment score adjusted for covariates. Results Cord blood levels of Pb, As and Zn were not associated with any BSID II cluster scores of 36 months children. The children with relatively superior HOME score and concurrent nutritional status (weight at 36 months) showed better cognitive development (i.e., MDI scores) and motor functions than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion In this general population in Nepal, prenatal Pb, As and Zn levels are not important determinants of the neurodevelopment of 36- month-old children while a consistent beneficial effect of a stimulating home environment on neurodevelopmental indicators

  17. Infant vaccination timing: Beyond traditional coverage metrics for maximizing impact of vaccine programs, an example from southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle M.; Katz, Joanne; Englund, Janet A.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Shrestha, Laxman; LeClerq, Steven C.; Steinhoff, Mark; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited. Objective To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high. Design/methods Infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of maternal influenza vaccination were visited weekly at home from birth through age 6 months to ascertain if any vaccinations had been given in the prior week. Infant, maternal, and household characteristics were recorded. BCG, DTP-Hib-HepB, and OPV vaccination coverage at 4 and 6 months was estimated. Time to vaccination was estimated through Kaplan–Meier curves; Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delay for the first vaccine. Results The median age of BCG, first OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB receipt was 22, 21, and 18 weeks, respectively. Almost half of infants received no BCG by age 6 months. Only 8% and 7% of infants had received three doses of OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB, respectively, by age 6 months. Conclusion A significant delay in receipt of infant vaccines was found in a prospective, population-based, cohort in southern Nepal despite traditional coverage metrics being high. Immunization programs should consider measuring time to receipt relative to the official schedule in order to maximize benefits for disease control and child health. PMID:26788880

  18. Western USA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Western United States Beyond the Four Corners ... to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice, and life as a total integrated system. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA ...

  19. Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment.

    PubMed

    Purdey, A F; Adhikari, G B; Robinson, S A; Cox, P W

    1994-01-01

    Community-based participatory development empowers villagers to develop community cohesion and confidence, increase their ability to identify, analyze, and priorize their own needs, and organize the resources to meet these needs. An important first step in the process involves establishing a cohesive and functional community group. The authors believe that this is best accomplished through villagers' critical examination of their experiences with development including their understanding of reasons for success or failure, and the gradual emergence of a model of working together that acknowledges and builds on participation and collective expertise. This approach to development is demonstrating encouraging results in a rural area of western Nepal in a university affiliated Canadian/Nepali Health Development Project. This paper describes two mini-projects to illustrate the evolution of group formation through reflection, analysis, and action, and identifies outcomes that could serve as indicators of community empowerment. The paper also presents a generic model of empowerment, and offers lessons learned by the project through the application of the empowerment process to sustainable health development. PMID:8002357

  20. Changes in Imja Tsho in the Mt. Everest region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Rounce, D. R.; Byers, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Imja Tsho, located in the Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park of Nepal, is one of the most studied and rapidly growing lakes in the Himalayan range. Compared with previous studies, the results of our sonar bathymetric survey conducted in September 2012 suggest that the maximum depth has increased from 98 m to 116 ± 0.25 m since 2002, and that its estimated volume has grown from 35.8 ± 0.7 million m3 to 61.6 ± 1.8 million m3. Most of the expansion of the lake in recent years has taken place in the glacier terminus-lake interface on the eastern end of the lake, with the glacier receding at about 52.6 ± 0.3 m yr-1 and the lake expanding in area by 0.039 ± 0.0195 km2 yr-1. A ground penetrating radar survey of the Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier just behind the glacier terminus shows that the ice is over 217 ± 12.71 m thick in the center of the glacier. The volume of water that could be released from the lake in the event of a breach in the damming moraine on the western end of the lake has increased from 21 million m3 in 2002 to 34.8 ± 0.54 million m3 in 2012.

  1. Changes in Imja Tsho in the Mount Everest region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Rounce, D. R.; Byers, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Imja Tsho, located in the Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park of Nepal, is one of the most studied and rapidly growing lakes in the Himalayan range. Compared with previous studies, the results of our sonar bathymetric survey conducted in September of 2012 suggest that its maximum depth has increased from 90.5 to 116.3 ± 5.2 m since 2002, and that its estimated volume has grown from 35.8 ± 0.7 to 61.7 ± 3.7 million m3. Most of the expansion of the lake in recent years has taken place in the glacier terminus-lake interface on the eastern end of the lake, with the glacier receding at about 52 m yr-1 and the lake expanding in area by 0.04 km2 yr-1. A ground penetrating radar survey of the Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier just behind the glacier terminus shows that the ice is over 200 m thick in the center of the glacier. The volume of water that could be released from the lake in the event of a breach in the damming moraine on the western end of the lake has increased to 34.1 ± 1.08 million m3 from the 21 million m3 estimated in 2002.

  2. Comparative analysis of contributing parameters for rainfall-triggered landslides in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Yamanaka, Minoru; Dhakal, Santosh; Bhandary, Netra Prakash; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2009-08-01

    In the Himalaya, people live in widely spread settlements and suffer more from landslides than from any other type of natural disaster. The intense summer monsoons are the main factor in triggering landslides. However, the relations between landslides and slope hydrology have not been a focal topic in Himalayan landslide research. This paper deals with the contributing parameters for the rainfall-triggered landslides which occurred during an extreme monsoon rainfall event on 23 July 2002, in the south-western hills of Kathmandu valley, in the Lesser Himalaya, Nepal. Parameters such as bedrock geology, geomorphology, geotechnical properties of soil, and clay mineralogy are described in this paper. Landslide modeling was performed in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W to understand the relationship of pore water pressure variations in soil layers and to determine the spatial variation of landslide occurrence. Soil characteristics, low angle of internal friction of fines in soil, medium range of soil permeability, presence of clay minerals in soil, bedrock hydrogeology, and human intervention were found to be the main contributing parameters for slope failures in the region.

  3. Treatability/feasibility study for district water quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The South Adams County Water and Sanitation District`s most productive shallow alluvial wells are contaminated with a number of volatile organic chemicals. In addition, previous and ongoing studies by various agencies have detected several nonvolatile organic contaminants clearly associated with Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) operations in the northern portion of the existing District area and throughout the western half of the area north and west of RMA. This area is ultimately planned as an addition to the District`s present service area. The District retained the services of James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) to evaluate treatment alternatives for removal of organics contaminants and softening. The objectives of the study are outlined in the District`s request for proposals dated October 11, 1985. In general, the objectives are: to establish, through an analysis of cost and availability, potential sources of supply for the current and projected District water demands; based on requirements of the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, develop treated water quality goals; and select the most feasible treatment for organic contaminant removal with consideration of cost, constructability and reliability in meeting treated water quality goals.

  4. Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level carbon stock mapping in Kayar Khola watershed, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Yogendra K.; Hussin, Yousif Ali; Gilani, Hammad; Bronsveld, M. C.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Qamer, Faisal Mueen; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Bhattarai, Thakur; Aigong, Xu; Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2015-06-01

    Integration of WorldView-2 satellite image with small footprint airborne LiDAR data for estimation of tree carbon at species level has been investigated in tropical forests of Nepal. This research aims to quantify and map carbon stock for dominant tree species in Chitwan district of central Nepal. Object based image analysis and supervised nearest neighbor classification methods were deployed for tree canopy retrieval and species level classification respectively. Initially, six dominant tree species (Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia tomentosa, Mallotus philippinensis and Semecarpus anacardium) were able to be identified and mapped through image classification. The result showed a 76% accuracy of segmentation and 1970.99 as best average separability. Tree canopy height model (CHM) was extracted based on LiDAR's first and last return from an entire study area. On average, a significant correlation coefficient (r) between canopy projection area (CPA) and carbon; height and carbon; and CPA and height were obtained as 0.73, 0.76 and 0.63, respectively for correctly detected trees. Carbon stock model validation results showed regression models being able to explain up to 94%, 78%, 76%, 84% and 78% of variations in carbon estimation for the following tree species: S. robusta, L. parviflora, T. tomentosa, S. wallichii and others (combination of rest tree species).

  5. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. Methods We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Results Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p < 0.01), however their more schooling (SLC and above) shows non-significance with other outcome measures. Interestingly, rich women are less likely to have autonomy to make decision in own healthcare. Conclusions Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access

  6. Attempts to bring the trained teachers in the schools of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    To develop space activities and to industrialize astronomy, base of space education in the high schools must be very effective. This paper highlights the present scenario of space education and discusses the syllabus of astronomy in the different education level of Nepal. Astronomy is included in the curriculum of science book of middle school and high school which contains very few contents of solar system, constellations, galaxy, black holes and formation of stars. There is no any degree for higher studies in astronomy as a separate department in any university of Nepal. This paper also highlights the space activities and national level programs conducting in Nepal to support astronomy education. With the rise of many astronomical clubs and societies in the different regions of Nepal, astronomy education has been more effective in the recent time. Series of Galileo Teacher's Training Program in the different parts of Nepal being organized by Global Hands on Universe in cooperation with local astronomy clubs will be discuss in brief. The attempts to bring more trained and skilled teachers in the classroom by the government and non-government agencies are now gradually increasing. The competition of private schools and their capacity building workshops to their teachers to attract more students is also playing active role to shape the school education effective. The challenges, prospects and the practice of effective astronomy education prevailing in Nepal will be discuss. Key Words: Nepal, Astronomy Education, GTTP, Trained Teachers

  7. Dealing with hidden issues: trafficked women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, M; Shrestha, A

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses approaches to dealing with prostitution in Nepal and exportation of women prostitutes to Asia and the Middle East. It is estimated that over 200,000 Nepalese women are in Indian brothels, and tens of thousands are exported each year to other countries and forced either into prostitution or other oppressive conditions. In Nepal, women prostitutes are rejected as wives or daughters, regardless of the reasons involved. Women Acting Together for Change (WATCH) organized a national public hearing in June 1995 on these issues. During the hearing, 11 women and one man shared their views about being forced into prostitution, the ineffectiveness of the law, and social rejection. Participants at this forum questioned the legal practice of human rights and decided that law was a hindrance. Government representatives on the "listening bench" responded defensively and argued that prostitutes were unwilling to use the law, but agreed that the government should punish traffickers and commit politically to ending the trafficking in women. Roundtable discussions among concerned people after a day of hearings decided to initiate a nationwide coalition against the trafficking in women. The alliance would consist of 17 people and include nongovernmental representatives, lawyers, women who testified, representatives of the National Planning Council, and representatives from women's groups. The sex trade is viewed as a part of the national economy and a very profitable enterprise. Extreme poverty and few employment options are strong incentives for the continuation of prostitution. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of women as born for the sexual pleasure of men. Nepal's national economy and policies have contributed to family poverty and to migration to other countries where women are exploited. The forum revealed schisms in the government commitment to Article 20 of the constitution. PMID:12291818

  8. Deformation of slopes damaged during the 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Densmore, A.; Jordan, C.; Williams, J.; Kincey, M.; Oven, K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Nepal Earthquake Sequence (EQS; the Gorkha EQ (eqG), Mw 7.8 [25/04/15]; the Kodari EQ (eqK), Mw 6.7 [26/05/15]; and Dolakha EQ (eqD), Mw 7.3 [12/05/15], plus associated aftershocks) triggered widespread landsliding, strongly evident in satellite imagery. In addition to the observed failures, pervasive ground cracking has been widely reported in Nepal. This is indicative of hillslope 'damage' (weakening) and, hence, the onset of shear surface development in as-yet unfailed slopes - a phenomenon previously observed in areas subjected to high-magnitude earthquake ground shaking and subsequent ongoing landsliding. Recent work on the efficacy of earthquakes in triggering landslides has proposed that the occurrence of failures is a function of damage accumulated in the slope. We present a unique field monitoring dataset on continuing slope deformation from hillslopes damaged during the 2015 Nepal EQS, in response to precipitation and continuing seismicity. Our study site is the Upper Bhote Koshi (UBK), with sites chosen from a chronology of landslide inventories captured from remotely sensed imagery since the Gorkha earthquake. Instruments were deployed during the monsoon on new and pre-existing landslides, and across cracked ground to monitoring precipitation inputs, slope-scale (micro-)seismicity, and slope displacements. Using our dataset, we draw preliminary conclusions on how the spatially-variable legacy of damage accumulated during high-magnitude earthquake-induced ground shaking events is manifest in patterns, rates and styles of post-seismic slope deformation.

  9. The Burden of Parasitic Zoonoses in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Ale, Anita; Torgerson, Paul; Praet, Nicolas; Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Lake, Rob; Vercruysse, Jozef; Joshi, Durga Datt; Havelaar, Arie H.; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic zoonoses (PZs) pose a significant but often neglected threat to public health, especially in developing countries. In order to obtain a better understanding of their health impact, summary measures of population health may be calculated, such as the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). However, the data required to calculate such measures are often not readily available for these diseases, which may lead to a vicious circle of under-recognition and under-funding. Methodology We examined the burden of PZs in Nepal through a systematic review of online and offline data sources. PZs were classified qualitatively according to endemicity, and where possible a quantitative burden assessment was conducted in terms of the annual number of incident cases, deaths and DALYs. Principal Findings Between 2000 and 2012, the highest annual burden was imposed by neurocysticercosis and congenital toxoplasmosis (14,268 DALYs [95% Credibility Interval (CrI): 5450–27,694] and 9255 DALYs [95% CrI: 6135–13,292], respectively), followed by cystic echinococcosis (251 DALYs [95% CrI: 105–458]). Nepal is probably endemic for trichinellosis, toxocarosis, diphyllobothriosis, foodborne trematodosis, taeniosis, and zoonotic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections, but insufficient data were available to quantify their health impact. Sporadic cases of alveolar echinococcosis, angiostrongylosis, capillariosis, dirofilariosis, gnathostomosis, sparganosis and cutaneous leishmaniosis may occur. Conclusions/Significance In settings with limited surveillance capacity, it is possible to quantify the health impact of PZs and other neglected diseases, thereby interrupting the vicious circle of neglect. In Nepal, we found that several PZs are endemic and are imposing a significant burden to public health, higher than that of malaria, and comparable to that of HIV/AIDS. However, several critical data gaps remain. Enhanced surveillance for the endemic PZs identified in this

  10. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  11. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  12. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  13. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  14. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  15. Catchment Scale Landslide Hazard Assessment In The Siwaliks Of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, R. K.; Paudel, P. P.; Hasegawa, S.; Bhandary, N. P.; Yatabe, R.

    2010-12-01

    Siwaliks hill slope of the Himalaya developed on young and relatively unconsolidated soft rock terrain and it comprises many vertical slopes and rugged terrain. Siwaliks region is low elevation area of the Nepal Himalaya having average elevation of 500 m and average annual rainfall of 2000 to 2500 mm. River valleys of Siwaliks are extensively used for cultivation and are abode to settlement. The population and livelihood activities are highly vulnerable to flood, debris torrent and debris flow from hill slopes. The factors such as human intervention, groundwater condition, geology, river under cuttings and deforestation on slopes are facilitating landslides. The Siwaliks (Churia) Range is made up of geologically very young, soft and unconsolidated sedimentary rocks such as mudstones, shale, sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates. The Upper Siwaliks contains thick beds of conglomerates and they are loose and fragile. Similarly, Lower Siwaliks and Middle Siwaliks have problem from alternating beds of mudstones and sandstone. In such alternating bands, mudstone can flow when saturated with water, which results overhanging sandstone beds. Such overhang jointed sandstone beds easily are disintegrated into blocks. Two typical watersheds viz. Charnath and Jalad of eastern Nepal were selected for the landslide hazard mapping. The Jalad and Charnath are two major river systems originating from the Siwalik and are high disastrous rivers. These catchments also consists the typical features of the eastern Siwalik landscape. Jalad and Charnath watersheds in Siwalik are very fragile and have significant problems of geology and geomorphology related slope failure. In this study, weights-of-evidence modelling with respect to bivariate statistical methods and logistic regression model with respect to multivariate statistical method were used for landslide hazard mapping in Siwaliks. Both modelling was applied by considering 10 intrinsic and 1 extrinsic factors. Mainly DEM

  16. Implementation of the Arsenic Biosand Filter in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcott, S.; Ngai, T.; Shrestha, R.; Pokharel, K.; Walewijk, S.

    2004-05-01

    A low-cost, household-scale drinking water filter, the Arsenic Biosand Filter (ABF), appropriate for rural Nepal, was developed by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and two local partners (ENPHO and RWSSSP) to simultaneously remove arsenic and pathogens from tubewell water. The project implementation site is the Terai region of southern Nepal, where about 90% of people receive water from tubewells and where about 25+% and 40+% of tubewells are contaminated with arsenic (naturally-occurring) and coliforms (from human and animal sources) respectively, causing severe health consequences such as cancers and gastrointestinal illnesses. Despite growing recognition of the immediacy of the arsenic crisis in this region, many previous arsenic technology projects have failed. This is because many of the available technologies have serious drawbacks, including complex production methods, high maintenance, high costs, insufficient filtration rate, and/or reliance on materials unavailable in remote villages. In addition, most technologies treat arsenic and pathogens independently, resulting in complicated treatment operations. Implementation deficiencies including ineffective technology transfer, confusing NGO responsibilities, organizational non-sustainability, lack of user education and contribution, and inadequate long-term maintenance and monitoring capacity are other major problems. The ABF design is optimized based on the socio-economic conditions of rural Terai and is constructed using locally available labor and materials. It was the only arsenic remediation technology to win the prestigious World Bank Development Marketplace Competition in 2003. Funding from this prize will provide start-up capital to pilot a technology transfer network. In 2004, the team has established an in-country technology dissemination and implementation center and is building local capacity in arsenic-affected villages towards long-term, self-reliant, user-participatory safe

  17. Internal migration in contemporary Nepal: models which internalize development policies.

    PubMed

    Thapa, P; Conway, D

    1983-01-01

    "A set of models is developed to assess at the interdistrict level the relative importance of economic, demographic, social and government policy determinants of internal migration in Nepal. The first 'proximate' model and the second 'structural' model estimates are generated using ordinary least squares regression and specification error is investigated by spatial autocorrelation tests of the residuals of each model in its reduced form....Finally, to formalize and evaluate empirically the linkages between the 'proximate' and 'structural' determinants, a simultaneous equation model is developed using three stage generalized least squares regression." PMID:12267240

  18. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  19. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  20. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  1. Strong ground motion in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Rajaure, Sudhir; Bijukchhen, Subeg; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Dhital, Megh Raj; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    On 25 April 2015, a large earthquake of Mw 7.8 occurred along the Main Himalayan Thrust fault in central Nepal. It was caused by a collision of the Indian Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. The epicenter was near the Gorkha region, 80 km northwest of Kathmandu, and the rupture propagated toward east from the epicentral region passing through the sediment-filled Kathmandu Valley. This event resulted in over 8000 fatalities, mostly in Kathmandu and the adjacent districts. We succeeded in observing strong ground motions at our four observation sites (one rock site and three sedimentary sites) in the Kathmandu Valley during this devastating earthquake. While the observed peak ground acceleration values were smaller than the predicted ones that were derived from the use of a ground motion prediction equation, the observed peak ground velocity values were slightly larger than the predicted ones. The ground velocities observed at the rock site (KTP) showed a simple velocity pulse, resulting in monotonic-step displacements associated with the permanent tectonic offset. The vertical ground velocities observed at the sedimentary sites had the same pulse motions that were observed at the rock site. In contrast, the horizontal ground velocities as well as accelerations observed at three sedimentary sites showed long duration with conspicuous long-period oscillations, due to the valley response. The horizontal valley response was characterized by large amplification (about 10) and prolonged oscillations. However, the predominant period and envelope shape of their oscillations differed from site to site, indicating a complicated basin structure. Finally, on the basis of the velocity response spectra, we show that the horizontal long-period oscillations on the sedimentary sites had enough destructive power to damage high-rise buildings with natural periods of 3 to 5 s.

  2. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:15677372

  3. Nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, G P; Pant, C R; Tilden, R L; Pokhrel, R P; Atmarita; Curtale, F

    1998-01-01

    Two approaches to improve vitamin A nutriture are compared: nutrition education and mega-dose capsule distribution. The impact of these programmes on vitamin A deficiency (VAD), wasting malnutrition, and excessive childhood mortality are compared for approximately 40,000 children who were assigned to either intervention cohorts or a control group from 75 sites within seven districts in two ecological settings (Terai, or lowland, and hills) of Nepal. Twenty-four months after the implementation of the project, the reduction of risk of xerophthalmia was greater among children of mothers who were able to identify vitamin A-rich foods [relative risk (RR) = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10-0.62] than among children who received mega-dose capsules (RR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.41-0.84). The risk of mortality at two years was reduced for both the nutrition education cohort (RR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86) and capsule distribution cohort (RR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42-0.77). The nutrition education program, however, was more expensive to deliver than the capsule distribution programme. High rates of participation in the supplementation programme were achieved within a short period. The nutrition education message spread rapidly throughout the study population, although practice was slower to change. Where maternal literacy was low and channels of communication were limited, the capsule programme appeared to be more cost-effective. However, economies of scale for nationwide programmes exist for nutrition education programmes that do not exist for capsule distribution programmes. A comprehensive national programme requires both dietary supplementation and nutrition education. PMID:10773903

  4. Implementing global knowledge in local practice: a WHO lung health initiative in Nepal.

    PubMed

    ten Asbroek, A H A; Delnoij, D M J; Niessen, L W; Scherpbier, R W; Shrestha, N; Bam, D S; Gunneberg, C; van der Hor, C W; Klazinga, N S

    2005-09-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are used widely to improve the quality of primary health care in different health systems, including those of low-income countries. Often developed at international level and adapted to national contexts to increase the feasibility of effective uptake, guideline initiatives aim to transfer global scientific knowledge into local practice. The WHO's Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL) is an example of such an initiative and is currently being developed to improve the quality of care for youths and adults with respiratory diseases. We assessed ex-ante the feasibility of successful implementation of PAL in a pilot programme in rural Nepal, studying three components: the quality of the innovation (i.e. the guidelines), the effectiveness of the implementation strategy (i.e. training) and the receptiveness of the social system of health staff at all levels (i.e. social and organizational characteristics). We assessed the guideline innovation with the AGREE instrument for guidelines, the intended implementation strategy by critical comparison with literature on effective strategies, and the social system with both a stakeholder analysis and a descriptive analysis of the health care system at district level. This ex-ante assessment of an adaptive local implementation of international WHO guidelines showed that in July 2002 the 'implementability' of the package was challenged on the three components studied. To increase the chances of successful implementation, the national guideline development process should be improved and the implementation strategy needs to be upgraded. In order to successfully transfer global knowledge into local practice, we need to develop additional multifactorial sustained interventions that tackle other culture-specific and health system-specific barriers as well. The primary health workers are key informants for these barriers. PMID:16000368

  5. Women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Deependra Kaji; Niehof, Anke

    2013-09-01

    Both increasing women's autonomy and increasing husbands' involvement in maternal health care are promising strategies to enhance maternal health care utilization. However, these two may be at odds with each other insofar as autonomous women may not seek their husband's involvement, and involved husbands may limit women's autonomy. This study assessed the relationship between women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care. Field work for this study was carried out during September-November 2011 in the Kailali district of Nepal. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to investigate the extent of husbands' involvement in maternal health care. A survey was carried out among 341 randomly selected women who delivered a live baby within one year prior to the survey. The results show that husbands were involved in giving advice, supporting to reduce the household work burden, and making financial and transportation arrangements for the delivery. After adjustment for other covariates, economic autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy, while domestic decision-making autonomy was associated with both lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy and the husband's presence at antenatal care (ANC) visits. Movement autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of the husband's presence at ANC visits. Intra-spousal communication was associated with higher likelihood of discussing health with the husband during pregnancy, birth preparedness, and the husbands' presence at the health facility delivery. The magnitude and direction of association varied per autonomy dimension. These findings suggest that programs to improve the women's autonomy and at the same time increase the husband's involvement should be carefully planned. Despite the traditional cultural beliefs that go against the involvement of husbands, Nepalese husbands are increasingly entering into the area of maternal

  6. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds in Nepal: findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A prelacteal feed is any food except mother’s milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. Methods This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds. Results A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%–30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds. Conclusions Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive

  8. Estimating Indoor PM2.5 and CO Concentrations in Households in Southern Nepal: The Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Zeger, Scott; Breysse, Patrick; Katz, Joanne; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass fuel usage with unvented, insufficient combustion devices are thought to be an important health risk factor in South Asia population. To better characterize the indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), and to understand their impact on health in rural southern Nepal, this study analyzed daily monitoring data collected with DataRAM pDR-1000 and LASCAR CO data logger in 2980 households using traditional biomass cookstove indoor through the Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trial–Phase I between March 2010 and October 2011. Daily average PM2.5 and CO concentrations collected in area near stove were 1,376 (95% CI, 1,331–1,423) μg/m3 and 10.9 (10.5–11.3) parts per million (ppm) among households with traditional cookstoves. The 95th percentile, hours above 100μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 6ppm for CO, and hours above 1000μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 9ppm for CO were also reported. An algorithm was developed to differentiate stove-influenced (SI) periods from non-stove-influenced (non-SI) periods in monitoring data. Average stove-influenced concentrations were 3,469 (3,350–3,588) μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.8 (21.1–22.6) ppm for CO. Dry season significantly increased PM2.5 concentration in all metrics; wood was the cleanest fuel for PM2.5 and CO, while adding dung into the fuel increased concentrations of both pollutants. For studies in rural southern Nepal, CO concentration is not a viable surrogate for PM2.5 concentrations based on the low correlation between these measures. In sum, this study filled a gap in knowledge on HAP in rural Nepal using traditional cookstoves and revealed very high concentrations in these households. PMID:27389398

  9. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. PMID:25181944

  10. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  11. Pitfalls of CITES implementation in Nepal: a policy gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative. PMID:22706477

  12. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  13. Exposure of the Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Delores; Martin, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    In central Nepal, between the Main Central thrust and the Main Boundary thrust, only Lesser Himalayan rock is exposed in structurally complex relationships; whereas in other regions of Nepal, Lesser Himalayan rocks are buried under klippen of Greater Himalayan rock. Thus, central Nepal along the Modi Khola south through the Kali Gandaki River and the village of Tansen is one of the few locations along the Himalayan thrust belt where the entire Lesser Himalayan duplex is exposed. This location is critical to determining the kinematics of the thrust belt. The purpose of this study is to determine the structural architecture of central Nepal using the collected structural data, incorporating available age data, drawing and balancing cross sections and testing variations in shortening given different stratigraphic assumptions. The two balanced cross sections are constructed from the same topography but have different underlying assumptions and decisions made during the development. We tested whether major changes in the stratigraphy and simplifications regarding the evolution of the Lesser Himalayan duplex affected the amount of shortening. Cross section 1 has a shortening estimate from the Main Central thrust to the Main Boundary thrust, including motion on the Main Central thrust, of 359 km or 77.8%. Cross section 2 has a shortening estimate of 371 km or 78.4% over the same region. These shortening estimates do not include meso-scale and micro-scale shortening in the Lesser and Greater Himalayan rocks nor do they include intra-Greater Himalayan faults. The percentage of shortening between the two cross sections is the same and the amount of shortening is not significantly different. These are striking outcomes given the different choices made when constructing the cross sections especially with regards to the stratigraphy. This suggests that the different choices made when drawing a cross section may be fairly unimportant for the estimate of shortening and percentage

  14. How did Nepal reduce the maternal mortality? A result from analysing the determinants of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R

    2012-01-01

    Nepal reportedly reduced the maternal mortality ratio by 48% within one decade between 1996-2005 and received the Millennium development goal award for this. However, there is debate regarding the accuracy of this figure. On the basis of framework of determinants of maternal mortality proposed by McCarthy and Maine in 1992 and successive data from Nepal demographic health survey of 1996, 2001 and 2006, a literature analysis was done to identify the important factors behind this decline. Although facility delivery and skilled birth attendants are acclaimed as best strategy of reducing maternal mortality, a proportionate increase in these factors was not found to account the maternal mortality rate reduction in Nepal. Alternatively, intermediate factors particularly women awareness, family planning and safe abortion might have played a significant role. Hence, Nepal as well as similar other developing countries should pay equal attention to such intermediate factors while concentrating on biomedical care strategy. PMID:23478738

  15. India, Nepal, Tibet, Himalaya Mountains as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    India, Nepal, Tibet, Himalaya Mountains, looking east toward Ganges Plain, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 8th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours.

  16. Representation of extreme precipitation events in Nepal in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woosung; Ryu, Byeong; Yun, Myong

    2016-04-01

    Nepal is highly vulnerable to of extreme climate events due in part to its mountainous terrain and lack of infrastructure. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme temperature and precipitation events worldwide, with particularly severe impacts likely in Nepal. In this study we analyze the performance of general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) at simulating temperature and precipitation in Nepal relative to the NCEP Reanalysis II and observational data, and we project how extreme events may change during the 21st century. We analyze the uncertainty in our projections, and compare the current generation of models in CMIP5 to prior results in this region using older climate models. Finally, we consider the impact of our projections on Nepal's society and economy.

  17. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal. PMID:26176773

  18. Thunderstorm characteristics in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Shrestha, Rajendra; Karki, Ramchandra

    2014-02-01

    A training period of lightning location data usage has been carried out in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season April-June 2012. The training was one part of a Finnish-Nepalese Project (FNEP) between the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology of Nepal (DHM) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). FNEP aimed for the development of operational meteorological readiness in a developing country such as Nepal. The lightning location training included the introduction to lightning location techniques and principles and the actual hands-on training for the operational DHM forecasters. The lightning location system used was the Vaisala long range Global Lightning Dataset 360 (GLD360), which has practically a global coverage. During the three months of training, a dataset of Nepalese lightning was also collected, indicating the pre-monsoon thunderstorm characteristics of Nepal.

  19. Strengthening national health systems for improving efficiency of health service delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, H S; Adhikari, S; Gurung, G; Pant, S; Aryal, S; Singh, A B; Sherpa, M G

    2012-05-01

    The success of Nepal's community-based health programmes in promoting maternal and child health has been achieved due to an overall improvement in service delivery facilities and health support systems. This article assesses the progress made by the Government of Nepal in improving health service delivery by introducing three key components: an improved health logistics management, facility-based maternal and neonatal health services, and decentralized health facility management. PMID:23034370

  20. Incidence Rate of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome without Specific Treatment in India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Potharaju, Nagabhushana Rao

    2012-01-01

    Background: A performance target (PT) for the incidence rate (IR) of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was not defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to lack of data. There is no specific treatment for ~90% of the AES cases. Objectives: (1) To determine the IR of AES not having specific treatment (AESn) in two countries, India and Nepal. (2) To suggest the PT. Subjects and Methods: This was a record-based study of the entire population of India and Nepal from 1978 to 2011. The WHO definition was used for inclusion of cases. Cases that had specific treatment were excluded. IR was calculated per 100,000 population per annum. Forecast IR was generated from 2010 to 2013 using time-series analysis. Results: There were 165,461 cases from 1978 to 2011, of which 125,030 cases were from India and 40,431 were from Nepal. The mean IR of India was 0.42 (s 0.24) and that of Nepal was 5.23 (σ 3.03). IRs of 2010 and 2011 of India and that of 2011 of Nepal were closer to the mean IR rather than the forecast IR. IR of 2010 of Nepal was closer to the forecast IR. The forecast IR for India for 2012 was 0.49 (0.19-1.06), for 2013 was 0.42 (0.15-0.97) and for Nepal for both 2012 and 2013 was 5.62 (1.53-15.05). Conclusions: IRs were considerably different for India and Nepal. Using the current mean IR as PT for the next year was simple and practical. Using forecasting was complex and, less frequently, useful. PMID:23293439

  1. Evaluation of district mental healthcare plans: the PRIME consortium methodology

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Rathod, Sujit D.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Breuer, Erica; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Prince, Martin; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the implementation and impact of real-world mental health programmes delivered at scale in low-resource settings. Aims To describe the cross-country research methods used to evaluate district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. Method Multidisciplinary methods conducted at community, health facility and district levels, embedded within a theory of change. Results The following designs are employed to evaluate the MHCPs: (a) repeat community-based cross-sectional surveys to measure change in population-level contact coverage; (b) repeat facility-based surveys to assess change in detection of disorders; (c) disorder-specific cohorts to assess the effect on patient outcomes; and (d) multilevel case studies to evaluate the process of implementation. Conclusions To evaluate whether and how a health-system-level intervention is effective, multidisciplinary research methods are required at different population levels. Although challenging, such methods may be replicated across diverse settings. PMID:26447175

  2. PLANT DIVERSITY OF WESTERN CHITWAN FLORISTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 species that belong to 191 genera and 66 families. Of 236 species of plants, 119, 113, 59, 35 and 119 species were recorded from Tikauli forest, National Park forest, forests along the Narayani river, grasslands of National Park and common lands of the western Chitwan, respectively. Dicotyledons represent 184 (77.97%) species of the total flora species followed by monocotyledons (46 spp., 19.49%) and ferns (6 spp., 2.54%), respectively. The five largest families are Leguminosae (38 spp.), Poaceae (27 spp.), Asteraceae (22 spp.), Rubiaceae (10 spp.), and Scrophulariaceae (9 spp.). Hedyotis, Grewia and Lindernia, each with 4 spp., are the most speciose genera in the flora. PMID:22899874

  3. Tomography of the source zone of the 2015 M 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng

    2016-04-01

    We conducted P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Nepal and surrounding areas to clarify the causal mechanism of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8) and dynamic processes of the India-Asia collision zone. Our results show that hypocenters of the 2015 Nepal mainshock and the 1833 Nepal earthquake (M 8.0) are located in a zone with a higher P-wave velocity (high-V), and the high-V zone coincides with the coseismic slip area of the 2015 Nepal mainshock. The high-V zone may reflect a strongly coupled patch (i.e., asperity) in the megathrust zone between the subducting Indian plate and the overlying Eurasian plate. This result suggests that the nucleation of the Nepal earthquakes was controlled by structural heterogeneities in the megathrust zone. Significant variations of P-wave velocity anisotropy are revealed across the Himalaya collision belt. The predominant fast P-wave velocity direction is NE-SW beneath northern India, whereas it becomes NW-SE beneath the Himalaya, suggesting that the fossil anisotropy in the Indian plate is overprinted by the ongoing India-Asia collision.

  4. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  5. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  6. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  7. Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard

  8. Using local resources to fight HIV / AIDS in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhatterai, M

    1994-08-01

    Available data suggest that the extent of HIV infection in Nepal is small, but growing. 124 cases of HIV infection were identified and reported in 1993, 201 in 1994. These are, however, only the cases which were identified and there are no doubt many more which remained undiagnosed in the country. Nepal also borders India, a country in which one million people may be infected with HIV by the year 2000. Hundreds of thousands of Nepalese men seek work in India as migrant laborers, while up to 100,000 Nepalese women work in India as prostitutes. Engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse where the prevalence of HIV infection among the general population is comparatively high naturally puts one at risk of contracting HIV. General Welfare Pratisthan (GWP), is a nongovernmental organization based in Kathmandu, Nepal, which has focused upon improving health, education, and the environment since its inception in 1991. The organization is wholly funded by General Paper Industry, a private, family-owned company which produces paper products and packaging materials from recycled paper and cloth materials. General Paper contributes a full 10% of its annual export value to GWP. The first of several AIDS programs launched by GWP is an HIV/AIDS information and condom distribution project at the police post on the Tribhuwan Highway at Thankot. GWP built a weather-proof building for the police and an adjacent post for the organization's outreach staff from which it can contact the thousands of Nepalese and Indians crossing the shared border daily. In particular, the intervention aims to reach the host of transient, poorly informed transport workers with an AIDS prevention message. Program successes have led to the recruitment of student volunteers from twenty-three college campuses in the Kathmandu Valley to serve as motivators at the post during the school holiday, free HIV/AIDS advertisements in at least fifty cinemas nationwide, a national essay competition for secondary school

  9. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  10. Glacier area and volume changes of Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal from ~1980s to 2010 based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, L.; Kayastha, R. B.; Maharjan, S. B.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Chand, M. B.; Mool, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Glaciers are one of the important natural resources of freshwater and sources of water for hydropower, agriculture and drinking whenever the water is scarce. This mapping and change analysis helps to understand the status and decadal changes of glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mustang district, Nepal. The investigation is carried out using Landsat images of the years 1977 (~1980s), 1990, 2000 and 2010. We mapped 10 glaciers of the Hidden Valley covering an area of 19.79 km2 based on the object-based image classification method using an automatic method and manual delineation by a Geographic Information System (GIS), separately. The glacier outlines for 2010, 2000, 1990 and 1980s in both methods are delineated from the multispectral Landsat images of the respective years. The total area losses of the glaciers from the automatic method are 1.713 and 0.625 km2 between 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 and from manual delineation are 2.021, 1.264, 1.041 km2 between ~1980s-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. The amount of average estimated glacier ice reserves lost is 0.326 km3 (26.26 %) and the total glacier area loss is 4.33 km2 (21.87 %) from the 1980s to 2010 based on manual delineation. The glaciers of Hidden Valley are shrinking and fragmented due to decrease in glacier area and ice reserves.

  11. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: 2. Modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; SchäR, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    After completing a 9-month field experiment studying air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we set up the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 to simulate the Kathmandu Valley's meteorology with a horizontal resolution of up to 1 km. After testing the model against available data, we used it to address specific questions to understand the factors that control the observed diurnal cycle of air pollution in this urban basin in the Himalayas. We studied the dynamics of the basin's nocturnal cold air pool, its dissipation in the morning, and the subsequent growth and decay of the mixed layer over the valley. During mornings, we found behavior common to large basins, with upslope flows and basin-center subsidence removing the nocturnal cold air pool. During afternoons the circulation in the Kathmandu Valley exhibited patterns common to plateaus, with cooler denser air originating over lower regions west of Kathmandu arriving through mountain passes and spreading across the basin floor, thereby reducing the mixed layer depth. We also examined the pathways of pollutant ventilation out of the valley. The bulk of the pollution ventilation takes place during the afternoon, when strong westerly winds blow in through the western passes of the valley, and the pollutants are rapidly carried out through passes on the east and south sides of the valley. In the evening, pollutants first accumulate near the surface, but then are lifted slightly when katabatic flows converge underneath. The elevated polluted layers are mixed back down in the morning, contributing to the morning pollution peak. Later in the morning a fraction of the valley's pollutants travels up the slopes of the valley rim mountains before the westerly winds begin.

  12. Sporadic, rainfall triggered landslides and debris flows in the monsoon, Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique; Etienne, Cossart; Alexis, Conte; Natacha, Gribenski; Gilles, Arnaud-Fassetta

    2010-05-01

    Small river catchments play a major role in the overall denudation of the Himalayas, because they may generate extreme, geomorphic events. We characterize their potential impacts on the morphology and functioning of trunk rivers, and indirectly on infrastructure and settlements located along the valley floor. Our study case, the Ghatte Khola, is an intermittent tributary of the Kali Gandaki (Western Nepal) affected by occasional debris flow events. The cause of the debris flows is a persistent planar slide zone (dip slope) that is reactivated by pre- or monsoon heavy rainfall on the upper, forested catchment. As a result, the narrow valley of the upstream part of the tributary is temporary clogged by slide masses, until sudden, landslide outburst floods occur. Downstream, where the channel is entrenched across a 5-8 m thick debris fan, the functioning of successive debris flows cause bank erosion and stream channel widening. At the junction with the Kali Gandaki, the flows may aggrade debris volumes large enough to dam the Kali Gandaki for a few hours and cause the level of this major river to rise more than 5 m upstream. During the last 40 years, pulsed aggradations transferred erosion point to the opposite (left bank) side of the Kali Gandaki. This ephemeral, yet threatening behaviour of the stream, occurs every two or three years, according to field investigations (geomorphic mapping, sediment analysis) and interviews of villagers. We present various scenarios simulated using the SAGA-GIS cellular automata combined with a Digital Elevation Model. We discuss the available rainfall intensity-duration thresholds susceptible to trigger Himalayan landslides. Our study suggests that such high-magnitude/low-frequency events are very efficient to foster sediment fluxes and create temporary sediment storages in Himalayan valleys, a fact that is to be considered prior to any new settlement and road design in a country where infrastructures are rapidly developing.

  13. Atmospheric changes observed during April 2015 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Nandita D.

    2016-03-01

    A massive earthquake shook Nepal on 25 April 2015, with a moment magnitude of 7.9 Mw, its hypocenter at a depth of 10 km. Atmospheric changes that precede an earthquake might offer the hope of early warning and evacuation. Although the existence of such precursory signals is highly controversial, an attempt has been made to investigate the atmospheric changes from two months prior, to five months following this deadly earthquake. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar ozone were found to be higher by 40% and 6% respectively prior to the occurrence of the earthquake. The UV aerosol index (UVI), AOD and columnar NO2 increased, while columnar ozone and sea level pressure dropped following the earthquake.

  14. Local-level governance of risk and resilience in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samantha; Aryal, Komal; Collins, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the circumstances in which communities may effectively reduce risks. It draws on the example of two 'Risk and Resilience Committees' (RRCs) that were established in Nepal as part of an action research project: one in Panchkhal in the central region, operating as a community-based organisation (CBO); and the other in Dhankuta in the eastern region, embedded in municipal government. In-depth interviews were conducted with RRC members. Wider community preferences for risk reduction were examined through a questionnaire survey. In Dhankuta, the RRC obtained further funding, developed strong upward and downward institutional links, and applied a 'disaster risk reduction lens' to existing local government responsibilities. In Panchkhal, RRC activities have been limited by funding and have focused on the strengthening of livelihoods. It may be concluded tentatively that community-based disaster risk reduction activities are more successful when they are institutionally embedded in local government structures. PMID:23601081

  15. Kusunda: An Indo-Pacific language in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Paul; Usher, Timothy; Ruhlen, Merritt; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Kusunda people of central Nepal have long been regarded as a relic tribe of South Asia. They are, or were until recently, seminomadic hunter-gatherers, living in jungles and forests, with a language that shows no similarities to surrounding languages. They are often described as shorter and darker than neighboring tribes. Our research indicates that the Kusunda language is a member of the Indo-Pacific family. This is a surprising finding inasmuch as the Indo-Pacific family is located on New Guinea and surrounding islands. The possibility that Kusunda is a remnant of the migration that led to the initial peopling of New Guinea and Australia warrants additional investigation from both a linguistic and genetic perspective. PMID:15056764

  16. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  17. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  18. Serological study of dengue virus infection in Terai region, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sah, O P; Subedi, S; Morita, K; Inone, S; Kurane, I; Pandey, B D

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine dengue virus IgM-positive rate in Terai region, Nepal from August to December 2007. Serum samples were collected from 183 symptomatic cases. The samples were examined for dengue virus specific IgM using particle agglutination test. Of 183 serum samples, 55 (30.0%) had positive for dengue IgM antibody. The positive rate was highest (50.0%) in Biratnagar, and lowest (19.6%) in Chitwan male to female ratio was 2:1 in IgM-positive populations. IgM-positive rate was 29.0% at ages 21-30, 25.4% at ages 11-20 and 23.6% at ages 0-10, but 10.9% at ages 31-40, and ages over 40. There was not significant association between occupation of the patients and positive rate among farmer, labour, service, business and student. PMID:19968149

  19. Promoting astronomy for the development of society in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh; Neupane, Sudeep

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy as one of the oldest sciences has influenced and spurred steady development of society and culture. Inherent superstitious beliefs and their related rituals that have been hampering the progress and prosperity of nations have been dispelled and reduced considerably through the promotion of astronomical activities at all levels of the society. For disseminating basic knowledge and logic of astronomical facts that were deemed important for the development of our society, various programmes have been conducted through mass media. Many talk programmes, seminars and star parties were organised in different places. Our experiences when planning and executing such programmes are summarised and illustrated. The effectiveness of our programmes with the participation of general public is discussed in detail. Positive results of our activities that have contributed towards creation of substantial awareness of astronomy for the development of our society in Nepal are explained.

  20. A sustainable approach towards rural development: dry toilets in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, M R

    2005-01-01

    Existing inadequate sewerage systems and direct disposal of household waste into water courses has tremendously increased water pollution. Dry toilets are feasible in rural and peri-urban areas to reduce the consumption of costlier water that is required for flushing. As conventional treatment technologies require high investment, and operation and maintenance costs, dry toilets are the only suitable option left for sanitation in the 21st century when working with limited financial resources. To reduce environmental degradation and overcome this problem, the dry toilet is only the realistic option in Nepal. Two reactors, one exposed to sunrays and the other without sunrays, were constructed. In the model with sunrays, it was found that in 48 days of observation faecal coliform presence depleted to 610 cells per gm from the initial value of 7 x 10(10) and volatile organic matter came down from 98.09% to 70.18%. Similarly, in the other model, the destruction of faecal coliform in 65 days was found to be 920 cells/gm while the destruction of organic matter took 75 days. Also, observing from 313 people in a cluster on the pilot project, the annually recovered value of N, P and K was found to be 1565 kg, 125 kg, 344 kg, respectively. This paper deals with the different types of dry ecological toilet, their performance and feasibility study in Nepal, with the full involvement of local people, based on complete laboratory analysis and regular monitoring. Using dry toilets will save 14 LPCD, which is equivalent to 14 MLD and the resulting demand will become only 80 MLD for the urban area of Kathmandu. The result advocates the implementation of ecological dry toilets to save valuable water wasted in flushing, as well as saving the resources needed to treat the waste. PMID:16477967

  1. Macroseismic Intensities from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. S.; Hough, S. E.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Hung, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake, the largest central Himalayan earthquake in eighty-one years, yielded few instrumental recording of strong motion. To supplement these we collected 3800 detailed media and first-person accounts of macroseismic effects that included sufficiently detailed information to assign intensities. Our resultant macroseismic intensity map reveals the distribution of shaking in Nepal and the adjacent Gangetic basin. A key observation was that only in rare instances did near-field shaking intensities exceed intensity 8 on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS), a level that corresponds with heavy damage or total collapse of many unengineered masonry structures. Within the Kathmandu Valley, intensities were generally 6-7 EMS, with generally lower intensities in the center of the valley than along the edges and foothills. This surprising (and fortunate) result can be explained by the nature of the mainshock ground motions, which were dominated by energy at periods significantly longer than the resonant periods of vernacular structures throughout Kathmandu. Outside the Kathmandu Valley the earthquake took a heavy toll on a number of remote villages, where many especially vulnerable masonry houses collapsed catastrophically in shaking equivalent to 7-8 EMS. Intensities were also generally higher along ridges and small hills, suggesting that topographic amplification played a significant role in controlling damage. The spatially rich intensity data set provides an opportunity to consider several key issues, including amplification of shaking in the Ganges basin, and the distribution of shaking across the rupture zone. Of note, relatively higher intensities within the near-field region are found to correlate with zones of enhanced high-frequency source radiation imaged by teleseismic back-projection (Avouac et al., 2015). We further reconsider intensities from a sequence of earthquakes on 26 August 1833, and conclude the largest of these ruptured

  2. Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

    2012-01-01

    Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. PMID:23293457

  3. Features of positive ground flashes observed in Kathmandu Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath

    2016-07-01

    Lightning vertical electric fields pertinent to the subtropical thunderstorms occurring over the rugged terrain have been measured and recorded at a hilly station Kathmandu, Nepal. In the present work, waveforms of the positive ground flashes have been selected from all the records and were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fine structure of electric field signature pertinent to the positive return stroke; have been analyzed and presented from Nepal. One hundred and thirty three (133) of the total of four hundred twenty-five (425) flashes were selected from seven thunderstorm days and analyzed. Of the data recorded for seven days, 133 flashes (31.3%) were positive flashes and 276 flashes (64.9%) were cloud flashes. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found to be single stroke ones, whereas, the average number of strokes per flash is found to be 1.1 with a maximum value of 4. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found either lacking the initial breakdown process and the leader stage or these processes could not be detected. The return strokes are found to be succeeded by large in cloud activity in the continuing current portion of the flash. The average zero-crossing time of the positive return strokes was found to be 60.45 μs with a range of 447.81 μs and the average rise time was found to be 9.44 μs with a range of 42.56 μs.

  4. Young eclogite from the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Arun Valley, eastern Nepal: P- T- t path and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Garnet geochronology was used to provide the first direct measurement of the timing of eclogitization in the central Himalaya. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite from the Arun River Valley in eastern Nepal indicate an age of 20.7 ± 0.4 Ma, significantly younger than ultra-high pressure eclogites from the western Himalaya, reflecting either different origins or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. Four proximal garnet amphibolites from structurally lower horizons are 14-15 Ma, similar to post-eclogitization ages published for rocks along strike in southern Tibet. P- T calculations indicate three metamorphic episodes for the eclogite: i) eclogite-facies metamorphism at ˜ 670 °C and ≥ 15 kbar at 23-16 Ma; ii) a peak- T granulite event at ˜ 780 °C and 12 kbar; and iii) late-stage amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ˜ 675 °C and 6 kbar at ˜ 14 Ma. The garnet amphibolites were metamorphosed at ˜ 660 °C. Three models are considered to explain the observed P- T- t evolution. The first assumes that the Main Himalayan Thrust (basal thrust of the Himalayan thrust system) cuts deeper at Arun than elsewhere. While conceptually the simplest, this model has difficulty explaining both the granulite-facies overprint and the pulse of exhumation between 25 and 14 Ma. A second model assumes that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ˜ 50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ˜ 25 Ma in the central Himalaya of Nepal, and presumably later in the eastern Himalaya. This model explains the P- T- t path, particularly heating during initial exhumation, but implies significant along-strike diachroneity, which is generally lacking in other features of the Himalaya. A third model assumes repeated loss of mantle lithosphere, first by slab breakoff at ˜ 50 Ma, and again by delamination at ˜ 25 Ma; this model explains the P- T- t path, but requires geographically restricted tectonic behavior at Arun

  5. Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

  6. Scalability and Sustainability in Uncertain Environments: Recovery from the Nepal Earthquakes, April 25 and May 12, 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comfort, L. K.; Joshi, J. B. D.; Yuldashev, F.

    2015-12-01

    Decision making in disaster recovery involves both rapid scaling up of resources and personnel from external sources, to rebuild a damaged community, and consequent scaling down of this influx of new actors, organizations, and resources as the community returns to daily operations. How to integrate new concepts, technologies, and resources into communities to rebuild the social, economic, and political infrastructure in stronger, more sustainable ways, as well to reconstruct the damaged technical infrastructure represents a challenging set of problems for any community. This problem is critical in environments exposed to recurring risk of interacting hazards that characterize metropolitan regions today. This analysis will examine the process of decision making that is being initiated at national, regional, district, and municipal levels in Nepal following the April 25 and May 12, 2015 Earthquakes as a field study of this process in action. We will build on an initial brief reconnaissance trip to Nepal, June 30 - July 10, 2015, just as response operations were ending and the transition to recovery was beginning. It will capture this transition process to identify the organizational structure through which it operates and the communication and coordination processes that enhance or impede the development of sustainable, disaster-resilient communities as they recover from disaster. We will collect three types of data from different sources, and use appropriate methods of analysis for each type of data. For documentary analysis, we will trace the logic of governmental action for managing risk and recovering from disaster that is stated in public laws, policies, and documents. For electronic media, we will use content analysis to identify key actors, organizations, transactions, and interactions among actors, and conduct a network analysis, using standard measures of centrality, distance, closeness, and clustering. We will use expert interviews and satellite maps to

  7. Socioeconomic and physical distance to the maternity hospital as predictors for place of delivery: an observation study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Wagle, Rajendra Raj; Sabroe, Svend; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2004-01-01

    Background Although the debate on the safety and women's right of choice to a home delivery vs. hospital delivery continues in the developed countries, an undesirable outcome of home delivery, such as high maternal and perinatal mortality, is documented in developing countries. The objective was to study whether socio-economic factors, distance to maternity hospital, ethnicity, type and size of family, obstetric history and antenatal care received in present pregnancy affected the choice between home and hospital delivery in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study was done during June, 2001 to January 2002 in an administratively and geographically well-defined territory with a population of 88,547, stretching from urban to adjacent rural part of Kathmandu and Dhading Districts of Nepal with maximum of 5 hrs of distance from Maternity hospital. There were no intermediate level of private or government hospital or maternity homes in the study area. Interviews were carried out on 308 women who delivered within 45 days of the date of the interview with a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results A distance of more than one hour to the maternity hospital (OR = 7.9), low amenity score status (OR = 4.4), low education (OR = 2.9), multi-parity (OR = 2.4), and not seeking antenatal care in the present pregnancy (OR = 4.6) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of home delivery. Ethnicity, obstetric history, age of mother, ritual observance of menarche, type and size of family and who is head of household were not statistically significantly associated with the place of delivery. Conclusions The socio-economic standing of the household was a stronger predictor of place of delivery compared to ethnicity, the internal family structure such as type and size of family, head of household, or observation of ritual days by the mother of an important event like menarche. The results suggested that mothers, who were in the low

  8. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  9. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kaphle, Krishna; Bhuju, Dinesh Raj; Jha, Pramod Kr; Bhattarai, Hom Nath

    2011-01-01

    Nepal the "Shangri-La" in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST). Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was "Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal". Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved. PMID:19875434

  10. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  11. Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

  12. Micronutrients Deficiency, a Hidden Hunger in Nepal: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shiva; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a global challenge to health as in Nepal. In Nepal, the targeted beneficiaries are less aware about importance of micronutrients (MNs), which has resulted in low intake of foods rich in MNs. Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have huge impact on health of vulnerable population like women and children and have jeopardized the national economy and prosperity of developing countries including Nepal. However, less attention has been paid towards MNDs, which can be prevented. Therefore, this study aims to draw attention of the concerned authorities and researchers to combat against MNDs in Nepal. This study showed that different types of MNDs with higher prevalence exist in Nepal. The major causes of MNDs were poor diet, diseases and infestations, and poor health caring practices. The results of MNDs were unwanted child and maternal mortality, impairments of lives, and reduction in productivity and intellectual capacity. School health and nutrition education and supplementation and fortification of essential MNs proved to be effective while dietary diversification and economic growth and poverty eradication seemed promising. Control and prevention of MNDs can help to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well, so studies in this sector should be emphasized. PMID:27347513

  13. Micronutrients Deficiency, a Hidden Hunger in Nepal: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a global challenge to health as in Nepal. In Nepal, the targeted beneficiaries are less aware about importance of micronutrients (MNs), which has resulted in low intake of foods rich in MNs. Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have huge impact on health of vulnerable population like women and children and have jeopardized the national economy and prosperity of developing countries including Nepal. However, less attention has been paid towards MNDs, which can be prevented. Therefore, this study aims to draw attention of the concerned authorities and researchers to combat against MNDs in Nepal. This study showed that different types of MNDs with higher prevalence exist in Nepal. The major causes of MNDs were poor diet, diseases and infestations, and poor health caring practices. The results of MNDs were unwanted child and maternal mortality, impairments of lives, and reduction in productivity and intellectual capacity. School health and nutrition education and supplementation and fortification of essential MNs proved to be effective while dietary diversification and economic growth and poverty eradication seemed promising. Control and prevention of MNDs can help to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well, so studies in this sector should be emphasized. PMID:27347513

  14. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  15. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive people’s clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Results Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). Conclusion HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings

  16. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  17. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  18. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  19. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  20. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  1. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  2. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  3. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  4. A District Level Planning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, W. E.; Achilles, C. M.

    This report examines school district planning models in South Carolina. It focuses on three questions: (1) Of those school districts conducting some type of systematic planning, how many are producing strategic plans? Long-range plans? Accountability reports? (2) In those same districts, how many are preparing adequate program-management…

  5. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  6. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  7. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  8. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  9. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  10. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (<50 yr) indicating its high recruitment rate. Population age structure along an elevation gradient revealed an upward shifting of A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr-1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The

  11. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2014-07-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change on the treeline dynamic. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, > 250 m long) were laid which included treeline as well as tree species limit. Ecological mapping of all individuals of dominant trees Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 years) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 years). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (< 50 years) indicating its high recruitment rate. Population age structure along the elevation gradient revealed an upward shifting of A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m year-1 since AD 1850. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found to be stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. The temporal growth of A. spectabilis was correlated negatively with the monthly mean and minimum temperature of June to September of the current and previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively correlated with August precipitation and monthly maximum temperature of the month of the current year. The growth and regeneration of A. spectabilis was more sensitive to maximum and minimum temperature rather than average temperature. The growth of the B. utilis was mainly limited by moisture stress during the pre-monsoon season. As these two species presented species

  12. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Gajurel, Ananta Prasad; Perrier, Frédéric; Upreti, Bishal Nath; Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Effective radium-226 concentration ( EC Ra) has been measured in soil samples from seven horizontal and vertical profiles of terrace scarps in the northern part of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The samples belong to the Thimi, Gokarna, and Tokha Formations, dated from 50 to 14 ky BP, and represent a diverse fluvio-deltaic sedimentary facies mainly consisting of gravelly to coarse sands, black, orange and brown clays. EC Ra was measured in the laboratory by radon-222 emanation. The samples ( n = 177) are placed in air-tight glass containers, from which, after an accumulation time varying from 3 to 18 days, the concentration of radon-222, radioactive decay product of radium-226 and radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days, is measured using scintillation flasks. The EC Ra values from the seven different profiles of the terrace deposits vary from 0.4 to 43 Bq kg -1, with profile averages ranging from 12 ± 1 to 27 ± 2 Bq kg -1. The values have a remarkable consistency along a particular horizon of sediment layers, clearly demonstrating that these values can be used for long distance correlations of the sediment horizons. Widely separated sediment profiles, representing similar stratigraphic positions, exhibit consistent EC Ra values in corresponding stratigraphic sediment layers. EC Ra measurements therefore appear particularly useful for lithologic and stratigraphic discriminations. For comparison, EC Ra values of soils from different localities having various sources of origin were also obtained: 9.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg -1 in soils of Syabru-Bensi (Central Nepal), 23 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of the Bhattar-Trisuli Bazar terrace (North of Kathmandu), 17.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of terrace of Kalikasthan (North of Trisuli Bazar) and 10 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of a site near Nagarkot (East of Kathmandu). The knowledge of EC Ra values for these various soils is important for modelling radon exhalation at the ground surface, in particular

  13. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. PMID:26543163

  14. 77 FR 26001 - Southwest Power Pool; Western Area Power Administration; Basin Electric Cooperative; Heartland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Power Pool; Western Area Power Administration; Basin Electric Cooperative; Heartland Consumers Power District; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Southwest Power Pool (SPP), Western Area...

  15. Addressing the needs of people with disability in Nepal: The urgent need.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Dariang, Maureen; Keeling, Stephen J; Mehata, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Health planners and policy makers often overlook the needs of people with disability (PWDs) in less developed countries such as Nepal. The aftermath of conflict and earthquake has further escalated the need of people with disability in Nepal. While the country is preparing for the implementation of a national health sector strategy for the next five years and when the health system is being restructured, we believe that this is the right time to address needs of people with disability by strengthening the health system and operationalizing community based rehabilitation. Furthermore, there is a need of a standard database and monitoring system to regularly assess social inclusion of people with disability. PMID:26880319

  16. Pattern and quality of scientific communications on drug safety produced by a regional pharmacov