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Sample records for disturbing questions biocarburants

  1. Electrodermal responsivity to interrogation questions and its relation to self-reported emotional disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between skin resistance responses (SRRs) and self-reported emotional disturbance was studied in 24 males and 24 females. SRRs to seven interrogation questions were recorded and subjects were requested to rate on visual analogue scales how disturbing they had found each question. The mean within subject correlations were significant for both groups, suggesting that electrodermal responses to interrogation questions are significantly related to the extent to which the subjects find such questions disturbing. A particular question may elicit disturbance for a number of reasons including embarrassment, conflict over how to answer the question, and fear of the consequences of possible detection. PMID:7126718

  2. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  3. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  4. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  5. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  6. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  7. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  8. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  9. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  10. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  11. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  12. Do I Dare Disturb the Universe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Engle, Madeleine

    1983-01-01

    Argues the importance of teaching children to "disturb the universe"--take stands on important issues. Decries the world of the binary computer where all questions must be answered yes/no or either/or. (FL)

  13. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  14. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  15. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  16. [Climacteric disturbances. 2. Therapy of climacteric disturbances].

    PubMed

    Döring, G K

    1976-07-01

    After defining the terms climacterium and menopause the causes of climacteric disturbances are explained. During the premenopausal stage disturbances of the cycle are prevailing, caused by an insufficiency of the corpus luteum. Of climacteric disturbances should be spoken only after menopause. They are divided into: vegetative disturbances, troubles of metabolism, cardiovascular dysregulation, psychic deviations, sexual troubles and changes of the skin. The therapy of disturbances during the premenopausal stage mainly consists of the substitution of progesterone or in a cycle-like estrogen-progesterone-therapy. In the premenopausal stage estrogens are the therapy of choice. Among orally efficient estrogens the conjugated estrogen and the estradiol-valerianat are preferred. Side-effects and contraindications are discussed in detail. Among gynecologists there exists no disagreement about the necessity of therapy of serious climacteric disturbances, the opinions about prophylactic estrogen-therapy in women differ. PMID:184019

  17. Postoperative circadian disturbances.

    PubMed

    Gögenur, Ismail

    2010-12-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that circadian variation in the excretion of hormones, the sleep wake circle, the core body temperature rhythm, the tone of the autonomic nervous system and the activity rhythm are important both in health and in disease processes. An increasing attention has also been directed towards the circadian variation in endogenous rhythms in relation to surgery. The attention has been directed to the question whether the circadian variation in endogenous rhythms can affect postoperative recovery, morbidity and mortality. Based on the lack of studies where these endogenous rhythms have been investigated in relation to surgery we performed a series of studies exploring different endogenous rhythms and factors affecting these rhythms. We also wanted to examine whether the disturbances in the postoperative circadian rhythms could be correlated to postoperative recovery parameters, and if pharmacological administration of chronobiotics could improve postoperative recovery. Circadian rhythm disturbances were found in all the examined endogenous rhythms. A delay was found in the endogenous rhythm of plasma melatonin and excretion of the metabolite of melatonin (AMT6s) in urine the first night after both minor and major surgery. This delay after major surgery was correlated to the duration of surgery. The amplitude in the melatonin rhythm was unchanged the first night but increased in the second night after major surgery. The amplitude in AMT6s was reduced the first night after minimally invasive surgery. The core body temperature rhythm was disturbed after both major and minor surgery. There was a change in the sleep wake cycle with a significantly increased duration of REM-sleep in the day and evening time after major surgery compared with preoperatively. There was also a shift in the autonomic nervous balance after major surgery with a significantly increased number of myocardial ischaemic episodes during the nighttime period. The

  18. Disturbance energy norms: A critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K. Joseph; Sujith, R. I.

    2012-03-01

    The question of which norm should be used to characterize the fluctuating disturbance energy in studies on thermoacoustic instabilities remains a topic of continued debate. In this paper we formulate a strategy for developing mathematically consistent norms that do not support spurious growth of disturbance energy in the absence of 'physical' sources of energy. A critical analysis of various disturbance energy norms existing in literature is conducted and important conclusions regarding positive definitiveness and susceptibility to exhibiting unphysical growth are drawn. It is shown that the energy norm proposed by Cantrell and Hart [Interaction between sound and flow in acoustic cavities: mass, momentum and energy considerations, Journal of Acoustical Society of America 36 (1964) 697-706] and Myers' first order disturbance energy norm [Transport of energy by disturbances in arbitrary steady flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 226 (1991) 383-400] are positive definite if M0<1 and M0<1/√{γ}, respectively, where M0 is the magnitude of the local mean flow Mach number, γ is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume and the stipulated conditions should be met at every point in the flow domain. Our analysis shows that the disturbance energy norm proposed by Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] does not exhibit unphysical growth. It is also shown that this property is not unique to Chu's disturbance energy norm and there exists a family of norms which satisfy this requirement. The analysis also leads to an interesting interpretation of the acoustic energy conservation principle of Cantrell and Hart. The potential held by various disturbance energy norms for exhibiting fictitious growth is quantified using tools from nonmodal stability theory. It is concluded that if the mean flow Mach number is small, Myers' norm is a suitable measure of the disturbance energy.

  19. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Turner, Monica G

    2010-10-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing rapidly, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems and linked social-ecological systems will be profound. This paper synthesizes current understanding of disturbance with an emphasis on fundamental contributions to contemporary landscape and ecosystem ecology, then identifies future research priorities. Studies of disturbance led to insights about heterogeneity, scale, and thresholds in space and time and catalyzed new paradigms in ecology. Because they create vegetation patterns, disturbances also establish spatial patterns of many ecosystem processes on the landscape. Drivers of global change will produce new spatial patterns, altered disturbance regimes, novel trajectories of change, and surprises. Future disturbances will continue to provide valuable opportunities for studying pattern-process interactions. Changing disturbance regimes will produce acute changes in ecosystems and ecosystem services over the short (years to decades) and long-term (centuries and beyond). Future research should address questions related to (1) disturbances as catalysts of rapid ecological change, (2) interactions among disturbances, (3) relationships between disturbance and society, especially the intersection of land use and disturbance, and (4) feedbacks from disturbance to other global drivers. Ecologists should make a renewed and concerted effort to understand and anticipate the causes and consequences of changing disturbance regimes. PMID:21058545

  20. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  2. On Chu's disturbance energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph George, K.; Sujith, R. I.

    2011-10-01

    Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] proposed a positive definite energy norm for characterizing the level of fluctuation in a disturbance. In the absence of heat transfer at the boundaries, work done by boundary or body forces, heat and material sources of energy, this norm is a monotone, non-increasing function of time. In this paper, we show that Chu's disturbance energy defines an inner product, with respect to which the conservation equations of fluid motion linearized about a uniform base flow are self-adjoint. This ensures that the eigenvectors of the linearized operator are orthogonal to each other, and the property that the energy norm is a non-increasing function of time in the absence of physical sources of energy follows as an immediate consequence. Examples from numerical simulations of Euler equations are presented to highlight the importance of choosing an energy norm that is consistent with the underlying physics. We demonstrate that the disturbance energy as measured by Chu's norm does not exhibit spurious transient growth in the absence of physical sources of energy and hence is suitable for analyzing thermoacoustic instability.

  3. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  4. Evaluation of the disturbance caused by aircraft noise by opinion surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremond, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the disturbance caused by aircraft noise was evaluated. The use of a questionnaire as a scale rather than considering isolated question responses is seen as more objective. A standardized structure for questionnaires of the opinion surveys on aircraft noise, which includes a set of questions permitting the analysis of the disturbance caused by different daily activities is recommended. The statistical processing of the answers, to achieve the most reliable evaluation of disturbance felt are discussed.

  5. [Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Walder, B; Haase, U; Rundshagen, I

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential part of life with many important roles which include immunologic, cognitive and muscular functions. Of the working population 20% report sleep disturbances and in critically ill patients an incidence of more than 50% has been shown. However, sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) population have not been investigated in detail. Sleep disturbances in ICU patients have a variety of reasons: e.g. patient-related pathologies like sepsis, acute or chronic pulmonary diseases, cardiac insufficiency, stroke or epilepsy, surgery, therapeutical interventions like mechanical ventilation, noise of monitors, pain or medication. Numerous scales and questionnaires are used to quantify sleep and the polysomnogramm is used to objectify sleep architecture. To improve sleep in ICU patients concepts are needed which include in addition to pharmacological treatment (pain reduction and sedation) synchronization of ICU activities with daylight, noise reduction and music for relaxation. In order to establish evidence-based guidelines, research activities about sleep and critical illness should be intensified. Questions to be answered are: 1) Which part of sleep disturbances in critically ill patients is directly related to the illness or trauma? 2) Is the grade of sleep disturbance correlated with the severity of the illness or trauma? 3) Which part is related to the medical treatment and can be modified or controlled? In order to define non-pharmacological and pharmacological concepts to improve sleep quality, studies need to be randomized and to include different ICU populations. The rate of nosocomial infections, cognitive function and respiratory muscle function should be considered in these studies as well. This will help to answer the question, whether it is useful to monitor sleep in ICU patients as a parameter to indicate therapeutical success and short-term quality of life. Follow-up needs to be long enough to detect adverse effects of

  6. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  7. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  8. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    SciTech Connect

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black

  9. Atmospheric Disturbance Environment Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, the application of atmospheric disturbance data to airplane design problems has been the domain of the structures engineer. The primary concern in this case is the design of structural components sufficient to handle transient loads induced by the most severe atmospheric "gusts" that might be encountered. The concern has resulted in a considerable body of high altitude gust acceleration data obtained with VGH recorders (airplane velocity, V, vertical acceleration, G, altitude, H) on high-flying airplanes like the U-2 (Ehernberger and Love, 1975). However, the propulsion system designer is less concerned with the accelerations of the airplane than he is with the airflow entering the system's inlet. When the airplane encounters atmospheric turbulence it responds with transient fluctuations in pitch, yaw, and roll angles. These transients, together with fluctuations in the free-stream temperature and pressure will disrupt the total pressure, temperature, Mach number and angularity of the inlet flow. For the mixed compression inlet, the result is a disturbed throat Mach number and/or shock position, and in extreme cases an inlet unstart can occur (cf. Section 2.1). Interest in the effects of inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, supersonic airplanes is not new. Results published by NASA in 1962 of wind tunnel studies of the problem were used in support of the United States Supersonic Transport program (SST) (White, at aI, 1963). Such studies continued into the late 1970's. However, in spite of such interest, there never was developed an atmospheric disturbance database for inlet unstart analysis to compare with that available for the structures load analysis. Missing were data for the free-stream temperature and pressure disturbances that also contribute to the unStart problem.

  10. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2001-07-01

    The Vehicle Disturbance Test {VDT} is used to characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SA-3} and internally induced {e.g. NCC and ACS mechanisms} disturbances for comparison with past VDT results. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run. The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The -V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of five separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT tests is at least 17 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on while performing ACS mechanism motions simulating routine flight operations, {2} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on, {3} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint during NCC startup, {4} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint while NCC is operating at steady-state, and {5} at least 5 full orbits at -V1 sunpoint with the NCC operating at steady-state. Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and modify flight computer diagnostic mnemonics to display the roll component of DVTHEP. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  11. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  12. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  13. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  14. Disturbing Behavior Checklists" Technical Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Ecological theorists have suggested that "disturbance" may result from an interaction between a child's behavior and reactions to that behavior within ecosystems such as schools. In this context, behavior is viewed as "disturbing" rather than "disturbed" and equal emphasis is given to the child and to individuals with whom the child interacts when…

  15. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  17. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  18. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  19. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  20. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  1. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  2. Disturbed soil characterization workshop: post-meeting summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael

    2010-04-01

    Disturbance of ground surfaces can arise from a variety of processes, both manmade and natural. Burying landmines, vehicle movement, and walking are representative examples of processes that disturb ground surfaces. The nature of the specific disturbance process can lead to the observables that can aid the detection and identification of that process. While much research has been conducted in this area, fundamental questions related to the remote detection and characterization of disturbed soil surfaces remain unanswered. Under the sponsorship of the Army Research Office (ARO), the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC), Georgia Tech hosted a workshop to address Remote Sensing Methods for Disturbed Soil Characterization. The workshop was held January 15-17, 2008 in Atlanta. The primary objective of this workshop was to take a new look at the disturbed soil problem in general as well as its relation to buried explosive detection and other manmade disturbances. In particular, the participants sought to outline the basic science and technology questions that need to be addressed across the full spectrum of military applications to fully exploit this phenomenon. This presentation will outline the approach taken during the workshop and provide a summary of the conclusions.

  3. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the VDT is to measure and characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SCM, SA-3, SSM thermal gradients} and internally induced {e.g. HGA, RWA, COS and WFC3 mechanisms} disturbances affecting HST LOS pointing. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run.The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The ?V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT usually occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of two separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT is at least 13 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 8 orbits at +V3 sunpoint after achieving thermal equilibrium {at least 36-hours at +V3 sunpoint} and three out of 8-orbits have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off, and {2} at least 5 orbits at ?V1 sunpoint {all or part of this segment have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off}. At the beginning of each test, the attitude control law gains are switched to maneuver gains, and the gyros are commanded to low mode. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test.Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and manage the status of on-board RWA Friction Compensation. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  4. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia. PMID:26719309

  5. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  6. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  7. Identity disturbance in distant patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Irwin

    2013-04-01

    Chronically distant, emotionally isolated patients often present with identity disturbance. Identity, it is argued, develops as a thematic pattern of narcissism, shaped by the nature of the mother's early libidinal influences on the child's sense of self. Identity provides a form of self-definition that addresses the question, Who am I? In the treatment of these patients, resistances to narcissistic vulnerabilities (narcissistic resistances) provide an illusory sense of security and induce the analyst to avoid attention to a central pathological problem: primitive and frightening needs for, and unconscious fantasies of, dependence on, and functionality for, another. Patients' avoidance of material and therapeutic interactions that deal with their dependencies are aspects of a tacit contract with the analyst to foreclose examination of their considerable problems with inner stability. Among these problems are anxieties regarding intrusion and loss of separateness. As analysis proceeds, elements of such a patient's identity become clarified and are used to understand and organize the material for both analyst and patient. This can allow the patient to articulate a more embodied and vital experience of individuality. A case is presented to illustrate the analysis of a patient using this approach. PMID:23526544

  8. Robustness of disturbance attenuation with respect to disturbance model uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Daniel Edward

    In contrast to the case of robustness with respect to plant model uncertainty, the control systems community has paid relatively little attention to the issue of robustness with respect to disturbance model uncertainty. However, disturbance model uncertainty is of significance in many practical problems, including, for example, aircraft control (where the disturbance is turbulence), ship control (where the disturbances are wind and waves), and active suspension problems (where the disturbance is road roughness). Motivated, in particular, by turbulence model uncertainty, this dissertation considers the analysis and design of linear time-invariant controllers that are robust with respect to uncertainty in the disturbance intensity and bandwidth, where disturbance attenuation is measured by the output variance. Five aspects of the robust disturbance attenuation problem are considered. First, an expression for the output variance in terms of the uncertain disturbance parameters is derived. This expression is written in terms of an operator called the V-transform. Second, the notions of disturbance gain margin and disturbance bandwidth margin are introduced as quantitative measures of robustness with respect to uncertainty in the disturbance gain and disturbance bandwidth, respectively. Third, lower bounds on the achievable output variance are found under constraints of practical importance, e.g., constraints on bandwidth and stability robustness. The lower bounds are used to show that, in almost every practical situation, there is a limitation on both the achievable nominal performance and the achievable robustness margins. Fourth, tradeoffs between nominal performance and robust performance are investigated. The main result is that good nominal and good robust performance are neither incompatible nor equivalent. Fifth, a design procedure to achieve a prespecified level of robustness is proposed; the principal idea is to reduce the robust performance design problem to

  9. Soil disturbance by airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Disturbance of the drift at the Pathfinder landing site reveals a shallow subsurface that is slightly darker but has similar spectral properties. The top set of images, in true color, shows the soils disturbed by the last bounce of the lander on its airbags before coming to rest and the marks created by retraction of the airbags. In the bottom set of images color differences have been enhanced. The mast at center is the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET). The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. A shadow of the ASI/MET appears on a rock at left.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Vegetarianism and menstrual cycle disturbances: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Barr, S I

    1999-09-01

    The question of whether menstrual disturbances are more common in vegetarian than in nonvegetarian women is complex. Disturbances of the cycle may be clinical (ie, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea) or subclinical (i.e., normal-length cycles with anovulation or a short or defective luteal phase). Detection of the latter requires that the menstrual cycle be monitored, but may help prevent recruitment bias in studies comparing vegetarians with nonvegetarians because vegetarians with menstrual disturbances may be more likely to volunteer for a study on menstrual disturbances and vegetarianism. Three general mechanisms that could contribute to menstrual disturbances that may differ between vegetarians and nonvegetarians include energy imbalances associated with body-weight disturbances or exercise, psychosocial and cognitive factors, and dietary components. Evidence for each of these mechanisms is reviewed and studies comparing menstrual function between vegetarians and nonvegetarians are described in this article. Although results from several cross-sectional studies suggest that clinical menstrual disturbances may be more common in vegetarians, a prospective study that controlled for many potential confounders found that subclinical disturbances were less common in weight-stable, healthy vegetarian women. Because the sample studied may not be representative of all vegetarian women, however, these results cannot be generalized. Population studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. PMID:10479230

  11. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  12. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  13. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  14. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  15. Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  16. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  17. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  18. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  19. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  20. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  1. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  2. The High-Risk (Disturbed and Disturbing) College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…

  3. Evaluating Sleep Disturbance: A Review of Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roy M.; Oyung, R.; Gregory, K.; Miller, D.; Rosekind, M.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There are three general approaches to evaluating sleep disturbance in regards to noise: subjective, behavioral, and physiological. Subjective methods range from standardized questionnaires and scales to self-report measures designed for specific research questions. There are two behavioral methods that provide useful sleep disturbance data. One behavioral method is actigraphy, a motion detector that provides an empirical estimate of sleep quantity and quality. An actigraph, worn on the non-dominant wrist, provides a 24-hr estimate of the rest/activity cycle. The other method involves a behavioral response, either to a specific probe or stimuli or subject initiated (e.g., indicating wakefulness). The classic, gold standard for evaluating sleep disturbance is continuous physiological monitoring of brain, eye, and muscle activity. This allows detailed distinctions of the states and stages of sleep, awakenings, and sleep continuity. Physiological delta can be obtained in controlled laboratory settings and in natural environments. Current ambulatory physiological recording equipment allows evaluation in home and work settings. These approaches will be described and the relative strengths and limitations of each method will be discussed.

  4. What is a Question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  5. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  6. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  7. Effects Of Spatial Disturbances On Asymmetries Of Vortexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, David; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes computational study of effects of small spatial disturbances on asymmetries in vortexes downstream of slender bodies of revolution in flows at large angle of attack. Flow phenomena affect stability and maneuvering characteristics of missiles and aircraft. Understanding phenomena helps answer questions as how precisely symmetrical aerodynamic body should be, and how roughness, bumps, or other imperfections affect maneuvering characteristics.

  8. Hostility disturbs learning.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Yumi; Tujii, Takeo; Yanagisawa, Atsuo; Tajino, Kazuhiro; Kanda, Hiroko; Yamagami, Masako

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between hostility and coronary artery disease; however, the pathogenic mechanisms by which hostility causes coronary artery disease have not been identified. Several studies have shown that hostility is associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. Sloan and colleagues used mental arithmetic and the Stroop Color-Word Task as psychological stressors and suggested that hostility is associated with diminished cardiac vagal control. It is supposed that the diminished cardiac vagal control results in uncontrollability of increased heart rate under stressful conditions so performance on mental stress tasks is poor. However, performance was not analyzed on the Stroop Color-Word Task. If hostility influences the autonomic nervous system, the performance of this mental stress task may also differ according to extent of hostility. In the present study, whether hostility disturbed performance of a mental stress task and the practice on it was examined. Subjects completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and were divided into three groups (High, Middle, and Low) by their total scores and three subscales (Cynicism, Hostile Affect, and Aggressive Responding). They also completed the Stroop Color-Word Task. Analysis showed practice by High and Middle scoring groups on Aggressive Responding had a significantly smaller effect than that by Low scoring groups. The pathogenic mechanisms by which hostility may underlie coronary artery disease were discussed. PMID:12776844

  9. Assesing Ecohydrological Impacts of Forest Disturbance using Open Source Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovette, J. P.; Chang, T.; Treglia, M.; Gan, T.; Duncan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, land management protocols, climate change, and land use have radically changed the frequency and magnitudes of disturbance regimes. Landscape scale disturbances can change a forest structure, resulting in impacts on adjacent watersheds that may affect water amount/quality for human and natural resource use. Our project quantifies hydrologic changes from of a suite of disturbance events resulting in vegetation cover shifts at watersheds across the continental United States. These disturbance events include: wildfire, insect/disease, deforestation(logging), hurricanes, ice storms, and human land use. Our major question is: Can the effects of disturbance on ecohydrology be generalized across regions, time scales, and spatial scales? Using a workflow of open source tools, and utilizing publicly available data, this work could be extended and leveraged by other researchers. Spatial data on disturbance include the MODIS Global Disturbance Index (NTSG), Landsat 7 Global Forest Change (Hansen dataset), and the Degree of Human Modification (Theobald dataset). Ecohydrologic response data includes USGS NWIS, USFS-LTER climDB/hydroDB, and the CUAHSI HIS.

  10. Subclassification of School Phobic Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie; And Others

    The confusion surrounding all aspects of school refusal may rest partly on the misguided assumption that the disturbance represents a single syndrome. Five consistently emerging variables which may help distinguish among school phobic types were abstracted from the literature: extensiveness of disturbance, mode of onset, age, fear source, and…

  11. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  12. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  13. A Teacher's Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Presents questions and concerns of a teacher who served as a scoring assessor for the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts field test of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, run by the Educational Testing Service. (SR)

  14. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  15. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  16. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  17. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  18. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  20. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  1. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  2. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  3. More Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-09-01

    "Fermi" questions are a popular component of most Physics Olympics meets. Asking students to make a reasonable assumption about a problem and give answers in terms of order of magnitude is not only a great challenge for a competition, but is also a valued teaching strategy in the classroom.

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  5. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  6. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  7. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  8. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  9. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  10. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  11. To Rile Your Community, Ask Questions Like These

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdie, Frances S.

    1970-01-01

    Questions in voter questionnaires which disturb people most are those concerning invasion of privacy, minority groups, sex, religion, human rights, violence or cruelty, censorship, inferiority of other nations; and those that include emotion-arousing terms, suggestive words and phrases, and slurs about specific groups of individuals. (KJ)

  12. Disturbance regime and disturbance interactions in Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Thomas T.; Hadley, Keith S.; Nel, Elizabeth M.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Reid, Marion; Villalba, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    1 The spatial and temporal patterns of fire, snow avalanches and spruce beetle out-breaks were investigated in Marvine Lakes Valley in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in forests of Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesiiand Populus tremuloides. Dates and locations of disturbances were determined by dendrochronological techniques. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate areas affected by the different disturbance agents and to examine the spatial relationships of the different disturbances. 2 In the Marvine Lakes Valley, major disturbance was caused by fire in the 1470s, the 1630s and the 1870s and by spruce beetle outbreak in c. 1716, 1827 and 1949. 3 Since c. 1633, 9% of the Marvine Lakes Valley has been affected by snow avalanches, 38.6% by spruce beetle outbreak and 59.1% by fire. At sites susceptible to avalanches, avalanches occur at a near-annual frequency. The mean return intervals for fire and spruce beetle outbreaks are 202 and 116.5 years, respectively. Turnover times for fire and spruce beetle outbreaks are 521 and 259 years, respectively. 4 Several types of disturbance interaction were identified. For example, large and severe snow avalanches influence the spread of fire. Similarly, following a stand-devastating fire or avalanche, Picea populations will not support a spruce beetle outbreak until individual trees reach a minimum diameter which represents at least 70 years' growth. Thus, recent fires and beetle outbreaks have nonoverlapping distributions.

  13. [Disturbances of orientation with functional psychoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Druschky, K F; Kinzel, W

    1975-12-01

    It was supposed by clinical impressions that disturbances of orientation do not appear only in severe degrees of a transit-syndrome, but also in the light stadium of such a physically founded psychosis. In order to verify these impressions, a questionnaire was developed which permitted an objective scoring. This Q-Test consists of 37 questions (items), which measure the orientations of time, space, situation, and person. On the base of this questionnaire two samples were tested, the one consisting of 50 patients with functional psychoses (reversible physically founded psychoses), the other consisting of 50 patients with only neurological disturbances. The degree of the functional psychoses was determined by the "Syndrome-Test" (F. Bocker, 1959). The range of the scores corresponded with the clinical categories from a low degree of the transit-syndrome to a medium degree of disturbances of consciousness. The scoring was based on an standard system derived from the results of the control group (patients with only neurological disturbances). The clinical impressions could be verified by empirical and statistical methods. According to the test results, disturbances of orientation already appear during the light stadium of the transit-syndrome. Furthermore there is a high significant correlation (p. less than 001) between the degree of the functional psychoses and the degree of the disturbances of orientation. This applies to all categories of orientation. The orientation concerning time, space and situation proved to be more susceptible to disturbances than the orientation concerning the person. The very close correlation between the degrees of the functional psychoses and the degrees of the disturbances of orientation make it possible to determine the stadium of the functional psychoses promptly. The complete and very handy "short-time-test" will be published in a special paper. PMID:1044290

  14. Scaling Stream Flow Response to Forest Disturbance: the SID Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttle, J. M.; Beall, F. D.; Creed, I. F.; Gordon, A. M.; Mackereth, R.; McLaughlin, J. W.; Sibley, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    We do not have a good understanding of the hydrologic implications of forest harvesting in Ontario, either for current or alternative management approaches. Attempts to address these implications face a three-fold problem: data on hydrologic response to forest disturbance in Ontario are lacking; most studies of these responses have been in regions with forest cover and hydrologic conditions that differ from the Ontario context; and these studies have generally been conducted at relatively small scales (<1 km2). It is generally assumed that hydrologic changes induced by forest disturbance should diminish with increasing scale due to the buffering capacity of large drainage basins. Recent modeling exercises and reanalysis of paired-basin results call this widespread applicability of this assumption into question, with important implications for assessing the cumulative impacts of forest disturbance on basin stream flow. The SID (Scalable Indicators of Disturbance) project combines stream flow monitoring across basin scales with the RHESSys modeling framework to identify forest disturbance impacts on stream flow characteristics in Ontario's major forest ecozones. As a precursor to identifying stream flow response to forest disturbance, we are examining the relative control of basin geology, topography, typology and topology on stream flow characteristics under undisturbed conditions. This will assist in identifying the dominant hydrologic processes controlling basin stream flow that must be incorporated into the RHESSys model framework in order to emulate forest disturbance and its hydrologic impacts. We present preliminary results on stream flow characteristics in a low-relief boreal forest landscape, and explore how the dominant processes influencing these characteristics change with basin scale in this landscape under both reference and disturbance conditions.

  15. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  16. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  17. Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find θ13 = 0.152±0.014, θ 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} π and Δ32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the χ2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined θ13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

  18. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  19. Low-disturbance wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Applin, Z. T.; Stainback, P. C.; Maestrello, L.

    1986-01-01

    During the past years, there was an extensive program under way at the Langley Research Center to upgrade the flow quality in several of the large wind tunnels. This effort has resulted in significant improvements in flow quality in these tunnels and has also increased the understanding of how and where changes in existing and new wind tunnels are most likely to yield the desired improvements. As part of this ongoing program, flow disturbance levels and spectra were measured in several Langley tunnels before and after modifications were made to reduce acoustic and vorticity fluctuations. A brief description of these disturbance control features is given for the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, the 4 x 7 Meter Tunnel, and the 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. To illustrate typical reductions in disturbance levels obtained in these tunnels, data from hot-wire or acoustic sensors are presented. A concept for a subsonic quiet tunnel designed to study boundary layer stability and transition is also presented. Techniques developed at Langley in recent years to eliminate the high intensity and high-frequency acoustic disturbances present in all previous supersonic wind tunnels are described. In conclusion, the low-disturbance levels present in atmospheric flight can now be simulated in wind tunnels over the speed range from low subsonic through high supersonic.

  20. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  1. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients' quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1) blockers. PMID:27242950

  2. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  3. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  4. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  5. Diet-Induced Metabolic Disturbances As Modulators of Brain Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Nguyen, AnhThao; Liu, Dr Ying; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    A number of metabolic disturbances occur in response to the consumption of a high fat Western diet. Such metabolic disturbances can include the progressive development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Cumulatively, diet-induced disturbance in metabolism are known to promote increased morbidity and negatively impact life expectancy through a variety of mechanisms. While the impact of metabolic disturbances on the hepatic, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems are well established there remains a noticeable void in understanding the basis by which the central nervous system (CNS) becomes altered in response to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, it remains to be fully elucidated which established features of diet-induced pathogenesis (observed in non-CNS tissues) are recapitulated in the brain, and identification as to whether the observed changes in the brain are a direct or indirect effect of peripheral metabolic disturbances. This review will focus on each of these key issues and identify some critical experimental questions which remain to be elucidated experimentally, as well as provide an outline of our current understanding for how diet-induced alterations in metabolism may impact the brain during aging and age-related diseases of the nervous system. PMID:18926905

  6. Sleep Disturbances in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders appear to be frequent comorbidities in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness commonly occur in patients with FTD and significantly contribute to caregiver burden and burnout. Sleep is severely fragmented in FTD patients, likely secondary to behavioral disturbances, other primary sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and restless leg syndrome, and neurodegeneration of nuclei involved in sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of primary sleep disorders may improve excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality and may improve daytime cognitive functioning. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is rare in FTD and may be confused with excessive nocturnal activity due to disturbed circadian rhythm. The relationship between FTD, sleep quality, and sleep disorders requires further study to better understand the contribution of disturbed sleep to daytime neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in FTD. Further, future studies should focus on comparing sleep disturbances between different FTD syndromes, especially behavioral variant FTD and primary progressive aphasia. Comorbid sleep disorders should be promptly sought and treated in patients with FTD to improve patient and caregiver quality of life. PMID:27485946

  7. Identifying, Assisting the Disturbed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia L.; Schaefer, William

    1986-01-01

    Educators are in an excellent position to identify seriously troubled young people. Major causes of adolescent problems are discussed, including drugs, parental failure, and biochemical disturbances. Educators can best intervene by becoming aware of support services within their own school and community. (TE)

  8. [Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahlberg, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in the elderly. Endogen regulation mechanisms are often unstable. Light treatment and melatonin are proved chronobiological interventions. Cataract surgery is effective to enhance the sleep-wake-rhythm.Mandibular advancement devices are a reliable alternative to continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). PMID:27509339

  9. RESILIENCE OF ECOSYSTEMS TO DISTURBANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilience, in an ecological context, is one of several terms that characterize the response of an ecosystem to disturbance. Other such terms include persistence, resistance and stability. Two definitions of resilience have become prominent in the literature, both of which derive...

  10. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  11. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  12. A Question of Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 22, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    It is often difficult to determine if wind eroded surface represent the youngest activity in a region. Wind eroded landforms can be covered by later materials and the exhumed long after they were initially formed. This image illustrates how difficult it can be to interpret the surface of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7, Longitude 174.7 East (185.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  13. Self-reported severity of taste disturbances correlates with dysfunctional grade of TMD pain.

    PubMed

    Nixdorf, D R; John, M T; Schierz, O; Bereiter, D A; Hellekant, G

    2009-11-01

    Altered central neural processing of sensory information may be associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) pain. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of self-reported taste disturbances in TMD pain patients and in a control population, and to determine whether frequency of taste disturbances was correlated with dysfunctional grade of TMD pain. Subjects were 2026 people within a German population sample and 301 consecutive TMD patients diagnosed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Taste disturbances were measured using two questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile. Dysfunctional grade of TMD pain was measured with the Graded Chronic Pain Scale. A two-sample test of proportions revealed that TMD patients reported a greater frequency of taste disturbances, 6%, than did the general population subjects, 2% (P < 0.001). Moreover, the frequency of taste disturbances correlated with the dysfunctional grade of TMD pain. For each 1 unit increase in taste disturbance, the odds of observing a higher grade of TMD pain increased by 29% (95% CI: 3-63%, P = 0.03). Analysis by individual taste question and adjustment for age and gender did not substantially affect the results. These findings are consistent with a central neural dysfunction in TMD pain and suggest that a common neural substrate may underlie sensory disturbances of multiple modalities in chronic pain patients. Further research regarding taste disturbances and trigeminally mediated pains such as in TMD is warranted. PMID:19747196

  14. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  15. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  16. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  17. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  18. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  19. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  20. Entropic error-disturbance relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick; Furrer, Fabian

    2014-03-01

    We derive an entropic error-disturbance relation for a sequential measurement scenario as originally considered by Heisenberg, and we discuss how our relation could be tested using existing experimental setups. Our relation is valid for discrete observables, such as spin, as well as continuous observables, such as position and momentum. The novel aspect of our relation compared to earlier versions is its clear operational interpretation and the quantification of error and disturbance using entropic quantities. This directly relates the measurement uncertainty, a fundamental property of quantum mechanics, to information theoretical limitations and offers potential applications in for instance quantum cryptography. PC is funded by National Research Foundation Singapore and Ministry of Education Tier 3 Grant ``Random numbers from quantum processes'' (MOE2012-T3-1-009). FF is funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI grant No. 24-02793.

  1. [Locomotion disturbances in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Krystkowiak, P

    2010-02-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), perturbed locomotion occurs early in the course of the disease and presents numerous clinical features. The gait disorders in HD might best be defined as a timing disorder; however, hypokinesia (i.e. a decrease in stride length) also plays an important role in disturbed locomotion as HD progresses. Gait impairments are particularly important because they lead to an increased risk of falls. Falls risk factors and consequences depend on the stage of the disease. A satisfactory therapeutic strategy for gait impairments is a serious challenge: the use of a metronome during gait in HD patients does not effectively improve their gait. Attention deficits in HD may be a major determinant of this failure. The effect of antichoreic medications on gait is still controversial because of the absence of specific evaluation of these medications on gait disturbances. PMID:19604530

  2. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  3. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  4. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  5. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered. PMID:7166130

  6. Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

  7. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  8. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  9. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  10. Observations and assessment of forest carbon recovery following disturbance in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Scott J.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Law, Beverly E.; Hicke, J.; Huang, C.; Houghton, R. A.; McNulty, Steve; O'Halloran, Tom; Harmon, Mark; Meddens, Arjan; Pfeifer, Eric; Mildrexler, David; Kasischke, Eric

    2012-06-09

    Disturbance processes of various types substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. The recovery of forests from disturbance typically results in carbon sequestration, but the point at which ecosystems move from being net sources to sinks of carbon is quite variable depending on a number of factors. Here we review some of the essential measurements needed to track the dynamics of carbon associated with forest disturbance, the longer-term recovery of carbon pools following disturbance, and consider the measurements used to document recovery, as well as how they vary with the type of disturbance. First we provide a brief overview of the relevance of disturbance to carbon dynamics. Specifically, we address 3 topics: (1) the different measurements needed to characterize recovery from different types of disturbance (e.g. fire, insects, harvest); (2) the essential measurements required to quantify the dynamics of carbon components associated with forest recovery; (3) the utility of multiple types of observations (lines of evidence) in documenting recovery from disturbance. Related to these topics we then explore a series of specific types of disturbance (fire, insects, harvest), and the relative importance of various factors (and associated measurements) that influence carbon pools and fluxes in different systems (boreal and temperate). These topics and associated research questions are focused on North America, but aspects are undoubtedly relevant to other forested ecosystems.

  11. Landscape-scale forest disturbance regimes in southern Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Doreen S; Hill, Ross A; Hopkinson, Chris; Baker, Timothy R

    2013-10-01

    Landscape-scale gap-size frequency distributions in tropical forests are a poorly studied but key ecological variable. Currently, a scale gap currently exists between local-scale field-based studies and those employing regional-scale medium-resolution satellite data. Data at landscape scales but of fine resolution would, however, facilitate investigation into a range of ecological questions relating to gap dynamics. These include whether canopy disturbances captured in permanent sample plots (PSPs) are representative of those in their surrounding landscape, and whether disturbance regimes vary with forest type. Here, therefore, we employ airborne LiDAR data captured over 142.5 km2 of mature, swamp, and regenerating forests in southeast Peru to assess the landscape-scale disturbance at a sampling resolution of up to 2 m. We find that this landscape is characterized by large numbers of small gaps; large disturbance events are insignificant and infrequent. Of the total number of gaps that are 2 m2 or larger in area, just 0.45% were larger than 100 m2, with a power-law exponent (alpha) value of the gap-size frequency distribution of 2.22. However, differences in disturbance regimes are seen among different forest types, with a significant difference in the alpha value of the gap-size frequency distribution observed for the swamp/regenerating forests compared with the mature forests at higher elevations. Although a relatively small area of the total forest of this region was investigated here, this study presents an unprecedented assessment of this landscape with respect to its gap dynamics. This is particularly pertinent given the range of forest types present in the landscape and the differences observed. The coupling of detailed insights into forest properties and growth provided by PSPs with the broader statistics of disturbance events using remote sensing is recommended as a strong basis for scaling-up estimates of landscape and regional-scale carbon balance. PMID

  12. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Not? Print Email Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our ... e-mail address below. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? By: Deborah I. Friedman, MD, MPH ...

  13. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  14. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  15. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  16. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  17. Disturbance regimes and ecological responses across sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances affect ecosystems in almost limitless ways. The effects of disturbances extend beyond the initial impacts that are usually visible to the human eye. Therefore, for many disturbances long-term data are needed to unravel their effects. This chapter first presents characteristics of distu...

  18. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  19. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  20. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  1. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  2. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  3. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  4. Determination of travelling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G. H.; Davies, K.

    1978-01-01

    A total of 35 days of Faraday rotation data was obtained from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment operating with the closely spaced network of Elbert, Table Mountain, and Fort Morgan. The 140-MHz Faraday bandpass data are uncorrelated in the transmission range from 8 to 45 minutes. There are distinct, well correlated, and time-displaced maxima and minima that allow the calculation of the speed and direction of horizontal motions of plane fronts of disturbances in the ionosphere. For some selected events, velocities between 88 and 278 m/sec were obtained.

  5. [Esophageal motor disturbances in sclerodermia].

    PubMed

    Stanciu, C; Cijevschi, C; Dobrescu, A; Petrescu, Z

    1981-01-01

    By the manometric method the esophageal motility in 14 patients with sclerodermia was studied. All patients presented an esophageal motor dysfunction characterized by the decrease in amplitude of the spohageal contractions, presence of aperistaltic contractions, decrease of basal pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and its incomplete relaxation at deglutition. These esophageal motor disturbances may appear in association or separately in the same patient. The pathogenesis of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia is not yet fully understood. Besides the theoretical interest, the knowledge of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia has also a practical value in respect of the tretment which is to be set up. PMID:25528800

  6. Advances in the understanding of conduction disturbances.

    PubMed

    Kulbertus, H E

    1978-09-01

    The interest towards intraventricular conduction defects started some 10 yr after the introduction of the string galvanometer by Einthoven. As early as 1910, it was known that conduction blockade could occur along either branch of the intraventricular conducting pathway. It took some 20 yr to identify properly the electrocardiographic manifestations of right and left bundle branch blocks. A further 30 yr were needed to obtain a sound correlation between these functional disorders and the presence of anatomical lesions. The more recent introduction of the concept of left hemiblocks further improved our understanding of intraventricular conduction defects. The latter concept is based on the hypothesis of the anatomical and functional bifascicularity of the left bundle branch, a hypothesis which cannot be accepted without some reservations. Later developments indicated that left hemiblocks associated with right bundle branch block represent manifestations of bilateral conduction disturbances (incomplete bilateral bundle branch block). Such an association may constitute a forerunner of complete atrioventricular block, or an indicator of the possibility of sudden death. Whether these complications occur frequently or unfrequently in the setting of incomplete bilateral bundle branch block remains an unsettled question. PMID:699953

  7. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C

    2016-02-01

    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes. PMID:26839689

  8. Cognitive disturbances in chronic schizophrenia: formal thought disorder and basic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Simhandl, C; Dietzel, M; Lesch, O M; Musalek, M; Strobl, R

    1986-01-01

    We investigated 37 chronic schizophrenic patients with two objective rating scales (AMDP and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; BPRS) and compared the questioned symptoms with the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (FBF), a questionnaire for subjective complaints which are close to the uncharacteristic 'basic' symptoms of schizophrenic patients. It was pointed out that the questions in the FBF relate mainly to uncharacteristic symptoms like disturbances of perception, concentration, attention, perceiving, and memory. These subjective symptoms of the FBF show a few correlations with the AMDP/BPRS rating. The total score of the FBF gave no further information about social functioning of patients with cognitive disturbances. PMID:2882543

  9. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.

  10. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-10-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.

  11. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  12. Transient Effects and Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibberenz, G.; Le Roux, J. A.; Potgieter, M. S.; Bieber, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    In the present phase of the solar cycle no big transients leading to strong modulation had been observed after 1991. Apart from a few minor disturbances cosmic rays were still recovering to a new intensity maximum. It was suggested, therefore, that existing literature from previous cycles should be critically reviewed. The scene was set by the introductory papers on - phenomenology of cosmic ray modulation in successive solar cycles throughout the heliosphere, - the present state of models for long term modulation and their shortcomings, - the relation between cosmic ray variations and the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (the CR-B-relation), - charge dependent effects. In the discussions, the study of propagating diffusive disturbances and the CR-B-relation played a central role. The difference was stressed between isolated transient disturbances in the inner solar system (Forbush decreases), and the long lasting, step-like decreases caused by merged interaction regions in the outer heliosphere. The recovery rates following the step-like decreases vary with the phase in the 22-year solar cycle. In some cases this requires a modification of existing drift models. In the outer heliosphere, the CR-B-relation leads to the result Κ alpha 1/Β between the diffusion coefficient Κ and the field magnitude Β. This simple result is a challenge for theoreticians to derive the perpendicular diffusion coefficient fromfirst principles. The three articles in this report essentially follow the list of open points and arguments just presented. The article "Observations and Simple Models" is organised around the model of a propagating diffusive barrier, its application to Forbush effects in the inner heliosphere and to decreases caused by merged interaction regions in the outer heliosphere. Acomparison of observed Forbush decreases with model predictions requires a careful separation of the two steps related to the turbulent region behind the shock front and the

  13. Questions of Mind Over Immunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the possibility of disturbed immunity among people experiencing either clinical depression or some type of severe stress. Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of psychological treatment and its ability to shore up a person's immunity and slow the spread of infectious disease, is reviewed. (KR)

  14. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  15. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  16. Scales of Stream Disturbance Patterns and Population Structure in Bull Trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, C. H.; Rieman, B. E.; Dunham, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Ecological theory proposes that the geometry and dynamics of suitable habitats are important predictors for the persistence of a population or metapopulation. A key finding supporting a metapopulation-like conceptualization of extinction and colonization in fragmented salmonid populations is that individuals of particular species are more likely to be absent from small patches of suitable habitat than from large patches. Extinctions from small patches occur for a few reasons that can be roughly classed as physical catastrophic causes (e.g. a major channel reorganizing event) or as biological small-population effects related to genetics and demographics. One important question with implications for land management is how strong of a role physical disturbances play in determining presence and absence of a species within a patch. If disturbance plays a key role in structuring populations, then we would expect to observe two patterns. First the spatial scale of disturbance should be on the order of the size of patches that are commonly unoccupied. The second prediction would be that the spatial scale of genetic variability should show strong gene flow at scales smaller than the scale of disturbance. We examined aerial photography over the last 40 years in central Idaho to measure the scale of stream disturbance patches. The scale of stream disturbances was on the same order of magnitude as the divide between commonly occupied and unoccupied patches, and was smaller than scales of high gene flow among bull trout populations, failing to reject the possibility that disturbance plays an important role in structuring populations in this basin. Management for persistence of the species must consider both the likelihood of decreased habitat patch sizes and increased disturbance scales with global warming. Knowing disturbance patch scales and how disturbance operates to structure populations can be used to consider a disturbance based paradigm for management of sensitive

  17. Breakup of capillary jets with different disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moallemi, Nima; Li, Ri; Mehravaran, Kian

    2016-01-01

    The disturbance on a capillary jet can be imposed by radius modulation, velocity modulation, or jet vibration. The objective of the study is to understand the equivalence between the three types of disturbances. Theoretical analysis based on the Bernoulli equation for unsteady flows is conducted. It is found that a radius-modulated disturbance is equivalent to a velocity-modulated disturbance with the same wave number if the non-dimensional amplitude of the radius disturbance is 1.5 times that of the velocity disturbance. This is validated by carrying out numerical simulation based on velocity modulation and comparing with the linear theory based on radius modulation. It is also revealed that disturbance generated by a vibrating nozzle with small amplitude is equivalent to velocity disturbance. The non-dimensional amplitude of the equivalent velocity disturbance is a function of non-dimensional vibration amplitude and vibration wave number. The wave number of the velocity disturbance is shown to be twice of the vibration wave number. Validated by experimental observation, if the vibration wave number is less than 0.5, each nozzle vibration cycle generates two droplets. If the vibration wave number is between 0.5 and 1, each vibration cycle generates one droplet.

  18. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26928516

  19. Psychosomatic disturbances and cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Hermes, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Medical activity in recent years has experienced a marked expansion of possibilities for aesthetic surgery, usually requested by patients. Especially in dermatology, an increasing demand for and use of doctor/medical services by healthy individuals has resulted in a drastic change to cosmetic dermatology. The request for cosmetic surgery is emotionally or psychosocially motivated. Patients with psychological disturbances sometimes push aside possible risks and complications or deny side effects and interactions of the procedures. Subjective impairments of appearance, feelings of inferiority and social pho-bias may be in the background of somatizing disorders. These emotional disorders, such as body dysmorphic disorder, personality disorder or polysurgical addiction, often remain undiscovered but should be excluded in any patient receiving cosmetic procedures. PMID:17760893

  20. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. PMID:26493189

  1. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  2. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  3. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  4. Kids Ask the Best Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Debby; Sterling, Donna

    1997-01-01

    According to 1995 National Science Education Standards, "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." Effective classroom questions promote relevance, encourage ownership, help students interpret their observations, and link new learning to what students already know. Two…

  5. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  6. Immune System Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Szatmár; Mirnics, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological, genetic, transcriptome, postmortem, peripheral biomarker, and therapeutic studies of schizophrenia all point to a dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems in the disease, and it is likely that these immune changes actively contribute to disease symptoms. Gene expression disturbances in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia show complex, region-specific changes with consistently replicated and potentially interdependent induction of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A member 3 (SERPINA3) and interferon inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family transcripts in the prefrontal cortex. Recent data suggest that IFITM3 expression is a critical mediator of maternal immune activation. As the IFITM gene family is primarily expressed in the endothelial cells and meninges, and as the meninges play a critical role in interneuron development, we suggest that these two non-neuronal cell populations might play an important role in the disease pathophysiology. Finally, we propose that IFITM3 in particular might be a novel, appealing, knowledge-based drug target for treatment of schizophrenia. Gene*environment interactions play a critical role in the emergence of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Epidemiological, genetic, transcriptome, postmortem, peripheral biomarker, and therapeutic studies of schizophrenia all point to a dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems in the disease (1-3) and it is likely that these immune changes actively contribute to disease symptoms (1, 4, 5). Regardless of the abundance of data obtained to date, our understanding of the mechanism by which the immune system disturbances arise is limited: we do not have a good insight into the origin or sequence of events by which the immune dysregulation develops, and to date we have not taken full advantage of these changes as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23890736

  7. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  8. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  9. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  10. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (???40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (???80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  11. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  12. Questioning Strategies to Develop Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol P.

    Major research on questioning has focused on the numbers and types of questions asked by teachers, the effects of teachers' questions on students, the questioning process, questioning as used in textbooks, and the questioning pattern (what the teacher does immediately after asking a question). Teachers who have few skills to utilize questioning…

  13. Slow recovery in desert perennial vegetation following prolonged human disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Questions: How long may it take for desert perennial vegetation to recover from prolonged human disturbance and how do different plant community variables (i.e. diversity, density and cover) change during the recovery process? Location: Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA. Methods: Since protection from grazing from 1907 onwards, plant diversity, density and cover of perennial species were monitored intermittently on ten 10 m x 10 m permanent plots on Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Results: The study shows an exceptionally slow recovery of perennial vegetation from prolonged heavy grazing and other human impacts. Since protection, overall species richness and habitat heterogeneity at the study site continued to increase until the 1960s when diversity, density and cover had been stabilized. During the same period, overall plant density and cover also increased. Species turnover increased gradually with time but no significant relation between any of the three community variables and precipitation or Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was detected. Conclusions: It took more than 50 yr for the perennial vegetation to recover from prolonged human disturbance. The increases in plant species richness, density, and cover of the perennial vegetation were mostly due to the increase of herbaceous species, especially palatable species. The lack of a clear relationship between environment (e.g. precipitation) and community variables suggests that site history and plant life history must be taken into account in examining the nature of vegetation recovery processes after disturbance.

  14. The 1859 Solar-Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Svalgaard, L.

    2004-10-01

    It is generally appreciated that the September 1859 solar-terrestrial disturbance, the first recognized space weather event, was exceptionally large. How large and how exceptional? To answer these questions, we compiled rank order lists of the various measures of solar-induced disturbance for events from 1859 to the present. The parameters considered included: magnetic crochet amplitude, solar energetic proton fluence (McCracken et al., 2001a), Sun-Earth disturbance transit time, geomagnetic storm intensity, and low-latitude auroral extent. While the 1859 event has close rivals or superiors in each of the above categories of space weather activity, it is the only documented event of the last ˜150 years that appears at or near the top of all of the lists. Taken together, the top-ranking events in each of the disturbance categories comprise a set of benchmarks for extreme space weather activity.

  15. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  16. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact. What questions should I ask the transplant team? What kind of medical tests are done in ... listing? Who are the members of the transplant team and what are their jobs? How many attending ...

  17. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  18. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  19. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  20. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  1. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Home > Education > Questions to Ask Your Doctor Education What is mbc? Diagnosis Guide for the Newly ... treatment in a community-based medical office. Consider distance from home, availability of specialists, access to clinical ...

  2. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  3. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  4. Profiles of Young Children Teacher-Identified as At Risk for Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.; Nelson, J. Ron; Reid, Robert; Ohlund, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    As prevention and early intervention opportunities for young children at risk of emotional disturbance (ED) increase, questions regarding the effectiveness of these programs for specific subpopulations of children have emerged. To date, few investigators have examined young children entering early school prevention/intervention programs to…

  5. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161

  6. Monitoring Mars for Electrostatic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, D.

    2011-01-01

    The DSN radio telescope DSS-13 was used to monitor Mars for electrostatic discharges from 17 February to 11 April, 2010, and from 19 April to 4 May, 2011, over a total of 72 sessions. Of these sessions, few showed noteworthy results and no outstanding electrostatic disturbances were observed on Mars from analyzing the kurtosis of radio emission from Mars. Electrostatic discharges on mars were originally detected in June of 2006 by Ruf et al. using DSS-13. he kurtosis (normalized fourth moment of the electrical field strength) is sensitive to non-thermal radiation. Two frequencies bands, either 2.4 and 8.4 GHz or 8.4 and 32 GHz were used. The non-thermal radiation spectrum should have peaks at the lowest three modes of the theoretical Schumann Resonances of Mars. The telescope was pointed away from Mars every 5 minutes for 45 seconds to confirm if Mars was indeed the sources of any events. It was shown that by including a down-link signal in one channel and by observing when the kurtosis changed as the telescope was pointed away from the source that the procedure can monitor Mars without the need of extra equipment monitoring a control source.

  7. Disturbance, the uncertainty principle and quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how a disturbance-type uncertainty principle can be derived from an uncertainty principle for joint measurements. To achieve this, we first clarify the meaning of 'inaccuracy' and 'disturbance' in quantum mechanical measurements. The case of photon number and phase is treated as an example, and it is applied to a quantum non-demolition measurement using the optical Kerr effect.

  8. The Disturbing Child: A Validation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    Two versions of the Disturbing Behavior Checklist (DBC), an indicator of the relative disturbingness of behaviors characteristic of mildly handicapped (emotionally disturbed and learning disabled) students were field tested with 250 and 150 university students, teachers, supervisors, and school psychologists. Both checklists were relatively…

  9. Monitoring response to disturbance in dynamic rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi-arid rangelands worldwide provide important ecosystem services and see a diversity of land uses. To maintain the health of these lands, it is necessary to monitor rangeland conditions in response to management and disturbance. Spatial patterns from disturbance are superimposed on patte...

  10. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  11. 36 CFR 1002.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 1002.12... RECREATION § 1002.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating motorized equipment or machinery such as an electric generating plant, motor vehicle, motorized toy, or an audio...

  12. 4 CFR 25.6 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disturbances. 25.6 Section 25.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.6 Disturbances. Loitering, disorderly conduct, or other conduct in the GAO Building or on...

  13. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  14. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  15. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circulatory...

  16. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circulatory...

  17. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circulatory...

  18. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Circulatory...

  19. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Circulatory...

  20. How does ecological disturbance influence genetic diversity?

    PubMed

    Banks, Sam C; Cary, Geoffrey J; Smith, Annabel L; Davies, Ian D; Driscoll, Don A; Gill, A Malcolm; Lindenmayer, David B; Peakall, Rod

    2013-11-01

    Environmental disturbance underpins the dynamics and diversity of many of the ecosystems of the world, yet its influence on the patterns and distribution of genetic diversity is poorly appreciated. We argue here that disturbance history may be the major driver that shapes patterns of genetic diversity in many natural populations. We outline how disturbance influences genetic diversity through changes in both selective processes and demographically driven, selectively neutral processes. Our review highlights the opportunities and challenges presented by genetic approaches, such as landscape genomics, for better understanding and predicting the demographic and evolutionary responses of natural populations to disturbance. Developing this understanding is now critical because disturbance regimes are changing rapidly in a human-modified world. PMID:24054910

  1. Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of an ensemble of linear disturbances with a known probability distribution associated with the initial mode amplitudes are studied in boundary-layer flows through an analysis of the transport equations for the mean disturbance kinetic energy and disturbance energy dissipation rate. Effects of adverse and favorable pressure-gradients on the disturbance dynamics are also included in the analysis. Unlike the fully turbulent regime where nonlinear phase scrambling of the fluctuations affects the flow field in proximity to the wall, the laminar regime fluctuations studied here are influenced across the boundary layer by the solid boundary. In addition to the low Reynolds number, early stage transition regime, the dynamics of these disturbance fields can be related in some respects to the near-wall dynamics of the fully turbulent regime.

  2. Recovery of lotic macroinvertebrate communities from disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, J. Bruce

    1990-09-01

    Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative

  3. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. PMID:25311160

  4. Fluid Aspects of Solar Wind Disturbances Driven by Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    Transient disturbances in the solar wind initiated by coronal eruptions have been modeled for many years, beginning with the self-similar analytical models of Parker and Simon and Axford. The first numerical computer code (one-dimensional, gas dynamic) to study disturbance propagation in the solar wind was developed in the late 1960s, and a variety of other codes ranging from simple one-dimensional gas dynamic codes through three-dimensional gas dynamic and magnetohydrodynamic codes have been developed in subsequent years. For the most part, these codes have been applied to the problem of disturbances driven by fast CMEs propagating into a structureless solar wind. Pizzo provided an excellent summary of the level of understanding achieved from such simulation studies through about 1984, and other reviews have subsequently become available. More recently, some attention has been focused on disturbances generated by slow CMEs, on disturbances driven by CMEs having high internal pressures, and disturbance propagation effects associated with a structured ambient solar wind. Our purpose here is to provide a brief tutorial on fluid aspects of solar wind disturbances derived from numerical gas dynamic simulations. For the most part we illustrate disturbance evolution by propagating idealized perturbations, mimicking different types of CMEs, into a structureless solar wind using a simple one-dimensional, adiabatic (except at shocks), gas dynamic code. The simulations begin outside the critical point where the solar wind becomes supersonic and thus do not address questions of how the CMEs themselves are initiated. Limited to one dimension (the radial direction), the simulation code predicts too strong an interaction between newly ejected solar material and the ambient wind because it neglects azimuthal and meridional motions of the plasma that help relieve pressure stresses. Moreover, the code ignores magnetic forces and thus also underestimates the speed with which

  5. On asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, P

    1986-03-01

    Despite the vast array of theoretical formulations now available, none is sufficiently well developed. Some of the philosophical questions thrown up by such material are posed. Under the heading of "Discourse," the questions of what constitutes reasonableness and how logical validity is established are raised. Under the heading of "Epistemology," the nature of concept formulation and causality is raised. Under the heading of "Language," the nature of linguistic representation and artificially constructed language or "artificial intelligence" is raised. It is suggested that these and other issues in the philosophy of science require the urgent attention of family therapy theorists. PMID:3754225

  6. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  7. US Forest Disturbance Rates Observed from Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Zhao, F.; Lindsey, M.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American forests are thought to be a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon. However, great uncertainties exist in current understanding of the magnitude of this sink and its change in the foreseeable future, largely because forest disturbance and regrowth dynamics are not well characterized. A main goal of the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project is to quantify US forest disturbance and regrowth by integrating forest inventory data and historical Landsat observations. From a total of more than 100,000 Landsat images in the USGS Landsat archive, we have selected the best 20,000+ images to construct annual time series datasets for the entire the conterminous US (CONUS) for the years from 1984 to 2011. These images have been converted surface reflectance to produce spatially and temporally consistent radiometry, and are being analyzed using the vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to produce annual forest disturbance products. These products will be validated using design-based accuracy assessment methods, and the causing factor of each mapped disturbance event will be identified. In this talk, we will first provide an overview of the key NAFD methods and then present the preliminary results derived through the NAFD disturbance mapping effort, including initial quality assessment of the derived disturbance products, as well as patterns and rates of forest disturbances at national and regional scales. Issues, lessons learned, and future NAFD work will be discussed at the end.

  8. Comparison of various isostatic marine gravity disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Sjöberg, Lars E.

    2015-08-01

    We present and compare four types of the isostatic gravity disturbances compiled at sea level over the world oceans and marginal seas. These isostatic gravity disturbances are computed by applying the Airy-Heiskanen (AH), Pratt-Hayford (PH) and Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) isostatic models. In addition, we compute the complete crust-stripped (CCS) isostatic gravity disturbances which are defined based on a principle of minimizing their spatial correlation with the Moho geometry. We demonstrate that each applied compensation scheme yields a distinctive spatial pattern in the resulting isostatic marine gravity field. The AH isostatic gravity disturbances provide the smoothest gravity field (by means of their standard deviation). The AH and VMM isostatic gravity disturbances have very similar spatial patterns due to the fact that the same isostatic principle is applied in both these definitions expect for assuming a local (in the former) instead of a global (in the latter) compensation mechanism. The PH isostatic gravity disturbances are highly spatially correlated with the ocean-floor relief. The CCS isostatic gravity disturbances reveal a signature of the ocean-floor spreading characterized by an increasing density of the oceanic lithosphere with age.

  9. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades. PMID:27070017

  10. Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Chester E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to expand the predictive capability of single-point turbulence closure models to account for the early-stage transition regime, a methodology for the formulation and calibration of model equations for the ensemble-averaged disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate is presented. First the decay of laminar disturbances and turbulence in mean shear-free flows is studied. In laminar flows, such disturbances are linear superpositions of modes governed by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In turbulent flows, disturbances are described through transport equations for representative mean quantities. The link between a description based on a deterministic evolution equation and a probability based mean transport equation is established. Because an uncertainty in initial conditions exists in the laminar as well as the turbulent regime, a probability distribution must be defined even in the laminar case. Using this probability distribution, it is shown that the exponential decay of the linear modes in the laminar regime can be related to a power law decay of both the (ensemble) mean disturbance kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. The evolution of these mean disturbance quantities is then described by transport equations similar to those for the corresponding turbulent decaying flow. Second, homogeneous shear flow, where disturbances can be described by rapid distortion theory (RDT), is studied. The relationship between RDT and linear stability theory is exploited in order to obtain a closed set of modeled equations. The linear disturbance equations are solved directly so that the numerical simulation yields a database from which the closure coefficients in the ensemble-averaged disturbance equations can be determined.

  11. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  12. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  13. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  14. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  15. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  16. Questioning Shakespeare through Student Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen K.

    Reader-response journals were successfully employed in a "Reading Shakespeare" course for non-majors, making literary tradition accessible to students untrained in classical rhetoric. Students were encouraged to employ any combination of four approaches. First, students were invited to ask questions about the language, sequence of events,…

  17. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  18. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  19. Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

  20. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  1. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  2. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  3. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  4. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  5. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  6. Evolution of disturbances in stagnation point flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criminale, William O.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Lasseigne, D. Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of three-dimensional disturbances in an incompressible three-dimensional stagnation-point flow in an inviscid fluid is investigated. Since it is not possible to apply classical normal mode analysis to the disturbance equations for the fully three-dimensional stagnation-point flow to obtain solutions, an initial-value problem is solved instead. The evolution of the disturbances provide the necessary information to determine stability and indeed the complete transient as well. It is found that when considering the disturbance energy, the planar stagnation-point flow, which is independent of one of the transverse coordinates, represents a neutrally stable flow whereas the fully three-dimensional flow is either stable or unstable, depending on whether the flow is away from or towards the stagnation point in the transverse direction that is neglected in the planar stagnation point.

  7. Sleep disturbances associated with cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Joseph P H; Wang, Jiantong; Holiday, David B; Warren, Jessica Young; Paradoa, Marilyn; Balkhi, Amanda Marie; Fernandez-Baca, Jeannette; McCrae, Christina S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances resulting in insufficient sleep have been linked to negative physical, cognitive, and public health outcomes. Despite this, there has yet a study that examines the impact of smoking on sleep in a US based national sample. The current study sought to observe sleep disturbances associated with smoking status. Sleep disturbances in adults aged 20 years and above, from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were measured among current, former, and never smokers (NS). Current smokers (CS) reported significantly less total sleep time, longer sleep onset latency, increased difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and waking up earlier than desired when compared to NS. Former smokers reported disturbances similar to NS and CS experienced poorer sleep than nonsmokers. Our study is the first to observe sleep difficulty by smoking status in a large, population-based, nationally representative sample. Recommendations for smoking cessation programs are discussed. PMID:24040938

  8. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  9. Fusing data and models to forecast disturbance impacts on ecosystems: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.; Cowdery, E.; Rollinson, C.; Kelly, R.; Andrews, T.; Matthes, J. H.; Pourmokhtarian, A.; Viskari, T.; Serbin, S.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Raiho, A.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance plays a major role in shaping ecosystems, but their occurrence is stochastic and their representation in ecosystem models is widely considered to be inadequate. Both these factors place significant limits on our ability to forecast ecosystems in a changing world. Herein we address three major challenges in disturbance modeling, focusing on recent advances and emerging opportunities. First, we assess the ability of models to capture emergent observational patterns and experimental manipulations using a range of data types and across a wide range of time scales, from sub-annual (eddy flux) to interannual (inventory, tree rings) to centennial (fossil pollen and charcoal, settlement era surveys). Second, we present advances in how models can represent specific disturbance processes (insects and pathogens, non-harvest forest management) and the scaling of disturbance processes in regional- to global-scale models. Third, we address the question of how to assimilate multiple sources of disturbance data across multiple spatial and temporal scales to constrain the pools and fluxes within models. In particular, because disturbances are stochastic we want to update model projections based on field and remotely-sensed data. However, rather than driving models with a particular external data that is taken as 'truth', we explore examples of how to update models using multiple data sources while accounting for uncertainties in both the model and data. Finally, we discuss the implications of these advances and the opportunities they present for near-term carbon monitoring and long-term carbon cycle projections.

  10. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Pearsons, Karl S

    2010-01-01

    Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft) and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration) circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available. PMID:20472953

  11. Heterotrophic respiration in disturbed forests: A review with examples from North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Mark E.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Tang, Jianwu; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major process releasing carbon to the atmosphere and is essential to understanding carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we review what is known about this flux as related to forest disturbance using examples from North America. The global RH flux from soils has been estimated at 53-57 Pg C yr-1, but this does not include contributions from other sources (i.e., dead wood, heart-rots). Disturbance-related inputs likely account for 20-50% of all RH losses in forests, and disturbances lead to a reorganization of ecosystem carbon pools that influences how RH changes over succession. Multiple controls on RH related to climate, the material being decomposed, and the decomposers involved have been identified, but how each potentially interacts with disturbance remains an open question. An emerging paradigm of carbon dynamics suggests the possibility of multiple periods of carbon sinks and sources following disturbance; a large contributing factor is the possibility that postdisturbance RH does not always follow the monotonic decline assumed in the classic theory. Without a better understanding and modeling of RH and its controlling factors, it will be difficult to estimate, forecast, understand, and manage carbon balances of regions in which disturbance frequency and severity are changing. Meeting this challenge will require (1) improved field data on processes and stores, (2) an improved understanding of the physiological and environmental controls of RH, and (3) a more formal analysis of how model structure influences the RH responses that can be predicted.

  12. Realization of a minimal disturbance quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Sciarrino, F; Ricci, M; De Martini, F; Filip, R; Mista, L

    2006-01-20

    We report the first experimental realization of an "optimal" quantum device able to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on polarization encoded qubits saturating the theoretical boundary established between the classical knowledge acquired of any input state, i.e., a "classical guess," and the fidelity of the same state after disturbance due to measurement. The device has been physically realized by means of a linear optical qubit manipulation, postselection measurement, and a classical feed-forward process. PMID:16486551

  13. Guiding future research on terrestrial ecosystem disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With North American ecosystems responsible for drawing hundreds of teragrams of carbon from the atmosphere each year, the tenuous balance of the terrestrial carbon budget can be upset for decades by disturbances such as fires, storms, disease outbreaks, insect infestations, and logging. Research cataloging the effects of such disturbances on regional carbon cycling tends to be sporadic or of limited scope. Most research has focused on forests but is less extensive for other important ecosystems such as grasslands or permafrost peatlands.

  14. Disturbance rejection in space applications: Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, Enrico; Molano-Jimenez, Andrés; Perez-Montenegro, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Navigation, control and guidance of the propulsive phase of planetary landing, e.g. on Mars (or the Moon), with a soft landing being the only target, are driven by Inertial Measurement Units and a radar altimeter/velocimeter. Their measurements are affected by bias and scale errors. The latter ones are aggravated by the attitude navigation error as it accumulates during the ballistic (and aerodynamic) flight after orbiter separation and couples for most of the descent trajectory with the vehicle axis inclination from the local vertical direction. By complementing the center-of-mass dynamics with appropriate disturbance state equations driven by noise vectors and estimating the noise from the model error (plant measurements minus model output), scale errors and bias can be retrieved in real time in the form of disturbance state variables. Although a similar complement is adopted in the standard navigation algorithms, it takes the form of an output disturbance, which may lead to unobservability. In this paper instead, the disturbance complement is designed to be fully observable, which may require that the derivatives of smooth systematic errors be pushed up to the command channel (a form of back-stepping). It is then viable, unlike standard navigation, to eliminate them from position and velocity tracking errors through disturbance rejection, under appropriate convergence conditions and sensor layout. It will, however, be demonstrated in this paper that the same result cannot be achieved under pure feedback control. Since constant errors (bias) become zero through back-stepping, a well known fact derives: bias can only be eliminated by disposing of supplementary sensors. To further enlighten and solve the question of bias rejection, a further case study is treated. The attitude control of drag-free satellites is considered, where fine accelerometers allow for the rejection of wide-band aerodynamic torques (think of low-Earth orbit spacecrafts) at the price of

  15. Mapping surface disturbance from wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2013-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing segments of the electricity market and this trend will likely continue as countries strive to reduce CO2 production while meeting growing energy demands. One impact of wind facilities is surface disturbance, including roads, that lead to habitat loss and fragmentation. Numerous studies of wind power utilize estimates of surface disturbance for GIS-based modeling or basic calculations of the land area required to generate energy using wind. However published estimates of the land use required for a MW of electricity from wind facilities vary by more than 10 times (0.83 to 250 MW/Km2). We report results from a geospatial analysis of 39 wind facilities in the United States that we fully digitized using high resolution photo-imagery. The selected sites and analyses were designed to elucidate the effects of turbine size, topography, and land use on the area requirements of wind facilities. The results indicate point estimates of average surface disturbance/MW have wide levels of variation, explained primarily by Landcover and Topography. Wind facilities in agricultural landscapes had smaller surface disturbance/ha than facilities in forests and shrublands, and facilities in relatively flat topography had smaller surface disturbance/ha than facilities on hills, ridges, or mesas. Land use, topography, and turbine size all influenced turbine spacing. The statistical models suggest we can predict geographic locations where new wind facilities could be placed with minimized surface disturbance.

  16. Optimal Free-Stream Vortical Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, M. J. Philipp

    2015-11-01

    In boundary layers exposed to moderate levels of free-stream disturbances, natural transition via the exponential amplification of Tollmien-Schlichting waves is bypassed by a more rapid breakdown process. The external disturbances interact with the mean shear and induce the growth of highly energetic streaks, which cause transition to turbulence by virtue of the growth of inviscid secondary instabilities. The relationship between external vortices and boundary-layer perturbations is, however, not entirely understood. The present study provides a rigorous link between the dynamics in the free-stream and inside the boundary layer by computing the optimal free-stream vortical disturbances, i.e. the external disturbances which maximize the energy content of the resulting boundary-layer perturbations. The mathematical framework is based on a semi-norm formulation of the adjoint linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates and enables the global analysis of disturbance sensitivity as well as the computation of optimal disturbances in flows with variable density and miscellaneous geometries.

  17. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  18. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  19. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  20. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  1. [Disturbances of hemostasis in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Novotný, J; Penka, M

    2012-06-01

    Immune system and hemostasis are closely bound together. When one of these systems is activated, another is set in motion too. This is especially noticeable in polytraumas, inflammation, shocks etc. The most important activator of immune system and hemostasis is sepsis. In sepsis there is a vigorous stimulation of immune response because of a liberation of a lot of cytokines and proinflammatory molecules. This may lead to an extrem picture of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In systemic inflammatory response syndrome a downregulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor on the surface of intact endothel may be detected and there is an upregulation of release of the tissue-type plasminogen activator with a switch to plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 release. There is lowering of activated protein C and fibrinolytic activation followed by fibrinolytic inhibition in septic patients. Consequently we can see consumption of coagulation factors, inhibitors (antithrombin, protein C, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor), microangiopatic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia with a picture of disseminated intravascular coagulation in these patients. The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation is not uniforme in the literature. Expression of tissue factor on monocytes and endothelium may aggravate this "circulus vitiosus" with serious microcirculatory failure in sense of MOF/MODS (mutliorgan failure/multiorgan dysfunction syndrome). The first steps in the therapy of sepsis represent the treatment of cause of sepsis, vigorous hydratation and maintenance of circulation and pulmonary function, glycemic control etc, the prevention and blocking of the undesirable activation of hemostasis and inflammation being equally important. The treatment with minidoses of heparin was implemented in the past and the question, if this therapy is indicated is not answered yet. The clinical studies of the suitability of the treatment with natural inhibitors of

  2. Integrating theory into disturbance interaction experiments to better inform ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Foster, Claire N; Sato, Chloe F; Lindenmayer, David B; Barton, Philip S

    2016-04-01

    Managing multiple, interacting disturbances is a key challenge to biodiversity conservation, and one that will only increase as global change drivers continue to alter disturbance regimes. Theoretical studies have highlighted the importance of a mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions for improving the prediction and management of interactive effects. However, many conservation studies are not designed or interpreted in the context of theory and instead focus on case-specific management questions. This is a problem as it means that few studies test the relationships highlighted in theoretical models as being important for ecological management. We explore the extent of this problem among studies of interacting disturbances by reviewing recent experimental studies of the interaction between fire and grazing in terrestrial ecosystems. Interactions between fire and grazing can occur via a number of pathways; one disturbance can modify the other's likelihood, intensity or spatial distribution, or one disturbance can alter the other's impacts on individual organisms. The strength of such interactions will vary depending on disturbance attributes (e.g. size or intensity), and this variation is likely to be nonlinear. We show that few experiments testing fire-grazing interactions are able to identify the mechanistic pathway driving an observed interaction, and most are unable to detect nonlinear effects. We demonstrate how these limitations compromise the ability of experimental studies to effectively inform ecological management. We propose a series of adjustments to the design of disturbance interaction experiments that would enable tests of key theoretical pathways and provide the deeper ecological understanding necessary for effective management. Such considerations are relevant to studies of a broad range of ecological interactions and are critical to informing the management of disturbance regimes in the context of accelerating global change. PMID

  3. Sleep disturbances in the demented elderly: treatment in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Stoppe, G; Sandholzer, H; Staedt, J; Winter, S; Kiefer, J; Rüther, E

    1995-12-01

    We report the results of a representative survey in Lower Saxony, Germany, that focused on the treatment of sleep disturbances in the moderately demented elderly. Two written sample case histories (vignettes) described either a vascular demented patient suffering from nocturnal wandering or an Alzheimer's-type demented patient without apparent psychotic or behavioral (sleep) disorder. These were randomly assigned and presented to 145 family physicians and 14 neuropsychiatrists working in private practice by a trained investigator, who then conducted a standardized interview with the physicians. The study was representative of physicians (response rate: 83.2%). In response to the question concerning how they would treat the patient's sleep disturbances, about 20% of the physicians (with respect to both versions) answered that they would not choose drugs. More than 40% considered neuroleptics to be the drugs of choice. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances were seldom considered. No significant difference was noted in the response to the two different case histories. The results allow for the conclusion that non-drug treatments, which (at least initially) should be the treatment of choice, are mainly disregarded by the majority of the ambulatory care physicians. The reason for this seems to be a lack of education in sleep medicine and also in geriatric medicine. PMID:8746390

  4. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    PubMed

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance. PMID:23072810

  5. Open forum: Question and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation).

  6. Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth; Mowat, David; Wilson, Meredith; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS. In a series of unstructured interviews focused on development and behaviors in MWS, family members frequently reported sleep disturbance, particularly early-morning waking and frequent night waking. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was therefore administered to a sample of 35 individuals with MWS, along with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) to measure behavioral and emotional disturbance. A high level of sleep disturbance was found in the MWS sample, with 53% scoring in the borderline range and 44% in the clinical disorder range for at least one subscale of the SDSC. Scores were highest for the Sleep-wake transition disorders subscale, with 91% of participants reaching at least the borderline disorder range. A significant positive association was found between total scores on the SDSC and the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. These results suggest that sleep disorders should be screened for in people with MWS, and where appropriate, referrals to sleep specialists made for management of sleep problems. PMID:26686679

  7. Defining sleep disturbance after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Clinchot, D M; Bogner, J; Mysiw, W J; Fugate, L; Corrigan, J

    1998-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a relatively common occurrence after brain injury. Sleep disturbances often result in a poor daytime performance and a poor individual sense of well-being. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and often disabling sequela of brain injury. This study attempts to define and to correlate the incidence and type of sleep disturbances that occur after brain injury. Consecutive admissions to a rehabilitation unit were used to create a longitudinal database designed to predict long-term outcomes for individuals who suffered a brain injury. Fifty percent of subjects had difficulty sleeping. Sixty-four percent described waking up too early, 25% described sleeping more than usual, and 45% described problems falling asleep. Eighty percent of subjects reporting sleep problems also reported problems with fatigue. Logistic regression analysis revealed the following: the more severe the brain injury the less likely the subject would be to have a sleep disturbance; subjects who had sleep disturbances were more likely to have problems with fatigue; females were more likely to have trouble with sleep. This study demonstrates the substantial prevalence of sleep disturbances after brain injury. It underscores the relationship between sleep disorders and perception of fatigue. It also underscores the need for clinicians to strive for interventional studies to look at the treatment of sleep and fatigue problems after brain injury. PMID:9715917

  8. Pharmacology for sleep disturbance in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Gosia; Baldwin, David S; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We conclude that only prazosin, an adrenergic inhibiting agent, has had its efficacy established by multiple randomised controlled trials. There is also high-level evidence supporting use of eszopiclone, as well as risperidone and olanzapine as adjunct therapy. Antidepressants such as sertraline, venlafaxine and mirtazapine, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics such as zolpidem appear ineffective in treating PTSD-related sleep disturbance. Most studies that report reduced frequency of nightmares and insomnia also report decreases in overall symptom severity. Such findings suggest that (i) sleep disruption is central to PTSD; (ii) treating sleep disruption may be an effective way to address other symptoms of the disorder and (iii) PTSD symptoms tend to cluster together in predictable ways. PMID:26856810

  9. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Propagation of disturbances in degenerate quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancellor, Nicholas; Haas, Stephan

    2011-07-01

    Disturbances in gapless quantum many-body models are known to travel an unlimited distance throughout the system. Here, we explore this phenomenon in finite clusters with degenerate ground states. The specific model studied here is the one-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian at and close to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Both open and periodic boundary conditions are considered. Quenches are performed using a local magnetic field. The degenerate Majumdar-Ghosh ground state allows disturbances which carry quantum entanglement to propagate throughout the system and thus dephase the entire system within the degenerate subspace. These disturbances can also carry polarization, but not energy, as all energy is stored locally. The local evolution of the part of the system where energy is stored drives the rest of the system through long-range entanglement. We also examine approximations for the ground state of this Hamiltonian in the strong field limit and study how couplings away from the Majumdar-Ghosh point affect the propagation of disturbances. We find that even in the case of approximate degeneracy, a disturbance can be propagated throughout a finite system.

  11. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  12. A meta-analysis of human disturbance impacts on Antarctic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Bernard W T; Chown, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    heterogeneity in effects, management guidelines for different sites and species will need to be developed on a case-by-case basis, ideally in conjunction with carefully designed experiments. Guidelines to reduce the impact of research activities per se require development to reduce the potential impacts of conducting research. We identify research questions that, if answered, will further improve the evidence base for guidelines to manage human disturbance in Antarctica. PMID:25923885

  13. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  14. [The questions of international migration].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified) PMID:12286405

  15. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  16. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

  17. MERCURY RELEASE FROM DISTURBED ANOXIC SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc; Bethany A. Bolles

    2001-07-16

    The primary objectives of experiments conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) were to provide information on the secondary release of mercury from contaminated anoxic sediments to an aqueous environment after disturbance/change of in situ physical conditions and to evaluate its migration and partitioning under controlled conditions, including implications of these processes for treatment of contaminated soils. Experimental work included (1) characterization of the mercury-contaminated sediment; (2) field bench-scale dredging simulation; (3) laboratory column study to evaluate a longer-term response to sediment disturbance; (4) mercury volatilization from sediment during controlled drying; (5) resaturation experiments to evaluate the potential for secondary release of residual mercury after disturbance, transport, drying, and resaturation, which simulate a typical scenario during soil excavation and transport to waste disposal facilities; and (6) mercury speciation and potential for methylation during column incubation experiments.

  18. [Using alternative therapies in treating sleep disturbance].

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common health problem among adults, and enhancing sleep quality is an issue of significant importance to healthcare providers. As sleep quality worsens into insomnia, individuals may seek assistance from medication. However, sedative hypnotic drugs pose potentially adverse effects. Also, most medical treatments (e.g., positive pressure assistant ventilators) represent invasive interventions that must be prescribed by physicians. Non-pharmacological alternative therapies are commonly recommended and adopted by community nurses. Alternative therapies for sleep disturbance included exercise, cognitive behavior therapy, multiple strategies, music, and acupressure. In general, moderately intensive walking exercise is the intervention most recommended by professionals to help patients deal with sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers devise sleep quality promotion strategies that are suitable for home practice in order to apply the findings and spirit of research already done in this area. PMID:21328208

  19. Geomagnetic Disturbances Caused by Internal Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneman, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is commonly believed that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by external influences connected with the solar wind. The 27-day recurrence of perturbations seems to be a strong hint for this interaction. But frequently geomagnetic disturbances occur without any relation to sunspot numbers or radiowave fluxes. This was one of the reasons for introducing hypothetical M-regions on the Sun and their relation to solar wind activities. Only one half of the variance of the geomagnetic AL-index could be related to the solar wind. Therefore it is concluded that internal processes of the magnetosphere were responsible for additional geomagnetic activity. Arguments, which might lead to the suggestion of geomagnetic disturbances as being caused by internal atmospheric dynamics are discussed and a rather preliminary scenario of those processes is proposed.

  20. An FRIT Method for Disturbance Attenuation Using Input-Output Data Generated from Disturbance Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Shiro; Takeda, Kyohei

    This paper considers controller parameters tuning method for regulator problems using FRIT method. The FRIT method for regulator problems tunes the control parameters so that the disturbance response follows the reference model output. The paper tries to give a method for estimating disturbances for an FRIT method using input-output data generated by disturbances. The proposed method assumes that the disturbance is an impulse-type signal, but its magnitude is unknown, and estimates the magnitude of the disturbance, while it obtains the control parameters simultaneously. Hence, the proposed method gives an FRIT method for regulator problems by only using one-shot input-output data for unknown impulse-type distrubances. The efficiency of the proposed method can be shown through a numerical example.

  1. Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothmer, Volker; Bernert, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 Within the framework of the UN International Space Weather Initiative, and building upon the achievements of the International Heliophysical Year, the German project SIMONE (Sun Ionosphere MOnitoring NEtwork) operates several SID monitors provided by the University of Stanford. Here we present an overview of sudden ionospheric disturbances recorded since 2006 at the high school Gymnasium Walsrode until to date. The continous measurements allow a detailed comparison of locally measured SIDs with the general trend of solar activity during the current solar maximum. We further show that the measurements reveal specific information on the variable response of the dayside ionosphere to solar flares.

  2. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

  3. Automated recognition system for power quality disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelgalil, Tarek

    The application of deregulation policies in electric power systems has resulted in the necessity to quantify the quality of electric power. This fact highlights the need for a new monitoring strategy which is capable of tracking, detecting, classifying power quality disturbances, and then identifying the source of the disturbance. The objective of this work is to design an efficient and reliable power quality monitoring strategy that uses the advances in signal processing and pattern recognition to overcome the deficiencies that exist in power quality monitoring devices. The purposed monitoring strategy has two stages. The first stage is to detect, track, and classify any power quality violation by the use of on-line measurements. In the second stage, the source of the classified power quality disturbance must be identified. In the first stage, an adaptive linear combiner is used to detect power quality disturbances. Then, the Teager Energy Operator and Hilbert Transform are utilized for power quality event tracking. After the Fourier, Wavelet, and Walsh Transforms are employed for the feature extraction, two approaches are then exploited to classify the different power quality disturbances. The first approach depends on comparing the disturbance to be classified with a stored set of signatures for different power quality disturbances. The comparison is developed by using Hidden Markov Models and Dynamic Time Warping. The second approach depends on employing an inductive inference to generate the classification rules directly from the data. In the second stage of the new monitoring strategy, only the problem of identifying the location of the switched capacitor which initiates the transients is investigated. The Total Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique is adopted to estimate the amplitudes and frequencies of the various modes contained in the voltage signal measured at the facility entrance. After extracting the

  4. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  5. Human disturbances of waterfowl: an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlgren, R.B.; Korschgen, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The expansion of outdoor recreation greatly increased the interaction between the public, waterfowl, and waterfowl habitat. The effects of these interactions on waterfowl habitats are visible and obvious, whereas the effects of interactions that disrupt the normal behavior of waterfowl are subtle and often overlooked, but perhaps no less harmful than destruction of habitat. Resource managers and administrators require information on the types, magnitude, and effects of disturbances from human contact with wildlife. This bibliography contains annotations for 211 articles with information about effects of human disturbances on waterfowl. Indexes are provided by subject or key words, geographic locations, species of waterfowl, and authors.

  6. Human disturbances of waterfowl: An annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlgren, R.B.; Korschgen, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The expansion of outdoor recreation greatly increased the interaction between the public, waterfowl, and waterfowl habitat. The effects of these interactions on waterfowl habitats are visible and obvious, whereas the effects of interactions that disrupt the normal behavior of waterfowl are subtle and often overlooked, but perhaps no less harmful than destruction of habitat. Resource managers and administrators require information on the types, magnitude, and effect of disturbances from human contact with wildlife. This bibliography contains annotations for 211 articles with information about effects of human disturbances on waterfowl. Indexes are provided by subject or key words, geographic locations, species of waterfowl, and authors.

  7. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  8. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  9. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 1 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 1 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  10. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  11. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  12. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  13. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  14. Improving Teacher Questions in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers need to be able to ask quality questions in the teaching of reading--questions to assess student comprehension and to clarify content, questions to enable learners to engage in higher levels of cognition such as creative and critical thinking, questions to help students engage in meaningful reading experiences and become lifelong…

  15. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z Y; Jiao, F; Li, Y H; Kallenbach, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems. PMID:26903041

  16. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems. PMID:26903041

  17. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  18. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  19. The association between working hours and sleep disturbances according to occupation and gender.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to explore the relationship between working hours and sleep disturbance according to occupation and gender among Korean workers. Data were derived from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2011 by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. From a total of 50,032 workers, 34,783 salaried contract workers were selected. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 h/week. The outcome variable was sleep disturbance, which was assessed by a single question item (During the past 12 months, have you experienced sleep disturbance or insomnia?). Multiple survey logistic regression models were performed after adjusting with age, education level, marital status, self-rated health, salary, shift work, smoking and alcohol drinking. Gender and occupation were stratified in these models. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance in male non-manual workers with long work hours (>60 h/week) was 3.017 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.956-4.653]. In female non-manual workers who work 49-60 working hour per week, the OR was 1.525 (95% CI 1.034-2.249). Long working hours can be a risk factor for sleep disturbance in Korean workers. The association was especially prominent in male non-manual workers. PMID:26317888

  20. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    PubMed

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27164553

  1. SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

  2. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experimentmore » in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.« less

  3. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  4. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  5. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Lee, Courtney; Mosey, Gail; Melius, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  6. Burnout in Parents of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary N.; Morrison, Merrie B.

    The paper addresses stressors facing parents of emotionally disturbed adolescents and suggests ways that parents can be helped to battle "burnout." Ten stressors are identified: problems innate with the handicap, lack of progress and development, negative public opinion, pressures from spouse or other family members, pressures from members of…

  7. Disturbing Practices: Training Workers to Be Lean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony; Black, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities for expansive learning during organisational change. It considers the introduction of "lean production" as a disturbance to the existing work practices. Design/methodology/approach: The paper considers two case studies of "lean production" training with…

  8. Ego Boundary Disturbance in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strober, Michael; Goldenberg, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Anorexics were compared to female depressed controls to measure boundary impairment. Anorexics scored higher on inner-outer and conceptual boundary disturbance and produced significantly more responses that emphasized the solidity of object boundaries. Boundary scores were unrelated to degree of weight loss and global symptom severity. (Author)

  9. Insomnia and perceptual disturbances during flunarizine treatment.

    PubMed

    Dalla Volta, G; Magoni, M; Cappa, S; Di Monda, V

    1990-01-01

    We report two cases of sleep disturbances and perceptual disorder appearing in close temporal relationship with initiation of flunarizine therapy for migraine prophylaxis: these side effects disappeared after therapy interruption; resumption of the drug in one case was associated with symptom recurrence. PMID:2303350

  10. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  11. Psychopharmacology with the Behaviorally Disturbed: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, William A.; Jerman, George

    Reviewed on a layman's level was research on psychopharmacology with the emotionally and behaviorally disturbed. General conclusions drawn from the man y studies were that the effect of drugs on intellectual functioning had not been determined and that there was little evidence to indicate that the learning process was consistently and reliably…

  12. Modeling overland erosion on disturbed rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is a new process-based model developed by the USDA-ARS primarily for undisturbed rangeland. Greater sediment detachment rates are usually generated by concentrated flow rather than by sheet flow. Disturbance on rangeland such as fire and tree encroach...

  13. Soil disturbance evaluation: application of ANFIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New techniques to understand the relationship of soil components as impacted by management are needed. In this work, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) applied for study the contiguous relations between soil disturbed indicators. Several ANFIS surfaces, which described the contiguous ...

  14. Orographic disturbances in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Anatoly I.; Shefov, Nikolay N.; Medvedeva, Irina V.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of atmospheric non-stationary stream with obstacles on the Earth's terrestrial surface causes disturbances which are a source of various wave processes. A study of such processes and their influence on the upper atmosphere temperature regime was carried out at Kislovodsk high-mountainous scientific station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) by measuring the mesopause temperature in the northern leeward area of the Caucasian ridge. Using the data of the spectrophotometric measurements of the upper atmosphere hydroxyl emission characteristics over almost two decades, information about the orographic disturbances at the mesopause altitudes were obtained and features of their generation in the surface atmosphere were studied. It was found that the atmospheric temperature at altitudes around 90 km in the lee of mountains increased by 10 K (the mean value is about 200 K) at a distance of about 150 km from the ridge. The 300-km width of the observed airglow disturbances is from the observations near the Ural and Caucasian mountains.The sources of wave disturbances are shown to be concentrated near the mountainous irregularities of the Caucasian ridge. These sources appear in the troposphere at altitudes of about 4 km. The process of generating waves with periods from 7 to 20 min were believed to be caused by wind gusts. The spatial distribution of energy flow in the lee of the mountains was calculated and amounts to about 3 erg cm-2 s-1.

  15. Types and Treatment of Pediatric Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of pediatric sleep disturbances with emphases on types and treatments. Relationships between sleep disorders and comorbid conditions function to exacerbate and maintain both disorders. An estimated 20% of teenagers experience chronic partial sleep deprivation, resulting in problems with memory, attention, and…

  16. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  17. Service Needs of Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trupin, Eric W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the service needs of severely emotionally disturbed children. Primary case workers of 3,398 children and adolescents under state care were surveyed regarding the children's treatment history and social and clinical conditions. Nontraditional home- and school-based services were the needs most frequently reported. (CJS)

  18. Ionospheric disturbances produced by powerful explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorskii, P. M.; Tarashchuk, Yu. E.

    1992-09-01

    Results of a study of wave-like ionospheric disturbances initiated by powerful explosives are presented and analyzed. Three types of wave processes with differing physical natures which propagate in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere to distances of thousands of kilometers are distinguished. The effect of shock-acoustic waves on indirect short wave radio propagation is considered.

  19. Proof of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F

    2013-10-18

    While the slogan "no measurement without disturbance" has established itself under the name of the Heisenberg effect in the consciousness of the scientifically interested public, a precise statement of this fundamental feature of the quantum world has remained elusive, and serious attempts at rigorous formulations of it as a consequence of quantum theory have led to seemingly conflicting preliminary results. Here we show that despite recent claims to the contrary [L. Rozema et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100404 (2012)], Heisenberg-type inequalities can be proven that describe a tradeoff between the precision of a position measurement and the necessary resulting disturbance of momentum (and vice versa). More generally, these inequalities are instances of an uncertainty relation for the imprecisions of any joint measurement of position and momentum. Measures of error and disturbance are here defined as figures of merit characteristic of measuring devices. As such they are state independent, each giving worst-case estimates across all states, in contrast to previous work that is concerned with the relationship between error and disturbance in an individual state. PMID:24182239

  20. Visuospatial Attention Disturbance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares; do Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Pinto, Katia Osternack

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive deficits present in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are not yet well characterized. Attention, considered to be the brain mechanism responsible for the selection of sensory stimuli, could be disturbed in DMD, contributing, at least partially, to the observed global cognitive deficit. The aim of this study was to…

  1. 44 CFR 15.7 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.7 Disturbances. At both Mt. Weather and NETC we prohibit any unwarranted loitering, disorderly conduct, or other conduct at Mt. Weather and NETC that: (a) Creates loud or unusual noise or...

  2. Parkinson's disease and sleep/wake disturbances.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a common non-motor feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Early diagnosis and appropriate management are imperative for enhancing patient quality of life. Sleep disturbances can be caused by multiple factors in addition to age-related changes in sleep, such as nocturnal motor symptoms (rigidity, resting tremor, akinesia, tardive dyskinesia, and the "wearing off" phenomenon), non-motor symptoms (pain, hallucination, and psychosis), nocturia, and medication. Disease-related pathology involving the brainstem and changes in the neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine) responsible for regulating sleep structure and the sleep/wake cycle play a role in emerging excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances. Additionally, screening for sleep apnea syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome is clinically important. Questionnaire-based assessment utilizing the PD Sleep Scale-2 is useful for screening PD-related nocturnal symptoms. In this review, we focus on the current understanding and management of sleep disturbances in PD. PMID:25687697

  3. 44 CFR 15.7 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disturbances. 15.7 Section 15.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL...

  4. 44 CFR 15.7 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disturbances. 15.7 Section 15.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL...

  5. 44 CFR 15.7 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disturbances. 15.7 Section 15.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL...

  6. 44 CFR 15.7 - Disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disturbances. 15.7 Section 15.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL...

  7. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the

  8. Sleep disturbances and PTSD: a perpetual circle?

    PubMed Central

    van Liempt, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep facilitates the consolidation of fear extinction memory. Nightmares and insomnia are hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly interfering with fear extinction and compromising recovery. A perpetual circle may develop when sleep disturbances increase the risk for PTSD and vice versa. To date, therapeutic options for alleviating sleep disturbances in PTSD are limited. Methods We conducted three studies to examine the relationship between sleep and posttraumatic symptoms: (1) a prospective longitudinal cohort study examining the impact of pre-deployment insomnia symptoms and nightmares on the development of PTSD; (2) a cross-sectional study examining subjective sleep measures, polysomnography, endocrinological parameters, and memory in veterans with PTSD, veterans without PTSD, and healthy controls (HCs); (3) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n=14) comparing the effect of prazosin and placebo on sleep disturbances in veterans with PTSD. In addition to these studies, we systematically reviewed the literature on treatment options for sleep disturbances in PTSD. Results Pre-deployment nightmares predicted PTSD symptoms at 6 months post-deployment; however, insomnia symptoms did not. Furthermore, in patients with PTSD, a correlation between the apnea index and PTSD severity was observed, while obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was not more prevalent. We observed a significant increase in awakenings during sleep in patients with PTSD, which were positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, negatively correlated with growth hormone (GH) secretion, and the subjective perception of sleep depth. Also, heart rate was significantly increased in PTSD patients. Interestingly, plasma levels of GH during the night were decreased in PTSD. Furthermore, GH secretion and awakenings were independent predictors for delayed recall, which was lower in PTSD. In our RCT, prazosin was not associated with improvement of any

  9. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  10. Disturbance observer based pitch control of wind turbines for disturbance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Xu; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    In this research, a disturbance observer based (DOB) control scheme is illustrated to reject the unknown low frequency disturbances to wind turbines. Specifically, we aim at maintaining the constant output power but achieving better generator speed regulation when the wind turbine is operated at time-varying and turbulent wind field. The disturbance observer combined with a filter is designed to asymptotically reject the persistent unknown time-varying disturbances. The proposed algorithm is tested in both linearized and nonlinear NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. The application of this DOB pitch controller achieves improved power and speed regulation in Region 3 compared with a baseline gain scheduling PID collective controller both in linearized and nonlinear plant.

  11. Cosmic ray modulation by solar wind disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbović, M.; Vršnak, B.; Čalogović, J.; Karlica, M.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: We perform a systematic statistical study of the relationship between characteristics of solar wind disturbances, caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions, and properties of Forbush decreases (FDs). Since the mechanism of FDs is still being researched, this analysis should provide a firm empirical basis for physical interpretations of the FD phenomenon. Methods: The analysis is based on the ground-based neutron monitor data and the solar wind data recorded by the Advanced Composition Explorer, where the disturbances were identified as increases in proton speed, magnetic field, and magnetic field fluctuations. We focus on the relative timing of FDs, as well as on the correlations between various FD and solar wind parameters, paying special attention to the statistical significance of the results. Results: It was found that the onset, the minimum, and the end of FDs are delayed after the onset, the maximum, and the end of the magnetic field enhancement. The t-test shows that at the 95% significance level the average lags have to be longer than 3, 7, and 26 h, respectively. FD magnitude (| FD|) is correlated with the magnetic field strength (B), magnetic field fluctuations (δB), and speed (v), as well as with combined parameters, BtB, Bv, vtB, and BvtB, where tB is the duration of the magnetic field disturbance. In the |FD|(B) dependence, a "branching" effect was observed, i.e., two different trends exist. The analysis of the FD duration and recovery period reveals a correlation with the duration of the magnetic field enhancement. The strongest correlations are obtained for the dependence on combined solar wind parameters of the product of the FD duration and magnitude, implying that combined parameters are in fact true variables themselves, rather than just a product of variables. Conclusions: From the time lags we estimate that "the penetration depth" in the disturbance, at which FD onset becomes recognizable, is on

  12. Modeling Overland Erosion on Disturbed Rangeland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Hernandez, M.; Pierson, F. B.; Nearing, M.; Stone, J. J.; Williams, C. J.; Boll, J.; Weltz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) is a new process-based model developed by the USDA-ARS primarily for undisturbed rangeland. Greater sediment detachment rates are usually generated by concentrated flow rather than by sheet flow. Disturbance on rangeland such as fire and tree encroachment can increase overland flow erosion rate by increasing the likelihood of concentrated flow formation on a more erodible surface. In this study, we made advancement to RHEM by developing a new version of the model to predict concentrated flow erosion rate from disturbed rangelands. The model was conceptualized based on observations and results of experimental studies on rangelands disturbed by fire and/or by tree encroachment. A logistic equation was used to partition overland flow into concentrated flow and sheet flow. The equation predicts the probability of overland flow to become concentrated based on slope angle, percentage bare soil, and flow discharge per unit width. Sediment detachment rate from concentrated flow was calculated using soil erodibility of the site and hydraulic parameters of the flow such as flow width and stream power. Soil detachment was assumed to start when concentrated flow starts (i.e. no threshold concept for initiating detachment was used). Width of concentrated flow was determined by flow discharge and slope using an equation which was developed specifically for rangeland. A dynamic erodibility concept was used where concentrated flow erodibility was set to be high at the beginning of the event and then decrease exponentially due to the reduction of availability of disturbance-source-sediment. Initial erodibility was estimated using an empirical parameterization equation as a function of readily available vegetation cover and surface soil texture data. Detachment rate from rain splash and sheet flow was determined by rainfall intensity and sheet flow discharge. A dynamic partial differential sediment continuity equation was used to

  13. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  14. Tropical disturbances in relation to general circulation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estoque, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The initial results of an evaluation of the performance of the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Simulation general circulation model depicting the tropical atmosphere during the summer are presented. Because the results show the existence of tropical wave disturbances throughout the tropics, the characteristics of synoptic disturbances over Africa were studied and a synoptic case study of a selected disturbance in this area was conducted. It is shown that the model is able to reproduce wave type synoptic disturbances in the tropics. The findings show that, in one of the summers simulated, the disturbances are predominantly closed vortices; in another summer, the predominant disturbances are open waves.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  16. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  17. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  18. Solar flares, flare particles and geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, T.

    1986-03-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances related to solar-terrestrial events during the period June-September 1982 are described. The cause of these activities is investigated using solar phenomena and solar flare particles observed by the geostationary satellite GMS-2/SEM (Space Environment Monitor). It is noted that the geomagnetic disturbances in June were weak, two big geomagnetic storms occurred in September, and the largest storm, caused by a large flare, occurred on July 13-14. The July 13-14, 1972 storm is compared to the February 11-12, 1958 storm observed by Hakura and Nagai (1964, 1965) and the August 4-5, 1972 storm data of Hakura (1976). The July storm was characterized by a deep depression of the H-component caused by an abnormal expansion of the substorm-associated current system in the auroral zone toward the Far East and was short-lived.

  19. Parkinson's Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Swick, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented. PMID:23326757

  20. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaurock, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral

  1. Effect of upstream disturbance on flow asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, David; Tobak, Murray

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental study aimed at revealing the origin of the asymmetric mean flow that occurs on pointed bodies of revolution at moderate-to-high angles of attack. The placement of a small fixed disturbance (a minute spherical bead) on a very thin wire at various locations in the flow near the tip of the model is shown to provoke the same range of behavior of the asymmetric flow that was produced earlier by use of a controlled retractable wire protuberance, here without touching or altering the tip at all. Results remain consistent with the presence of a convective instability mechanism, and demonstrate the potential for a precise mapping of the body's receptivity to fixed disturbances in the flowfield.

  2. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  3. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  4. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  5. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  6. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  7. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  8. Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions…

  9. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  10. Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

  11. Using Questions to Depress Student Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the traditional and prevailing view that teacher questions are effective stimulants to student thought. Through an examination of research, practice, and theory related to question use, the author develops a counterargument that questions inhibit thought and discussion, or at least do not stimulate student participation. (RH)

  12. Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

  13. Critical Thinking: Crucial Distinctions for Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Stresses the importance of questioning as a key element in the art of learning. Defines three types of questions: (1) multisystem, which considers more than one relevant viewpoint in thinking through a problem, issue, or question; (2) one-system, which can be tested with a multiple-choice format; and (3) no-system, which are matters of sheer…

  14. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  15. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  16. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  17. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  18. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  19. Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. Discussion of the findings develops the thesis that questions asked about an event shortly after it occurs may distort the witness' memory of that event. (RC)

  20. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  1. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  2. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  3. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  4. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  5. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  6. Flow instabilities in transonic small disturbance theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. H.; Bland, S. R.; Edwards, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of unsteady transonic small disturbance flows about two-dimensional airfoils is examined, with emphasis on the behavior in the region where the steady state flow is nonunique. It is shown that nonuniqueness results from an extremely long time scale instability which occurs in a finite Mach number and angle of attack range. The similarity scaling rules for the instability are presented and the possibility of similar behavior in the Euler equations is discussed.

  7. Landscape Disturbance History and Belowground Carbon Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Smith, A. P.; Atkinson, E. E.; Chaopricha, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    Earth system models vary in their predictions of carbon (C) uptake and release by the terrestrial biosphere, partly due to great uncertainties in the response of soils, one of the largest C reservoirs. The world's soils play a major role in the exchange of greenhouse gases with the atmosphere, in sustaining primary production, and in providing food security. Despite this, the sensitivity of soils to disturbance is highly uncertain. One reason for this is geographic variability in the importance of different mechanisms regulating soil C turnover. Most of our understanding of factors influencing soil organic C dynamics comes from research in temperate soils, despite the major role of tropical soils in the global C cycle. Even in the tropics, the diversity of soil environments is grossly underrepresented in the literature. This has important implications for predictions of soil C change across latitudes. We discuss results from the response of soil C pools and microbial communities to land use legacies on two contrasting tropical soil environments. Uncertainties in the response of soil C to disturbance also stem from a historic focus on shallow depths and the assumption that deep soil C is unreactive to landscape change. Growing evidence indicates that soil C pools in deep mineral horizons can be sensitive to changes in land cover and climate. This realization highlights the need to reassess the source of soil C at depth and the processes contributing to its stabilization. We discuss results from the interaction between multiple disturbances: drought, fire and erosion, on the accumulation of soil C at depths beyond those typically included in regional or global inventories. Our data show that deep soil C can be reactive and be a potential source of C if reconnected to the atmosphere. A deeper, mechanistic appreciation for a landscape's history of disturbance is critical for predicting feedbacks between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system.

  8. Experimental Disturbance of Foraminiferal-Bacterial Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langezaal, A. M.; van Bergen, P. F.; van der Zwaan, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    In experiments with living foraminifera, sediment is often sieved prior to incubation in microcosms. This is done to get rid of larger predators, which disturb the sediment and destroy the meiofaunal assemblage. However, the actual sieving results in a sudden disturbance of the obligate anaerobic bacteria. While sieved, they are subjected to aerobe conditions. But also the strictly aerobic bacteria are at a disadvantage when loading the homogenized sediment in microcosms. Normally, their population occurs abundantly in the top oxygenated layer with a thickness of a couple of mm. At the onset of the experiment, however, the aerobe population is mixed through the sediment to become relatively reduced in the top layer. The effects of these disturbances are ill known but might affect the outcome of the experimental foraminiferal and biogeochemical studies substantially. Benthic foraminifera migrate to their natural in-sediment position within three weeks after disturbance. The geochemistry is restored even quicker to the natural situation and it is assumed generally that equilibrium in the sediment has re-established after three weeks (Ernst et al., 2000, Duijnstee et al., 2001). However, some studies suggest that bacterial activity does not recover from the sieving process (Federly et al., 1986; Findley et al., 1990; Gilbert et al., 1995; Schafer et al., 2001) and our data indicate that the bacterial population suffers greatly. We tested an experimental design that has less influence on the bacterial standing stock. The sieving procedure was avoided, intact sediment columns were retrieved from the sea floor and macrofauna was removed by flushing the cores with Argon. In this way the structure of the sediment was kept intact, and no specific groups of bacteria are advantaged at the start of the experiment. The impact of the experimental designs on the outcome of foraminiferal studies is discussed.

  9. Ground based ISS payload microgravity disturbance assessments.

    PubMed

    McNelis, Anne M; Heese, John A; Samorezov, Sergey; Moss, Larry A; Just, Marcus L

    2005-01-01

    In order to verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks and that the facility science operations are not compromised, a testing and analytical verification process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are participants in implementing this process for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). To address the testing part of the verification process, the Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed at GRC. The MEL is a 6 degree of freedom inertial measurement system capable of characterizing inertial response forces (emissions) of components, sub-rack payloads, or rack-level payloads down to 10(-7) g's. The inertial force output data, generated from the steady state or transient operations of the test articles, are utilized in analytical simulations to predict the on-orbit vibratory environment at specific science or rack interface locations. Once the facility payload rack and disturbers are properly modeled an assessment can be made as to whether required microgravity levels are achieved. The modeling is utilized to develop microgravity predictions which lead to the development of microgravity sensitive ISS experiment operations once on-orbit. The on-orbit measurements will be verified by use of the NASA GRC Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The major topics to be addressed in this paper are: (1) Microgravity Requirements, (2) Microgravity Disturbers, (3) MEL Testing, (4) Disturbance Control, (5) Microgravity Control Process, and (6) On-Orbit Predictions and Verification. PMID:16010759

  10. Geomorphology and reclamation of disturbed lands

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, T.J.; Hadley, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The science of geomorphology concerns the character of the earth's land surface, the forms and processes responsible for its development and evolution. An understanding of geomorphic processes is essential to the comprehension of the consequences of human disturbance on environmental systems and the formulation of effective reclamation programs. Hence, it is the purpose of this book to demonstrate the linkages among geomorphic principles, environmental impacts.

  11. Accounting for Impacts of Natural Disturbances on Climate Change Mitigation Projects in Tropical Forests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Dai, Z.; Hernandez, J.; Johnson, K. D.; Vargas, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most forests in the world are recovering from natural or human-induced disturbances -- the fraction of the world's forests disturbed each year by fire and insects alone is conservatively estimated by FAO to be 2.6%. Natural disturbances are common in many tropical forest areas and have significant impacts on carbon stocks. For example, emissions from wildfires in tropical forests are estimated to exceed 700 TgC yr-1 annually, with significant interannual variability related to global weather cycles. Several lines of evidence point toward long-term climate-induced increases in natural disturbances, with the potential for changing the world's terrestrial ecosystems from a sink to a source of CO2. This raises the important question of whether forests can be an effective part of a climate change mitigation strategy and concurrently, how to account for the effects of disturbances separately from the effects of changes in land use or forest management. Although global and regional studies have made some good progress to quantify the impacts of natural disturbances, it remains a technical challenge to separate or 'factor out' the impacts of natural disturbances from other causes of changes in carbon stocks, such as vegetation regrowth and CO2 fertilization, when developing the accounting and monitoring systems required to support climate change mitigation projects. We tested one approach in the semi-deciduous dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico using the ecosystem process model DNDC. Spatial variability in simulated C stocks reflects variations in stand age, vegetation type, soil characteristics and disturbance. Disturbances that occurred between 1985 and 2010 led to a mean decrease in C stocks of 3.2 Mg C ha-1 in 2012 not including forestland lost to crops and urban land uses. Other approaches may be possible for factoring out specific causes of changes in carbon stocks, but the IPCC has twice determined that none of the currently available alternatives is

  12. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  13. Sleep disturbances in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Mattson, Mark P

    2012-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the two most common neurodegenerative disorders and exact a burden on our society greater than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. While cognitive and motor symptoms are used to define AD and PD, respectively, patients with both disorders exhibit sleep disturbances including insomnia, hypersomnia and excessive daytime napping. The molecular basis of perturbed sleep in AD and PD may involve damage to hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei that control sleep-wake cycles. Perturbations in neurotransmitter and hormone signaling (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine and melatonin) and the neurotrophic factor BDNF likely contribute to the disease process. Abnormal accumulations of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide, tau and α-synuclein occur in brain regions involved in the regulation of sleep in AD and PD patients, and are sufficient to cause sleep disturbances in animal models of these neurodegenerative disorders. Disturbed regulation of sleep often occurs early in the course of AD and PD, and may contribute to the cognitive and motor symptoms. Treatments that target signaling pathways that control sleep have been shown to retard the disease process in animal models of AD and PD, suggesting a potential for such interventions in humans at risk for or in the early stages of these disorders. PMID:22552887

  14. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  15. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  16. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  17. Sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Lawrence S

    2010-01-01

    Research on nighttime sleep disturbance due to community noise sources, particularly from exposure to aircraft noise, has been conducted for over a half decade. However, there are still no national environmental noise policies (i.e., laws and regulations) promulgated which prescribe a specific criterion for an exposure limit which is regulatory in nature. In the U.S., the new American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Noise Standard, ANSI S12.9-2008/Part 6, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of Environmental Sound - Part 6: Methods for Estimation of Awakenings Associated with Outdoor Noise Events Heard in Homes, does provide the currently recommended exposure-response relationship used in the U.S. In Europe, there has also been significant laboratory and field research on sleep disturbance, although the U.S. and European research publications often use different research methodologies, different noise metrics and different meta-analysis techniques. The current article will provide a brief overview of sleep disturbance research internationally to document the similarities and differences between the various research approaches and research results. PMID:20472954

  18. Response of Ionosphere to the Tropospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, A. K.; Dube, A.; Singh, R.; Cohen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out response of the ionosphere to the various cases of tropical cyclones. The main process involved is suggested through Atmospheric Gravity waves (AGWs) originating from strong convective systems, propagating upward upto the ionospheric heights and perturbing ionospheric parameters (Bishop et al., 2006). We have used ground and satellite data to extract cyclone induced perturbations at different ionospheric heights along with the various parameters of AGWs during cyclones and associated thunderstorm. The initial results suggest that there is increase in total electron content of the ionosphere with wave like signatures in ionosphere. The satellite observation in optical band shows presence of concentric gravity wave pattern associated with troposphere disturbances with horizontal wavelength of ~50-200km and periods ranging from hours to days. The ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF) measurement shows fluctuations in VLF navigational transmitter signal passing over the region of disturbance. The lightning data from GLD360 lightning network shows intense activity associated with cyclones and increase in lightning peak current and energy during main phase of cyclones which seems to be sufficient enough to derive ionospheric disturbances in the ionosphere. This multi-instrument analysis provide detail information of the three dimensional structure of cyclone and their effect at different altitudes of the ionosphere in the Indian subcontinent.

  19. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  20. Automated classification of solar wind disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, Susanne; Leer, Kristoffer

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms are known to be caused by solar wind disturbances associated with the passage of either interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) or stream interaction regions (SIRs) associated with high-speed streams from coronal holes. We present and assess a new method for automated detection and subsequent classification of solar wind disturbances arriving at L1. The method requires solar wind in situ plasma and magnetic field observations, currently provided in near real-time by NOAA/NASA from the ACE SWEPAM and MAG instruments. Periods of significantly enhanced magnetic field are identified and classified according to their most likely cause, being either ICMEs or high speed streams creating stream interaction regions SIRs. In the output the disturbed intervals are thus classified either as "ICME"-related, "SIR"-related or "NO ID". We compare the results statistically with existing lists of ICMEs and SIRs derived manually, and assess the usefulness of the service for providing early warnings of upcoming geomagnetic storms.

  1. Adaptation to (non)valent task disturbance.

    PubMed

    Kunde, Wilfried; Augst, Susanne; Kleinsorge, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The cognitive system adapts to disturbances caused by task-irrelevant information. For example, interference due to irrelevant spatial stimulation (e.g., the spatial Simon effect) typically diminishes right after a spatially incongruent event. These adaptation effects reflect processes that help to overcome the impact of task-irrelevant information. Interference with (or interruption of) task processing can also result from valent (i.e., positive or negative) stimuli, such as in the "affective Simon" task. In the present study, we tested whether the resolution of valence-based task disturbances generalizes to the resolution of other cognitive (spatial) types of interference, and vice versa. Experiments 1 and 2 explored the interplay of adaptation effects triggered by spatial and affective interference. Incongruent spatial information modified the spatial Simon effect but not affective interference effects, whereas incongruent affective information modified affective interference effects to some extent, but not spatial Simon effects. In Experiment 3, we investigated the interplay of adaptation effects triggered by spatial interference and by the interruption of task processing from valent information that did not overlap with the main task ("emotional Stroop" effect). Again we observed domain-specific adaptation for the spatial Simon effect but found no evidence for cross-domain modulations. We assume that the processes used to resolve task disturbance from irrelevant affective and spatial information operate in largely independent manners. PMID:22936069

  2. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep-wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep-wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+), a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients. PMID:25018625

  3. Proof of Heisenberg's Error-Disturbance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2013-10-01

    While the slogan “no measurement without disturbance” has established itself under the name of the Heisenberg effect in the consciousness of the scientifically interested public, a precise statement of this fundamental feature of the quantum world has remained elusive, and serious attempts at rigorous formulations of it as a consequence of quantum theory have led to seemingly conflicting preliminary results. Here we show that despite recent claims to the contrary [L. Rozema et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100404 (2012)], Heisenberg-type inequalities can be proven that describe a tradeoff between the precision of a position measurement and the necessary resulting disturbance of momentum (and vice versa). More generally, these inequalities are instances of an uncertainty relation for the imprecisions of any joint measurement of position and momentum. Measures of error and disturbance are here defined as figures of merit characteristic of measuring devices. As such they are state independent, each giving worst-case estimates across all states, in contrast to previous work that is concerned with the relationship between error and disturbance in an individual state.

  4. [Environmental factors disturbing fertility of men].

    PubMed

    Stefankiewicz, Joanna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Drozdzik, Marek

    2006-02-01

    In the last 50 years a significant decrease in human fertility has been observed. The result of research indicate that 6% of men aged 15-44 years are infertile or their fertility is significantly compromised. It has also been stated that 15% of couples have fertility problems. Among infertile couples it is a man who is responsible for 50% cases of infertility. Test results show that hormonal disturbances and abnormalities in semen production belong to main causes of infertility, while anatomic anomalie can be responsible for infertility only in few cases. Various chemical substances which appear in the environment may disturb fertility of men. Polluted soil, water and air are the sources of constant exposure to xenobiotics. Substances disturbing hormonal balance (endocrine disruptors) such as pesticide, dioxins and organic solvents cause the highest danger. Improper work conditions such as too high temperature, radiation, exposure to harmful substances also have negative influence on reproductive abilities of men. In addition, it has been noticed that both, some drugs and past infections of reproductive system may have a negative impact on fertility. Studies carried out in recent years have proven that improper lifestyle such as inadequate diet, alcohol abuse, smoking and long-term stress exposure can be the reason for fertility distrurbances in men. The latest findings have stressed genetic factors which may influence reproductive abilities of men. PMID:16736976

  5. Nonlinear Unstable Wave Disturbances in Fluidized Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T. C.

    1983-10-01

    Instabilities in fluidized beds are interpreted from the two-phase continuum theory of linearized hydrodynamic stability as the result of interactions between wave hierarchies for which the stability condition is violated; that is, in which the lower-order waves propagate at speeds exceeding those of the higher-order waves. For weak nonlinearities a hierarchy of Burgers-like equations is obtained. The nonlinear modifications to the wave speeds point towards the restoration of the stability condition in the linearized sense. A weakly nonlinear hydrodynamic stability analysis yields an amplitude equation that is of second order. It is argued, however, that the major history of the disturbance development may be expressed by a simpler first-order amplitude equation. The Landau-Stuart constant obtained is intimately related to the nonlinear modifications of the wave speeds of the higher- and lower-order wave operators. It is shown that for supercritical disturbances, amplitude and phase velocity equilibration is possible, and that the levels of the equilibration depend on the initial amplification rate, in agreement with observations. The equilibration occurs by cascades of the fundamental wave disturbance into its harmonics.

  6. Ecological studies of disturbed landscapes: a compendium of the results of five years of research aimed at the restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, A.J.

    1984-09-01

    Results of a research program which investigates some of the fundamental environmental questions associated with coal extraction as part of DOE's broad mission to understand the environmental consequences of energy development are described. This document summarizes that program. The report is divided into 12 chapters which cover topics including revegetation of disturbed land in arid ecosystems; microbial ecology and nutrient cycling; amelioration of acid waste materials; effects of mining on watershed hydrology and water quality; etc. Each chapter has been separately indexed and is included in the EDB. (MDF)

  7. Rapid disturbances in Arctic permafrost regions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost thaw is often perceived as a slow process dominated by press disturbances such as gradual active layer thickening. However, various pulse disturbances such as thermokarst formation can substantially increase the rate of permafrost thaw and result in rapid landscape change on sub-decadal to decadal time scales. Other disturbances associated with permafrost thaw are even more dynamic and unfold on sub-annual timescales, such as catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage. The diversity of processes results in complex feedbacks with soil carbon pools, biogeochemical cycles, hydrology, and flora and fauna, and requires a differentiated approach when quantifying how these ecosystem componentsare affected,how vulnerablethey are to rapid change, and what regional to global scale impacts result. Here we show quantitative measurements for three examples of rapid pulse disturbances in permafrost regions as observed with remote sensing data time series: The formation of a mega thaw slump (>50 ha) in syngenetic permafrost in Siberia, the formation of new thermokarst ponds in ice-rich permafrost regions in Alaska and Siberia, and the drainage of thermokarst lakes along a gradient of permafrost extent in Western Alaska. The surprising setting and unabated growth of the mega thaw slump during the last 40 years indicates that limited information on panarctic ground ice distribution, abundance, and vulnerability remains a key gap for reliable projections of thermokarst and thermo-erosion impacts, and that the natural limits on the growth and size of thaw slumps are still poorly understood. Observed thermokarst pond formation and expansion in our study regions was closely tied to ice-rich permafrost terrain, such as syngenetic Yedoma uplands, but was also found in old drained thermokarst lake basins with epigenetic permafrost and shallow drained thermokarst lake basins whose ground ice had not been depleted by the prior lake phase. The very different substrates in which new

  8. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  9. Role of Physical Attractiveness in Peer Attribution of Psychological Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)

  10. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  11. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  12. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  13. 36 CFR 9.4 - Surface disturbance moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disturbance of the surface of the lands contiguous to the existing excavation to the minimum extent necessary... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface disturbance... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.4 Surface disturbance moratorium. (a) For...

  14. 36 CFR 9.4 - Surface disturbance moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disturbance of the surface of the lands contiguous to the existing excavation to the minimum extent necessary... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface disturbance... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.4 Surface disturbance moratorium. (a) For...

  15. 36 CFR 9.4 - Surface disturbance moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disturbance of the surface of the lands contiguous to the existing excavation to the minimum extent necessary... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface disturbance... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.4 Surface disturbance moratorium. (a) For...

  16. 36 CFR 9.4 - Surface disturbance moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disturbance of the surface of the lands contiguous to the existing excavation to the minimum extent necessary... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface disturbance... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.4 Surface disturbance moratorium. (a) For...

  17. Evaluation of soil disturbance using fuzzy indicator approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil disturbance is great problem and the evaluation of soil disturbance is very important for making decisions on agricultural and ecological management. In this manuscript, a new method for potentially evaluating soil disturbance is described. With this method the use of two indicators called “Dis...

  18. 36 CFR 9.4 - Surface disturbance moratorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (see also claims subject to § 9.10(a)(3)) shall disturb for purposes of mineral exploration or development the surface of any lands which had not been significantly disturbed for purposes of mineral... excavation or otherwise disturb the surface for purposes of mineral exploration or development shall...

  19. Global adaptive stabilisation for nonlinear systems with unknown control directions and input disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yongchao; Liu, Yungang

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the global adaptive stabilisation via switching and learning strategies for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the systems in question simultaneously have unknown control directions, unknown input disturbance and unknown growth rate, which makes the problem in question challenging to solve and essentially different from those in the existing literature. To solve the problem, an adaptive scheme via switching and learning is proposed by skilfully integrating the techniques of backstepping design, adaptive learning and adaptive switching. One key point in the design scheme is the introduction of the learning mechanism, in order to compensate the unknown input disturbance, and the other one is the design of the switching mechanism, through tuning the design parameters online to deal with the unknown control directions, unknown bound and period of input disturbance and unknown growth rate. The designed controller guarantees that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop systems are bounded, and furthermore, the closed-loop system states globally converge to zero.

  20. Whitebark pine vulnerability to climate-driven mountain pine beetle disturbance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jesse A; MacFarlane, William W; Willcox, Louisa

    2010-06-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetles (MPB) are occurring throughout the range of this native insect. Episodic outbreaks are a common occurrence in the beetles' primary host, lodgepole pine. Current outbreaks, however, are occurring in habitats where outbreaks either did not previously occur or were limited in scale. Herein, we address widespread, ongoing outbreaks in high-elevation, whitebark pine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, where, due to an inhospitable climate, past outbreaks were infrequent and short lived. We address the basic question: are these outbreaks truly unprecedented and a threat to ecosystem continuity? In order to evaluate this question we (1) present evidence that the current outbreak is outside the historic range of variability; (2) examine system resiliency to MPB disturbance based on adaptation to disturbance and host defenses to MPB attack; and (3) investigate the potential domain of attraction to large-scale MPB disturbance based on thermal developmental thresholds, spatial structure of forest types, and the confounding influence of an introduced pathogen. We conclude that the loss of dominant whitebark pine forests, and the ecological services they provide, is likely under continuing climate warming and that new research and strategies are needed to respond to the crisis facing whitebark pine. PMID:20597278

  1. Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A central question for ecologists is the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. tourism) might impact wildlife and affect the systems under study. From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data. Results Here, we document a case of biological adjustment to chronic human disturbance in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), breeding on remote and protected islands of the Southern ocean. Using heart rate (HR) as a measure of the stress response, we show that, in a colony with areas exposed to the continuous presence of humans (including scientists) for over 50 years, penguins have adjusted to human disturbance and habituated to certain, but not all, types of stressors. When compared to birds breeding in relatively undisturbed areas, birds in areas of high chronic human disturbance were found to exhibit attenuated HR responses to acute anthropogenic stressors of low-intensity (i.e. sounds or human approaches) to which they had been subjected intensely over the years. However, such attenuation was not apparent for high-intensity stressors (i.e. captures for scientific research) which only a few individuals experience each year. Conclusions Habituation to anthropogenic sounds/approaches could be an adaptation to deal with chronic innocuous stressors, and beneficial from a research perspective. Alternately, whether penguins have actually habituated to anthropogenic disturbances over time or whether human presence has driven the directional selection of human-tolerant phenotypes, remains an open question with profound ecological and conservation implications, and emphasizes the need for more knowledge on the effects of human disturbance on long-term studied populations. PMID:22784366

  2. Local vs. Regional Effects on Fish Diversity as Mediated by Streamflow Disturbance Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, V. J.

    2005-05-01

    The interplay of local and regional processes on fish diversity is poorly understood, especially related to patterns of streamflow disturbance regime. Articulation of the relationship between flow disturbance patterns and river fishes across local to regional scales is critical for resolution of some of our most difficult conservation challenges. This analysis addresses the following questions: (1) How do patterns of flow disturbance regime array across the landscape at multiple scales? (2) How are patterns of fish diversity distributed across the same landscape? (3) How does the relationship between flow regime and fish diversity vary at different levels of spatial scale? My study area was the upper Missouri River Basin in Montana and the Dakotas. Streamflow disturbance was defined by metrics derived from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data. Fish data were provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The relative influences of local and regional processes on fish diversity were quantified by additive partitioning of total diversity (gamma) into local (alpha) and regional (beta) components. Diversity components were evaluated in the context of the streamflow regime to determine the relative importance of different streamflow factors across the range of scale.

  3. Lizards from Urban Areas Are More Asymmetric: Using Fluctuating Asymmetry to Evaluate Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Lazić, Marko M.; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; Carretero, Miguel A.; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka

    2013-01-01

    The increase in human activities that leads to wildlife decline and species extinction poses an urgent need for simple indicators of environmental stress in animal populations. Several studies have suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) can be an easy, direct measure of developmental instability because it is associated to environmental stress and, as such, it can be a useful indicator of population disturbance. We examined three different morphological traits in urban and rural populations of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) to test whether anthropogenic disturbance causes an increase in FA. Compared to rural populations, urban ones showed higher levels of FA in all analyzed traits, thus providing evidence that FA can respond to anthropogenic disturbance. However, we also found significant differences in FA among traits, where femoral pores and subdigital lamellae, traits with a functional relevance, were more stable developmentally compared to supracilliar granules which have no evident function. Unsigned FA [abs(right-left)] exhibited significant, but weak, positive correlations among traits, indicating that developmental noise does not have a uniform effect across characters and thus questioning the view of developmental stability as an organism-wide property. The degree of signed FA (right-left) was more similar between structurally associated traits, possibly as an outcome of morphological integration. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that FA can be a reliable indicator of disturbance provided that it is analyzed on multiple traits simultaneously and examined at the population level. PMID:24386350

  4. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  5. Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Stability and Resilience of Catchment Spatial Structure and Function to Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological systems evolve spontaneously in response to geologic, hydroclimate and biodiversity drivers. The stability and resilience of these systems to multiple disturbances can be addressed over specific temporal extents, potentially embedded within long term transience in response to geologic or climate change. The limits of ecohydrological resilience of system state in terms of vegetation canopy and soil catenae and the space/time distribution of water, carbon and nutrient cycling is determined by a set of critical feedbacks and potential substitutions of plant functional forms in response to disturbance. The ability of forest systems to return to states functionally similar to states prior to major disturbance, or combinations of multiple disturbances, is a critical question given increasing hydroclimate extremes, biological invasions, and human disturbance. Over the past century, forest landscape ecological patterns appear to have the ability to recover from significant disturbance and re-establish similar hydrological and ecological function in humid, biodiverse regions such as the southern Appalachians, and potentially drier forest ecosystems. Understanding and prediction of past and future long term dynamics requires explicit representation of spatial and temporal feedbacks and dependencies between hydrological, ecosystem and geomorphic processes, and the spatial pattern of species or plant functional type (PFT). Comprehensive models of watershed ecohydrological resilience requires careful balance between the level of process and parameter detail between the interacting components, relative to the structure, organization, space and time scales of the landscape.

  6. Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Stability and Resilience of Catchment Spatial Structure and Function to Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, J.; Mast, A.; Clow, D. W.; Wetherbee, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ecohydrological systems evolve spontaneously in response to geologic, hydroclimate and biodiversity drivers. The stability and resilience of these systems to multiple disturbances can be addressed over specific temporal extents, potentially embedded within long term transience in response to geologic or climate change. The limits of ecohydrological resilience of system state in terms of vegetation canopy and soil catenae and the space/time distribution of water, carbon and nutrient cycling is determined by a set of critical feedbacks and potential substitutions of plant functional forms in response to disturbance. The ability of forest systems to return to states functionally similar to states prior to major disturbance, or combinations of multiple disturbances, is a critical question given increasing hydroclimate extremes, biological invasions, and human disturbance. Over the past century, forest landscape ecological patterns appear to have the ability to recover from significant disturbance and re-establish similar hydrological and ecological function in humid, biodiverse regions such as the southern Appalachians, and potentially drier forest ecosystems. Understanding and prediction of past and future long term dynamics requires explicit representation of spatial and temporal feedbacks and dependencies between hydrological, ecosystem and geomorphic processes, and the spatial pattern of species or plant functional type (PFT). Comprehensive models of watershed ecohydrological resilience requires careful balance between the level of process and parameter detail between the interacting components, relative to the structure, organization, space and time scales of the landscape.

  7. Persistent temperature disturbances and solar forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V. E.; Le Mouel, J.; Blanter, E.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Shnirman, M.

    2009-12-01

    In a recent series of papers (refs), we have analyzed daily land-based temperature series (maximum, minimum, mean, differences between maximum and minimum) from tens of meteorological stations in several regions (Europe, USA, Australia). We select stations with long (100 to 300 years), homogeneous series with almost no gap. The long-term (decadal to centennial) evolution of temperature disturbances (which display characteristic times from several days to 1-2 weeks) reveals a clear solar signature: the trend consists of a small number of quasi-linear segments separated by rather sharp changes in slope. The secular trend of disturbances rises from 1900 to 1950, decreases from 1950 to 1975 and then increases again, decreasing in the most recent decade. This trend is the same as that found for a number of solar indices. Our investigations reveal high heterogeneity and seasonality of the climate system and underlines regional and seasonal variations in the observed solar signature. We compare short-term autocorrelation properties of temperature disturbances for different seasons at decadal timescales. The solar signature appears to be significantly stronger in Winter and in the late Fall seasons. Intensities of disturbances may vary by a factor in excess of 2. We have performed a special analysis of tens of station data from two 2.5°x2.5° areas of the US North Pacific: again we find that the long term evolution of temperature disturbances from 1945 to 2008 closely follows that of solar activity, with a large (30%) modulation compared to corresponding changes in solar irradiance. In another study, we have analyzed the longest (up to 300 years) series from 3 European stations. We have partitioned daily temperatures and their differences in two subsets as a function of high vs low solar activity. We follow a pattern recognition approach and demonstrate, using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics, that the separation is statistically significant and robust

  8. Forest Disturbance and North American Carbon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren; Moisen, Gretchen; Collatz, G. James; Healey, Sean; Houghton, R. A.; Huang, Chengquan; Kennedy, Robert; Law, Beverly; Powell, Scott; Turner, David; Wulder, Michael A.

    2008-03-01

    North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently, the rate of sequestration by forests on the continent has been estimated at 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year, though the uncertainty about this estimate is nearly 50%. This offsets about 13% of the fossil fuel emissions from the continent [Pacala et al., 2007]. However, the high level of uncertainty in this estimate and the scientific community's limited ability to predict the future direction of the forest carbon flux reflect a lack of detailed knowledge about the effects of forest disturbance and recovery across the continent.

  9. Monogamy relation in no-disturbance theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-07-01

    Monogamy is a fundamental property of Bell nonlocality and contextuality. In this article, we study the n -cycle noncontextual inequalities and generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities in detail and find sufficient conditions for those inequalities to hold. According to those conditions, we provide several kinds of tradeoff relations: monogamy of generalized Bell inequalities in a nonsignaling framework, monogamy of cycle-type noncontextual inequalities, and monogamy between Bell inequalities and noncontextual inequalities in a general no-disturbance framework. Finally, some generic tradeoff relations of generalized CHSH inequalities for n -party physical systems, which are beyond the one-to-many scenario, are discussed.

  10. Identification of Individuals with Serious Emotional Disturbance Using the Draw a Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeish, Timothy J.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Regular education students (n=81) and students with serious emotional disturbance (n=81,) were matched on age (7-13), gender, race, and intelligence. They completed drawings which were scored using the "Draw a Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance." Students with emotional disturbance scored significantly higher than did the…

  11. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  12. Is There a Relationship between Chemistry Performance and Question Type, Question Content and Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…

  13. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens, toi?"), or in the…

  14. Development of Skylab experiment T-013 crew/vehicle disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, B. A.; Woolley, C. T.; Kurzhals, P. R.; Reynolds, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    A Skylab experiment to determine the characteristics and effects of crew-motion disturbances was developed. The experiment will correlate data from histories of specified astronaut body motions, the disturbance forces and torques produced by these motions, and the resultant spacecraft control system response to the disturbances. Primary application of crew-motion disturbance data will be to the sizing and design of future manned spacecraft control and stabilization systems. The development of the crew/vehicle disturbances experiment is described, and a mathematical model of human body motion which may be used for analysis of a variety of man-motion activities is derived.

  15. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  16. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

    2011-08-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

  17. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  18. The stability of pipe entrance flows subjected to axisymmetric disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.F. da; Moss, E.A. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    This paper reexamines an important unresolved problem in fluid mechanics--the discrepancy between measurements and predictions of stability in pipe entrance flows. Whereas measured critical Reynolds numbers are relatively insensitive to velocity profile shape in the streamwise direction, the theoretical results indicate a rapid increase, both as the equilibrium profile is approached, and toward the inlet. The current work uses the displacement thickness based Reynolds number as a rational basis on which to compare new stability predictions obtained by means of the Q-Z algorithm, with existing theoretical results. Although the present data are shown to be the only data that are consistent with the classical parallel boundary layer limit towards the inlet, they still deviate increasingly with axial distance from the only available experimental results. By examining pipe inlet stability data in relation to boundary layer measurements and predictions, the work effectively questions the commonly held belief that streamwise variations of flow alone are responsible for these deviations, suggesting that the finite amplitude nature of the applied disturbances is the most likely cause.

  19. Disturbances of impulse formation: an expert system for ECG interpretation.

    PubMed

    Habashi, M S; Abdel-Bary, M A

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system (ES) that aids in interpretation of some disturbances of impulse formation from electrocardiographic records. The system consists of a user interface, a knowledge base, an inference engine and an explanation facility. It is implemented using Turbo PROLOG and uses the built-in interpreter for goal proving or disproving. The user interface gets information about the case by interrogation through multiple choice or Yes/No questions. The response is processed and stored in a dynamic database. After the interview the processed data are stored in a permanent file for subsequent calls. The knowledge base contains domain rules of the If-Then variety. The inference engine supports the logic-based method of knowledge organization, which is controlled by backward-chaining. The explanation facility is able to give reasons for any fact in the dynamic database. The main diagnosis, the diagnostic criteria and the algorithm used are explained and illustrated with examples. Sample outputs of the system are also given. PMID:2072804

  20. Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

  1. Sleep disturbances and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tauseef; Orr, William C

    2014-11-01

    With an estimated 70 million Americans suffering, sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many clinical research studies. Sleep is now also considered to be an important environmental and behavioral factor associated with the process of inflammation and the immune system. Increased sleepiness is considered part of the acute phase of response to tissue injury, and sleep loss activates inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Clinical studies in many immune-mediated diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, have revealed an association of sleep disturbances with disease activity. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. The importance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease has recently gained attention with some published studies demonstrating the association of sleep disturbances with disease activity, subclinical inflammation, and risk of disease relapse. A comprehensive review of sleep physiology and its association with the immune system is provided here. Experimental and clinical studies exploring this relationship in inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, and the clinical implications of this relationship and future directions for research are also discussed. PMID:25025716

  2. Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Manuel; Martins dos Santos, Vitor AP; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota responds to different antibiotics in different ways and that while some antibiotics do not induce disturbances of the community, others drastically influence the richness, diversity, and prevalence of bacterial taxa. However, the metabolic consequences thereof, independent of the degree of the community shifts, are not clearly understood. In a recent article, we used an integrative OMICS approach to provide new insights into the metabolic shifts caused by antibiotic disturbance. The study presented here further suggests that specific bacterial lineage blooms occurring at defined stages of antibiotic intervention are mostly associated with organisms that possess improved survival and colonization mechanisms, such as those of the Enterococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Akkermansia genera. The study also provides an overview of the most variable metabolic functions affected as a consequence of a β-lactam antibiotic intervention. Thus, we observed that anabolic sugar metabolism, the production of acetyl donors and the synthesis and degradation of intestinal/colonic epithelium components were among the most variable functions during the intervention. We are aware that these results have been established with a single patient and will require further confirmation with a larger group of individuals and with other antibiotics. Future directions for exploration of the effects of antibiotic interventions are discussed. PMID:24418972

  3. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Glen F.

    1987-03-01

    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  4. Central neurotransmitter disturbances underlying developmental neurotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, M; Swaab, D F

    1986-01-01

    Transmission of information among neurons is of a chemical nature. The activity of the neurotransmitter in the brain is regulated by the spontaneous activity of neurotransmitter cell body and the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Neurotransmitters are present at very early stages of brain development; they do not only mediate the behavioral-physiological responses of the immature animal, but have trophic effects on the maturation of target neurons as well. Many centrally acting drugs which are frequently used also during pregnancy for the treatment of depression, hypertension, epilepsy, asthma, insomnia, hyperkinetism and other neurological and psychiatric disorders act directly on brain neurotransmitters (in particular monoamines) and behavioral states. Chronic administration of drugs acting on monoamines (such as clonidine, imipramine, alpha-methyl-Dopa, reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, diazepam) disturb the spontaneous activity and behavioral state dependency of the monoaminergic cells, influences neurotransmitter turnover and change the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Sensory deprivation during a critical period of development is known to produce permanent effect on the brain; e.g., monocular deprivation during a particular period of development in a kitten leads to a rewiring of the connectivity in the visual system in the adult cat. Disturbances in neurotransmitter activity during early life will induce a comparable reorganization of the chemical structure of the adult brain. PMID:2878401

  5. Functional visual disturbance due to hysteria.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Chun; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Yang, Meng-Ling; Chen, Henry Shen-Lih

    2007-01-01

    A 23-year-old male complained of loss of peripheral visual field and everything having purple shadows in the afternoon. This had lasted for 3 years but he had paid little attention to the symptoms. Investigations, including visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, pupil reflex, and anterior and posterior segment of the eyes, were normal. He denied ocular pain, history of head injury, epilepsy or related family history. The Goldmann perimeter and tangent screen examinations showed a bilateral constricted tubular visual field defect within the central 10 degrees and steep margins. Tracing his past social history, he had been in jail for 3 months. He also complained his work was hard and caused him tension. The visual symptoms were a functional disturbance, not an organic disorder. We diagnosed him with hysterical functional visual disturbance. Hysteria, or conversion disorder, has long been a puzzling and fascinating problem in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanism and reasons for hysteria are still not clear. The tangent screen is useful in diagnosis. The constricted tubular, spiral or star-shaped visual fields with steep slopes are specific findings in hysteria. We suggest that ophthalmologists should treat patients with psychogenic symptoms, using suggestion, patience and reassurance. PMID:17477034

  6. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, V.D.; Bozoki, B.; Feero, W.E.; Kappenman, J.G.; Larsen, E.V.; Nordell, D.E.; Ponder, J.; Prabhakara, F.S.; Thompson, K.; Walling, R.

    1993-07-01

    In the northern hemisphere, the aurora borealis is visual evidence of simultaneous fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field (geomagnetic field). These geomagnetic disturbances (GMD's), or geomagnetic storms, can affect a number of man-made systems, including electric power systems. The GMD's are caused by the electromagnetic interaction of the solar wind plasma of protons and electrons with the geomagnetic field. These dynamic impulses in the solar wind are due to solar flares, coronal holes, and disappearing filaments, and reach the earth from one to six days after being emitted by a solar event. Instances of geomagnetic storms affecting telegraph systems were noted in England in 1846, and power system disturbances linked to GMD's were first reported in the United States in 1940. This Working Group report is a summary of the state of knowledge and research activity to the present time, and covers the GMD/Geomagnetically-induced currents (GIC) phenomena, transformer effects, the impact on generators, protective relay effects, and communication system effects. It also summarizes modeling and predicting GIC, measuring and monitoring GIC, mitigation methods, system operating guidelines during GMD's, and alerting and forecasting procedures and needs for the power industry.

  7. Genetics and early disturbances of breathing control.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, Claude; Amiel, Jeanne; Dauger, Stéphane; Trang, Ha; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Gallego, Jorge; Simonneau, Michel

    2004-05-01

    Early disturbances in breathing control, including apneas of prematurity and apparently life-threatening events, account for some cases of sudden infant death syndrome and for a rare disorder called congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). Data suggesting a genetic basis for CCHS have been obtained. Recently, we found heterozygous de novo mutations of the PHOX2B gene in 18 of 29 individuals with CCHS. Most mutations consisted of five to nine alanine expansions within a 20-residue polyalanine tract, probably resulting from nonhomologous recombination. Other mutations, generally inherited from one of the parents, in the coding regions of genes involved in the endothelin and RET signaling pathways and in the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene have been found in a few CCHS patients. Interestingly, all these genes are involved in the development of neural crest cells. Targeted disruption of these genes in mice has provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CCHS. Despite the identification of these genes involved in breathing control, none of the genetically engineered mice developed to date replicate the full human CCHS respiratory phenotype. Recent insights into the genetic basis for CCHS may shed light on the genetics of other early disturbances in breathing control, such as apnea of prematurity and sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:14739359

  8. Orographic Disturbances of Upper Atmosphere Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shefov, N. N.; Pertsev, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    There are some increases of the temperature of the hydroxyl emission (delta T approximately 20 K, z approximately 90 km) and of the intensity of the 63000 oxygen emission (delta I/I approximately 20 per cent, z approximately 250 km) for the lee of the mountains at distances about 150 km in the case of the latitudinal direction of the wind (U approximately 10 m/s) at the 3000 m level. Airflow motions over mountains may be one of the possible processes of generation of wave disturbances penetrating into the upper atmospheres (HINES, 1974; LINDZEN, 1971). The purpose here is to study the penetration of orographic disturbances into upper atmosphere. Airplane measurements of emission variations of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 6300 A near the Northern Ural mountains were made. Several nocturnal flights were carried out in March, 1980 and January to February, 1981 at heights about 3000 m along 64 deg northern latitude in the Ural region. Spectrographs SP-48 with electronic image converters registration for OH ((9,4) and (5,1) bands - 7700 to 8100 A) and OI (6300 A) emissions were used. The zenith region was observed, and exposure time was 2 minutes. This corresponds to averaging of the emission intensities along the airplane trace over a distance of 10 km. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature variations at the flight altitude were made.

  9. Positive Peer Culture -- An Alternative Treatment for the Disturbed and/or Disturbing Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybarger, William A.

    Reviewed are literature and research on the use of the positive peer culture (PPC) approach with socially maladjusted and/or emotionally disturbed adolescents. Studies presented focus on the effects of PPC on inappropriate behavior and parole performance. Findings are noted to be inconclusive. (SB)

  10. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  11. Mathematics, Questions, and "Schools Without Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Teri

    1974-01-01

    Most questions in the mathematics classroom deal with memorization and learning, and have one correct answer. Suggestions for using three other types of questions identified by Glasser (SCHOOLS WITHOUT FAILURE) are provided. Activities discussed include tangrams, attribute blocks, pattern recognition, and games. (SD)

  12. Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…

  13. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  14. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  15. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  16. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  17. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  18. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  19. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  20. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joan Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…

  1. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  2. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  3. Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation,…

  4. Statistics Test Questions: Content and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Audy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…

  5. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  6. Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville

    1992-01-01

    The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

  7. The Right Questions, the Right Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    According to Dylan Wiliam, the traditional classroom practice in which a teacher asks a question, students raise their hands, and the teacher calls on a volunteer does not actually provide much useful information--and it may even impede learning. When teachers ask questions in this way, they're only engaging the most confident students in the…

  8. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  9. Adopted Children: A Question of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…

  10. Questioning: A Path to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila; Kelly, Patricia P.

    Intended to help upper elementary and secondary school teachers increase their students' critical thinking, this booklet discusses the theory and techniques behind the use of questioning to evoke prior knowledge and further inquiry. The first portion of the booklet discusses the theory and research that underlie the use of questioning, examining…

  11. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  12. The Notion of Coercion in Courtroom Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    To account for coercive force in questions posed by counsel to defendants and witnesses, several levels of speech must be addressed. Forensic linguistics literature discusses the scale of coerciveness as reflected in the syntactic form of the questions. It is argued that this type of analysis fails to account for the inferences made by hearers…

  13. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Questions and Answers in Mohawk Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, Hanny

    This dissertation surveys question-answer patterns in Mohawk conversation. After discussing some theoretical issues, a morpho-syntactic description of questions is presented and the description is expanded to the level of discourse. Although the approach followed is modelled on generative semantics, it departs from it in significant ways, in order…

  15. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  16. QUEST: A Cognitive Model of Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Franklin, Stanley P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the seven main components of QUEST, a cognitive model of question answering that attempts to simulate the answers adults produce when they answer different types of questions, both closed class and open class. Illustrates how the model could be applied to different types of knowledge structures, including causal networks, goal…

  17. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  18. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  19. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the background…

  20. Questions for Collaboration: Lessons from Reggio Emilia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Identifies questions teachers are learning to ask themselves and each other as they move toward a negotiated, co-constructed and systematic approach that places documentation at the heart of an emergent curriculum. Discusses these questions in terms of documentation, discourse, and design, three components that define a dynamic system of learning…

  1. Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

  2. Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Michelle M.

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

  3. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  4. 9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingone, Joe

    2011-01-01

    What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

  5. Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise That Generates Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Catherine; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.

    2005-08-01

    Given the importance of questions in science, it is critical that students learn to ask questions as well as learning to answer them. This paper describes a classroom exercise to help students better ask their own questions. It has been classroom-tested in multiple formats and has also been used for curriculum development workshops for faculty. This exercise in creating questions can be easily customized to suit different instructional contexts; some variations are outlined. More broadly, this paper also discusses the pedagogical significance of questioning, raising four salient points: (1) learners are more likely to have a personal interest in the questions they raise; (2) questions can serve as entry points for issues relating to ethnicity and gender; (3) questions give control to the person who asks them; and (4) questions can challenge existing structures, categories, and norms.

  6. Coral bleaching: one disturbance too many for near-shore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. A.; Dolman, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic nature of coral communities can make it difficult to judge whether a reef system is resilient to the current disturbance regime. To address this question of resilience for near-shore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) a data set consisting of 350 annual observations of benthic community change was compiled from existing monitoring data. These data spanned the period 1985-2007 and were derived from coral reefs within 20 km of the coast. During years without major disturbance events, cover increase of the Acroporidae was much faster than it was for other coral families; a median of 11% per annum compared to medians of less than 4% for other coral families. Conversely, Acroporidae were more severely affected by cyclones and bleaching events than most other families. A simulation model parameterised with these observations indicated that while recovery rates of hard corals were sufficient to compensate for impacts associated with cyclones and crown-of-thorns starfish, the advent of mass bleaching has lead to a significant change in the composition of the community and a rapid decline in hard coral cover. Furthermore, if bleaching events continue to occur with the same frequency and severity as in the recent past, the model predicts that the cover of Acroporidae will continue to decline. Although significant cover of live coral remains on near-shore reefs, and recovery is observed during inter-disturbance periods, it appears that this system will not be resilient to the recent disturbance regime over the long term. Conservation strategies for coral reefs should focus on both mitigating local factors that act synergistically to increase the susceptibility of Acroporidae to climate change while promoting initiatives that maximise the recovery potential from inevitable disturbances.

  7. Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Loops: A Detailed Analysis of Propagation Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddie, G.; De Moortel, I.; Del Zanna, G.; McIntosh, S. W.; Whittaker, I.

    2012-08-01

    Quasi-periodic disturbances have been observed in the outer solar atmosphere for many years. Although first interpreted as upflows (Schrijver et al., Solar Phys. 187, 261, 1999), they have been widely regarded as slow magneto-acoustic waves, due to their observed velocities and periods. However, recent observations have questioned this interpretation, as periodic disturbances in Doppler velocity, line width, and profile asymmetry were found to be in phase with the intensity oscillations (De Pontieu and McIntosh, Astrophys. J. 722, 1013, 2010; Tian, McIntosh, and De Pontieu, Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, L37, 2011), suggesting that the disturbances could be quasi-periodic upflows. Here we conduct a detailed analysis of the velocities of these disturbances across several wavelengths using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analysed 41 examples, including both sunspot and non-sunspot regions of the Sun. We found that the velocities of propagating disturbances (PDs) located at sunspots are more likely to be temperature dependent, whereas the velocities of PDs at non-sunspot locations do not show a clear temperature dependence. This suggests an interpretation in terms of slow magneto-acoustic waves in sunspots but the nature of PDs in non-sunspot (plage) regions remains unclear. We also considered on what scale the underlying driver is affecting the properties of the PDs. Finally, we found that removing the contribution due to the cooler ions in the 193 Å wavelength suggests that a substantial part of the 193 Å emission of sunspot PDs can be attributed to the cool component of 193 Å.

  8. Species frequency dynamics in an old-field succession: Effects of disturbance, fertilization and scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.; Foster, K.; Honu, Y.A.K.; Hoyer, E.W.; Mathis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Can patterns of species frequency in an old-field be explained within the context of a metapopulation model? Are the patterns observed related to time, spatial scale, disturbance, and nutrient availability? Location: Upland and lowland old-fields in Illinois, USA. Method: Species richness was recorded annually for seven years following plowing of an upland and lowland old-field subject to crossed fertilizer and disturbance treatments (mowing and rototilling). Species occupancy distributions were assessed with respect to the numbers of core and satellite species. Results: In both fields, species richness became higher in disturbed plots than in undisturbed plots over time, and decreased in fertilized plots irrespective of time. A bimodal pattern of species richness consistent with the Core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis occurred in the initial seed bank and through the course of early succession. The identity of native and exotic core species (those present in > 90% of blocks) changed with time. Some core species from the seed bank became core species in the vegetation, albeit after several years. At the scale of individual plots, a bimodal fit consistent with the CSS hypothesis applied only in year 1 and rarely thereafter. Conclusions: The CSS hypothesis provides a metapopulation perspective for understanding patterns of species richness but requires the assessment of spatial and temporal scaling effects. Regional processes (e.g. propagule availability) at the largest scale have the greatest impact influencing community structure during early secondary succession. Local processes (e.g., disturbance and soil nutrients) are more important at smaller scales and place constraints on species establishment and community structure of both native and exotic species. Under the highest intensity of disturbance, exotic species may be able to use resources unavailable to, or unused by, native species. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  9. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions. PMID:27037383

  10. Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

    PubMed

    Lockie, C; McAleer, S; Mulholland, H; Neighbour, R; Tombleson, P

    1990-11-01

    Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers. PMID:1670201

  11. Forest response and recovery following disturbance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. V.; Clark, K. L.; Renninger, H. J.; Carlo, N.; Medvigy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Forest management and global climate change may modulate forest responses to disturbances such as drought, insect infestation or windthrow. Forest responses to drought and gypsy moth defoliation measured from 2005 to present in an oak/pine ecosystem in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey Pinelands) show a relative conservatism of water use but longer lasting effects on carbon balance. While post-defoliation transpiration and evapotranspiration were similar to pre-defoliation levels, post-defoliation carbon fluxes have not returned to pre-disturbance levels even after five years of recovery due to a 25% reduction in basal area following tree mortality. Defoliation frequency also affects recovery with modeled carbon fluxes under various defoliation scenarios, showing pronounced reduction in productivity under frequent defoliation, but no effect if defoliation occurs at a rate of less than 15 years. Despite a relatively consistent seasonal water use through various disturbances, defoliation and drought affect water use differently. For example, canopy transpiration (EC) after defoliation and subsequent re-sprouting, was reduced by 25% compared to pre-defoliation levels, even though only half of the leaf area was replaced. However under severe drought conditions in 2006 and 2010, EC was only reduced by 8% and 18% respectively. Therefore, prolonged drought had a lesser effect on EC than reduced foliage or episodic defoliation, suggesting these trees have access to deeper soil moisture. These data also suggest that defoliation may make trees more sensitive to drought as evidenced by the higher reduction of Ec in 2010 compared to 2006 (pre-defoliation). Differential physiological responses of the various oak species as well as pitch pine may also create a species shift in an ecosystem that is also prone to fire. In this ecosystem, Quercus prinus showed consistently lower stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and maximum carboxylation rate compared to Quercus velutina

  12. Biological control in a disturbed environment

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, S.; Gilligan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Most ecological and epidemiological models describe systems with continuous uninterrupted interactions between populations. Many systems, though, have ecological disturbances, such as those associated with planting and harvesting of a seasonal crop. In this paper, we introduce host–parasite–hyperparasite systems as models of biological control in a disturbed environment, where the host–parasite interactions are discontinuous. One model is a parasite–hyperparasite system designed to capture the essence of biological control and the other is a host–parasite–hyperparasite system that incorporates many more features of the population dynamics. Two types of discontinuity are included in the models. One corresponds to a pulse of new parasites at harvest and the other reflects the discontinuous presence of the host due to planting and harvesting. Such discontinuities are characteristic of many ecosystems involving parasitism or other interactions with an annual host. The models are tested against data from an experiment investigating the persistent biological control of the fungal plant parasite of lettuce Sclerotinia minor by the fungal hyperparasite Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, over successive crops. Using a combination of mathematical analysis, model fitting and parameter estimation, the factors that contribute the observed persistence of the parasite are examined. Analytical results show that repeated planting and harvesting of the host allows the parasite to persist by maintaining a quantity of host tissue in the system on which the parasite can reproduce. When the host dynamics are not included explicitly in the model, we demonstrate that homogeneous mixing fails to predict the persistence of the parasite population, while incorporating spatial heterogeneity by allowing for heterogeneous mixing prevents fade-out. Including the host's dynamics lessens the effect of heterogeneous mixing on persistence, though the predicted values for the parasite population

  13. [Impacts of Ochotona pallasi disturbance on alpine grassland community characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-qin; Li, Guang-yong; Ma, Wen-hu; Zhao, Dian-zhi; Li, Xiao-yan

    2013-08-01

    Plateau pika is the main fossorial mammal in the alpine grassland in Qinghai Lake Watershed of Northwest China. Based on the field investigation data from 18 alpine grassland quadrats in the Watershed, and by using redundancy analysis (RDA) and the surface fitting offered by 'R-Vegan' , the disturbance intensity of plateau pika (Ochotona pallasi) was classified as four levels. In order to explore the impacts of plateau pika disturbance on the alpine grassland ecosystem and its grazing quality, the community characteristics under different disturbance intensities by plateau pika were analyzed, and a conceptual model about the alpine grassland community succession was proposed. The results showed that with the increase of the disturbance intensity, the dominant species changed from Juncus roemerianus to Poa pratensis and Laux maritima. When the disturbance was small, the community had high quantitative values of coverage, aboveground biomass, biodiversity, and species richness, but the proportion of weeds was also high. When the disturbance was large, the quantitative values were the lowest, while the proportion of weeds was the highest. When the disturbance was moderate, the community had relatively high quantitative values, and the proportion of grasses and sedges was the highest. It was concluded that the community' s characteristic values under low plateau pika disturbance intensity were high but the grazing quality was low, while high disturbance intensity resulted in the grassland degradation. Therefore, the disturbance intensity in the threshold could maintain the stability of alpine grassland ecosystem and improve its grazing quality. PMID:24380328

  14. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Taibi, Diana M.

    2012-01-01

    Up to 70% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience sleep disturbances. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are common disorders seen in the primary care of PLWH. This paper reviews the current evidence and practice recommendations for treating these conditions. Insomnia is evaluated by clinical interview, questionnaires, and sleep diaries. The recommended first-line treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), delivered by a trained therapist. Certain sedative medications may be useful, but over-the-counter treatments (particularly those containing antihistamines) are not recommended. OSAS is diagnosed by overnight sleep study but can be screened for in primary care. The STOP-BANG is a useful 8-item screening tool. The gold standard of treatment for OSAS is the use of a continuous positive airway pressure device. Treatment of insomnia and OSAS is important for improving quality of life and preventing associated health problems (especially cardiovascular disease in OSAS) in PLWH. PMID:23290379

  16. Sources and causes of upper atmospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Chang

    1991-04-01

    In the past three years we conducted theoretical and experimental studies of some naturally occurring ionospheric disturbances. Periodic amplitude variations of satellite beacon signals were observed as the precursors of the plumes of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. Some outstanding features of explosive spread F reported in Woodman and La Hoz and Woodman and Kudeki can be reasonably understood in terms of the lightning induced electromagnetic effects. The spectral broadening of monochromatic VLF radio signals detected by satellites in the topside ionospheric was attributed to the nonlinear scattering of waves off ionospheric density irregularities. Furthermore, the irregularity anisotropy can give rise to prominent effects on the Faraday polarization fluctuations of linearly polarized radio signals. This fact can be used to develop the radio diagnostics of the anisotropic nature of ionospheric irregularities, namely, to determine the geometry of field-aligned density irregularities. Efforts were also made on the reduction of ionospheric effects on the polarization measurements during satellite tracking.

  17. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance

    PubMed Central

    JANG, Jae-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  18. Heightened sexual interest and sleep disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarcone, V.; De La Pena, A.; Dement, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The study demonstrates a behavioral effect of selective sleep disturbance in normal human subjects. Ten male subjects were selectively REM-deprived for two nights by awakening them at the onset of REM sleep. In addition, there were baseline and non-REM awakening conditions. Heightened sexual interest was defined by the number of film frames (using a Mackworth camera) in which subjects fixated on parts of the female figure in photographs. The largest mean difference in sexual interest was found between baseline and REM-deprivation. Both the non-REM awakenings and REM-sleep deprivation enhanced sexual interest. The failure to demonstrate a significant difference between REM-deprivation and non-REM awakenings may be due to the fact that subjects were REM-sleep-deprived in both conditions. It is suggested that REM-sleep loss may lead to increased selective attention and preoccupation with any cues which are usually interesting.

  19. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Kil

    2016-03-28

    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  20. Cognitive and Psychiatric Disturbances in Parkinsonian Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Richard M; Disbrow, Elizabeth A; Javalkar, Vijayakumar

    2016-02-01

    Parkinsonian syndromes share clinical signs including akinesia/bradykinesia and rigidity, which are consequences of pathology involving dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons. Yet cognitive and psychiatric disturbances are common, even early in the course of disease. Executive dysfunction is often measurable in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease. Treatment with dopaminergic medications, particularly dopamine agonists, has been associated with hallucinations and impulse control disorder. Older age, presence of APOE-4 gene, and/or other factors result in amyloid plaque deposition that, in turn, accelerates cortical Lewy body plus tau pathology, linking Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson's disease with early dementia with Alzheimer's disease. Treatments available for cognitive deficits, depression, and psychotic symptoms are discussed. PMID:26614001

  1. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals. PMID:23389980

  2. Innate intersubjectivity: newborns' sensitivity to communication disturbance.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Emese

    2008-11-01

    In most of our social life we communicate and relate to others. Successful interpersonal relating is crucial to physical and mental well-being and growth. This study, using the still-face paradigm, demonstrates that even human neonates (n = 90, 3-96 hr after birth) adjust their behavior according to the social responsiveness of their interaction partner. If the interaction partner becomes unresponsive, newborns will also change their behavior, decrease eye contact, and display signs of distress. Even after the interaction partner resumes responsiveness, the effects of the communication disturbance persist as a spillover. These results indicate that even newborn infants sensitively monitor the behavior of others and react as if they had innate expectations regarding rules of interpersonal interaction. PMID:18999338

  3. Sensitivity of soil organic matter in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance, and little is known on the soil properties causing differences between seemingly similar sites. Furthermore the driving factors for carbon cycling are well studied for both genuine peat and mineral soil, but there is a lack of information concerning soils at the boundary between organic and mineral soils. Examples for such soils are both soils naturally relatively high in soil organic matter (SOM) such as Humic Gleysols and former peat soils with a relative low SOM content due to intensive mineralization or mixing with underlying or applied mineral soil. The study aims to identify drivers for the sensitivity of soil organic matter and therefore for respiration rates of anthropogenically disturbed organic soils, especially those near the boundary to mineral soils. Furthermore, we would like to answer the question whether there are any critical thresholds of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations beyond which the carbon-specific respiration rates change. The German agricultural soil inventory samples all agricultural soils in Germany in an 8x8 km² grid following standardized protocols. From this data and sample base, we selected 120 different soil samples from more than 80 sites. As reference sites, three anthropogenically undisturbed peatlands were sampled as well. We chose samples from the soil inventory a) 72 g kg-1 SOC and b) representing the whole range of basic soil properties: SOC (72 to 568 g kg-1), total nitrogen (2 to 29 g kg-1), C-N-ratio (10 to 80) bulk density (0.06 to 1.41 g/cm³), pH (2.5 to 7.4), sand (0 to 95 %) and clay (2 to 70 %) content (only determined for samples with less than 190 g kg-1 SOC) as well as the botanical origin of the peat (if determinable). Additionally, iron oxides were determined for all samples. All samples were sieved (2 mm) and incubated at standardized water content and

  4. Hydrological Disturbances Caused By Explosive Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. J.; Pierson, T. C.; Spicer, K. R.; Mark, L.; Yamakoshi, T.; Suwa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive eruptions can drastically alter hydrogeomorphic regimes of drainage basins. The extent and degree of eruption-induced alteration scale with eruption magnitude, volcanic process, and basin proximity to a volcano. The most important effects of explosive eruptions on basin hydrology are ones that alter production and routing of runoff: (a) vegetation damage, which decreases (or eliminates) interception and evapotranspiration (ET); (b) reduction of surface infiltration owing to tephra deposition, which increases overland flow; (c) alteration of stream-channel hydraulics, which enables efficient transport of water and sediment; and (d) alterations to drainage networks, which accelerate or delay geomorphic response. In combination, these effects alter flood magnitude and frequency and rates of sediment transport. Vegetation loss allows more water to fall directly to the ground surface and reduces ET, which affects soil moisture, water storage and runoff pathways. Tephra fall, which typically paves the landscape with nearly impervious sediment, can reduce infiltration by as much as 2 orders of magnitude compared to pre-eruption rates and can increase direct runoff from near zero to as much as 90%. Even very thin layers (2-5 mm) of extremely fine tephra can increase runoff and decrease lag times between peak rainfall and peak runoff. Volcanic sedimentation in river valleys can increase channel gradient, reduce planform resistance, and smooth channel hydraulics, allowing for more efficient flow routing and producing larger, flashier flows. Hydrological effects of eruptive disturbance can linger for decades, but the most extreme effects typically last but a few years. However, lake formation through tributary blockage by thick deposits can delay response and extend the hydrologic legacy of eruptive disturbances. Failures of lake-impounding dams can produce large floods that renew downstream channel instability and rejuvenate headwater erosion.

  5. Surface disturbances: their role in accelerating desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining soil stability and normal water and nutrient cycles in desert systems is critical to avoiding desertification. These particular ecosystem processes are threatened by trampling of livestock and people, and by off-road vehicle use. Soil compaction and disruption of cryptobiotic soil surfaces (composed of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses) can result in decreased water availability to vascular plants through decreased water infiltration and increased albedo with possible decreased precipitation. Surface disturbance may also cause accelerated soil loss through wind and water erosion and decreased diversity and abundance of soil biota. In addition, nutrient cycles can be altered through lowered nitrogen and carbon inputs and slowed decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in lower nutrient levels in associated vascular plants. Some cold desert systems may be especially susceptible to these disruptions due to the paucity of surface-rooting vascular plants for soil stabilization, fewer nitrogen-fixing higher plants, and lower soil temperatures, which slow nutrient cycles. Desert soils may recover slowly from surface disturbances, resulting in increased vulnerability to desertification. Recovery from compaction and decreased soil stability is estimated to take several hundred years. Re-establishment rates for soil bacterial and fungal populations are not known. The nitrogen fixation capability of soil requires at least 50 years to recover. Recovery of crusts can be hampered by large amounts of moving sediment, and re-establishment can be extremely difficult in some areas. Given the sensitivity of these resources and slow recovery times, desertification threatens million of hectares of semiarid lands in the United States.

  6. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    ''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.

  7. Saccadic adaptation to a systematically varying disturbance.

    PubMed

    Cassanello, Carlos R; Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Saccadic adaptation maintains the correct mapping between eye movements and their targets, yet the dynamics of saccadic gain changes in the presence of systematically varying disturbances has not been extensively studied. Here we assessed changes in the gain of saccade amplitudes induced by continuous and periodic postsaccadic visual feedback. Observers made saccades following a sequence of target steps either along the horizontal meridian (Two-way adaptation) or with unconstrained saccade directions (Global adaptation). An intrasaccadic step-following a sinusoidal variation as a function of the trial number (with 3 different frequencies tested in separate blocks)-consistently displaced the target along its vector. The oculomotor system responded to the resulting feedback error by modifying saccade amplitudes in a periodic fashion with similar frequency of variation but lagging the disturbance by a few tens of trials. This periodic response was superimposed on a drift toward stronger hypometria with similar asymptotes and decay rates across stimulus conditions. The magnitude of the periodic response decreased with increasing frequency and was smaller and more delayed for Global than Two-way adaptation. These results suggest that-in addition to the well-characterized return-to-baseline response observed in protocols using constant visual feedback-the oculomotor system attempts to minimize the feedback error by integrating its variation across trials. This process resembles a convolution with an internal response function, whose structure would be determined by coefficients of the learning model. Our protocol reveals this fast learning process in single short experimental sessions, qualifying it for the study of sensorimotor learning in health and disease. PMID:27098027

  8. Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

  9. Disturbed calcium signaling in spinocerebellar ataxias and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Polina; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represent a huge scientific and medical question, but the molecular mechanisms of these diseases are still not clear. There is increasing evidence that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many neurodegenerative disorders. Abnormal neuronal calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum may result in disturbances of cell homeostasis, synaptic dysfunction, and eventual cell death. Neuronal loss is observed in most cases of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent experimental evidence supporting the role of neuronal calcium signaling in the pathogenesis of SCAs and AD is discussed in this review. PMID:25846864

  10. The Assessment of Electroencephalographic Changes and Memory Disturbances in Acute Intoxications with Industrial Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Chalupa, B.; Synková, J.; Ševčík, M.

    1960-01-01

    A report is given of the results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of an experimental memory examination in a group of 22 cases of acute carbon monoxide and solvents poisoning of varying severity. An abnormal EEG recording, most often in the form of theta activity 5-6 sec., was found in 12 patients; memory disturbances were found in 13 cases. There was correlation between the results of the two examinations as well as with the clinical classification of the degree of intoxication. The methods are suitable for the solving of various theoretical and practical questions in industrial toxicology. PMID:13692202

  11. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    PubMed

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (<0.5% cover), and vegetation characteristics were similar between grazed and ungrazed treatments. However, litter accumulation was almost twofold greater in ungrazed than in grazed treatments. Long-term grazing exclusion followed by burning resulted in a substantial B. tectorum invasion, but burning the grazed areas did not produce an invasion. The ungrazed-burned treatment also had less perennial vegetation than other treatments. The accumulation of litter (fuel) in ungrazed treatments may have resulted in greater fire-induced mortality of perennial vegetation in ungrazed compared to grazed treatments

  12. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014

  13. Ordered questions bias eyewitnesses and jurors.

    PubMed

    Michael, Robert B; Garry, Maryanne

    2016-04-01

    Eyewitnesses play an important role in the justice system. But suggestive questioning can distort eyewitness memory and confidence, and these distorted beliefs influence jurors (Loftus, Learning & Memory, 12, 361-366, 2005; Penrod & Culter, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 817-845, 1995). Recent research, however, hints that suggestion is not necessary: Simply changing the order of a set of trivia questions altered people's beliefs about their accuracy on those questions (Weinstein & Roediger, Memory & Cognition, 38, 366-376, 2010, Memory & Cognition, 40, 727-735, 2012). We wondered to what degree eyewitnesses' beliefs-and in turn the jurors who evaluate them-would be affected by this simple change to the order in which they answer questions. Across six experiments, we show that the order of questions matters. Eyewitnesses reported higher accuracy and were more confident about their memory when questions seemed initially easy, than when they seemed initially difficult. Moreover, jurors' beliefs about eyewitnesses closely matched those of the eyewitnesses themselves. These findings have implications for eyewitness metacognition and for eyewitness questioning procedures. PMID:26335413

  14. Disturbance trade-off principle for quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandayam, Prabha; Srinivas, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a fundamental principle of disturbance tradeoff for quantum measurements, along the lines of the celebrated uncertainty principle: The disturbances associated with measurements performed on distinct yet identically prepared ensembles of systems in a pure state cannot all be made arbitrarily small. Indeed, we show that the average of the disturbances associated with a set of projective measurements is strictly greater than zero whenever the associated observables do not have a common eigenvector. For such measurements, we show an equivalence between disturbance tradeoff measured in terms of fidelity and the entropic uncertainty tradeoff formulated in terms of the Tsallis entropy (T2). We also investigate the disturbances associated with the class of nonprojective measurements, where the difference between the disturbance tradeoff and the uncertainty tradeoff manifests quite clearly.

  15. Reconstructing disturbances and their biogeochemical consequences over multiple timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Higuera, Philip E.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Perakis, Steven S.; Mack, Michelle C.; Alexander, Heather; Battles, John; Biondi, Franco; Buma, Brian; Colombaroli, Daniele; Enders, Sara K.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Marshall, John; McGlone, Matt; Morris, Jesse L.; Nave, Lucas E.; Shuman, Bryan; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Urrego, Dunia H.; Wardle, David A.; Williams, Christopher J.; Williams, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing changes in disturbance regimes are predicted to cause acute changes in ecosystem structure and function in the coming decades, but many aspects of these predictions are uncertain. A key challenge is to improve the predictability of postdisturbance biogeochemical trajectories at the ecosystem level. Ecosystem ecologists and paleoecologists have generated complementary data sets about disturbance (type, severity, frequency) and ecosystem response (net primary productivity, nutrient cycling) spanning decadal to millennial timescales. Here, we take the first steps toward a full integration of these data sets by reviewing how disturbances are reconstructed using dendrochronological and sedimentary archives and by summarizing the conceptual frameworks for carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic responses to disturbances. Key research priorities include further development of paleoecological techniques that reconstruct both disturbances and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. In addition, mechanistic detail from disturbance experiments, long-term observations, and chronosequences can help increase the understanding of ecosystem resilience.

  16. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, N.M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. United States Forest Disturbance Trends Observed Using Landsat Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Goward, Samuel N.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Moisen, Gretchen G.; Schleeweis, Karen; Huang, Chengquan

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance events strongly affect the composition, structure, and function of forest ecosystems; however, existing U.S. land management inventories were not designed to monitor disturbance. To begin addressing this gap, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has examined a geographic sample of 50 Landsat satellite image time series to assess trends in forest disturbance across the conterminous United States for 1985-2005. The geographic sample design used a probability-based scheme to encompass major forest types and maximize geographic dispersion. For each sample location disturbance was identified in the Landsat series using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) algorithm. The NAFD analysis indicates that, on average, 2.77 Mha/yr of forests were disturbed annually, representing 1.09%/yr of US forestland. These satellite-based national disturbance rates estimates tend to be lower than those derived from land management inventories, reflecting both methodological and definitional differences. In particular the VCT approach used with a biennial time step has limited sensitivity to low-intensity disturbances. Unlike prior satellite studies, our biennial forest disturbance rates vary by nearly a factor of two between high and low years. High western US disturbance rates were associated with active fire years and insect activity, while variability in the east is more strongly related to harvest rates in managed forests. We note that generating a geographic sample based on representing forest type and variability may be problematic since the spatial pattern of disturbance does not necessarily correlate with forest type. We also find that the prevalence of diffuse, non-stand clearing disturbance in US forests makes the application of a biennial geographic sample problematic. Future satellite-based studies of disturbance at regional and national scales should focus on wall-to-wall analyses with annual time step for improved accuracy.

  18. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  19. The Technology of the Question: Structure and Use of Questions in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokanson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This writing looks at an elemental aspect of learning and communication, the question, and contends that questions can be viewed as a technology for education. Questions that we ask in the classroom, online, or in discussion can shape learning and develop skills in students, and they should be more systematically employed in education. This…

  20. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax.…

  1. Textbook Questions to Support Spatial Thinking: Differences in Spatiality by Question Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the location and varying spatiality of questions in geography textbooks. The results show that study questions posed in page margins address the three components of spatial thinking--concepts of space, using tools of representation, and processes of reasoning--more than questions in other locations within the text. Three…

  2. Asking Good Questions: Promoting Greater Understanding of Mathematics through Purposeful Teacher and Student Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Teodoro, Susan; Donders, Sharon; Kemp-Davidson, Joy; Robertson, Peggy; Schuyler, Lori

    2011-01-01

    This action research report follows the journey of four elementary school teachers as they learn to define and ask "deeper" or meaningful mathematical questions in their teachings. It chronicles the way that teaching through problem solving and developing criteria for questioning increased the percentage of "deeper" questions being asked and…

  3. The Effects of Questions and Anxiety on Attention, Question Confidence, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.; Skidmore, Ronald

    The effects of questions of different cognitive levels were investigated in four undergraduate classes involving a total of 80 students. Previous research suggested that questions may distract students from a lecture, and that students felt more confident about responding accurately to low-order questions. These results do not support previous…

  4. Questioning Strategies in Reading or Is the Right Person Being Trained to Ask the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, Dorothy

    Teachers have been learning to improve their questioning strategies to facilitate students' thinking. The students too should learn the skill of questioning to be a good reader for the rest of their lives. The teacher's first job is to identify for students the skill of questioning as a way of understanding the writer, pinpointing his purpose,…

  5. Using resilience to predict the effects of disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nattrass, Stuart; Lusseau, David

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour emerges from a complex interaction between an individual’s needs, life history strategies and the varying local environment. This environment is increasingly disturbed as human activity encroaches on previously unexposed regions. This disturbance can have different effects on individual animals or populations depending on their behavioural strategies. Here, we examine a means of predicting the resilience of individuals or populations to unanticipated disturbances, and we find that resilience that can be estimated from routinely collected behavioural observations is a good predictor of how rapidly an individual’s expected behaviour is returned to following a perturbation, and correlates strongly with how much population abundance changes following a disturbance. PMID:27145918

  6. Species richness, equitability, and abundance of ants in disturbed landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, J.H.; Krzysik, A.J.; Kovacic, D.A.; Duda, J.J.; Freeman, D.C.; Emlen, J.M.; Zak, J.C.; Long, W.R.; Wallace, M.P.; Chamberlin-Graham, C.; Nutter, J.P.; Balbach, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ants are used as indicators of environmental change in disturbed landscapes, often without adequate understanding of their response to disturbance. Ant communities in the southeastern United States displayed a hump-backed species richness curve against an index of landscape disturbance. Forty sites at Fort Benning, in west-central Georgia, covered a spectrum of habitat disturbance (military training and fire) in upland forest. Sites disturbed by military training had fewer trees, less canopy cover, more bare ground, and warmer, more compact soils with shallower A-horizons. We sampled ground-dwelling ants with pitfall traps, and measured 15 habitat variables related to vegetation and soil. Ant species richness was greatest with a relative disturbance of 43%, but equitability was greatest with no disturbance. Ant abundance was greatest with a relative disturbance of 85%. High species richness at intermediate disturbance was associated with greater within-site spatial heterogeneity. Species richness was also associated with intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a correlate of net primary productivity (NPP). Available NPP (the product of NDVI and the fraction of days that soil temperature exceeded 25 ??C), however, was positively correlated with species richness, though not with ant abundance. Species richness was unrelated to soil texture, total ground cover, and fire frequency. Ant species richness and equitability are potential state indicators of the soil arthropod community. Moreover, equitability can be used to monitor ecosystem change. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Transport of energy by disturbances in arbitrary steady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    An exact equation governing the transport of energy associated with disturbances in an arbitrary steady flow is derived. The result is a generalization of the familiar concept of acoustic energy and is suggested by a perturbation expansion of the general energy equation of fluid mechanics. A disturbance energy density and flux are defined and identified as exact fluid dynamic quantities whose leading-order regular perturbation representations reduce in various special cases to previously known results. The exact equation on disturbance energy is applied to a simple example of nonlinear wave propagation as an illustration of its general utility in situations where a linear description of the disturbance is inadequate.

  8. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  10. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  11. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  12. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... sobre las pruebas genéticas Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look ...

  15. Investigating Evolutionary Questions Using Online Molecular Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puterbaugh, Mary N.; Burleigh, J. Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Recommends using online molecular databases as teaching tools to illustrate evolutionary questions and concepts while introducing students to public molecular databases. Provides activities in which students make molecular comparisons between species. (YDS)

  16. Questions about Research That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    1991-01-01

    Answers the following questions about transformative research: (1) is the concept needed? (2) does it represent a new methodology? (3) how does it relate to social movements? and (4) is it limited to postindustrial societies? (SK)

  17. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  18. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  19. Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Listen En Español Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Why are women with diabetes ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  20. Overcoming Dynamic Disturbances in Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eric W.; Dente, Gregory C.; Lyon, Richard G.; Chesters, Dennis; Gong, Qian

    2000-01-01

    We develop and discuss a methodology with the potential to yield a significant reduction in complexity, cost, and risk of space-borne optical systems in the presence of dynamic disturbances. More robust systems almost certainly will be a result as well. Many future space-based and ground-based optical systems will employ optical control systems to enhance imaging performance. The goal of the optical control subsystem is to determine the wavefront aberrations and remove them. Ideally reducing an aberrated image of the object under investigation to a sufficiently clear (usually diffraction-limited) image. Control will likely be distributed over several elements. These elements may include telescope primary segments, telescope secondary, telescope tertiary, deformable mirror(s), fine steering mirror(s), etc. The last two elements, in particular, may have to provide dynamic control. These control subsystems may become elaborate indeed. But robust system performance will require evaluation of the image quality over a substantial range and in a dynamic environment. Candidate systems for improvement in the Earth Sciences Enterprise could include next generation Landsat systems or atmospheric sensors for dynamic imaging of individual, severe storms. The technology developed here could have a substantial impact on the development of new systems in the Space Science Enterprise; such as the Next Generation Space Telescope(NGST) and its follow-on the Next NGST. Large Interferometric Systems of non-zero field, such as Planet Finder and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure, could benefit. These systems most likely will contain large, flexible optormechanical structures subject to dynamic disturbance. Furthermore, large systems for high resolution imaging of planets or the sun from space may also benefit. Tactical and Strategic Defense systems will need to image very small targets as well and could benefit from the technology developed here. We discuss a novel