Science.gov

Sample records for diverse sesame sesamum

  1. Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil and related cosmetic ingredients are derived from Sesamum indicum. Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and hydrogenated sesame seed oil function as conditioning agents. Sodium sesameseedate functions as a cleansing agent, emulsifying agent, and a nonaqueous viscosity increasing agent. These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use. Both animal and human data relevant to the cosmetic use of these ingredients were reviewed. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment. PMID:21772026

  2. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of sesame (Sesamum indicum) from a genome survey.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Qi, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Ding, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an important oil crop, is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. It provides part of the daily edible oil allowance for almost half of the world's population. A limited number of co-dominant markers has been developed and applied in sesame genetic diversity and germplasm identity studies. Here we report for the first time a whole genome survey used to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to detect the genetic diversity of sesame germplasm. From the initial assembled sesame genome, 23,438 SSRs (≥5 repeats) were identified. The most common repeat motif was dinucleotide with a frequency of 84.24%, followed by 13.53% trinucleotide, 1.65% tetranucleotide, 0.3% pentanucleotide and 0.28% hexanucleotide motifs. From 1500 designed and synthesised primer pairs, 218 polymorphic SSRs were developed and used to screen 31 sesame accessions that from 12 countries. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that all sesame accessions could be divided into two groups: one mainly from China and another from other countries. Cluster analysis classified Chinese major sesame varieties into three groups. These novel SSR markers are a useful tool for genetic linkage map construction, genetic diversity detection, and marker-assisted selective sesame breeding. PMID:24759074

  3. A Survey of Sesamin and Composition of tocopherol Variability from Seeds of 11 Diverse Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes using HPLC-PDA-ECD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and content of sesamin and desmethyl tocopherols such as alpha tocopherol ('T), delta tocopherol, 'T) and gamma tocopherol (yT) in sesame (sesa-mum-indicumL.) were determined for eleven sesame genotypes conserved in the United States National Plant Germplasm System in Griffin, Georgi...

  4. [Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum, L.). II. Use of sesame flour in protein mixtures].

    PubMed

    Salgado, J M; Gonçalves, C M

    1988-06-01

    The results obtained in the first part of this study demonstrated that the sesame flour protein is of reasonable quality and can be utilized, although it has a low lysine content and is rich in sulfur amino acids. Based on the initial data, the sesame flour was supplemented with other meals: "carioca" beans, pigeon pea, and soybean. Nine diets were prepared and the best combination was that of 50% sesame flour protein and 50% pigeon pea, the PER of which was 2.28. Breads were made with these systems, as follows: 100% sesame flour, 100% wheat flour, 50% sesame flour + 50% wheat flour; 30% sesame flour + 70% wheat flour; 30% sesame flour + 30% soybean flour + 40% wheat flour. These were evaluated through sensory analysis by a grading system. Good acceptance was obtained with the bread prepared with 30% sesame flour + 70% wheat flour. Its external and internal appearance, as well as its organoleptic characteristics were close to the bread, with 100% wheat flour. Sesame flour at the 50% proportion gave a bread of medium quality. The protein mixtures of sesame flour and soybean flour were well accepted. Some of the panel members reported that it had a taste somewhat like integral bread. PMID:3154072

  5. Investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Nureddin; Kavak, Servet; Güzel, Ali; Ozbek, Hanefi; Bektaş, Hava; Him, Aydın; Erdoğan, Ender; Balahoroğlu, Ragıb

    2013-01-01

    More than 600 chemicals can cause damage in liver, one of which is carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include alternative or folkloric treatments. We investigated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for its hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced experimental liver damage. To this end, 0.8 mg/kg of sesame fixed oil was provided intraperitoneally to rats whose livers were damaged by CCl₄. Tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments and evaluated histologically and biochemically. Ballooning degenerations and an increase in lipid droplets in liver parenchyma and increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin were found in the CCl₄ group. Biochemical and histopathological findings in the sesame fixed oil treated group were not significantly different from the CCl₄ group. Sesame did not show a hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced liver toxicity. PMID:22915054

  6. Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum).

    PubMed

    Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid

    2013-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200 °C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time. Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively. PMID:24523755

  7. Structural characterisation and rheological properties of a polysaccharide from sesame leaves (Sesamum radiatum Schumach. & Thonn.).

    PubMed

    Nep, E I; Carnachan, S M; Ngwuluka, N C; Kontogiorgos, V; Morris, G A; Sims, I M; Smith, A M

    2016-11-01

    A polysaccharide from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum was extracted by maceration in deionized water followed by ethanol precipitation then chemically and physically characterised. Monosaccharide composition and linkages were determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy respectively. Sesamum gum was composed of glucuronic acid, mannose, galactose, and xylose with trace quantities of glucose, rhamnose and arabinose. Proton and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and linkage analysis revealed a glucuronomannan based structure comprising a backbone of →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→2)-α-d-Manp-(1→ with side-chains of galactose and xylose. Hydrated sesamum gum displayed temperature independent viscoelastic properties with no thermal hysteresis. Intrinsic viscosity was determined to be 3.31 and 4.40dLg(-1) in 0.1M NaCl and deionised water respectively, while the critical concentration was determined to be 0.1% w/v. The characterisation performed in this study will help direct potential applications of this material in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMID:27516302

  8. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (p<0.05), on protein and sugar contents were recorded between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Total acidity percentage decreased significantly (p<0.05), while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) increased significantly (p<0.05) due to irradiation. During storage, total acidity increased (p<0.05) and TVBN decreased (p<0.05). Gamma irradiation reduced the microorganisms of sesame seeds. Samples treated with 3 kGy or more remained completely free of fungi throughout the storage. While, only the samples treated with 9 kGy remained completely free of bacteria at the end of storage period (after 12 months). The scores for taste, flavor, color and texture of irradiated samples were higher, but not significantly (p>0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples. PMID:26616940

  9. Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Seed Coat Color in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Li, Chun; Zhao, Ruihong; Wang, Cuiying

    2013-01-01

    Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait in sesame, as it is associated with seed biochemical properties, antioxidant content and activity and even disease resistance of sesame. Here, using a high-density linkage map, we analyzed genetic segregation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sesame seed coat color in six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2). Results showed that two major genes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects and polygenes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects were responsible for controlling the seed coat color trait. Average heritability of the major genes in the BC1, BC2 and F2 populations was 89.30%, 24.00%, and 91.11% respectively, while the heritability of polygenes was low in the BC1 (5.43%), in BC2 (0.00%) and in F2 (0.89%) populations. A high-density map was constructed using 724 polymorphic markers. 653 SSR, AFLP and RSAMPL loci were anchored in 14 linkage groups (LG) spanning a total of 1,216.00 cM. The average length of each LG was 86.86 cM and the marker density was 1.86 cM per marker interval. Four QTLs for seed coat color, QTL1-1, QTL11-1, QTL11-2 and QTL13-1, whose heritability ranged from 59.33%–69.89%, were detected in F3 populations using CIM and MCIM methods. Alleles at all QTLs from the black-seeded parent tended to increase the seed coat color. Results from QTLs mapping and classical genetic analysis among the P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2 populations were comparatively consistent. This first QTL analysis and high-density genetic linkage map for sesame provided a good foundation for further research on sesame genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:23704951

  10. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of seed coat color in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Li, Chun; Zhao, Ruihong; Wang, Cuiying

    2013-01-01

    Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait in sesame, as it is associated with seed biochemical properties, antioxidant content and activity and even disease resistance of sesame. Here, using a high-density linkage map, we analyzed genetic segregation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sesame seed coat color in six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2). Results showed that two major genes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects and polygenes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects were responsible for controlling the seed coat color trait. Average heritability of the major genes in the BC1, BC2 and F2 populations was 89.30%, 24.00%, and 91.11% respectively, while the heritability of polygenes was low in the BC1 (5.43%), in BC2 (0.00%) and in F2 (0.89%) populations. A high-density map was constructed using 724 polymorphic markers. 653 SSR, AFLP and RSAMPL loci were anchored in 14 linkage groups (LG) spanning a total of 1,216.00 cM. The average length of each LG was 86.86 cM and the marker density was 1.86 cM per marker interval. Four QTLs for seed coat color, QTL1-1, QTL11-1, QTL11-2 and QTL13-1, whose heritability ranged from 59.33%-69.89%, were detected in F3 populations using CIM and MCIM methods. Alleles at all QTLs from the black-seeded parent tended to increase the seed coat color. Results from QTLs mapping and classical genetic analysis among the P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2 populations were comparatively consistent. This first QTL analysis and high-density genetic linkage map for sesame provided a good foundation for further research on sesame genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:23704951

  11. Analysis of expression sequence tags from a full-length-enriched cDNA library of developing sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is one of the most important oilseed crops with high oil contents and rich nutrient value. However, genetic improvement efforts in sesame could not get benefit from molecular biology technology due to poor DNA and RNA sequence resources. In this study, we carried out a large scale of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing from developing sesame seeds and further conducted analysis on seed storage products-related genes. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from 5 ~ 30 days old immature seeds was constructed and randomly sequenced, leading to generation of 41,248 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) which then formed 4,713 contigs and 27,708 singletons with 44.9% uniESTs being putative full-length open reading frames. Approximately 26,091 of all these uniESTs have significant matches to the counterparts in Nr database of GenBank, and 21,628 of them were assigned to one or more Gene ontology (GO) terms. Homologous genes involved in oil biosynthesis were identified including some conservative transcription factors regulating oil biosynthesis such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), PICKLE (PKL), WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and majority of them were found for the first time in sesame seeds. One hundred and 17 ESTs were identified possibly involved in biosynthesis of sesame lignans, sesamin and sesamolin. In total, 9,347 putative functional genes from developing seeds were identified, which accounts for one third of total genes in the sesame genome. Further analysis of the uniESTs identified 1,949 non-redundant simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Conclusions This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during sesame seed development. This collection of sesame full-length cDNAs covered a wide variety of genes in seeds, in particular, candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of sesame oils and lignans. These EST sequences enriched with full length will contribute to comparative genomic studies on sesame and other oilseed plants

  12. Nitric oxide pathway-mediated relaxant effect of aqueous sesame leaves extract (Sesamum radiatum Schum. & Thonn.) in the guinea-pig isolated aorta smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Konan, André B; Datté, Jacques Y; Yapo, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Sesamum radiatum Schum. & Thonn. (Pedaliaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant, which belongs to the family Pedaliaceae and genus Sesamum. Sesame is used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia for many diseases treatment. Sesame plant especially the leaves, seed and oil are consumed locally as a staple food by subsistence farmers. The study analyses the relaxation induced by the aqueous extract of leaves from sesame (ESera), compared with those of acetylcholine (ACh) in the guinea-pig aortic preparations (GPAPs), in order to confirm the use in traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases. Methods The longitudinal strips of aorta of animals were rapidly removed from animals. The aorta was immediately placed in a Mac Ewen solution. Experiments were performed in preparations with intact endothelium as well as in aortae where the endothelium had been removed. The preparations were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the aorta strips of guinea-pig were recorded by using a strain gauge. All both drugs caused concentration-dependent relaxations responses. Results The aqueous extract of leaves from sesame ESera (1 × 10-7 – 0.1 μg/ml) caused a graded relaxation in GPAPs with intact endothelium, with a EC50-value of 1 × 10-4 μg/ml. The same effect was observed with ACh (7 × 10-2 nM – 7 × 10-1 μM), which caused relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. The relaxation in response to ESera and, like that to ACh in GPAPs without endothelium, was fully abolished. Destruction of the endothelium or incubation with the nitric oxyde synthase inhibitor (L-NNA) significantly enhanced the inhibition of the relaxation response to ESera. Moreover, all concentrations induced vasoconstrictions. However, L-NNA produced a significant displacement to the right (about 65-fold) of the relaxation response to ESera. Similar results were obtained with ACh. Both

  13. Effects of a diet rich in sesame ( Sesamum indicum) pericarp on the expression of oestrogen receptor alpha and oestrogen receptor beta in rat prostate and uterus.

    PubMed

    Anagnostis, Aristotelis; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2009-09-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) in the prostate and uterus tissues of Wistar rats supplied for 8 weeks with a diet rich in sesame (Sesamum indicum) pericarp (30 %) was monitored. Eight male rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into a control group fed on a normal diet, and an experimental one, provided with the normal diet enriched with 30 % sesame pericarp. A similar experiment was performed with female rats. At the end of the experiment, the prostate and uterus tissues were surgically removed and kept at - 80 degrees C for up to 2 months. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods were used in order to investigate the levels of receptor proteins and mRNA. Significant increase in the expression of ERbeta in prostate and uterus was evident in both methods, while the magnitude of the observed alteration depended on the applied method. No statistically significant change was observed in the expression of ERalpha in uterus. In prostate, although the increase was more evident when investigated by means of qRT-PCR, the difference in expression of ERalpha was not statistically significant. In both tissues, a shift of the ratio of ERalpha:ERbeta in favour of ERbeta was evident, indicating, according to existing literature, a beneficial effect of the diet provided upon the health status of the organisms. It is suggested that this effect is attributed to the lignans present in the pericarp which exert phyto-oestrogenic activity. PMID:19309532

  14. Genome sequencing of the important oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Wang, Lei; Qu, Lingbo; Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Qiang; Yue, Meiwang

    2013-01-01

    The Sesame Genome Working Group (SGWG) has been formed to sequence and assemble the sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genome. The status of this project and our planned analyses are described. PMID:23369264

  15. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  16. Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vittori Gouveia, Luciana de Almeida; Cardoso, Carolina Alves; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes; Rosa, Glorimar; Moreira, Annie Seixas Bello

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the scientific evidence on the effect of the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives on oxidative stress of individuals with systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review was conducted in seven databases (Lilacs, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Trip Database, and Scielo) from September 2013 to January 2014. Clinical trials on the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives assessing the outcomes related to oxidative stress were retrieved. The risk of bias in the results of the studies selected was assessed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. This review included seven clinical trials showing that the intake of sesame resulted in the increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as in a reduction in oxidative stress markers. This was mainly observed with the use of sesame oil for hypertensive individuals during 2 months and black sesame meal capsules for prehypertensive individuals during four weeks. Most studies involved a small number of participants, sample size being considered a limiting factor for this review. In addition, a significant heterogeneity was observed in the type of population studied and the type of sesame and derivatives used, as well as their amount. The follow-up time was considered a limiting factor, because it varied in the different studies. The high risk of randomization and blinding biases found in the studies assessed determines lower scientific evidence of the results. Despite the limitations and biases identified in this systematic review, sesame showed relevant effects on oxidative stress, suggesting it could increase the antioxidant capacity. PMID:27074618

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of a hot-water extract from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed on the blood glucose level in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Mooi, L Y; Inagaki, Y; He, P

    2001-10-01

    Genetically diabetic (type II) KK-Ay mice, male and 5 weeks of age, were divided into one group of 12 mice that were fed on a basal (BAS) diet and three groups of 6 mice each that were fed on the test diets for 4 weeks. Each test diet contained 4.0% of the hot-water extract (HES) from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed, 1.4% of the water eluent fraction (WFH) of HES or 0.7% of the methanol eluent fraction (MFH) of HES from a glass column packed with HP-20 resin. At the end of the feeding period, the BAS group was divided into the MAL and MALH groups which were respectively force-fed with 1 ml per mouse of a 20% maltose solution in water with or without 4.0% HES. The plasma glucose concentration and amount of urinary excreted glucose were lower from the HES and MFH diets than from the BAS and WFH diets. The levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin were lower in the MALH group than in the MAL group. These results indicate that HES and MFH had a reductive effect on the plasma glucose concentration of KK-Ay mice, and this effect is suggested to have been caused by the delayed glucose absorption. PMID:11758931

  18. Bioactive lignans from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): evaluation of their antioxidant and antibacterial effects for food applications.

    PubMed

    Mahendra Kumar, C; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna

    2015-05-01

    Antioxidants protect the body from various disease conditions through their ability to neutralize the effects of free radicals. Synthetic antioxidants are extensively used in processed foods for prevention of oxidation and retention of sensory quality. Consumer awareness and preference has led to a vigorous interest in the search for natural antioxidants. Sesamin and sesamolin, the major lignans present in sesame oil, are known for their antioxidative properties. Roasted sesame oil has a higher concentration of sesamol, the thermally degraded product of sesamolin, which is considered a more potent antioxidant compared to its parent molecule. The isolated lignans and sesamol were tested for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antibacterial properties. Sesamol is the best antioxidant and free radical scavenger amongst the molecules studied with IC50 value of 5.44 μg / mL (DPPH radical scavenging activity). Antibacterial assays against food borne pathogens revealed sesamol to be an antimicrobial agent with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg /mL in the culture. Its activity was synergistic with γ-tocopherol, also present in sesame seeds. Inhibition of browning (60-65 %) in fruit pulps (apple, banana and potato) was observed in presence of 20 μM sesamol. PMID:25892793

  19. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum).

    PubMed

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V

    2009-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions. PMID:19330636

  20. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet. PMID:27113452

  1. Genetic discovery for oil production and quality in sesame

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Yanxin; Feng, Qi; Wang, Linhai; Zhao, Yan; Li, Donghua; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Danlin; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Xianmei; Tang, Xiumei; Zhou, Congcong; Zhu, Chuanrang; Liu, Lifeng; Zhong, Ruichun; Tian, Qilin; Wen, Ziruo; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin; Huang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed crops are used to produce vegetable oil. Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an oilseed crop grown worldwide, has high oil content and a small diploid genome, but the genetic basis of oil production and quality is unclear. Here we sequence 705 diverse sesame varieties to construct a haplotype map of the sesame genome and de novo assemble two representative varieties to identify sequence variations. We investigate 56 agronomic traits in four environments and identify 549 associated loci. Examination of the major loci identifies 46 candidate causative genes, including genes related to oil content, fatty acid biosynthesis and yield. Several of the candidate genes for oil content encode enzymes involved in oil metabolism. Two major genes associated with lignification and black pigmentation in the seed coat are also associated with large variation in oil content. These findings may inform breeding and improvement strategies for a broad range of oilseed crops. PMID:26477832

  2. Genetic discovery for oil production and quality in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Yanxin; Feng, Qi; Wang, Linhai; Zhao, Yan; Li, Donghua; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenjun; Fan, Danlin; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Xianmei; Tang, Xiumei; Zhou, Congcong; Zhu, Chuanrang; Liu, Lifeng; Zhong, Ruichun; Tian, Qilin; Wen, Ziruo; Weng, Qijun; Han, Bin; Huang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed crops are used to produce vegetable oil. Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an oilseed crop grown worldwide, has high oil content and a small diploid genome, but the genetic basis of oil production and quality is unclear. Here we sequence 705 diverse sesame varieties to construct a haplotype map of the sesame genome and de novo assemble two representative varieties to identify sequence variations. We investigate 56 agronomic traits in four environments and identify 549 associated loci. Examination of the major loci identifies 46 candidate causative genes, including genes related to oil content, fatty acid biosynthesis and yield. Several of the candidate genes for oil content encode enzymes involved in oil metabolism. Two major genes associated with lignification and black pigmentation in the seed coat are also associated with large variation in oil content. These findings may inform breeding and improvement strategies for a broad range of oilseed crops. PMID:26477832

  3. Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN).

    PubMed

    Sarve, Antaram; Sonawane, Shriram S; Varma, Mahesh N

    2015-09-01

    The present study estimates the prediction capability of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models for biodiesel synthesis from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil under ultrasonication (20 kHz and 1.2 kW) using barium hydroxide as a basic heterogeneous catalyst. RSM based on a five level, four factor central composite design, was employed to obtain the best possible combination of catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and reaction time for maximum FAME content. Experimental data were evaluated by applying RSM integrating with desirability function approach. The importance of each independent variable on the response was investigated by using sensitivity analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be catalyst concentration (1.79 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (6.69:1), temperature (31.92°C), and reaction time (40.30 min). For these conditions, experimental FAME content of 98.6% was obtained, which was in reasonable agreement with predicted one. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that catalyst concentration was the main factors affecting the FAME content with the relative importance of 36.93%. The lower values of correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.781), root mean square error (RMSE=4.81), standard error of prediction (SEP=6.03) and relative percent deviation (RPD=4.92) for ANN compared to those R(2) (0.596), RMSE (6.79), SEP (8.54) and RPD (6.48) for RSM proved better prediction capability of ANN in predicting the FAME content. PMID:25630700

  4. Lignans of sesame: purification methods, biological activities and biosynthesis--a review.

    PubMed

    Dar, Aejaz Ahmad; Arumugam, Neelakantan

    2013-10-01

    Lignans are a group of compounds consisting of dimers of phenyl propane units. They are found in diverse forms distributed in a variety of plants. Sesame lignans in particular are obtained from Sesamum indicum, a highly prized oilseed crop cultivated widely in many countries in the east. The plant is the main source of clinically important antioxidant lignans such as sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol and sesamol. These lignans exhibit antihypertensive, anticancerous and hypocholesterolemic activities as well especially in humans due to which they have become compounds of tremendous research interest in recent times. Sesamin is synthesized from shikimic acid through phenylpropanoid pathway and metabolised into enterolignans which play a pivotal role in protection against several hormone related diseases. In this paper we present an overview of current status of research on sesame lignans with respect to the analytical methods employed, the biological activities and biosynthesis of sesame lignans. PMID:23933354

  5. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  6. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Fonceka, Daniel; Yang, Wenjuan; Diouf, Diaga; Liao, Boshou; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs), Eastern Asia (EAs), and Western Africa (WAf) were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs), Northern Africa (NAf), and Southeastern Africa (SAf) had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions. PMID:27077887

  7. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  8. The Effects of Topical Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Oil on Pain Severity and Amount of Received Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients With Upper or Lower Extremities Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli Shamloo, Marzieh Beigom; Nasiri, Morteza; Dabirian, Aazam; Bakhtiyari, Ali; Mojab, Faraz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most patients with trauma experience different levels of pain. Due to side effects as well as economic burden of drugs used for pain relief after trauma commonly, it is important to use low-cost methods independently or combined with drugs to alleviate pain. Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of topical sesame oil on pain severity and frequency of received NSAIDs of patients with trauma. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 150 patients with upper or lower extremities trauma in Dezful Ganjavian Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, in 2014. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Patients were divided into two groups of control (n = 75) and intervention (n = 75) randomly. In the intervention group, patients applied topical sesame oil beside the routine cares, while in the control group patients just received routine cares. Severity of pain and frequency of received NSAIDs was assessed in the first, third, seventh and tenth days after the intervention in the both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS19 software using descriptive and analytic (Chi-square and independent sample t-test) statistical methods. Results: Based on student sample t-test, there was a significant difference between intervention and control groups regarding the pain severity in the first (P = 0.06), third (P = 0.001), seventh (P = 0.001) and tenth (P = 0.001) days after the intervention. Besides, the frequency of received NSAIDs in the intervention group and the control group showed significant difference in four days after the intervention (for four days P = 0.001). Conclusions: Topical application of sesame oil could reduce pain severity and frequency of received NSAIDs in patients with upper or lower extremities trauma. Therefore, it is recommended to use this oil in complementary medicine for pain relief due to low cost, easy usage and lack of adverse effects. PMID:26161326

  9. Sequential glucosylation of a furofuran lignan, (+)-sesaminol, by Sesamum indicum UGT71A9 and UGT94D1 glucosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akio; Fukui, Yuko; Iuchi-Okada, Asako; Kakutani, Saki; Satake, Honoo; Iwashita, Takashi; Nakao, Masahiro; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Ono, Eiichiro

    2008-05-01

    (+)-Sesaminol 2-O-triglucoside is the most abundant water-soluble furofuran lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) and is considered to be a beneficial compound for human health. The biosyntheses and physiological roles of lignan glycosides, however, remain elusive. Here we report the molecular identification and biochemical characterization of two Sesamum uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucose:lignan glucosyltransferases. Sesamum indicum UGT71A9 preferentially glucosylated at the 2-hydroxyl group of (+)-sesaminol, resulting in (+)-sesaminol 2-O-glucoside. Similarly, two UGT71A9 homologs from Sesamum radiatum (UGT71A10) and Sesamum alatum (UGT71A8) also showed (+)-sesaminol glucosylating activity, evidencing the functional conservation of (+)-sesaminol 2-O-glucosyltransferases in the Sesamum genus. In addition, S. indicum UGT94D1 specifically glucosylated at the 6'-hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety of (+)-sesaminol 2-O-glucoside but not at that of flavonoid glucosides. The gene expression patterns of UGT71A9 and UGT94D1 during seed development were correlated with the glucosylating activities toward (+)-sesaminol in planta, suggesting that the two lignan UDP-glycosyltransferases participate in the sequential glucosylation steps in the biosynthesis of (+)-sesaminol 2-O-triglucoside. PMID:18248594

  10. Identification of Sesame Genomic Variations from Genome Comparison of Landrace and Variety.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the main oilseed crops, providing vegetable oil and protein to human. Landrace is the gene source of variety, carrying many desire alleles for genetic improvement. Despite the importance of sesame landrace, genome of sesame landrace remains unexplored and genomic variations between landrace and variety still is not clear. To identify the genomic variations between sesame landrace and variety, two representative sesame landrace accessions, "Baizhima" and "Mishuozhima," were selected and re-sequenced. The genome sequencing and de novo assembling of the two sesame landraces resulted in draft genomes of 267 Mb and 254 Mb, respectively, with the contig N50 more than 47 kb. Totally, 1,332,025 SNPs and 506,245 InDels were identified from the genome of "Baizhima" and "Mishuozhima" by comparison of the genome of a variety "Zhongzhi13." Among the genomic variations, 70,018 SNPs and 8311 InDels were located in the coding regions of genes. Genomic variations may contribute to variation of sesame agronomic traits such as flowering time, plant height, and oil content. The identified genomic variations were successfully used in the QTL mapping and the black pigment synthesis gene, PPO, was found to be the candidate gene of sesame seed coat color. The comprehensively compared genomes of sesame landrace and modern variety produced massive useful genomic information, constituting a powerful tool to support genetic research, and molecular breeding of sesame. PMID:27536315

  11. Identification of Sesame Genomic Variations from Genome Comparison of Landrace and Variety

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the main oilseed crops, providing vegetable oil and protein to human. Landrace is the gene source of variety, carrying many desire alleles for genetic improvement. Despite the importance of sesame landrace, genome of sesame landrace remains unexplored and genomic variations between landrace and variety still is not clear. To identify the genomic variations between sesame landrace and variety, two representative sesame landrace accessions, “Baizhima” and “Mishuozhima,” were selected and re-sequenced. The genome sequencing and de novo assembling of the two sesame landraces resulted in draft genomes of 267 Mb and 254 Mb, respectively, with the contig N50 more than 47 kb. Totally, 1,332,025 SNPs and 506,245 InDels were identified from the genome of “Baizhima” and “Mishuozhima” by comparison of the genome of a variety “Zhongzhi13.” Among the genomic variations, 70,018 SNPs and 8311 InDels were located in the coding regions of genes. Genomic variations may contribute to variation of sesame agronomic traits such as flowering time, plant height, and oil content. The identified genomic variations were successfully used in the QTL mapping and the black pigment synthesis gene, PPO, was found to be the candidate gene of sesame seed coat color. The comprehensively compared genomes of sesame landrace and modern variety produced massive useful genomic information, constituting a powerful tool to support genetic research, and molecular breeding of sesame. PMID:27536315

  12. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  13. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = −0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = −0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975

  14. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Black and White Sesame Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Lin, Xiaohui; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Zheng, Bisheng

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds are popular nutritional food but with limited knowledge about their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of various varieties. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of six varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds were studied. Fenheizhi3 (black) cultivar exhibited the maximum contents of total phenolics and lignans and values of total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and antiproliferative activity (EC50) against HepG2 cells. Bound ORAC values showed strong associations with bound phenolics contents (r = 0.976, p < 0.01); in bound phenolic extracts, EC50 values showed strong negative associations with phenolic contents (r = -0.869, p < 0.05) and ORAC values (r = -0.918, p < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of free phenolics were higher than that of the bound phenolics, and the three black sesame seeds generally depicted higher total phenolics compared to the three white varieties. The antioxidant (ORAC values) and antiproliferation activities of six sesame seeds were both associated with contents of bound phenolics (r > 0.8, p < 0.05). Interestingly, nonlignan components in bound phenolics contributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. This study suggested that Fenheizhi3 variety is superior to the other five varieties as antioxidant supplements. PMID:27597975

  15. Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. It belongs to the gigantic order Lamiales, which includes many well-known or economically important species, such as olive (Olea europaea), leonurus (Leonurus japonicus) and lavender (Lavandula spica), many of which have important pharmacological properties. Despite their importance, genetic and genomic analyses on these species have been insufficient due to a lack of reference genome information. The now available S. indicum genome will provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying both S. indicum genetic traits and comparative genomics. To deliver S. indicum genomic information to the worldwide research community, we designed Sinbase, a web-based database with comprehensive sesame genomic, genetic and comparative genomic information. Sinbase includes sequences of assembled sesame pseudomolecular chromosomes, protein-coding genes (27,148), transposable elements (372,167) and non-coding RNAs (1,748). In particular, Sinbase provides unique and valuable information on colinear regions with various plant genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum. Sinbase also provides a useful search function and data mining tools, including a keyword search and local BLAST service. Sinbase will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences, and is freely accessible at http://ocri-genomics.org/Sinbase/. PMID:25480115

  16. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development. PMID:25967387

  17. All About Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Phylis

    The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

  18. Black sesame pigment: DPPH assay-guided purification, antioxidant/antinitrosating properties, and identification of a degradative structural marker.

    PubMed

    Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2012-09-12

    An improved purification procedure leading to black sesame ( Sesamum Indicum L.) pigment was developed involving fat removal by treatment of ground black sesame seeds with dichloromethane followed by an optimized hydrolytic protocol with 6 M HCl, at 100 °C, overnight. The black pigment thus obtained displayed good antioxidant efficiency by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay (82% reduction at 0.5 mg/mL), good ferric ion-reducing capacity (61 μM Trolox equivalent concentration at 0.5 mg/mL), and potent antinitrosating properties (74% inhibition of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) nitrosation at gastric pH at 2.5 mg/mL). A synthetic pigment obtained by oxidative polymerization of coniferyl alcohol (polyconiferyl alcohol, PCA), the putative biosynthetic precursor to the sesame pigment, was characterized as a reference standard. FT IR spectra of the purified sesame pigment and PCA supported the structural similarity. HPLC analysis of degradation products by alkaline hydrogen peroxide of purified black sesame pigment showed the formation of vanillic acid (VA) as the main isolable fragment. Similar yields of VA were obtained by degradation of PCA. A positive correlation between VA yields and DPPH activity was determined in samples of different purities. It is suggested that VA is a structural marker of black sesame pigment, confirming the biosynthetic origin from coniferyl alcohol and pointing to the o-methoxyphenol motif as the key factor accounting for the potent antioxidant properties of the pigment. PMID:22423623

  19. Ultra-dense SNP genetic map construction and identification of SiDt gene controlling the determinate growth habit in Sesamum indicum L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Li, Chun; Wei, Libin; Duan, Yinghui; Ma, Qin; Kong, Jingjing; Xu, Fangfang; Chang, Shuxian

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop and has an indeterminate growth habit. Here we resequenced the genomes of the parents and 120 progeny of an F2 population derived from crossing Yuzhi 11 (indeterminate, Dt) and Yuzhi DS899 (determinate, dt1), and constructed an ultra-dense SNP map for sesame comprised of 3,041 bins including 30,193 SNPs in 13 linkage groups (LGs) with an average marker density of 0.10 cM. Results indicated that the same recessive gene controls the determinacy trait in dt1 and a second determinate line, dt2 (08TP092). The QDt1 locus for the determinacy trait was located in the 18.0 cM–19.2 cM interval of LG8. The target SNP, SiDt27-1, and the determinacy gene, DS899s00170.023 (named here as SiDt), were identified in Scaffold 00170 of the Yuzhi 11 reference genome, based on genetic mapping and genomic association analysis. Unlike the G397A SNP change in the dt1 genotype, the SiDt allele in dt2 line was lost from the genome. This example of map-based gene cloning in sesame provides proof-of-concept of the utility of ultra-dense SNP maps for accurate genome research in sesame. PMID:27527492

  20. Ultra-dense SNP genetic map construction and identification of SiDt gene controlling the determinate growth habit in Sesamum indicum L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Li, Chun; Wei, Libin; Duan, Yinghui; Ma, Qin; Kong, Jingjing; Xu, Fangfang; Chang, Shuxian

    2016-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop and has an indeterminate growth habit. Here we resequenced the genomes of the parents and 120 progeny of an F2 population derived from crossing Yuzhi 11 (indeterminate, Dt) and Yuzhi DS899 (determinate, dt1), and constructed an ultra-dense SNP map for sesame comprised of 3,041 bins including 30,193 SNPs in 13 linkage groups (LGs) with an average marker density of 0.10 cM. Results indicated that the same recessive gene controls the determinacy trait in dt1 and a second determinate line, dt2 (08TP092). The QDt1 locus for the determinacy trait was located in the 18.0 cM-19.2 cM interval of LG8. The target SNP, SiDt27-1, and the determinacy gene, DS899s00170.023 (named here as SiDt), were identified in Scaffold 00170 of the Yuzhi 11 reference genome, based on genetic mapping and genomic association analysis. Unlike the G397A SNP change in the dt1 genotype, the SiDt allele in dt2 line was lost from the genome. This example of map-based gene cloning in sesame provides proof-of-concept of the utility of ultra-dense SNP maps for accurate genome research in sesame. PMID:27527492

  1. Variation in Seed Fatty Acid Composition, and Sequence Divergence in the FAD2 Gene Coding Region between Wild and Cultivated Sesame

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame germplasm harbors genetic diversity which can be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs. Seven accessions with different levels of oleic acid were selected from the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection (1232 accessions) and planted for morphological observation and re-examinati...

  2. Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control. PMID:22828791

  3. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease. PMID:27195795

  4. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease. PMID:27195795

  5. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Important Oilseed Crop Sesamum indicum L

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2012-01-01

    Sesamum indicum is an important crop plant species for yielding oil. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of S. indicum (GenBank acc no. JN637766) is 153,324 bp in length, and has a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions consisting of 25,141 bp each. The lengths of the large single copy (LSC) and the small single copy (SSC) regions are 85,170 bp and 17,872 bp, respectively. Comparative cp DNA sequence analyses of S. indicum with other cp genomes reveal that the genome structure, gene order, gene and intron contents, AT contents, codon usage, and transcription units are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Nucleotide diversity of the IR region between Sesamum and three other cp genomes is much lower than that of the LSC and SSC regions in both the coding region and noncoding region. As a summary, the regional constraints strongly affect the sequence evolution of the cp genomes, while the functional constraints weakly affect the sequence evolution of cp genomes. Five short inversions associated with short palindromic sequences that form step-loop structures were observed in the chloroplast genome of S. indicum. Twenty-eight different simple sequence repeat loci have been detected in the chloroplast genome of S. indicum. Almost all of the SSR loci were composed of A or T, so this may also contribute to the A-T richness of the cp genome of S. indicum. Seven large repeated loci in the chloroplast genome of S. indicum were also identified and these loci are useful to developing S. indicum-specific cp genome vectors. The complete cp DNA sequences of S. indicum reported in this paper are prerequisite to modifying this important oilseed crop by cp genetic engineering techniques. PMID:22606240

  6. Response of the Cutworm Spodoptera litura to Sesame Leaves or Crude Extracts in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ofosuhene Sintim, Henry; Tashiro, Toru; Motoyama, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of extracts of sesame, Sesamum indicum L. (Liamiales: Pedaliaceae), and whole leaves of some selected cultivars of sesame were tested using a natural host Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Indices taken using the immature stages include; diet utilization, growth and development and induction of detoxification enzymes. The results indicate that S. litura generally selects its food amongst cultivars within 6 hours after food presentation. Growth and development of the insect is controlled also by plant acceptability and quality. Although all the cultivars tested significantly limit insect growth and development the variety 56S-radiatum did not allow a complete life cycle as pupation from first instar stage was 0%. Generally the crucial period for immature S. litura was the larval period, especially the first two instars where the weight of an insect fed on an experimental diet was three times lower than that of a control diet. The larval developmental period was greater than 40 days as compared to 17 days for insects fed a control diet. S. litura also had lowered efficiency in utilizing ingested food, from a low of 13% in a sesame cultivar to 45% in the control diet. The key detoxification enzyme was a glutathione s-transferase that was confirmed by a 6-fold increase between S. litura fed a plant cultivar vs. a control diet towards the substrate 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. First and second instars of S. litura have a relatively reduced detoxification of enzymes in response to plant cultivar diets leading to low survival. A 3% v/w crude extract of the cultivars increased enzyme induction towards all the tested substrates. PMID:20050772

  7. SESAME: science for intercultural dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    SESAME is an international research organization located in Jordan, in the Middle-East. Based on a synchrotron radiation source, it will allow scientist from the region to access a world-class research infrastructure to boost their research and scientific knowledge. At the same time its international nature will allow scientists with different cultures, different religions and different experiences to interact with each other. It is therefore an excellent opportunity for the regional development. The talk will introduce synchrotron radiation as a method to study matter, with examples in various disciplines, from physics to life sciences. The organisational structure of SESAME will be described, emphasising how this project is expected to enhance cooperation and mutual comprehension in the Middle East.

  8. New flavonoid and pentacyclic triterpene from Sesamum indicum leaves.

    PubMed

    Dat, Nguyen Tien; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Thanh, Le Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Two new and one known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Sesamum indicum leaves. By means of spectroscopic methods, their structures were elucidated and identified to be 3-epibartogenic acid (1), kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and epigallocatechin (3). Compound 1 and 3 strongly inhibited α-amylase with the IC50 values of 146.7 and 303.9 μM, respectively, in comparison with acarbose (IC50 124.0 μM). PMID:26181100

  9. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Udom, I E; Frisvad, J C; Adetunji, M C; Houbraken, J; Fapohunda, S O; Samson, R A; Atanda, O O; Agi-Otto, M C; Onashile, O A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46-48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = -0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  10. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  11. Covariates of Sesame Street Viewing by Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaner, Steven D.

    A study was made of nine covariates as to their discriminating power between preschoolers who watch Sesame Street regularly and preschoolers who do not watch Sesame Street, Surveyed were 372 3-4 year old children on 9 variables. The nine variables were: race, socioeconomic status, number of siblings, child's birth order, maternal age, maternal…

  12. Sesame Street PEP Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This handbook for early childhood educators describes the Sesame Street PEP, an educational enrichment program for 3- to 5-year-olds that makes learning a fun and challenging adventure by using the educational goals of the Sesame Street show, children's books, and developmentally appropriate activities. This program seeks to: (1) stimulate…

  13. Stomatal Response to Environment with Sesamum indicum. L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anthony E.; Kaufmann, Merrill R.

    1975-01-01

    Leaf resistance of Sesamum indicum L. increased when the humidity gradient between leaf and air was increased, at moderate temperatures, even though calculated carbon dioxide concentrations within the leaf decreased slightly. Mesophyll resistance remained relatively constant when humidity gradients were changed, indicating that the increases in leaf resistance were mainly caused by reductions in stomatal aperture and that nonstomatal aspects of photosynthesis and respiration were not affected. Low carbon dioxide concentrations inside the leaf decreased but did not eliminate resistance response to the humidity gradient. Internal carbon dioxide concentrations had little effect on resistance in humid air but had moderate effects on resistance with large humidity gradients between leaf and air. Stomatal response to humidity was not present at high leaf temperatures. Effects of humidity gradients on photosynthetic and stomatal responses to temperature suggested that large humidity gradients may contribute to mid-day closure of stomata and depressions in photosynthesis. PMID:16659101

  14. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  15. Association-dissociation and denaturation behaviour of an oligomeric seed protein alpha-globulin of Sesamum indicum L. in acid and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, V; Nandi, P K

    1977-01-01

    The association-dissociation and denaturation behaviour of the major protein fraction, alpha-globulin of sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.), in acid and alkaline solutions in the ranges of pH 4.2-1.5 and pH 7-12 have been studied. The results of gel filtration, fluorescence and viscosity measurements indicate dissociation and denaturation of the protein up to pH approximately 3. The difference spectrum in this region arises from a combination of dissociation, denaturation and charge effect on the chromophore. In still stronger acid solution, reassociation of the dissociated fraction takes place by hydrophobic interaction. In alkaline solution dissociation takes place around pH 8, and above pH 10 dissociation and denaturation proceed simultaneously as has been evidenced by sedimentation, fluorescence, spectral change, optical rotation and viscosity measurements. The phenolic group (pKInt=10.6) in the protein is abnormal and denaturation in alkaline solution is irreversible. Above pH 11.5 further dissociation of the protein takes place. Characteristic pH values of transition from 10.6-10.8 indicate that the transition of the protein involves a single step in alkaline solution. PMID:19367

  16. SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser.

    PubMed

    Gaponenko, Maxim; Metz, Philip Werner; Härkönen, Antti; Heuer, Alexander; Leinonen, Tomi; Guina, Mircea; Südmeyer, Thomas; Huber, Günter; Kränkel, Christian

    2014-12-15

    We present the first semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode-locked praseodymium solid-state laser. The laser is based on a Pr(3+):LiYF(4) crystal as gain medium and a GaInP-quantum well-based SESAM. Self-starting continuous-wave mode-locked laser operation with an average output power of 16 mW is achieved at a center wavelength of 639.5 nm. The laser operates at a repetition rate of ∼85.55  MHz and emits pulses with a duration of ∼18  ps. PMID:25503035

  17. Sesame Street: Developed by Children's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    A children's television program "Sesame Street," is discussed. The objectives of this program is to promote the intellectual and social and cultural growth of preschool and kindergarten children. Specific goals include: symbolic representation, problem solving and reasoning, and familiarity with the physical and social environment. The target…

  18. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  19. SESAME: Reality or a Parallel Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2007-03-07

    SESAME is a rather unique effort to nurture both high quality research and scientific collaboration in the Middle East. Eliezer Rabinovici of the Racah Institute of Physics will present a personal perspective on how the project came about, where it is now and where it may be heading for.

  20. SESAME- Reality or a Parallel Universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2007-03-07

    SESAME is a rather unique effort to nurture both high quality research and scientific collaboration in the Middle East. Eliezer Rabinovici of the Racah Institute of Physics will present a personal perspective on how the project came about, where it is now and where it may be heading for.

  1. Chemical fractionation and heavy metal accumulation in the plant of Sesamum indicum (L.) var. T55 grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: Selection of single extractants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2006-06-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the single and sequential extractions of metals in different tannery sludge amendment and the potential of the plant of Sesamum indicum L. var. T55 (sesame) for the removal of metals from tannery waste contaminated site. The metal extraction efficiency obtained with each extractants was slightly different and follow the order; EDTA>DTPA>NH(4)NO(3)>NaNO(3)>CaCl(2). The correlation analysis between extractable metals in the different amendments of sludge and metal accumulation in the plant (lower and upper parts) showed better correlation for most of the tested metals with EDTA extraction. In this study, a sequential extraction technique was applied on different amendments of tannery sludge. The results showed that Mn, Zn, Cr and Cd were mostly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction in most of the amendments, K and Ni was found in residual (RES) fraction, Fe and Cu was bound with organic matter (OM) and RES fractions and Na was associated with carbonate (CAR) fraction. The metal accumulation after 60 d of growth of the plant was found in the order of K>Na>Fe>Zn>Cr>Mn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cd and its translocation was found less in upper part. The accumulation of toxic metals (Cr, Ni and Cd) in the plants was found to increase with increase in sludge ratio, in contrast, the accumulation of Pb decreased. In view of growth parameters and metal accumulation in the plant, it was observed that lower amendments (25%) of tannery sludge were found suitable for the phytoremediation of most of the studied metals. PMID:16330080

  2. SESAME 7363: A new Li(6)D equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Kress, Joel David; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A.; Greeff, Carl William

    2015-09-21

    A new Equation of State (EOS) for Lithium 6 Deuteride (6LiD) was created, sesame 7363. This EOS was released to the user community under “eos-developmental” as sesame 97363. The construction of this new EOS is a modification of a previously released EOS, sesame 73601. Sesame 7360 is too stiff (5-10% excess pressure) at high compressions and high temperatures (ρ = 4-110g/cm3, T = 30-10,000 eV) compared to orbital-free density-functional theory. Sesame 7363 is softer and gives a better representation of the physics over this range without compromising the agreement with the experimental and simulation data that sesame 7360 was based on.

  3. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated. PMID:27088795

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet. PMID:24082850

  5. SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable on or near the principal Hugoniot. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Biosynthetic origin of 2,3-epoxysesamone in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture.

    PubMed

    Furumoto, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    The incorporation of [1-(13)C]glucose into 2,3-epoxysesamone, the main prenylnaphthoquinone in a hairy root culture of Sesamum indicum, indicated that the naphthoquinone moiety and dimethylallyl group were respectively derived from o-succinylbenzoate produced through a shikimate pathway and non-mevalonate pathway. The labeling pattern also demonstrated that prenylation occurred at C-2 in 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate. PMID:19897903

  7. Formation of two methylenedioxy bridges by a Sesamum CYP81Q protein yielding a furofuran lignan, (+)-sesamin

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Nakai, Masaaki; Fukui, Yuko; Tomimori, Namino; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Saito, Masayuki; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Takaharu; Katsuta, Masumi; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    (+)-Sesamin, a furofuran class lignan, is widespread in vascular plants and represented by Sesamum spp. (+)-Sesamin has been of rapidly growing interest because of its beneficial biological effects in mammals, but its biosynthesis and physiological roles in plants remain to be clarified. It is speculated to be synthesized from (+)-pinoresinol by means of (+)-piperitol by formation of two methylenedioxy bridges mediated by two distinct Sesamum indicum cytochrome P450 (SiP450) proteins. Here, we report an SiP450, CYP81Q1, that alone catalyzes (+)-sesamin biosynthesis from (+)-pinoresinol by means of (+)-piperitol by forming two methylenedioxy bridges. The CYP81Q1 gene expression profile was temporally consistent with the accumulation pattern of (+)-sesamin during seed development. The CYP81Q1-GFP chimera protein was colocalized with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting chimera protein, indicating that (+)-sesamin biosynthesis occurs on the ER cytoplasmic surface. Moreover, we isolated two CYP81Q1 homologs from other Sesamum spp. Sesamum radiatum CYP81Q2 showed dual (+)-piperitol/(+)-sesamin synthetic activity. CYP81Q2, as well as CYP81Q1, therefore, corresponds to a (+)-piperitol/(+)-sesamin synthase in lignan biosynthesis. In contrast, Sesamum alatum CYP81Q3 showed no activity, in accord with (+)-sesamin being deficient in S. alatum. Our findings not only provide insight into lignan biosynthesis but also unravel a unique mode of cytochrome P450 action. PMID:16785429

  8. Lipids, Proteins, and Structure of Seed Oil Bodies from Diverse Species.

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, JTC.; Cao, Yz.; Laurent, P.; Ratnayake, C.; Huang, AHC.

    1993-01-01

    Oil bodies isolated from the mature seeds of rape (Brassica napus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), flax (Linus usitatis simum), maize (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) had average diameters that were different but within a narrow range (0.6-2.0 [mu]m), as measured from electron micrographs of serial sections. Their contents of triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids, and proteins (oleosins) were correlated with their sizes. The correlation fits a formula that describes a spherical particle surrounded by a shell of a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with oleosins. Oil bodies from the various species contained substantial amounts of the uncommon negatively charged phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, as well as small amounts of free fatty acids. These acidic lipids are assumed to interact with the basic amino acid residues of the oleosins on the surface of the phospholipid layer. Isoelectrofocusing revealed that the oil bodies from the various species had an isoelectric point of 5.7 to 6.6 and thus possessed a negatively charged surface at neutral pH. We conclude that seed oil bodies from diverse species are very similar in structure. In rapeseed during maturation, TAG and oleosins accumulated concomitantly. TAG-synthesizing acyltransferase activities appeared at an earlier stage and peaked during the active period of TAG accumulation. The concomitant accumulation of TAG and oleosins is similar to that reported earlier for maize and soybean, and the finding has an implication for the mode of oil body synthesis during seed maturation. PMID:12231682

  9. AVE-SESAME program for the REEDA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDA system software was modified and improved to process the AVE-SESAME severe storm data. A random access file system for the AVE storm data was designed, tested, and implemented. The AVE/SESAME software was modified to incorporate the random access file input and to interface with new graphics hardware/software now available on the REEDA system. Software was developed to graphically display the AVE/SESAME data in the convention normally used by severe storm researchers. Software was converted to AVE/SESAME software systems and interfaced with existing graphics hardware/software available on the REEDA System. Software documentation was provided for existing AVE/SESAME programs underlining functional flow charts and interacting questions. All AVE/SESAME data sets in random access format was processed to allow developed software to access the entire AVE/SESAME data base. The existing software was modified to allow for processing of different AVE/SESAME data set types including satellite surface and radar data.

  10. Voluntarias De Sesame Street: Manual Para Conducir Las Sesiones "Sesame Street" Con Ninos De Edad Pre-Escolar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid Spanish-speaking volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". The text is written in Spanish. Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational…

  11. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  12. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Results: Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (P<0.05). Sesame butter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and partly lipid-lowering effects of sesame butter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation. PMID:26989280

  13. Optimized SESAMs for kilowatt-level ultrafast lasers.

    PubMed

    Diebold, A; Zengerle, T; Alfieri, C G E; Schriber, C; Emaury, F; Mangold, M; Hoffmann, M; Saraceno, C J; Golling, M; Follman, D; Cole, G D; Aspelmeyer, M; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U

    2016-05-16

    We present a thorough investigation of surface deformation and thermal properties of high-damage threshold large-area semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) designed for kilowatt average power laser oscillators. We compare temperature rise, thermal lensing, and surface deformation of standard SESAM samples and substrate-removed SESAMs contacted using different techniques. We demonstrate that for all cases the thermal effects scale linearly with the absorbed power, but the contacting technique critically affects the strength of the temperature rise and the thermal lens of the SESAMs (i.e. the slope of the linear change). Our best SESAMs are fabricated using a novel substrate-transfer direct bonding technique and show excellent surface flatness (with non-measureable radii of curvature (ROC), compared to astigmatic ROCs of up to 10 m for standard SESAMs), order-of-magnitude improved heat removal, and negligible deformation with absorbed power. This is achieved without altering the saturation behavior or the recovery parameters of the samples. These SESAMs will be a key enabling component for the next generation of kilowatt-level ultrafast oscillators. PMID:27409874

  14. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby

    2009-01-01

    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures. PMID:19654454

  15. Sesame Street Around the World: The Educational Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Conner, Ross F.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates seven studies concerned with the influence of Sesame Street on the development of learning skills in preschool children and provides a balance sheet of achievements, limitations and unanswered questions. (MH)

  16. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016. PMID:25727928

  17. Structural stability of beta-globulin, the low molecular weight protein fraction from sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Prakash, V

    1993-02-01

    Beta-globulin, a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 15,000 +/- 1,000, undergoes denaturation in alkaline pH (7.0-13.0), thereby affecting the hydrodynamic properties of the protein, viz. a decrease in sedimentation coefficient from a value of 2.0s to 1.4s at pH 11.3, an increase in reduced viscosity from 0.042 dl/g to 0.158 dl/g at pH 12.6 and a decrease in partial specific volume resulting in a volume change of 6.3 +/- 1.0 ml/mole residue at pH 11.7. The perturbation of tryptophanyl residues and ionization of tyrosyl residues are preceded by alteration in conformational status of the protein. The fluorescence emission measurements indicate initial unfolding of the protein molecule which exposes the tryptophan and tyrosyl residues to the solvent. The tyrosyl phenolic group ionization is anomalous having a pKint value of 11.2. The reduced viscosity value reaches a plateau region at pH 12.5. PMID:8509122

  18. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 2 conducted on 19-20 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the AVE-SESAME 2 period is presented. The information provides researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 2 period.

  19. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Shuai, Qian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    A simple and rapid detection technology was proposed based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) fingerprints to determine potential adulteration of sesame oil. Oil samples were diluted by n-hexane and analyzed by IMS for 20s. Then, chemometric methods were employed to establish discriminant models for sesame oils and four other edible oils, pure and adulterated sesame oils, and pure and counterfeit sesame oils, respectively. Finally, Random Forests (RF) classification model could correctly classify all five types of edible oils. The detection results indicated that the discriminant models built by recursive support vector machine (R-SVM) method could identify adulterated sesame oil samples (⩾ 10%) with an accuracy value of 94.2%. Therefore, IMS was shown to be an effective method to detect the adulterated sesame oils. Meanwhile, IMS fingerprints work well to detect the counterfeit sesame oils produced by adding sesame oil essence into cheaper edible oils. PMID:26304320

  20. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  1. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  2. Project management system for structural and functional proteomics: Sesame.

    PubMed

    Zolnai, Zsolt; Lee, Peter T; Li, Jing; Chapman, Michael R; Newman, Craig S; Phillips, George N; Rayment, Ivan; Ulrich, Eldon L; Volkman, Brian F; Markley, John L

    2003-01-01

    A computing infrastructure (Sesame) has been designed to manage and link individual steps in complex projects. Sesame is being developed to support a large-scale structural proteomics pilot project. When complete, the system is expected to manage all steps from target selection to data-bank deposition and report writing. We report here on the design criteria of the Sesame system and on results demonstrating successful achievement of the basic goals of its architecture. The Sesame software package, which follows the client/server paradigm, consists of a framework, which supports secure interactions among the three tiers of the system (the client, server, and database tiers), and application modules that carry out specific tasks. The framework utilizes industry standards. The client tier is written in Java2 and can be accessed anywhere through the Internet. All the development on the server tier is also carried out in Java2 so as to accommodate a wide variety of computer platforms. The database tier employs a commercial database management system. Each Sesame application module consists of a simple user interface in the client tier, corresponding objects in the server tier, and relevant data stored in the centralized database. For security, access to stored data is controlled by access privileges. The system facilitates both local and remote collaborations. Because users interact with the system using Java Web Start or through a web browser, access is limited only by the availability of an Internet connection. We describe several Sesame modules that have been developed to the point where they are being utilized routinely to support steps involved in structural and functional proteomics. This software is available to parties interested in using it and assisting to guide its further development. PMID:12943363

  3. The Impact of Sesame Street On Children's First School Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogatz, Gerry Ann; Ball, Samuel

    As a followup to a previous evaluation, a study to determine the effect of Sesame Street viewing on school readiness was conducted using a group of 99 three-, four-, and five-year-olds from a low income neighborhood in Los Angeles. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups which were either encouraged to watch the program or to maintain their…

  4. "Shalom Sesame": Using Media to Promote Jewish Education and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; Lemish, Dafna; Spezia, Elizabeth; Siegel, Deborah; Fisch, Susan R. D.; Aladé, Fashina; Kasdan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A family survey, ethnographic study, and quasi-experimental study investigated "Shalom Sesame's" potential to enhance understanding of Jewish culture and identity among preschool families. Preschoolers demonstrated significant learning, recognizing that people who looked different could be Jewish, and in knowledge about Hebrew…

  5. "Sesame Street": A Linguistic Detour for Black-Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara H.

    1973-01-01

    Maintains that the concept of verbal deprivation'' constituting an integral part of the operating assumption of Sesame Street'' has been thoroughly refuted by reputed liguists; that nonstandard'' English is not an inept, deficient approximation of American English but a separate, logical, and highly structured system of communication. (RJ)

  6. Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers.

    PubMed

    Emaury, Florian; Diebold, Andreas; Klenner, Alexander; Saraceno, Clara J; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2015-08-24

    We present a detailed study of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers (TDLs) pumped by kW-class highly transverse multimode pump diodes with a typical M(2) value of 200-300, and give guidelines for future frequency stabilization of multi-100-W oscillators. We demonstrate CEO frequency detection with > 30 dB signal-to-noise ratio with a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz from a SESAM modelocked Yb:YAG TDL delivering 140 W average output power with 748-fs pulses at 7-MHz pulse repetition rate. We compare with a low-power CEO frequency stabilized Yb:CALGO TDL delivering 2.1 W with 77-fs pulses at 65 MHz. For both lasers, we perform a complete noise characterization, measure the relevant transfer functions (TFs) and compare them to theoretical models. The measured TFs are used to determine the propagation of the pump noise step-by-step through the system components. From the noise propagation analysis, we identify the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the pump diode as the main contribution to the CEO frequency noise. The resulting noise levels are not excessive and do not prevent CEO frequency stabilization. More importantly, the laser cavity dynamics are shown to play an essential role in the CEO frequency dynamics. The cavity TFs of the two lasers are very different which explains why at this point a tight CEO frequency lock can be obtained with the Yb:CALGO TDL but not with the Yb:YAG TDL. For CEO stabilization laser cavities should exhibit high damping of the relaxation oscillations by nonlinear intra-cavity elements, for example by operating a SESAM in the roll-over regime. Therefore the optimum SESAM operation point is a trade-off between enough damping and avoiding multiple pulsing instabilities. Additional cavity components could be considered for supplementary damping independent of the SESAM operation point. PMID:26368160

  7. Comparison of Different Classification Methods for Analyzing Electronic Nose Data to Characterize Sesame Oils and Blends

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaolong; Li, Hui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was used to characterize sesame oils processed by three different methods (hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and refined), as well as blends of the sesame oils and soybean oil. Seven classification and prediction methods, namely PCA, LDA, PLS, KNN, SVM, LASSO and RF, were used to analyze the e-nose data. The classification accuracy and MAUC were employed to evaluate the performance of these methods. The results indicated that sesame oils processed with different methods resulted in different sensor responses, with cold-pressed sesame oil producing the strongest sensor signals, followed by the hot-pressed sesame oil. The blends of pressed sesame oils with refined sesame oil were more difficult to be distinguished than the blends of pressed sesame oils and refined soybean oil. LDA, KNN, and SVM outperformed the other classification methods in distinguishing sesame oil blends. KNN, LASSO, PLS, and SVM (with linear kernel), and RF models could adequately predict the adulteration level (% of added soybean oil) in the sesame oil blends. Among the prediction models, KNN with k = 1 and 2 yielded the best prediction results. PMID:26506350

  8. Comparison of different classification methods for analyzing electronic nose data to characterize sesame oils and blends.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaolong; Li, Hui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was used to characterize sesame oils processed by three different methods (hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and refined), as well as blends of the sesame oils and soybean oil. Seven classification and prediction methods, namely PCA, LDA, PLS, KNN, SVM, LASSO and RF, were used to analyze the e-nose data. The classification accuracy and MAUC were employed to evaluate the performance of these methods. The results indicated that sesame oils processed with different methods resulted in different sensor responses, with cold-pressed sesame oil producing the strongest sensor signals, followed by the hot-pressed sesame oil. The blends of pressed sesame oils with refined sesame oil were more difficult to be distinguished than the blends of pressed sesame oils and refined soybean oil. LDA, KNN, and SVM outperformed the other classification methods in distinguishing sesame oil blends. KNN, LASSO, PLS, and SVM (with linear kernel), and RF models could adequately predict the adulteration level (% of added soybean oil) in the sesame oil blends. Among the prediction models, KNN with k = 1 and 2 yielded the best prediction results. PMID:26506350

  9. Sesamolinol glucoside, disaminyl ether, and other lignans from sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Grougnet, Raphael; Magiatis, Prokopios; Laborie, Helene; Lazarou, Despina; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2012-01-11

    The application of a procedure based on XAD-4 adsorption resin permitted the obtainment of an enriched polyphenolic extract from Sesamum indicum seeds. Chemical analysis of the obtained extract led to the identification of 12 lignans. Among them, 2 lignans, (+)-sesamolinol-4'-O-β-D-glucoside and disaminyl ether, are reported for the first time as natural compounds. Their structure has been determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly by the application of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques [heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectrometry (NOESY)] and mass spectroscopy. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimutagenic activity. Among the tested lignans, the most active lignan was found to be sesamolin, followed by sesamolinol and samin, against H(2)O(2). Additionally, some of the tested lignans showed desmutagenic activity against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). PMID:22148167

  10. Resistance of alpha-globulin from Sesamum indicum L. to proteases in relationship to its structure.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, R; Prakash, V

    1989-04-01

    alpha-Globulin, the high-molecular-weight protein fraction from Sesamum indicum L., was hydrolyzed to low-molecular-weight protein and peptides by pepsin, while its resistance to hydrolysis by group-specific enzymes, trypsin or alpha-chymotrypsin, was very high. The protein showed definite structural changes after proteolysis, especially after peptic hydrolysis, as evidenced from various biophysical data. The sedimentation velocity pattern of alpha-globulin hydrolyzed by trypsin or alpha-chymotrypsin indicated reduction in the percentage of 11S component, while the pepsin-hydrolyzed sample was devoid of any 11S component, indicating the absence of a native protein molecule. The fluorescence emission spectra of the various hydrolyzed alpha-globulin showed a red shift in the fluorescence emission maximum. The red shift was maximum with alpha-globulin hydrolyzed by pepsin and minimum with the trypsin-hydrolyzed sample. The far-ultraviolet-circular dichroic measurements indicated that most of the ordered structure of alpha-globulin was absent after pepsin hydrolysis, while after trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysis conformational changes were less. PMID:2472154

  11. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  12. Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Sesame Seed in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Koppelman, Stef J.; Söylemez, Gülsen; Niemann, Lynn; Gaskin, Ferdelie E.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Taylor, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Small amounts of sesame can trigger allergic reactions in sesame-allergic patients. Because sesame is a widely used food ingredient, analytical methods are needed to support quality control and food safety programs in the food industry. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against sesame seed proteins were raised, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of sesame seed residue in food. A comparison was made between this ELISA and other assays, particularly focusing on recovery of sesame seed residue from different food matrices. The developed ELISA is sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with other foods or food ingredients (92 tested). The ELISA has a good recovery for analyzing sesame-based tahini in peanut butter, outperforming one other test. In a baked bread matrix, the ELISA has a low recovery, while two other assays perform better. We conclude that a sensitive and specific ELISA can be constructed based on polyclonal antibodies, which is suitable for detection of small amounts of sesame seed relevant for highly allergic patients. Furthermore, we conclude that different food products may require different assays to ensure adequate quantification of sesame. PMID:26783532

  13. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Sesame Oil and Sesamin

    PubMed Central

    Henriques Monteiro, Érika Maria; Chibli, Lucas Apolinário; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Santana Pereira, Mônica Cecília; Pinto Vilela, Fernanda Maria; Rodarte, Mírian Pereira; de Oliveira Pinto, Míriam Aparecida; Henriques do Amaral, Maria da Penha; Silva Silvério, Marcelo; de Matos Araújo, Ana Lúcia Santos; André de Araújo, Aílson da Luz; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Sesame oil is widely consumed as nutritious food, cooking oil, and in pharmaceuticals and food. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the sesame oil and sesamin were investigated. The sesame oil and sesamin reduced the number of abdominal contortions at the doses 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. The first and second phases of the time paw licking were inhibited by sesame oil and sesamin (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). After 90 min of treatment, sesame oil and sesamin increased the reaction time on a hot plate (200 or 400 mg/kg). Considering the tail-immersion assay, the sesame oil and sesamin produced significant effect after 60 min at the doses of 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. After 4 h of application of the carrageenan, the sesame oil and sesamin were effective against the paw edema. The exudate volume and leucocyte migration were also reduced by sesame oil and sesamin. These results suggest that sesamin is one of the active compounds found in sesame oil and justify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of this product. PMID:24824289

  14. Enteral sesame oil therapeutically relieves disease severity in rat experimental osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of joint pain, affecting approximately 15% of the population. Recent studies indicate that quadriceps muscle weakness is directly involved in the pathogenesis of OA-associated joint pain. Oxidative stress plays an important role in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Sesame oil is a natural product with excellent antioxidative property. However, whether sesame oil can decrease OA-induced joint pain has never been investigated. Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sesame oil on OA-induced joint pain in rats. Design OA-associated joint pain in rats was induced by medial meniscal transection in rats. Sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 ml/kg/day, orally) was given to rats 7 days after OA induction, while the parameters were determined 7 days after sesame oil administration. Results Daily sesame oil treatment for 7 days significantly decreased OA-associated joint pain. Sesame oil decreased muscular interleukin-6 and increased citrate synthase activity and myosin heavy chain IIa mRNA expression. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased muscular lipid peroxidation, nuclear Nrf2 protein expression, and reactive oxygen species generations as well as increased glutathione production and glutathione peroxidase activity in OA rats. Conclusions Sesame oil may relieve OA-associated joint pain by inhibiting quadriceps muscular oxidative stress, at least partially, in rats. PMID:27032670

  15. Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Watanabe, Takahide; Madoka, Yuka; Koizumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Masayuki P.; Masuda, Kyojiro; Yamada, Kyoji; Masuda, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2) and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and Arabidopsis. PMID

  16. Results of the Study on the Role and Penetration of Sesame Street and the Electric Company in Ghetto Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The findings of a 1973 study covering the performance of Sesame Street and The Electric Company in ghetto communities are reported briefly. The steps taken to repeat the methodology of earlier Sesame Street studies are described. Data are given on: penetration of Sesame Street among preschool children in Bedford Stuyvesant, East Harlem, Chicago,…

  17. Development of an EMS-induced sesame mutant population for target induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sesame is a diploid species (Sesame indicum L., 2n = 2x = 26) with a relatively small nuclear genome size (1C = ~360 x 106 bp) consisting of a considerably low proportion of repetitive sequences. Sesame has a relatively short lifecycle producing mature seeds within 80 days after planting....

  18. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recent inspection system ...

  19. New Avenues of Special Education Resources: Sesame Street Programming for the Exceptional Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, LaMarian

    Reviewed are some of the steps taken by Sesame Street staff in developing initial educational television programing for children with retarded development and having mental age of 3 to 5 years old. Three programing objectives are outlined: (1) to make selected elements of Sesame Street's curriculum more comprehensible to mentally retarded (MR)…

  20. A Summary of the Major Findings in "The First Year of Sesame Street: An Evaluation".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel; Bogatz, Gerry Ann

    The Educational Testing Service evaluated the Sesame Street educational television series to determine the extent to which it accomplished its stated objectives during its first year. Research results showed that Sesame Street benefited children from low-income inner-city areas and isolated rural areas as well as children from middle-class…

  1. Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Niti; Rai, A.K.; Kumari, Ratna; Bhat, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value. PMID:25125886

  2. Sesame Street Research: A 20th Anniversary Symposium (Princeton, New Jersey, November 4, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Peter B., Ed.

    A research agenda has been at the core of "Sesame Street" and other Children's Television Workshop (CTW) educational projects since inception. This collection of presentations, from a symposium honoring the twentieth anniversary of Sesame Street's debut on national television, addresses research's role in the series, describing how research is…

  3. Effects of "Sesame Street": A Meta-Analysis of Children's Learning in 15 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Pan, Zhongdang

    2013-01-01

    "Sesame Street" is broadcast to millions of children globally, including in some of the world's poorest regions. This meta-analysis examines the effects of children's exposure to international co-productions of "Sesame Street", synthesizing the results of 24 studies, conducted with over 10,000 children in 15 countries. The results indicated…

  4. Anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory actions of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, has now been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil has anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study, we have determined the mechanisms by which sesame oil might modulate atherosclerosis by identifying genes and inflammatory markers. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) female mice were fed with either an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for cytokine analysis. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue and used for global gene arrays. The sesame oil diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR(-/-) mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-6, and CXCL-16, were significantly reduced, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory property of sesame oil. Gene array analysis showed that sesame oil induced many genes, including ABCA1, ABCA2, APOE, LCAT, and CYP7A1, which are involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. In conclusion, our studies suggest that a sesame oil-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:25562618

  5. Characterizing the Relationship Between Sesame, Coconut, and Nut Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stutius, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Bharmanee, Apinya; Scott, Jordan E.; Young, Michael C.; Dioun, Anahita; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Sesame and coconut are emerging food allergens in the US. We sought to examine whether children allergic to peanuts and tree nuts are at increased risk of having an allergy to sesame or coconut. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to sesame and coconut and identified 191 children who underwent SPT to sesame and 40 to coconut. Sensitization to sesame was more likely in children with positive SPT to peanuts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7–16.8], P<0.001) and tree nuts (OR = 10.5, 95% CI [4.0–27.7], P<0.001). Children with histories of both peanut and tree nut reaction were more likely to have a history of sesame reaction (OR = 10.2, 95% CI [2.7–38.7], P<0.001). Children with sensitization or allergy to peanuts or tree nuts were not more likely to be sensitized or allergic to coconut. In conclusion, children with peanut or tree nut sensitization were more likely to be sensitized to sesame but not coconut. Children with clinical histories of both peanut and tree nut allergy were more likely to be allergic to sesame. PMID:21073539

  6. Anti-Atherosclerotic and Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Sesame Oil

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, has now been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil has anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study, we have determined the mechanisms by which sesame oil might modulate atherosclerosis by identifying genes and inflammatory markers. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) female mice were fed with either an atherogenic diet or an atherogenic diet reformulated with sesame oil (sesame oil diet). Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for cytokine analysis. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue and used for global gene arrays. The sesame oil diet significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDLR−/− mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-6, and CXCL-16, were significantly reduced, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory property of sesame oil. Gene array analysis showed that sesame oil induced many genes, including ABCA1, ABCA2, APOE, LCAT, and CYP7A1, which are involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. In conclusion, our studies suggest that a sesame oil-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:25562618

  7. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es Salaam. Results offer…

  8. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs. PMID:25745256

  9. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  10. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  11. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  12. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  13. Cardioprotective and Antioxidant Influence of Aqueous Extracts from Sesamum indicum Seeds on Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic diseases of the heart as a result of indiscriminate exposure to cardiotoxic heavy metals. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts from Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Daily administration of Cd (200 mg/L Cd as CdCl2) in the animals’ main drinking water for 21 days led to oxidative stress. Thereafter, the ameliorative effects were assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activities. Results: Treatment with SI extract elicited notable reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as concomitant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. SI extract also reversed the elevations witnessed in serum aminotransferase activities, LPO level, and ameliorated enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant status in the heart of Cd-exposed rats. Conclusion: Thus, SI appears to be an attractive candidate with potential for the novel treatment of cardiotoxicity and management of oxidative stress arising from Cd exposure. SUMMARY Cadmium (200 mg/L) exposure in drinking water caused pronounced oxidative stress and cardiac tissue damage in animal modelAqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant reversal effect in all biochemical parameters measured such as extent of lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activitiesAqueous extract of SI seeds possess antioxidant and cardioprotective potential in a dose-dependent manner, thus conferring protection against oxidative stress induced by cadmium. Abbreviation used

  14. Hypersensitivities to sesame and other common edible seeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Bahna, S L

    2016-10-01

    Several seeds have been increasingly incorporated in various food items, with consequent risk of hypersensitivity reactions that are often severe. Identification of the specific seed as the culprit is often not explored or is difficult to verify. In this article, we reviewed the English literature from January 1930 to March 2016 using PubMed and Google Scholar searching for publications relevant to hypersensitivity to common edible seeds, namely sesame, sunflower seed, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, flaxseed, and mustard seed. Considering the worldwide consumption of those seeds, the number of published articles on the subject was relatively small and was mainly as case reports rather than large series. Allergy to sesame was more reported than to other seeds, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1-0.2%. In this review, we summarize the information relevant to each of the six seeds and their oils regarding the manifestations, routes of exposure, identified major allergens, and cross-reactivity with other seeds or other foods. We also addressed the important role of a thorough history taking in suspecting seed allergy, the limited reliability of routine diagnostic procedures, and the importance of verification by appropriate challenge tests. At present, management is basically dietary avoidance and the use of symptomatic medications that may include epinephrine auto-injectors. We did not encounter any well-designed studies on immunotherapy for seed allergy, but it is hoped that such a gap be filled by the development of safe effective protocols in the near future. PMID:27332789

  15. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, B E; Nwozo, S O; Amah, G H; Awoyinka, A O; Ojo, O A; Ajiboye, B O; Tijani, H A

    2014-02-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic

  16. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-02-15

    Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. PMID:24128542

  17. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 3 conducted on 25-26 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    General weather conditions, including synoptic maps, radar reports, satellite photographs, precipitation areas and amounts, and a summary of severe weather reports are presented. These data provide researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 3 period.

  18. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  19. Timing jitter characterization of a quantum dot SESAM modelocked VECSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittwer, V. J.; Pallmann, W. P.; Oehler, A. E. H.; Rudin, B.; Golling, M.; Barbarin, Y.; Südmeyer, T.; Keller, U.

    2011-03-01

    We present timing jitter measurements of a free-running SESAM modelocked VECSEL generating 8-ps pulses with 1.88-GHz repetition rate and 80-mW average output power. We observed very good performance comparable with iondoped solid-state-lasers which typically show excellent stability. We measured the two-sided noise power spectral density at the 10th harmonic of the laser output with the von der Linde method. The rms timing jitter integrated over an offset frequency range from 100 Hz to 100 kHz gives a free-running timing jitter of ~400 fs which is an upper limit because the measurement was already system noise limited above 10 kHz.

  20. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity. PMID:26395416

  1. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  2. Sesame effects on testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats

    PubMed Central

    Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Nasrolahi, Ozra; Azizi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes. Diabetes is associated with changes in testicular tissue. Sesame oil contains large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lignin with antioxidant activity, vitamin E, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). The present study investigated the effects of sesame on testis histology and male reproductive parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., control (C), diabetic-control (DC), and sesame-treated diabetic rats (SD). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p). The animals were treated by a single intraperitoneal sesame extract injection (100 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 6 weeks. Results: The biochemical analysis revealed that the diabetes resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in spermiogenesis, testosterone, LH, and FSH levels. Light microscopic analysis showed remarkable (p<0.05) reduction in STD (seminiferous tubules diameter), SPI (spermatogenesis index) thickness of the epithelium, and significant increase in thickness of the interstitial tissue in the diabetic group compared with the control group. Simultaneous administration of the sesame could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH, and FSH of the animals in this group. However, some differences were manifested with improved histological features as thickness of the epithelium, seminiferous tubules diameter, and spermatogenesis index. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that sesame significantly improved diabetes complication in rat testis. This study suggested that sesame might have a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced impaired testicular functions in diabetic rats. PMID:25050292

  3. Effect of growing Sesamum indicum L. on enhanced dissipation of lindane (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-hexachlorocyclohexane) from soil.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2010-07-01

    The effect of growing Sesamum indicum L. on the dissipation of lindane (gamma-HCH) was studied in spiked soil. For this, S. indicum was grown with four different concentrations of lindane (5, 10, 15, and 20 microg g(-1)). Plant growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, microbial biomass carbon, lindane uptake, residual lindane concentration in soil and percentage dissipation of lindane from soil were analyzed at 25, 90, and 124 d. The accumulation of lindane in test plants was linearly related to the soil concentration (r2 = 0.897-0.979). At maturity, the accumulation of lindane in S. indicum grown with four spiked concentrations reached up to 7.98, 13.72, 23.71, and 33.29 microg g(-1) dry matter, respectively. There was a marked difference in the dissipation of lindane in vegetated and non-vegetated soils (p < 0.01). After final harvesting, the residual lindane concentrations in four spiked concentrations were reduced by 77.56, 70.12, 62.51, and 58.7%, respectively. Agronomic practice for the onsite application of this species is discussed. Based on the present study, it was calculated that S. indicum could accumulate 2237-2611 mg lindane per acre after 124 d cultivation. S. indicum could thus be used for the phytoremediation of lindane contaminated soil. PMID:21166287

  4. NASA's participation in the AVE-SESAME '79 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center participated with its AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment) in a large interagency mesoscale and severe storms experiment identified herein as AVE-SESAME '79 (Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment 1979). A primary objective of NASA was to support an effort to acquire carefully edited sets of rawinsonde data during selected severe weather events for use in correlative and diagnostic studies with satellite and radar data obtained at approximately the same times. Data were acquired during six individual 24-h experiments on both the regional and storm scales over a network in the central United States that utilized approximately 20 supplemental rawinsonde sites meshed among 23 standard National Weather Service sites. Included among the six experiments are data obtained between 1200 GMT on April 10 and 1200 GMT on April 11, encompassing the formation and development period for the tornado-producing systems that devastated Wichita Falls, Texas, and other sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The other dates for which data sets are available are April 19-20 and 25-26, May 9-10 and 20-21, and June 7-8, 1979.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of sesame oil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Iacopo; Travagli, Valter; Gabbrielli, Alessandro; Chiasserini, Luisa; Bocci, Velio

    2008-09-01

    Ozone treatment of commercially available vegetable oils gives rise to the formation of chemical species that are responsible for the therapeutic properties of ozonated oil derivatives in dermatological diseases. In the last years, these products have been successfully used as a topical disinfectant in a number of serious skin affections. The medical application of empirically prepared ozonated oil has yielded striking improvements with unexpected and rapid healing, compelling us to begin a long-range study aiming first to define the main characteristics of the most common ozonated vegetable oils, about which there is usually no medical consensus because of the lack of standardization of their technological parameters. Sesame oil was selected because of its great amount of polyunsaturated acyl groups, as well as natural antioxidants. Moreover, we have determined the kinetics and optimal conditions of ozonation (e.g., ozone concentrations, time of exposure, temperature) for obtaining an ozonated oil characterized by well-established technological and physico-chemical properties, namely an accurate peroxide value determination. On the basis of the results, we have gained an understanding of the modifications of the vegetable oils during the ozonation process. PMID:18679737

  6. Paenibacillus relictisesami sp. nov., isolated from sesame oil cake.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Takefumi; Johari, Nurziha Binti; Tsuruya, Atsuki; Nair, Arun; Nakayama, Toru

    2014-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain KB0549T, was isolated from sesame oil cake. Cells were motile, round-ended rods, and produced central or terminal spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content of strain KB0549T was 51.9 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, strain KB0549T was affiliated with the genus Paenibacillus in the phylum Firmicutes and was most closely related to Paenibacillus cookii with 97.4% sequence similarity. Strain KB0549T was physiologically differentiated from P. cookii by the high content of anteiso-C17:0, inability to grow at 50 °C, spore position, and negative Voges-Proskauer reaction. Based on these unique physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Paenibacillus relictisesami sp. nov.; the type strain is KB0549T (=JCM 18068T=DSM 25385T). PMID:24478207

  7. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant activities of sesame meal, half of sesame seeds were FIR-irradiated and then oil was extracted from the seeds. The resulting defatted sesame meal (DSM) was extracted with methanol, and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extract were determined. FIR irradiation of sesame seeds for 30 min increased the total phenol content from 34.0 to 59.0 muM and radical scavenging activity of DSM extracts from 26.40 to 68.76%. The induction time of lipid oxidation of oil added to extracts was also retarded from 0.82 to 0.96 h. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, several low molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid, were frequently detected in FIR-irradiated DSM extracts as compared to unirradiated ones. These results indicated that FIR irradiation of sesame seeds increased the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of DSM. PMID:15740030

  8. Discriminating Characteristics of Families Watching Sesame Street. Early Developmental Adversity Program: Phase III, EDAP Technical Note 15.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    "Sesame Street" is a television program aimed at stimulating young viewers. This study, a part of the Early Developmental Adversity Program, attempts to discover what demographic characteristics are associated with children who view or do not view "Sesame Street." The subjects of the study were 69 3-year-old children. Black and white, as well as…

  9. Avoidance of solidification of sesame oil at low temperature by self-interesterification with immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, H; Yamane, T

    2000-05-01

    To reduce the freezing point of sesame oil, the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of sesame oil in a solvent free system was studied. The lipase was immobilized on Celite and refined sesame oil was used as the only substrate for the reaction. After interesterification, the oil did not solidify at 0 degrees C even after 24 h, and even longer storage at 2-4 degrees C did not result in solidification. The change of physical behavior was investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction, and reduction in the thermodynamic and crystallographic stability of the interesterified oil was demonstrated. The change in triacylglycerol species composition after the reaction was analyzed, showing that content of trisaturated acylglycerol was decreased. PMID:10879471

  10. Sesame fractions and lipid profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Saman; Paukste, Ernesta; Nikbakht, Elham; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein

    2016-03-14

    Increased plasma lipid profiles are among the most important risk factors of CHD and stroke. Sesame contains considerable amounts of vitamin E, MUFA, fibre and lignans, which are thought to be associated with its plasma lipid-lowering properties. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence and identify the effects of sesame consumption on blood lipid profiles using a meta-analysis of controlled trials. PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched (from 1960 to May 2015). A total of ten controlled trials were identified based on the eligibility criteria. Both the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Rosendal scale were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. The meta-analysis results showed that consumption of sesame did not significantly change the concentrations of total blood cholesterol (-0·32 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·75, 0·11; P=0·14, I(2)=96%), LDL-cholesterol (-0·15 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·50, 0·19; P=0·39, I(2)=96%) or HDL-cholesterol (0·01 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·00, 0·02; P=0·16, I(2)=0%). However, a significant reduction was observed in serum TAG levels (-0·24 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·32, -0·15; P<0·001, I(2)=84%) after consumption of sesame. It was concluded that sesame consumption can significantly reduce blood TAG levels but there is insufficient evidence to support its hypocholesterolaemic effects. Further studies are required to determine the potential effect of sesame consumption on lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26758593

  11. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element. PMID:25139230

  12. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  13. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 4 conducted on 9-10 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on data collected, symptotic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) 4 period. The information provides researchers a look at conditions during the period.

  14. "G" Is for Growing: Thirty Years of Research on Children and "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M., Ed.; Truglio, Rosemarie T., Ed.

    "Sesame Street," 30-years-old in 1999, is possibly the most influential program in children's educational television. This book collects and synthesizes key research studies since the program's inception, describing the processes by which educational content and research are integrated into production, reviewing major studies of the program's…

  15. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  16. Chaos on Sesame Street: Does This Carnival of Images Help Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid, disjointed, and vivid style of Sesame Street may impede rather than promote progress toward literacy and the development of voluntary attention. It robs children of the ability to create mental pictures. Contends that it is a failure as an instructional medium. (DM)

  17. Sesame Street. A Survey of Two Cities: Viewing Patterns in Inner City Los Angeles and Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filep, Robert; And Others

    This survey was conducted: (1) to develop a survey instrument for the collection of viewer interviews with the guidance and involvement of personnel recruited from inner city communities; (2) to ascertain if Sesame Street was being received by a significant number of inner city households in the low-income, minority, communities of Los Angeles and…

  18. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  19. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of dietary black sesame meal in pre-hypertensive humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been known that hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Elevation of blood pressure (BP) increases the adverse effect for cardiovascular outcomes. Prevention of increased BP plays a crucial role in a reduction of those outcomes, leading to a decrease in mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary black sesame meal on BP and oxidative stress in individuals with prehypertension. Methods Twenty-two women and eight men (aged 49.8 ± 6.6 years) with prehypertension were randomly divided into two groups, 15 subjects per group. They ingested 2.52 g black sesame meal capsules or placebo capsules each day for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting for measurement of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E levels. Anthropometry, body composition and BP were measured before and after 4-week administration of black sesame meal or a placebo. Results The results showed that 4-week administration of black sesame meal significantly decreased systolic BP (129.3 ± 6.8 vs. 121.0 ± 9.0 mmHg, P < 0.05) and MDA level (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 μmol/L, P < 0.05), and increased vitamin E level (29.4 ± 6.0 vs. 38.2 ± 7.8 μmol/L, P < 0.01). In the black sesame meal group, the change in SBP tended to be positively related to the change in MDA (R = 0.50, P = 0.05), while the change in DBP was negatively related to the change in vitamin E (R = -0.55, P < 0.05). There were no correlations between changes in BP and oxidative stress in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest the possible antihypertensive effects of black sesame meal on improving antioxidant status and decreasing oxidant stress. These data may imply a beneficial effect of black sesame meal on prevention of CVD. PMID:21827664

  20. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  1. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  2. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  3. A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser based on asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity with a SESAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kaiqiang; Li, Qi; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    A switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with an asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity based a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proof of concept device consists of a FGB laser with an asymmetric FBG-FP cavity, a SESAM as mode loss modulator, and a intracavity FBG as wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength fiber laser based SESAM with asymmetric FBG-FP cavity and the technical feasibility.

  4. Can Multiculturalism Be Exported? Dilemmas of Diversity on Nigeria's "Sesame Square"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moland, Naomi A.

    2015-01-01

    While scholars argue that "multicultural education" initiatives are rooted in liberal Western ideals, such projects are increasingly being exported to non-Western countries with significantly different sociohistorical contexts. This article examines the adaptation of multicultural education on the Nigerian version of "Sesame…

  5. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  6. Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

  7. G-SESAME: web tools for GO-term-based gene similarity analysis and knowledge discovery

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhidian; Li, Lin; Chen, Chin-Fu; Yu, Philip S.; Wang, James Z.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a set of online tools for measuring the semantic similarities of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and the functional similarities of gene products, and for further discovering biomedical knowledge from the GO database. The tools have been used for about 6.9 million times by 417 institutions from 43 countries since October 2006. The online tools are available at: http://bioinformatics.clemson.edu/G-SESAME. PMID:19491312

  8. Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-Gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-11-01

    Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

  9. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  10. Ozonated sesame oil enhances cutaneous wound healing in SKH1 mice.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Miracco, Clelia; Zanardi, Iacopo; Bocci, Velio; Travagli, Valter

    2011-01-01

    Ozone is well recognized as a bactericidal agent and its beneficial effect on wound healing could be a consequence of this property. Because ozone itself does not penetrate the cells but immediately reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids, its effects should be the results of oxidative reaction. For this reason, ozonated oils could be a way to deliver ozone messengers to the skin. This paper evaluated the therapeutic effects of three different grades of ozonated sesame oil in acute cutaneous wounds made in the skin of SKH1 mice. Specifically, wound closure rate, histological parameters, and the level of key proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factors and cyclin D1 have been analyzed in relation to the peroxide level present in the ozonated oil. Treatment with moderately ozonated sesame oil--expressed as peroxide value about 1,500)--has a faster wound closure rate in the first 7 days than treatment with oil containing either lower or higher peroxide value, and even with controls. Moreover, under the same treatment, an earlier and higher response of cells involved in wound repair, a higher angiogenesis, as well as an enhanced vascular endothelial growth factors and cyclin D1 expression were observed. The present study shows the validity of ozonated sesame oil in cutaneous wound healing and emphasizes the importance of the ozonation grade. PMID:21134039

  11. Effects of Sesame Seed Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups receiving 40 g of sesame seed daily along with standard medical therapy (n=25) or stan­dard treatment (n=25) for two months. Serum total antioxidant capacity, ma­londialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured. Results: After the intervention period two months of study, serum TC, LDL-cholesterol and MDA decreased significantly in the sesame group (P<0.05), while no significant difference in serum values of lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters was seen in the control group (P>0.05). There was no signifi­cant difference in pre and post-treatment values of lipid profile and oxidative parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study showed a positive effect of sesame seed in improv­ing lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame seed might be of help to reduce oxidative stress in OA patients. PMID:25097842

  12. Begin with the Children: What Research on "Sesame Street's" International Coproductions Reveals about Using Media to Promote a New More Peaceful World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charlotte F.; Labin, Daniel B.; del Rocio Galarza, Maria

    2008-01-01

    For nearly four decades, Sesame Workshop has brought the joy of learning to the world's youngest citizens through the introduction of locally-produced coproductions of the preschool television series, "Sesame Street". Many of these television shows have been specifically designed to forward important prosocial messages directly linked to the…

  13. Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kirti; Mudgal, V D; Viswasrao, Gajanan; Srivastava, Himani

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a new technological process for sesame oil extraction. The process deals with the effect of ohmic heating on enhancement of oil recovery and quality of cleaned and graded sesame seed. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (600, 750 and 900 V/m), end point temperature (65, 75 and 85 °C) and holding time (5, 10 and 15 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovered from sesame seed through mechanical extracted oil by application of ohmic heating varies from 39.98 to 43.15 %. The maximum oil recovery 43.15 % was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 85 °C using EFS of 900 V/m for a holding time of 10 min as against 34.14 % in control sample. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil was within the acceptable limit (1.52 to 2.26 % oleic acid) of 0.5 to 3 % as prescribed respectively by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The peroxide value of extracted oil was also found within the acceptable limit (0.78 to 1.01 meq/kg). The optimum value for maximum oil recovery, minimum residual oil content, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value were 41.24 %, 8.61 %, 1.74 % oleic acid and 0.86 meq/kg, respectively at 722.52 V/m EFS at EPT 65 °C for 5 min. holding time which was obtained by response surface methodology. PMID:27413228

  14. Identification of Different Varieties of Sesame Oil Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging and Chemometrics Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Wang, Qiaonan; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) technique for non-destructive identification of sesame oil. Hyperspectral images of four varieties of sesame oil were obtained in the spectral region of 874–1734 nm. Reflectance values were extracted from each region of interest (ROI) of each sample. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and x-loading weights (x-LW) were carried out to identify the most significant wavelengths. Based on the sixty-four, seven and five wavelengths suggested by CARS, SPA and x-LW, respectively, two classified models (least squares-support vector machine, LS-SVM and linear discriminant analysis,LDA) were established. Among the established models, CARS-LS-SVM and CARS-LDA models performed well with the highest classification rate (100%) in both calibration and prediction sets. SPA-LS-SVM and SPA-LDA models obtained better results (95.59% and 98.53% of classification rate in prediction set) with only seven wavelengths (938, 1160, 1214, 1406, 1656, 1659 and 1663 nm). The x-LW-LS-SVM and x-LW-LDA models also obtained satisfactory results (>80% of classification rate in prediction set) with the only five wavelengths (921, 925, 995, 1453 and 1663 nm). The results showed that NIR-HSI technique could be used to identify the varieties of sesame oil rapidly and non-destructively, and CARS, SPA and x-LW were effective wavelengths selection methods. PMID:24879306

  15. The Impact of the SESAME Project on Science and Society in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2008-04-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a UNESCO-sponsored project that is constructing an international research laboratory, closely modeled on CERN, in Jordan (www.sesame.org.jo). Ten Members of the governing Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Turkey) have responsibility for the project, led by Herwig Schopper, Council President since 1999. In late 2008 Chris Llewellyn-Smith will become Council President. SESAME was initiated by a gift from Germany of the decommissioned BESSY I facility. The BESSY I 0.8 GeV injector is now being installed in the recently completed building, funded by Jordan, as components are procured for a new 133 m circumference, 2.5 GeV third-generation storage ring with 12 locations for insertion devices. Beam line equipment has been provided by laboratories in France, UK, and US. Support also comes from EU, IAEA, ICTP, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the US Department of Energy and State Department, and laboratories around the world. The broad scientific program includes biomedical, environmental, and archaeological programs particularly relevant to the Middle East. Five scientific workshops and six annual Users' meetings have brought together several hundred scientists from the region, along with researchers from around the world. Training programs have enabled about 100 scientists from the region to work at synchrotron radiation laboratories. These activities have already had significant impact on science and society in the Middle East, for example leading to collaborations between scientists from countries that are not particularly friendly with each other, and to national planning emphasizing synchrotron radiation research. When research starts in 2011 this impact will grow as graduate students are trained in the region in many scientific disciplines, and scientists working abroad are attracted to return.

  16. Bunch of restless vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L M; Tang, D Y; Zhang, H; Wu, X

    2009-05-11

    We report on the experimental observation of a novel form of vector soliton interaction in a fiber laser mode-locked with SESAM. Several vector solitons bunch in the cavity and move as a unit with the cavity repetition rate. However, inside the bunch the vector solitons make repeatedly contractive and repulsive motions, resembling the contraction and extension of a spring. The number of vector solitons in the bunch is controllable by changing the pump power. In addition, polarization rotation locking and period doubling bifurcation of the vector soliton bunch are also experimentally observed. PMID:19434141

  17. The effects of sesame oil on the prevention of amiodarone-induced phlebitis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Hashemi-Karoie, Seyedeh Zahra; Khalilian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phlebitis is the most common complication associated with peripheral intravenous infusion of amiodarone. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of sesame oil on the prevention of amiodarone-induced phlebitis. Materials and Methods: This is a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six patients hospitalized in a coronary care unit were randomly allocated into two groups using a convenience sampling method. Following peripheral intravenous cannulation, five drops of pure sesame oil were applied to the skin within a 10 cm radius of the infusion site prior to the administration of amiodarone in the intervention group. Sesame oil was rubbed on the skin at the infusion site every 6 h in the 24-h period of amiodarone infusion. In the control group, liquid paraffin, used as a placebo, was rubbed on the skin at the infusion site of amiodarone. Both groups were monitored for the development of phlebitis and its degree within the 24-h period of amiodarone infusion as well as 6 h after its administration. The incidence of phlebitis was confirmed and recorded by an assessor who was blind to the two groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18, and descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier, Hazard ratio, independent t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in their catheter survival after 30 h and 10 min (P < 0.001). Over 60% of the patients (61.1%) in the intervention group did not show any sign of phlebitis, while 16.7% and 22.2% of the patients manifested signs of grade 2 and 3 phlebitis, respectively. In the control group, 22.2% of the patients showed no signs of phlebitis, while 5.6%, 27.8%, and 44.4% of the patients exhibited signs of grade 2, 3, and 4 phlebitis, respectively. The statistical analysis showed significant differences in the degree of phlebitis (P = 0.006) and the onset

  18. A 12.1-W SESAM mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingnan, Peng; Zhaohua, Wang; Dehua, Li; Jiangfeng, Zhu; Zhiyi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Pumped by a 940 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, a passively mode-locked Yb:YAG thin disk oscillator was demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). 12.1 W mode-locked pulses were obtained with pulse duration of 698 fs at the repetition rate of 57.43 MHz. Measurement showed that the beam quality was close to the diffraction limit. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922402), the National Major Instrument Program of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61210017).

  19. Cosmic ray dose monitoring using RadFET sensors of the Rosetta instruments SESAME and COSIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, Peter; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Thiel, Klaus; Fischer, Henning; Hilchenbach, Martin; Henkel, Hartmut; Koch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    On its more than 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta carried RadFET ionising dose monitors in the central electronics of the orbiter instrument COSIMA and the lander instrument SESAME. The readings of the dosimeters were corrected for the temperature of the devices during measurements. Because the sensitivity of RadFETs depends on the energy of impinging charged particles, a mean efficiency factor for the prevalent proton radiation was determined by applying nine efficiency models to proton energy spectra of Rosetta's radiation environment. The resulting dose profiles show linear increases of the accumulated dose with time, mainly caused by galactic cosmic radiation, and the arrival of two solar particle events in 2005. The accumulated dose (in Silicon) during 3909 days in space from 2004-03-02 to 2014-11-14 was 3.2 ± 0.6 Gy in case of COSIMA and 1.9 ± 0.4 Gy for SESAME. The deviation of the two measurements is mainly due to the solar particle event in September 2005, which had a 5.3 ± 1.0 times stronger impact on the COSIMA RadFET. Measured dose levels are one order of magnitude lower than those expected before launch for not being exceeded on the 90% confidence level, which is mainly due to the low solar activity during the mission so far.

  20. Potential of Ozonated Sesame Oil to Augment Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pai, S. A.; Gagangras, S. A.; Kulkarni, S. S.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that ozonated oil has wound healing property was investigated in an excision wound model using Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into four groups, which were treated with sesame oil (vehicle), framycetin (standard), or two doses of ozonated sesame oil (peroxide values 500 and 700 mEq/1000 g, respectively). The formulations were topically applied on the excision wounds once daily for 11 consecutive days and the animals were euthanized on the 12th day. Wound healing was assessed by measuring the wound contracture, tensile strength, collagen content and superoxide dismutase activity of skin of the excised wound area. On the terminal day, areas of the wounds of the group receiving high dose ozonated oil were significantly smaller than those of the group treated with vehicle. Ozonated oil treated wounds had significantly higher tensile strength, collagen content and superoxide dismutase activity than that of the vehicle treated wounds. Histopathological analysis of skin of the excised wound area treated with ozonated oil revealed better healing activity vis-à-vis vehicle-treated wounds. Thus, it can be concluded that ozonated oil can be of potential therapeutic use for healing wounds. PMID:24799744

  1. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  2. Effects of Encouraging Israeli Mothers to Co-observe Sesame Street With Their Five-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    Research examined the learning effects that encouraging Israeli mothers to co-observe Sesame Street with their five-year-olds had. The mechanism which mediated such effects was also investigated. A total of 93 kindergarten children, drawn about equally from lower and middle class families, was divided between mothers' encouraged and non-encouraged…

  3. Preschool Children's Comprehension of a "Sesame Street" Video Tape: The Effects of Repeated Viewing and Previewing Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Marie A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twenty male and 20 female 4-year olds viewed a 19-minute "Sesame Street" videotape once a week for 3 weeks to determine whether comprehension would improve if time was given to "process" the tape and if instructions were previewed. Findings indicate that repeated viewing was most important in comprehension; previewing instructions and gender had…

  4. The First Year of Sesame Street: A History and Overview. Final Report, Volume I of V Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Joan Ganz

    This paper describes the evolution of the Children's Television Workshop, which was originally suggested in a study made by Joan Ganz Cooney for the Carnegie Corporation, and which was responsible for the development and production of the daily, 1-hour educational program, "Sesame Street:" As envisioned in the Carnegie proposal, the program was to…

  5. The Evaluation of "Sesame Street's" Social Goals: The Interpersonal Strategies of Cooperation, Conflict Resolution, and Differing Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, D. Lynn; Paulson, F. Leon

    This report reviews "Sesame Street's" development of procedure and materials for the 1970-1971 season with emphasis on the social goals of cooperation, conflict resolution, and realization of differing perspectives. These goals mark a departure from the first year of programing which emphasized cognitive learning objectives. Research design,…

  6. The MGGB equation-of-state for multifield applications: a numerical recipe for analytic expression of sesame EOS data

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract A thermodynamically consistent and fully general equation–of– state (EOS) for multifield applications is described. EOS functions are derived from a Helmholtz free energy expressed as the sum of thermal (fluctuational) and collisional (condensed–phase) contributions; thus the free energy is of the Mie–Gr¨uneisen1 form. The phase–coexistence region is defined using a parameterized saturation curve by extending the form introduced by Guggenheim,2 which scales the curve relative to conditions at the critical point. We use the zero–temperature condensed–phase contribution developed by Barnes,3 which extends the Thomas–Fermi–Dirac equation to zero pressure. Thus, the functional form of the EOS could be called MGGB (for Mie– Gr¨uneisen–Guggenheim–Barnes). Substance–specific parameters are obtained by fitting the low–density energy to data from the Sesame4 library; fitting the zero–temperature pressure to the Sesame cold curve; and fitting the saturation curve and latent heat to laboratory data,5 if available. When suitable coexistence data, or Sesame data, are not available, then we apply the Principle of Corresponding States.2 Thus MGGB can be thought of as a numerical recipe for rendering the tabular Sesame EOS data in an analytic form that includes a proper coexistence region, and which permits the accurate calculation of derivatives associated with compressibility, expansivity, Joule coefficient, and specific heat, all of which are required for multifield applications. 1

  7. Chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of benniseed (Sesamum radiatum), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flours.

    PubMed

    Oshodi, A A; Ogungbenle, H N; Oladimeji, M O

    1999-09-01

    The chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of benniseed (Sesamum radiatum), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the samples contained crude protein in the range of 11.4 to 22.5% with benniseed having the highest value of 2.5%, and pearl millet with the lowest value 11.4%. Ether extracts fall within the range of 6.3-44.3%. The moisture contents ranged from 5.2 to 11.2% while the ash contents were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 4.1% and the crude fibre ranged between 3.1 and 9.6%. The flours were relatively higher in maltose and D-ribose which were found to be in the range of 1.28-5.08 mg sugar in 5 ml sample. They also have low contents of glucose and fructose which ranged between 0.70 and 1.46 mg sugar in 5 ml sample. The predominant mineral was potassium which varied between 5150 and 7140 mg per kg sample while the samples were significantly low in manganese and copper. The protein solubility of the flours were found to have minimum solubility at pH 5 for benniseed, about pH 6 for pearl millet and quinoa. The seed flours also have good gelation property, water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability. The oil absorption capacity and foaming capacity were low but the foams were relatively stable. PMID:10719563

  8. Combination of deep sea water and Sesamum indicum leaf extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity through AMPK activation in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, HAIDAN; CHUNG, SUNGHYUN; MA, QIANQIAN; YE, LI; PIAO, GUANGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks. The mice in all three groups were allowed to freely access a HFD. Compared with the HFC group, the DSS group showed lower body weight gain and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin. Histological analyses of the epididymal white, retroperitoneal white and scapular brown adipose tissue of mice in the DSS group revealed that the adipocytes were markedly decreased in size compared with those in the HFC group. Moreover, DSS significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in mice epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, DSS upregulated the expression levels of lipolysis-associated mRNA, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and energy expenditure-associated mRNA, namely uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) in the epididymal adipose tissues. By contrast, DSS suppressed the expression of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) at the mRNA level. These results suggest that DSS is effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile. PMID:26889265

  9. Sesamum indicum Plant Extracted Microwave Combustion Synthesis and Opto-Magnetic Properties of Spinel MnxCo₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spine Mn(x)Co₁₋xAl₂O₄ (x = 0, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized using Sesamum indicum (S. indicum) plant extracted microwave-assisted combustion method. S. indicum plant extract simplifies the process, provides an alternative process for a simple, economical and environment friendly synthesis. The absence of surfactant/catalysts has led to a simple, cheap and fast method of synthesis of spinel nanoparticles. The as-synthesized spinel nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The formation of spinel nanoparticles was confirmed by HR-SEM and HR-TEM and their possible formation mechanisms were also proposed. Powder XRD, FT-IR, SAED and EDX results confirmed the formation of pure and single cubic phase CoAl₂O₄ with well-defined crystalline. The optical property was determined by DRS and PL spectra. VSM measurements revealed that pure and Mn-doped CoAl₂O₄ samples have weak ferromagnetic behavior and the magnetization values increases with increasing the concentration of Mn²⁺ ions in the CoAl₂O₄ lattice. The sample Mn₀.₅Co₀.₅Al₂O₄ possessed higher surface area and smaller crystallite size than other samples, which led to enhance the performance toward the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde. PMID:27398473

  10. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  11. Timing stability enhancement of an Erbium Doped mode locked Fiber Laser using SESAM mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, G.; Khedr, M. Atta; Badr, Y.; Danailov, M.; Sigalotti, P.; Cinquegrana, P.; Alsous, M. B.; Galaly, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on an examination of pulse timing stability of a home built Erbium Doped Fiber Laser (EDFL) passively mode locked via nonlinear polarization rotation by inserting semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) in laser cavity. A very low root mean square (RMS) timing jitter (less than 27 fsec) and faster self-starting mode locking have been established. In order to get clear, low noise signal for time resolving measurements, synchronization of EDFL laser with an external high precision electronic oscillator have been established. Subsequently, it is synchronized and optically cross-correlated with a Ti:Sapphire laser source (Micra). The measured relative timing jitter was found to be less than 65 fsec. In this way, the two, well synchronized Ti:Sapphire and EDFL laser pulses prove to be a powerful tool for time resolving measurements.

  12. Validating SESAME Equations of State for Use in Hydrocode Models of Small Solar System Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Plesko; Ferguson, Jim; Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, Robert P.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrodynamic models of small solar system body impacts, collisions, and hazard mitigation require material-specific equations of state (EOS's) in order to close the system of equations that comprise the model and accurately predict the response of such objects to shocks and other hydrodynamic phenomena. Current models approximate meteoritic and cometary materials using Earth-analogue EOS's, e.g., quartz, dunite, hydrated tuff, water ice, and numerical convolutions of analog EOS's. Earth-analogues are used because the formulation of a comprehensive equation of state requires a large amount of experimental data that is destructive to the often rare samples. Analogue EOS's can, however, perform very differently from the original material under shock loading. Some experimental data has become available over time for various meteorite types. Here we compare the available shock data for meteoritic materials to analogue EOS's available in the public Los Alamos National Laboratory SESAME EOS database to explore the applicability and limitations of these models.

  13. Mode locking in a bismuth fibre laser by using a SESAM

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, A A; Dvoirin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Kryukov, P G; Okhotnikov, O G; Guina, M

    2008-03-31

    By using a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror (SESAM) optimised for operation in the spectral range from 1100 to 1200 nm, passive mode locking is obtained in a cw bismuth-doped fibre laser. Pumping was performed by a cw ytterbium-doped fibre laser at a wavelength of 1075 nm. The operation of the laser is studied by using either a fibre Bragg grating or a loop fibre Sagnac mirror as the output resonator mirror. Stable laser pulses of duration from 50 ps to 3.5 ns, depending on the output mirror type, were generated. The pulse repetition rate was 11 MHz at a wavelength of {approx}1160 nm and the maximum spectral width of 2.1 nm. The maximum average output power was 7.8 mW upon pumping by 1140 mW. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals onto sesame straw biochar in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Cho, Ju-Sik; Heo, Jong-Soo; Delaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in mono and multimetal forms onto sesame straw biochar (SSB). Competitive sorption of metals by SSB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities (mgg(-1)) of metals by SSB were in the order of Pb (102)≫Cd (86)≫Cr (65)>Cu (55)≫Zn (34) in the monometal adsorption isotherm and Pb (88)≫Cu (40)≫Cr (21)>Zn (7)⩾Cd (5) in the multimetal adsorption isotherm. Based on data obtained from the distribution coefficients, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models, and three-dimensional simulation, multimetal adsorption behaviors differed from monometal adsorption due to competition. Especially, during multimetal adsorption, Cd was easily exchanged and substituted by other metals. Further competitive adsorption studies are necessary in order to accurately estimate the heavy metal adsorption capacity of biochar in natural environments. PMID:26082184

  15. Host specialization and phylogenetic diversity of Corynespora cassiicola.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L J; Schlub, R L; Pernezny, K; Datnoff, L E

    2009-09-01

    The fungus Corynespora cassiicola is primarily found in the tropics and subtropics, and is widely diverse in substrate utilization and host association. Isolate characterization within C. cassiicola was undertaken to investigate how genetic diversity correlates with host specificity, growth rate, and geographic distribution. C. cassiicola isolates were collected from 68 different plant species in American Samoa, Brazil, Malaysia, and Micronesia, and Florida, Mississippi, and Tennessee within the United States. Phylogenetic analyses using four loci were performed with 143 Corynespora spp. isolates, including outgroup taxa obtained from culture collections: C. citricola, C. melongenae, C. olivacea, C. proliferata, C. sesamum, and C. smithii. Phylogenetic trees were congruent from the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, two random hypervariable loci (caa5 and ga4), and the actin-encoding locus act1, indicating a lack of recombination within the species and asexual propagation. Fifty isolates were tested for pathogenicity on eight known C. cassiicola crop hosts: basil, bean, cowpea, cucumber, papaya, soybean, sweet potato, and tomato. Pathogenicity profiles ranged from one to four hosts, with cucumber appearing in 14 of the 16 profiles. Bootstrap analyses and Bayesian posterior probability values identified six statistically significant phylogenetic lineages. The six phylogenetic lineages correlated with host of origin, pathogenicity, and growth rate but not with geographic location. Common fungal genotypes were widely distributed geographically, indicating long-distance and global dispersal of clonal lineages. This research reveals an abundance of previously unrecognized genetic diversity within the species and provides evidence for host specialization on papaya. PMID:19671003

  16. SESAME 96170, a solid-liquid equation of state for CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D.

    2014-05-02

    I describe an equation of state (EOS) for the low-pressure solid phase and liquid phase of cerium (IV) oxide, CeO2. The models and parameters used to calculate the EOS are presented in detail, and I compare with data for the full-density crystal. Hugoniot data are available only for high-porosity powders, and I discuss difficulties in comparing with such data. I have constructed SESAME 96170, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes the ambient solid and liquid phases. The EOS extends over the full standard SESAME range, but should not be used at low temperatures and high densities because of the lack of a high-pressure solid phase. I have described the models used to compute the three terms of the EOS (cold curve, nuclear, and thermal electronic), and I have given the parameters used in the models. They were determined by comparison with experimental data at P = 1 atm, including the constant-pressure specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, and melting and boiling points. The EOS compares well with data in its intended range of validity, but the presence of high-frequency optical modes in its phonon spectrum limits the agreement of our models with thermal data. The next step is to construct a multiphase EOS that includes the low- and high-pressure solid phases and the liquid. The DAC data from Duclos will most strongly constrain the parameters of the high-pressure solid. A remaining issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental Hugoniot data, which are taken at much lower initial data because the samples are porous powders. A satisfactory means of modeling porosity, allowing comparison of theory and experiment, has not yet been produced.

  17. A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer - Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, D.; Anthes, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A one-dimensional, planetary boundary layer (PBL) model is presented and verified using April 10, 1979 SESAME data. The model contains two modules to account for two different regimes of turbulent mixing. Separate parameterizations are made for stable and unstable conditions, with a predictive slab model for surface temperature. Atmospheric variables in the surface layer are calculated with a prognostic model, with moisture included in the coupled surface/PBL modeling. Sensitivity tests are performed for factors such as moisture availability, albedo, surface roughness, and thermal capacity, and a 24 hr simulation is summarized for day and night conditions. The comparison with the SESAME data comprises three hour intervals, using a time-dependent geostrophic wind. Close correlations were found with daytime conditions, but not in nighttime thermal structure, while the turbulence was faithfully predicted. Both geostrophic flow and surface characteristics were shown to have significant effects on the model predictions

  18. Comparative antilipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil administration in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of novel antilipidemic therapies under consideration. The putative hypolipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sesame oil was studied in a mouse model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to the following groups: (NC) control group, (HC) group receiving test diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 8 weeks, (HCN) group receiving the test diet with NAC supplementation (230 mg/kg p.o.) and (HCS) group fed the test diet enriched with 10% sesame oil. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Total peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the serum at the end of the experiment. Hepatic and aortic lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Higher serum levels of total and LDL-cholesterol were recorded in all groups fed the high cholesterol diet. The HCN group presented reduced lipid levels compared to HC and HCS groups. No differences were observed between HCS and HC groups. Peroxide content in serum was markedly increased in mice consuming high cholesterol diet. NAC and sesame oil administration led to a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation in the levels of control group, whereas only NAC restored NO bioavailability. In terms of liver histology, the lesions observed in HCN group were less severe than those seen in the other high cholesterol groups. Conclusion Co-administration of NAC, but not sesame oil, restored the disturbed lipid profile and improved hepatic steatosis in the studied diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice. Both agents appear to ameliorate serum antioxidant defense. PMID:20205925

  19. SESAME/CASSE listening to the insertion of the MUPUS PEN at Abydos site, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Fischer, H.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Thiel, K.; Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Möhlmann, D.

    2015-10-01

    SESAME is a suite of three instruments (the Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment CASSE, the Dust Impact Monitor DIM, and the electrical Permittivity Probe PP) that have sensors and transmitters distributed all over the Philae lander, but share common electronics for commanding and processing. SESAME is conducted by a consortium of DLR, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (Göttingen), and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (Helsinki, [1]). The Multi-Purpose Sensor MUPUS, run also by DLR, combines a thermal conductivity and heat flow experiment with a mechanical properties experiment associated with the anchoring harpoons of the lander ([2]). It was recognized early in the preparation of both the SESAME and MUPUS experiments that the hammering mechanism of the latter, which drives the thermal probe into the ground, might as well serve as source of elastic waves for the CASSE experiment. To support the CASSE experiment, the MUPUS flight software provides information on its hammering process in a shared memory of the lander data management system. CASSE listening to the MUPUS PEN hammer mechanism proved to be the first active seismic experiment conducted on a celestial body other than Earth since the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment, which was carried out on the Moon by the Apollo 17 astronauts in 1972 (e.g. [3]).

  20. [Oral benefits for the elderly: results of a one-year implementation of the "Sesame" plan in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Faye, D; Diouf, M; Kanoute, A; Kane, A W

    2010-03-01

    Among the 650,000 persons aged 60 and over in Senegal, only 30% were receiving social security coverage, divided between the Senegalese Retirement Providence Institute and the National Retirement Fund. To fill the social demand, the government has put in place since 1 September 2006 a plan called "Sesame" which gives people aged 60 and older, free access to certain health services provided in public health. The implementation of this plan creates a lot of comments in the health community. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental benefits offered and to identify the difficulties perceived and experienced by the service provider after one year the "sesame" plan was implemented in Ouakam Health Center dental office, benchmark place of Gerontology in the Dakar North health district in Senegal. The study included two components: quantitative and qualitative terms, respectively, consisting of a retrospective study from sheets review and an interview with the health center service provider. The beneficiaries were a total of 42, mean age 68 years, including 66.7% men. Just over a third (35.7%) resided outside Ouakam. Almost 4/5 of the beneficiaries have suffered dental extractions on 1 to 10 teeth per beneficiary. The proportions of people receiving dentine treatment and curetage were respectively 4.8% and 2.4%. Qualitative data showed that the implementation of the plan was not shared between providers and beneficiaries. The "Sesame" plan is a commendable initiative to encourage and improve. PMID:20839478

  1. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  2. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  3. Diverse Thinking about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

  4. A synoptic analysis of the first AVE-SESAME '79 period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Key features of a severe convection observed during April 10-11, 1979 as part of the Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) are examined. Three-hourly rawinsonde readings from 23 stations were taken, and vertical motion and divergence parameters are considered. The data were converted into a 127 km grid at the surface, and at 50 mb intervals from 900 mb to 100 mb by an objective analysis scheme, while a kinematic method was used to compute vertical motion. A weak upper tropospheric short wave trough was found to propagate from New Mexico into the Texas panhandle, while a jet maximum propagated eastward. The development of a strong wind maximum over Oklahoma and Kansas was associated with a rapid increase in upper-level divergence and the development of a small-scale pressure perturbation in the Texas panhandle, as well as a low-level jet and convergence, which led to rapid changes over the Red River Valley, where stability was decreased.

  5. Laboratory calibrations of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for measuring the cometary surface permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Laasko, H.; Ciarletti, V.; Seidensticker, K.

    2013-09-01

    The complex permittivity of terrestrial and planetary grounds can be derived from Mutual Impedance (MI) measurements using a four-electrode array [1]; the system is working at a fixed frequency with the electrodes not necessarily in contact with the ground and with a dedicated electronic system. This concept was used to build the Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment of the Philae Rosetta cometary lander. However severe constraints due to the payload facilities and to the particular environment lead to the actual design of the instrument. Unfortunately it was not possible to perform calibrations of the full system before lauch and the ground model consists of several parts used by various instruments. Here we report the results of basic calibration tests performed with a model of the Philae Landing Gear built in DLR. These tests involve only the three feet electrodes and a mockup of the the Philae body with very simple and well defined targets for characterizing the instrument. Further measurements on natural targets would be the next step.

  6. Efficient Binding of Heavy Metals by Black Sesame Pigment: Toward Innovative Dietary Strategies To Prevent Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Giarra, Antonella; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    Black sesame pigment (BSP) was shown to bind lead, cadmium, and mercury at pH 7.0 and to a lower extent at pH 2.0. BSP at 0.05 mg/mL removed the metals at 15 μM to a significant extent (>65% for cadmium and >90% for mercury and lead), with no changes following simulated digestion. The maximum binding capacities at pH 7.0 were 626.0 mg/g (lead), 42.2 mg/g (cadmium), and 69.3 mg/g (mercury). In the presence of essential metals, such as iron, calcium, and zinc, BSP retained high selectivity toward heavy metals. Model pigments from caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferyl alcohol showed lower or comparable binding ability, suggesting that the marked properties of BSP may result from cooperativity of different sites likely carboxy groups and o-diphenol and guaiacyl functionalities. Direct evidence for the presence of such units was obtained by structural analysis of BSP by solid-state Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:26752477

  7. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    PubMed

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase. PMID:27570279

  8. SESAME 96171, a three-phase equation of state for CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chisolm, Eric D.

    2014-07-08

    This report describes an earlier version of an equation of state (EOS) for cerium (IV) oxide, CeO2. This work has been superseded by a newer version that is described in LA-UR-14-24689. Everything from this report needed to understand the new version is included in the new report. I have constructed SESAME 96171, an EOS for cerium (IV) oxide that includes two solid phases and the liquid. Unlike its immediate predecessor, this EOS is valid over a larger range in pressure due to including the extra phase. I have described the process of constructing and testing the EOS, emphasizing its continuity with the previous EOS and the modifications needed for the new frame-work. The comparison with data is good, but is still limited by the same issues with nuclear models that were present in the previous work. The remaining significant issue is the comparison of the crystal-density EOS with experimental porous Hugoniot data, which may require using more sophisticated model to represent porosity, as discussed in the previous report.

  9. Water-Soluble Components of Sesame Oil Reduce Inflammation and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Selvarajan, Krithika; Burge, Kathryn Young; Litvinov, Dmitry; Sengupta, Bhaswati; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major form of cardiovascular disease, is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Nonpharmacological means of treating chronic diseases have gained attention recently. We previously reported that sesame oil aqueous extract (SOAE) has anti-inflammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the antiatherosclerotic properties of SOAE, and the mechanisms, through genes and inflammatory markers, by which SOAE might modulate atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout female mice were fed with either a high-fat (HF) diet or an HF diet supplemented with SOAE. Plasma lipids and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified after 3 months of feeding. Plasma samples were used for global cytokine array. RNA was extracted from both liver tissue and the aorta, and used for gene analysis. The high-fat diet supplemented with SOAE significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, plasma cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in LDL-R(-/-) mice. Plasma inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the SOAE diet-fed animals, but not significantly, demonstrating potential anti-inflammatory properties of SOAE. Gene analysis showed the HF diet supplemented with SOAE reduced gene expression involved in inflammation and induced genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport, an anti-inflammatory process. Our studies suggest that a SOAE-enriched diet could be an effective nonpharmacological treatment for atherosclerosis by controlling inflammation and regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:27348418

  10. Control of origin of sesame oil from various countries by stable isotope analysis and DNA based markers--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis. PMID:25831054

  11. Control of Origin of Sesame Oil from Various Countries by Stable Isotope Analysis and DNA Based Markers—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Horacek, Micha; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Burg, Kornel; Soja, Gerhard; Okello-Anyanga, Walter; Fluch, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis. PMID:25831054

  12. Accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using SESAME-79 field data as revealed by observing system simulation experiments. [Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments are used to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets which employ the AVE-SESAME 1979 data. The time-including, four-dimensional data set of a mesoscale model is used to simulate rawinsonde observations from AVE-SESAME 1979. The 5 C/day (heat budget) and 2 g/kg per day (moisture budget) magnitudes of error obtained indicate difficulties in the diagnosis of the heating rate in weak convective systems. The influences exerted by observational frequency, objective analysis, observational density, vertical interpolation, and observational errors on the budget are also studied, and it is found that the temporal and spatial resolution of the SESAME regional network is marginal for diagnosing convective effects on a horizontal time scale of 550 x 550 km.

  13. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  14. Critical care ultrasound in cardiac arrest. Technological requirements for performing the SESAME-protocol--a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound has gained its place in critical care as part of our day-to-day monitoring tools. A better understanding of ultrasound techniques and recent publications including protocols for the lungs, the abdomen and the blood vessels has introduced ultrasound to the bedside of our ICU patients. However, we will prove in this paper that early machines, dating back more than 25 years, were perfectly able to do the job as compared to modern laptop machines with more features but few additional advantages. Ultrasound is not only a diagnostic tool, but should also be seen as an extension of the traditional physical examination. This paper will focus on the use of the SESAME-protocol in cardiac arrest. The SESAME-protocol suggests starting with a lung scan to rule out possible causes leading to cardiac arrest. Firstly, pneumothorax needs to be ruled out. Secondly, a partial diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is done following the BLUE-protocol. Thirdly, fluid therapy can be guided, following the FALLS-protocol. The SESAME-protocol continues by scanning the lower femoral veins to check for signs of deep venous thrombosis, followed by (or before, in case of trauma) the abdomen to detect massive bleeding. Next comes the pericardium, to exclude pericardial tamponade. Finally, a transthoracic cardiac ultrasound is performed to check for other (cardiac) causes leading to cardiac arrest. The emphasis is on a holistic approach, where ultrasound can be seen as the modern stethoscope needed by clinicians to complete the full physiological examination of their critically ill unstable patients. PMID:26578398

  15. Evaluation of phosphorus adsorption capacity of sesame straw biochar on aqueous solution: influence of activation methods and pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Ok, Y S; Kim, S H; Cho, J S; Heo, J S; Delaune, R D; Seo, D C

    2015-12-01

    The phosphorus (P) adsorption characteristic of sesame straw biochar prepared with different activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures was evaluated. Between 0.109 and 0.300 mg L(-1) in the form of inorganic phosphate was released from raw sesame straw biochar in the first 1 h. The release of phosphate was significantly enhanced from 62.6 to 168.2 mg g(-1) as the pyrolysis temperature increased. Therefore, sesame straw biochar cannot be used as an adsorbent for P removal without change in the physicochemical characteristics. To increase the P adsorption of biochar in aqueous solution, various activation agents and pyrolysis temperatures were applied. The amount of P adsorbed from aqueous solution by biochar activated using different activation agents appeared in the order ZnCl2 (9.675 mg g(-1)) > MgO (8.669 mg g(-1)) ⋙ 0.1N-HCl > 0.1N-H2SO4 > K2SO4 ≥ KOH ≥ 0.1N-H3PO4, showing ZnCl2 to be the optimum activation agent. Higher P was adsorbed by the biochar activated using ZnCl2 under different pyrolysis temperatures in the order 600 °C > 500 °C > 400 °C > 300 °C. Finally, the amount of adsorbed P by activated biochar at different ratios of biochar to ZnCl2 appeared in the order 1:3 ≒ 1:1 > 3:1. As a result, the optimum ratio of biochar to ZnCl2 and pyrolysis temperature were found to be 1:1 and 600 °C for P adsorption, respectively. The maximum P adsorption capacity by activated biochar using ZnCl2 (15,460 mg kg(-1)) was higher than that of typical biochar, as determined by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the ZnCl2 activation of sesame straw biochar was suitable for the preparation of activated biochar for P adsorption. PMID:26040973

  16. Blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shoufei; Wang, Yingying; Sun, Ruoyu; Jin, Dongchen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Pu

    2016-08-01

    We report on a blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked 1064-nm fiber laser, in which the giant chirp is introduced by a piece of 3.5-km single-mode fiber outside of the cavity. The giant-chirped pump source with 2.2-nm spectral bandwidth and 186-ps pulse width is used to enhance dispersive waves generation in blue wavelength. An extremely wide optical spectrum with a broad 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 311 nm (from 446 to 757 nm) and a maximum spectral power density of 4 mW/nm at 464 nm is obtained.

  17. Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Albin, Thomas; Apathy, Istvan; Arnold, Walter; Flandes, Alberto; Hirn, Attila; Kobayashi, Masanori; Loose, Alexander; Péter, Attila; Podolak, Morris

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by submillimeter- and millimeter-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. Aims: The DIM sensor measures dynamical data such as flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the particles can be constrained assuming density and elastic particle properties. Methods: DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) before the separation of Philae from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no dust particles were indeed detected; (2) during Philae's descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia, DIM detected one approximately millimeter-sized particle at a distance of 5.0 km from the nucleus' barycenter, corresponding to an altitude of 2.4 km from the surface. This is the closest ever dust detection at a cometary nucleus by a dedicated in situ dust detector; and (3) at Philae's final landing site, Abydos, DIM detected no dust impact which may be due to low cometary activity in the vicinity of Philae or due to shading by obstacles close to Philae, or both. Results: Laboratory calibration experiments showed that the material properties of the detected particle are compatible with a porous particle having a bulk density of approximately 250 kg m-3. The particle could have been lifted off the comet's surface by sublimating water ice.

  18. SESAM-modelocked electrically pumped VECSELs emitting 6.3-ps pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaugg, C. A.; Pallmann, W. P.; Mangold, M.; Dahhan, I.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Witzigmann, B.; Keller, U.

    2014-03-01

    Optically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (OP-VECSELs) evolved to high-power laser sources offering excellent beam-quality, wavelength flexibility and low-noise properties in a compact and simple cavity. Passively modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), VECSELs demonstrated fs-pulses with multi-Watt average output powers at gigahertz repetition rates. Electrical pumping (EP) is an obvious step to make these semiconductor lasers even more compact and suitable for chip integration, potentially enabling access to applications such as data communication or optical clocking. With SESAMmodelocked EP-VECSELs, 57-ps pulses with an average output power of 40 mW and 9.5-ps pulses with 7.6 mW have been obtained. However, due to the intrinsic trade-off between electrical and optical properties in the design of EPVECSELs, short pulses at high average output power are difficult to achieve. This challenge was previously addressed in our theoretical guidelines for power scaling and modelocking optimization and later experimentally verified. Here, we report on the successful implementation of an improved design and fabrication scheme for EP-VECSELs, grown and fabricated at ETH Zurich. These lasers enabled a further decrease in pulse duration to 7.3 ps while increasing the average output power to 13.1 mW at 1.46-GHz repetition rate. The shortest pulse duration measured was 6.3 ps with an average power of 6.2 mW. In addition to the modelocking experiments, we present a thorough cw-characterization of our EP-VECSELs of different sizes and in different cavity configurations, pointing out the inevitable trade-off between high-power multi-mode and low-power single-mode operation limiting the modelocking performance.

  19. Analysis of mandipropamid residual levels through systematic method optimization against the matrix complexity of sesame leaves using HPLC/UVD.

    PubMed

    Farha, Waziha; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Jung, Da-I; Im, So Jeong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kabir, Md Humayun; Lee, Kang-Bong; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method was developed to detect mandipropamid residues in sesame leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and were prepurified using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with an additional dispersive-SPE (d-SPE) sorbent application. The method was validated using an external calibration curve prepared using pure solvent. The linearity was excellent with determination coefficient = 1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Recoveries at three spiking levels - 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg - were in the range 80.3-90.7% with relative standard deviations <2%. This method was applied to field-treated samples collected from two different areas, Gwangju and Muan, in the Republic of Korea and the half-lives were similar, 5.10 and 5.41 days, respectively. The pre-harvest residue limit was also predicted for both sites. The proposed method is sensitive and able to quantify trace amounts of mandipropamid in leafy vegetables. The combination of SPE and d-SPE effectively removed the matrix components in sesame leaves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26491843

  20. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  1. Peptides from sesame cake extend healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans via upregulation of skn-1 and inhibition of intracellular ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuanhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    The peptides from sesame cake (PSC) which are the main by-product of agricultural processing of sesame were prepared. To evaluate benefits of PSC for health and longevity, antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects were studied in vitro and in a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. PSC exhibited antioxidant activity in vitro, and induced beneficial effects on lifespan and several health parameters of C.elegans, including pharyngeal pumping rate, locomotion and lipofuscin accumulation. In a mev-1 mutant, PSC increased lifespan, and it enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in wild-type nematodes. After treatment with PSC, SOD activity, GSH content, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, leading to low intracellular ROS levels in C. elegans. PSC up-regulated skn-1 mRNA, and its target gene gcs-1, and abolished the extension of lifespan in skn-1 mutant, indicating that PSC-mediated longevity is dependent on activation of the skn-1/Nrf-2 transcription factor. Current results warrant research into the use of PSC as nutraceuticals for overall health improvement. PMID:27381188

  2. "The Cow Loves To Learn": The Hao-Xue-Xin Learning Model as a Reflection of the Cultural Relevance of "Zhima Jie," China's "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Li, Jimei

    2002-01-01

    Examined the cultural basis and relevance of "Zhima Jie," a Chinese adaptation of "Sesame Street." Found that most of 3- to 6-year-olds in the sample desired books and learning materials, with disadvantaged children more likely than more advantaged children to desire books and learning materials. Older children showed a greater tendency for such…

  3. CTW Research Bibliography. Research Papers Relating to the Children's Television Workshop and Its Experimental Educational Series: "Sesame Street" and "The Electric Company"--1968-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This selected annotated bibliography of research-related papers and reports covers major research activities in connection with the development of "Sesame Street" and "The Electric Company", the two experimental educational series produced by the Children's Television Workshop. These writings date back to the origins of CTW in 1968 and have been…

  4. Learning from Moshe, Hu Hu Zhu and Khokha: Insights into the Global Application of the Formative Research Component of the Sesame Workshop Model. Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charlotte, Frances

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from six studies to illustrate how the formative research element of the Sesame Workshop production model has been used to create effective educational media in the United States, South Africa, Egypt, and China. Shows how lessons learned from formative studies provide insights into the development of new research methodologies…

  5. Managing diversity.

    PubMed

    Epting, L A; Glover, S H; Boyd, S D

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. work force is becoming increasingly diverse as the 20th century approaches. Statistics prove that most organizations are experiencing gender, culture, and age diversity within their labor forces. All managers and leaders must accept this diversity and work to handle it effectively. This article examines the current literature concerning management of diversity and its implications for the health care profession. Gender, culture, and age diversity and the potential problems that may arise with each are also addressed. Reasons to manage diversity are offered, as well as methods of managing diversity for both the manager and the chief executive officer. PMID:10134144

  6. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  7. Meso beta-scale thunderstorm/environment interactions during AVE-SESAME V (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Printy, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric variability in a convective area was examined with data from the AVE-SESAME V experiment. Temperature increases were observed in the upper troposphere during storm development, coupled with cooling near the surface and in the lower stratosphere. A mesohigh was detected at 200 mb over the convected area, and upper level winds increased speed north of the area. Wind velocity decreases occurred at the 200 mb level, reaching a 50 percent decrease, during the 3 hr period coinciding with most storms, and a simultaneous increase (doubling) was found in the wind speeds at the 400 mb level. Other phenomena present after the storms began included low-level convergence, upper level divergence, and ascending motion.

  8. Multiwavelength pulse generation using a SESAM-based mode-locked fiber laser together with Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changxiu; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Luo, Yiyang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Deming

    2015-09-01

    A simple and compact configuration of multiwavelength pulse generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, using a SESAM-based passively mode-locked fiber laser together with fiber Fabry-Perot filter. By optimizing the dispersion of fiber ring cavity, a flat rectangular optical spectrum with 3 dB bandwidth of 8.1 nm is obtained, with power fluctuation of <0.5 dB. Inserting a fiber Fabry-Perot filter at the output of passively mode-locked fiber laser, we can simultaneously obtain 40 channels with 0.2 nm wavelength spacing, under the condition of <3 dB power uniformity. After wavelength-division demultiplexing and optic-to-electronic conversion, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of single channel pulse is measured to be 30 ps while the repetition rate of pulse train is 20.3 MHz.

  9. Instructional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob

    2000-01-01

    Explains how learning occurs in the brain, specifically in the limbic system. Compares traditional teaching methods and diverse learning modes. Describes the characteristics of diverse instructional approaches. First published in 1994. (YDS)

  10. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Managing diversity is about coping with unassimilated differences, about building systems and a culture that unite different people in a common pursuit without undermining their diversity. The goal of diversity training is a high performance organization rather than a climate in which no one's feathers are ruffled. (SK)

  11. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  12. Impact of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil on lipid metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Koros, Christos; Kitraki, Efthimia; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Tzanetakou, Irene; Karatzas, Theodore; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Perrea, Despina N.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and stress are important factors affecting cardiovascular health in middle-aged individuals. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sesame oil on the lipidemic status, liver architecture and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of middle-aged mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. We randomized 36 middle-aged C57bl/6 mice into 6 groups: a control group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group with NAC supplementation, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet enriched with 10% sesame oil and two groups receiving a control diet enriched with NAC or sesame oil. NAC administration prevented the onset of the disturbed lipid profile, exhibiting decreased lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, restored nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced hepatic damage, compared to non-supplemented groups. High-cholesterol feeding resulted in increased hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) levels, while NAC supplementation prevented this effect. NAC supplementation presented significant antioxidant capacity by means of preventing serum lipid status alterations, hepatic damage, and HPA axis disturbance due to high-cholesterol feeding in middle-aged mice. These findings suggest a beneficial preventive action of plant-derived antioxidants, such as NAC, on lipid metabolism and on the HPA axis. PMID:25348324

  13. Laboratory and numerical simulations of the PP-SESAME instrument onboard Philae/ROSETTA for measuring cometary surface permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A. A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Lethuilier, A.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Witasse, O.; Seidensticker, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring the complex permittivity of planetary surfaces provides insigth into their chemical composition and physical state. This can be done using a Mutual Impedance (MI) which consists in a four-electrode array generally (but not necessarily) in contact with the ground, working at a fixed frequency in the ELF-VLF (Extremely Low Frequency-Very Low Frequency) range with a dedicated electronic system [1]. The Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment onboard of the Philae/ROSETTA cometary lander relies on the MI concept. However the PP design had to be accomadated to the severe constraints of the Rosetta mission. In particular, parts of the landing gear (LG) and of other instruments are used as electrodes, introducing influences on the measurements to that need to be considered. Unfortunately, as it was not possible to perform it before launch, the calibration of the full system remains to be done. In order to prepare the analysis of PP data, a reduced size mockup of the LG built in DLR (Cologne, Germany) as well as a mockup-in-size of the instrument including a setup for Philae conductive body have been used for calibration tests in LATMOS (Guyancourt, France). Two configurations have been tested: i) tests as the instrument is in open space, as far as possible from walls, ceiling and floor, ii) Tests as the instrument is placed at several heights from a conductive floor. Such configurations aim at reproducing PP operations during the descent to the comet and the phase of first ground measurements. This would provide, together with numerical simulations under COMSOL™ a full model of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for the descent and first ground measurements configuration. Then slight corrections to this model would be possible using the in-flight calibration data to receive from the flight model during the descent on the comet. In this paper, we will present and discuss the results obtained with both nominal and reduced-in-size LGs in free

  14. Embracing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeck, Kathryn T.

    2009-01-01

    The high school art unit "Embracing Diversity" was the author's principal work towards the completion of a Masters thesis. The objective was to learn whether or not teaching an art unit that focused on sexual diversity could have a positive impact on the current culture one finds in high schools. The unit was found to have a positive impact on…

  15. Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Tokuda, Harukuni; Takasaki, Midori; Mukainaka, Teruo; Konoshima, Takao; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-06-01

    Resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil are known natural dietary components with intrinsic cancer chemopreventive potentials. As a part of our study of dietary constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, we have assessed the anti-cancer potentials of these products in the promotion stage of cancer development employing the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, we studied the activities of these compounds in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay as well as on the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging bioassay with a view to comparing some of the mechanisms of their anti-cancer activity. Finally, we compared the observed chemoprotective capabilities of the four products in the in vivo 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. All the products tested showed a profound inhibitory effect on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction using Raji cells. Comparatively, sesame oil was the most potent followed by sesamol and then resveratrol. Only sesamol and resveratrol showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assays as well as profound free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH bioassay. In both test systems, sesamol exhibited a more remarkable activity than resveratrol while sesame oil and sunflower oil did not exhibit any appreciable activity even at the highest concentrations tested (4000 microg ml(-1) ). In our in vivo assay at a 50-fold molar ratio to TPA, sesamol offered 50% reduction in mouse skin papillomas at 20 weeks after promotion with TPA. Under an identical molar ratio to TPA, resveratrol offered a 60% reduction in the papillomas in mouse at 20 weeks. Thus sesamol seems to be an almost equally potent chemopreventive agent. Sesame oil and sunflower oil offered 20 and 40% protection, respectively, in the mouse

  16. Measuring the permittivity of the surface of the Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus: the PP-SESAME experiment on board the Philae/ROSETTA lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hamelin, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.

    2014-12-01

    Within Philae, the lander of the Rosetta spacecraft, the Permittivity Probe (PP) experiment as part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME) package was designed to measure the low frequency (Hz-kHz) electrical properties of the close subsurface of the nucleus.At frequencies below 10 kHz, the electrical signature of the matter is especially sensitive to the presence of water ice and its temperature. PP-SESAME will thus allow to determine the water ice content in the near-surface and to monitor its diurnal and orbital variations thus providing essential insight on the activity and evolution of the cometary nucleus.The PP-SESAME instrument is derived from the quadrupole array technique. A sinusoidal electrical current is sent into the ground through a first dipole, and the induced electrical voltage is measured with a second dipole. The complex permittivity of the material is inferred from the mutual impedance derived from the measurements. In practice, the influence of both the electronic circuit of the instrument and the conducting elements in its close environment must be accounted for in order to best estimate the dielectric constant and electric conductivity of the ground. To do this we have developed a method called the "capacity-influence matrix method".A replica of the instrument was recently built in LATMOS (France) and was tested in the frame of a field campaign in the giant ice cave system of Dachstein, Austria. In the caves, the ground is covered with a thick layer of ice, which temperature is rather constant throughout the year. This measurement campaign allowed us to test the "capacity influence matrix method" in a natural icy environment.The first measurements of the PP-SESAME/Philae experiment should be available in mid-November. In this paper we will present the "capacity-influence matrix method", the measurements and results from the Austrian field campaign and the preliminary analysis of the PP-SESAME/Philae data.

  17. Development of modified voxel phantoms for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources: implementation in SESAME tool.

    PubMed

    Courageot, Estelle; Sayah, Rima; Huet, Christelle

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. When the dose distribution is evaluated with a numerical anthropomorphic model, the posture and morphology of the victim have to be reproduced as realistically as possible. Several years ago, IRSN developed a specific software application, called the simulation of external source accident with medical images (SESAME), for the dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents by numerical simulation. This tool combines voxel geometry and the MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code for radiation-material interaction. This note presents a new functionality in this software that enables the modelling of a victim's posture and morphology based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces. The procedure for constructing the modified voxel phantoms is described, along with a numerical validation of this new functionality using a voxel phantom of the RANDO tissue-equivalent physical model. PMID:20371912

  18. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation). PMID:23922288

  19. Electrical properties and porosity of the first meter of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. As constrained by the Permittivity Probe SESAME-PP/Philae/Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethuillier, Anthony; Le Gall, Alice; Hamelin, Michel; Schmidt, Walter; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Grard, Réjean; Ciarletti, Valérie; Caujolle-Bert, Sylvain; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Trautner, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Context. Comets are primitive objects, remnants of the volatile-rich planetesimals from which the solar system condensed. Knowing their structure and composition is thus crucial for the understanding of our origins. After the successful landing of Philae on the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014, for the first time, the Rosetta mission provided the opportunity to measure the low frequency electrical properties of a cometary mantle with the permittivity probe SESAME-PP (Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment-Permittivity Probe). Aims: In this paper, we conduct an in-depth analysis of the data from active measurements collected by SESAME-PP at Abydos, which is the final landing site of Philae, to constrain the porosity and, to a lesser extent, the composition of the surface material down to a depth of about 1 m. Methods: SESAME-PP observations on the surface are then analyzed by comparison with data acquired during the descent toward the nucleus and with numerical simulations that explore different possible attitudes and environments of Philae at Abydos using a method called the Capacity-Influence Matrix Method. Results: Reasonably assuming that the two receiving electrode channels have not drifted with respect to each other during the ten-year journey of the Rosetta probe to the comet, we constrain the dielectric constant of the first meter below the surface at Abydos to be >2.45 ± 0.20, which is consistent with a porosity <50% if the dust phase is analogous to carbonaceous chondrites and <75% in the case of less primitive ordinary chondrites. This indicates that the near surface of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is more compacted than its interior and suggests that it could consist of a sintered dust-ice layer.

  20. Electrical properties of the first meters of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's nucleus as constrained by PP-SESAME/Philae/Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Alice; Lethuillier, Anthony; Hamelin, Michel; Schimdt, Walter; Grard, Rejean; Ciarletti, Valérie; Seidensticker, Klaus; Caujolle-Bert, Sylvain; Fischer, Hans-Herbert

    2016-04-01

    On November 12, 2014, the Philae module landed on the surface of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among the instruments on-board Philae, the Permittivity Probe experiment (hereafter PP-SESAME), which is part of the SESAME (Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) package, operated both during descent and on the surface. The primary scientific objective of this experiment is to measure the low frequency (10 Hz-10 kHz) complex permittivity i.e., the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity, of the first meters of the cometary nucleus. Doing so, it aims at providing insights into the composition of the mantle and in particular into the water content and porosity of the first meters below the surface. In this paper, we will present the data acquired at the final landing site of Philae known as Abydos and the approach we have developed to analyze them. We emphasize that, because the configuration of operation of PP-SESAME was far from nominal, we had to adapt our analysis method in order to account for all available constraints on Philae attitude and environment at Abydos. We also had to do without the in-flight calibration performed during the descent phase but unfortunately perturbed by the concurrent operations of the bistatic radar CONSERT. We find that the first meters of the nucleus at Abydos are made of a likely pure dielectric material (i.e., with a null conductivity) which dielectric constant is larger than 2.3. This lower bound of the dielectric constant is significantly higher than the value of 1.27 inferred from the propagation time of the CONSERT signals that propagated through the smaller lobe of the comet in the vicinity of Abydos reaching depths of a few hundreds of meters. Thus, while PP-SESAME measurements put no constraint on the dust-to-ice ratio, they strongly suggest that the first meters of the nucleus are significantly more compacted (with a porosity below 50%) than its interior as sensed by CONSERT (found to

  1. Drug diversion

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Prescription drug diversion has significant health, legal and social implications. Deaths from misuse of prescription drugs account for a significant proportion of overdose deaths. The drugs most commonly involved are analgesics, particularly opioids, and psychoactive drugs, particularly benzodiazepines. Diverted drugs are most often sourced from a family member or friend, but are also sourced from overseas pharmacies or laboratories, or bought from drug dealers. Drug diversion can be mitigated by good prescribing practices. Systems for monitoring the prescribing and dispensing of medicines are being instituted across Australia. PMID:26648654

  2. Sesamin, a lignan of sesame, down-regulates cyclin D1 protein expression in human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomoya; Matsuzaki, Youichirou; Koyama, Makoto; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kawanaka, Mayumi; Enoki-Konishi, Masako; Okuyama, Yusuke; Takayasu, Junko; Nishino, Hoyoku; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Osawa, Toshihiko; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    Sesamin is a major lignan constituent of sesame and possesses multiple functions such as antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, lipid-lowering and anticancer activities. Several groups have previously reported that sesamin induces growth inhibition in human cancer cells. However, the nature of this growth inhibitory mechanism remains unknown. The authors here report that sesamin induces growth arrest at the G1 phase in cell cycle progression in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Furthermore, sesamin dephosphorylates tumor-suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB). It is also shown that inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation by sesamin is correlated with down-regulated cyclin D1 protein expression, a proto-oncogene that is overexpressed in many human cancer cells. It was found that sesamin-induced down-regulation of cyclin D1 was inhibited by proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that sesamin suppresses cyclin D1 protein expression by promoting proteasome degradation of cyclin D1 protein. Sesamin down-regulates cyclin D1 protein expression in various kinds of human tumor cells, including lung cancer, transformed renal cells, immortalized keratinocyte, melanoma and osteosarcoma. Furthermore, depletion of cyclin D1 protein using small interfering RNA rendered MCF-7 cells insensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of sesamin, implicating that cyclin D1 is at least partially related to the antiproliferative effects of sesamin. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability of sesamin to down-regulate cyclin D1 protein expression through the activation of proteasome degradation could be one of the mechanisms of the antiproliferative activity of this agent. PMID:17640297

  3. SESAM modelocked Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser in the soliton modelocking regime with positive intracavity dispersion.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C R; Mayer, A S; Klenner, A; Keller, U

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate femtosecond SESAM modelocking in the near-infrared by using cascaded quadratic nonlinearities (phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation, SHG), enabling soliton modelocking in the normal dispersion regime without any dispersion compensating elements. To obtain large and negative self-phase modulation (SPM) we use an intracavity LBO crystal, whose temperature and angles are optimized with respect to SPM, nonlinear losses, and self-starting characteristics. To support femtosecond pulses, we use the very promising Yb:CaGdAlO(4) (CALGO) gain material, operated in a bulk configuration. The LBO crystal provides sufficient negative SPM to compensate for its own GDD as well as the positive GDD and SPM from the gain crystal. The modelocked laser produces pulses of 114 fs at 1050 nm, with a repetition rate of 113 MHz (average output power 1.1 W). We perform a detailed theoretical study of this soliton modelocking regime with positive GDD, which clearly indicates the important design constraints in an intuitive and systematic way. In particular, due to its importance in avoiding multi-pulsed modelocking, we examine the nonlinear loss associated with the cascading process carefully and show how it can be suppressed in practice. With this modelocking regime, it should be possible to overcome the limits faced by current state of the art modelocked lasers in terms of dispersion compensation and nonlinearity management at high powers, suppression of Q-switching in compact GHz lasers, and enabling femtosecond soliton modelocking at very high repetition rates due to the high nonlinearities accessible via cascading combined with eliminating the need for intracavity dispersion compensation. PMID:24663941

  4. Seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation, and electrolyte imbalance (SeSAME syndrome) caused by mutations in KCNJ10

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Ute I.; Choi, Murim; Liu, Tiewen; Ramaekers, Vincent T.; Häusler, Martin G.; Grimmer, Joanne; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Farhi, Anita; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Lifton, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe members of 4 kindreds with a previously unrecognized syndrome characterized by seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation, and electrolyte imbalance (hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypomagnesemia). By analysis of linkage we localize the putative causative gene to a 2.5-Mb segment of chromosome 1q23.2–23.3. Direct DNA sequencing of KCNJ10, which encodes an inwardly rectifying K+ channel, identifies previously unidentified missense or nonsense mutations on both alleles in all affected subjects. These mutations alter highly conserved amino acids and are absent among control chromosomes. Many of these mutations have been shown to cause loss of function in related K+ channels. These findings demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ10 cause this syndrome, which we name SeSAME. KCNJ10 is expressed in glia in the brain and spinal cord, where it is believed to take up K+ released by neuronal repolarization, in cochlea, where it is involved in the generation of endolymph, and on the basolateral membrane in the distal nephron. We propose that KCNJ10 is required in the kidney for normal salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule because of the need for K+ recycling across the basolateral membrane to enable normal activity of the Na+-K+-ATPase; loss of this function accounts for the observed electrolyte defects. Mice deficient for KCNJ10 show a related phenotype with seizures, ataxia, and hearing loss, further supporting KCNJ10's role in this syndrome. These findings define a unique human syndrome, and establish the essential role of basolateral K+ channels in renal electrolyte homeostasis. PMID:19289823

  5. The SESAME/CASSE instrument listening to the MUPUS PEN insertion phase on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Fischer, H.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Thiel, K.; Arnold, W.; Schmidt, W.; Faber, C.; Finke, F.; Möhlmann, D.

    2016-08-01

    After the final landing of Philae at the Abydos site on comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the MUPUS (Multipurpose Sensors for Surface and Sub-Surface Science) device started hammering itself into the cometary ground on 14th November 2014, and continued hammering for more than 3 h. During this period, the CASSE (Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment) instrument, part of SESAME (Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment), was listening to the hammer strokes of MUPUS, which was the strongest available source for a seismic-acoustic experiment to determine mechanical properties of the ground. All sensors survived the multiple touchdowns of Philae undamaged and provided recordings of 14 hammer strokes at audible frequencies. The data suggests that Philae was slightly rocking or swinging during the initial phase of the experiment, finally finding an attitude that not only stopped this motion but also improved the coupling of sensors to the ground and thus the recordings. The experiment provides several lessons that might be useful for the development of similar experiments on future spacecraft. The most serious issues concerning the CASSE recordings are clock accuracy and synchronicity and the timing of the source. Future designs may want to consider additional sensors in close proximity to the source, and direct communication between experiments to overcome this. The present design allows the evaluation of arrival time differences only, rather than absolute travel times. In this contribution, we focus on the technical and operational aspects of this experiment. A scientific evaluation of the data received will follow in a second paper.

  6. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  7. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  8. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  9. Diversity Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

  10. SESAM-modelocked Yb:CaF2 thin-disk-laser generating 285 fs pulses with 1.78 μJ of pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Benjamin; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Graf, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We report on a SESAM-modelocked Yb:CaF2 thin-disk oscillator designed to generate more than 1 μJ of pulse energy at a moderate pulse repetition rate. The goal of our experiment was to explore the potential of Yb:CaF2 in a thin-disk laser (TDL) architecture for high power at pulse durations shorter than 300 fs as compared to other Yb-doped crystals exhibiting broad gain bandwidth. At a repetition rate of 10 MHz the laser produced an average output power of up to 17.8 W (1.78 μJ of pulse energy) with a beam quality factor M 2 below 1.2. The pulse duration was measured to be 285 fs, which results in a peak power of 5.5 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy and peak power demonstrated to date with sub-300 fs pulses generated by SESAM-modelocked oscillators, leading to the conclusion that Yb:CaF2 is a very promising crystal for TDL technology.

  11. Managing diversity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M

    1991-09-30

    One look at projections for the U.S. work force through the year 2000 shows why healthcare administrators will be facing some new challenges. With the majority of new workers belonging to minority groups, "managing diversity" has become the newest catch phrase as executives work to reduce tensions resulting from race, gender or culture-based differences among workers, while also learning to understand and value those differences. PMID:10114151

  12. [Diverse sustainability--sustainable diversity].

    PubMed

    Schmeling-Kludas, Christoph; Koch-Gromus, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    In spite of its plenitude, the scientific works of the important German psychologist Ernst August Dölle (1898-1972) are little adapted till today, mostly they are being reduced to his studies about dichotomy and duplicity. But based on his diaries of the year 1968, the authors can verify without doubt, that Dölle far ahead of his time, carried on research about sustainability and diversity. He was the first scientist worldwide to connect these two concepts. PMID:21837611

  13. Valuing Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Roland G.; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the economics of diversity-enhancing policies. A model is proposed in which heterogeneous agents, distinguished by skill level and social identity, purchase productive opportunities in a competitive market. We analyze policies designed to raise the status of a disadvantaged identity group. When agent identity is contractible, efficient policy grants preferred access to slots but offers no direct assistance for acquiring skills. When identity is not contractible, efficient policy provides universal subsidies to skill development when the fraction of the disadvantaged group at the skill development margin is larger than their share at the slot assignment margin. PMID:25525280

  14. A kinetic energy study of the meso beta-scale storm environment during AVE-SESAME 5 (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Printy, M. F.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic energy of the near storm environment was analyzed by meso beta scale data. It was found that horizontal winds in the 400 to 150 mb layer strengthen rapidly north of the developing convection. Peak values then decrease such that the maximum disappears 6 h later. Southeast of the storms, wind speeds above 300 mb decrease nearly 50% during the 3 h period of most intense thunderstorm activity. When the convection dissipates, wind patterns return to prestorm conditions. The mesoscale storm environment of AVE-SESAME 5 is characterized by large values of cross contour generation of kinetic energy, transfers of energy to nonresolvable scales of motion, and horizontal flux divergence. These processes are maximized within the upper troposphere and are greatest during times of strongest convection. It is shown that patterns agree with observed weather features. The southeast area of the network is examined to determine causes for vertical wind variations.

  15. An analysis of the AVE-SESAME I period using statistical structure and correlation functions. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Meyer, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Structure and correlation functions are used to describe atmospheric variability during the 10-11 April day of AVE-SESAME 1979 that coincided with the Red River Valley tornado outbreak. The special mesoscale rawinsonde data are employed in calculations involving temperature, geopotential height, horizontal wind speed and mixing ratio. Functional analyses are performed in both the lower and upper troposphere for the composite 24 h experiment period and at individual 3 h observation times. Results show that mesoscale features are prominent during the composite period. Fields of mixing ratio and horizontal wind speed exhibit the greatest amounts of small-scale variance, whereas temperature and geopotential height contain the least. Results for the nine individual times show that small-scale variance is greatest during the convective outbreak. The functions also are used to estimate random errors in the rawinsonde data. Finally, sensitivity analyses are presented to quantify confidence limits of the structure functions.

  16. Properties of sesame oil by detailed 1H and 13C NMR assignments before and after ozonation and their correlation with iodine value, peroxide value, and viscosity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sega, Alessandro; Zanardi, Iacopo; Chiasserini, Luisa; Gabbrielli, Alessandro; Bocci, Velio; Travagli, Valter

    2010-02-01

    Gaseous ozone chemically reacts with unsaturated triglyceride substrates leading to ozonated derivatives with a wide potential applications, ranging from the petrochemical to the pharmaceutical industry. To date, an ultimate understanding of the ozone reactivity during sesame oil ozonation process as well as detailed (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments are lacking. A practical advantage of NMR is that a single NMR sample measurement can explain many issues, while similar analysis by traditional methods may require several independent and time-consuming measurements. Moreover, significant relationships among NMR spectra and both conventional chemical analysis and viscosity measurements have been found. Eventually, NMR could play an important role for quality attributes of ozonated oil derivatives. PMID:19900426

  17. Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Salah, Wa'el; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Hoorani, H.

    2009-09-15

    The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and wide angle x-ray scattering beamline, currently under construction at SESAME is described. This beamline is based on a cylindrically bent germanium (111) single crystal with an asymmetric cut of 10.5 deg., followed by a 1.2 m long rhodium coated plane mirror bent into a cylindrical form. The focusing properties of bent asymmetrically cut crystals have not yet been studied in depth. The present paper is devoted to study of a particular application of a bent asymmetrically cut crystal using ray tracing simulations with the SHADOW code. These simulations show that photon fluxes of order of 1.09x10{sup 11} photons/s will be available at the experimental focus at 8.79 keV. The focused beam dimensions will be 2.2 mm horizontal full width at half maximum (FWHM) by 0.12 mm vertical (FWHM).

  18. SESAME: a software tool for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources and its application to the accident in Chile in December 2005.

    PubMed

    Huet, C; Lemosquet, A; Clairand, I; Rioual, J B; Franck, D; de Carlan, L; Aubineau-Lanièce, I; Bottollier-Depois, J F

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. This dose distribution can be assessed by physical dosimetric reconstruction methods. Physical dosimetric reconstruction can be achieved using experimental or numerical techniques. This article presents the laboratory-developed SESAME--Simulation of External Source Accident with MEdical images--tool specific to dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents through numerical simulations which combine voxel geometry and the radiation-material interaction MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code. The experimental validation of the tool using a photon field and its application to a radiological accident in Chile in December 2005 are also described. PMID:19066489

  19. Diverse Classrooms, Diverse Curriculum, Diverse Complications: Three Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungemah, Lori D.

    2015-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…

  20. The Chief Diversity Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

  1. Plasma properties at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: a comparision between PP-SESAME/Philae/Rosetta and RPC/MIP/Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Henri, Pierre; Lebreton, Jean Pierre; Vallières, Xavier; Grard, Réjean; Hamelin, Michel; Le Gall, Alice; Lethuillier, Anthony; Ciarletti, Valerie; Caujolle-Bert, Sylvain; Seidensticker, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Herbert

    2016-04-01

    On November 12, 2014, the Rosetta landing module Philae approached the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and eventually settled on the surface in a location named Abydos, though its exact coordinates are still unknown. The Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME (Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment) instrument package [1] was designed to not only measure the electrical properties of the comet's surface material by actively injecting an alternating current at different frequencies into the material underneath the Lander but also to monitor potential variations between its two receivers and the electrical conductivity of the plasma environment while still in space. By sampling the potential difference at 40 kHz between the soles of two of the feet attached to Philae's landing gear, plasma waves between 20 and 20 000 Hz should be detectable if their amplitudes are large enough. The injection of low frequency currents into the plasma environment during Philae's descent gives indications for changes of the plasma density when approaching the comet. In this paper we present observations from the cross-calibration campaign with the Rosetta plasma package instrument MIP (Mutual Impedance Probe) [2] during the Pre-Delivery Calibration and Science (PDCS) operations on October 17, 2014, during the descent towards the comet surface on November 12, 2014, and from the First Science Sequence at Abydos on November 13. During the PDCS campaign most PP observation slots coincided with plasma waves dominantly in the 100 to 150 kHz range according to MIP measurements. Accordingly PP did not register any signals. Only in the afternoon of the 17th low frequency waves were recorded by MIP. At the same time the measured PP wave power signal was above the background for frequencies below 500 Hz in several subsequent measurements. During the descent [3] the injected current at 758 Hz dropped suddenly by about 5 % possibly indicating a decrease in the plasma

  2. Teaching for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ricardo L.

    This book focuses on how to teach students from diverse cultures and how to teach students to live in a diverse society. Chapter 1, "Democracy, Diversity, and Universal Education," discusses "The Nature of a Free Society,""The Role of Universal Education," and "Schools as Communities." Chapter 2, "Identifying and Understanding Diversity Issues,"…

  3. 10 Diversity Champions II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the "Champions of Diversity" in the Academic Kickoff issue proved a timely reminder of the mission of Diverse during the lead up to the 25th anniversary of Cox, Matthews and Associates, the founder of the former Black Issues in Higher Education and publisher of Diverse. In this edition, the editors at Diverse unveil its second slate of…

  4. Effects of pH on protein components of extracted oil bodies from diverse plant seeds and endogenous protease-induced oleosin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Chen, Yajing; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2016-06-01

    Plant seeds are used to extract oil bodies for diverse applications, but oil bodies extracted at different pH values exhibit different properties. Jicama, sunflower, peanut, castor bean, rapeseed, and sesame were selected to examine the effects of pH (6.5-11.0) on the protein components of oil bodies and the oleosin hydrolysis in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. In addition to oleosins, many extrinsic proteins (globulins, 2S albumin, and enzymes) were present in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. Globulins were mostly removed at pH 8.0, whereas 2S albumins were removed at pH 11.0. At pH 11.0, highly purified oil bodies were obtained from jicama, sunflower, peanut, and sesame, whereas lipase remained in the castor bean oil bodies and many enzymes in the rapeseed oil bodies. Endogenous protease-induced hydrolysis of oleosins occurred in all selected plant seeds. Oleosins with larger sizes were hydrolysed more quickly than oleosins with smaller sizes in each plant seed. PMID:26830569

  5. Synergistic ameliorative effects of sesame oil and alpha-lipoic acid against subacute diazinon toxicity in rats: hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Taha, Ramadan; Ghazy, Emad W; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a common organophosphorus insecticide extensively used for agriculture and veterinary purposes. DZN toxicity is not limited to insects; it also induces harmful effects in mammals and birds. Our experiment evaluated the protective and antioxidant potential of sesame oil (SO) and (or) alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against DZN toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DZN-treated animals exhibited macrocytic hypochromic anemia and significant increases in serum biochemical parameters related to liver injury, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), cholesterol, and triglycerides. They also had elevated levels of markers related to cardiac injury, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and increased biomarkers of renal injury, urea and creatinine. DZN also increased hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant biomarker levels. SO and (or) ALA supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of DZN intoxication. Treatment improved hematology and serum parameters, enhanced endogenous antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Importantly, they exerted synergistic hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. Our findings demonstrate that SO and (or) ALA supplementation can alleviate the toxic effects of DZN via their potent antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. PMID:26550680

  6. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in sesame oil using LC-MS/MS combined with magnetic carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rao; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiuping

    2016-08-01

    A novel magnetic carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT-MNPs) was proposed for magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine phenolic compounds in sesame oil. In this study, c-MWCNT-MNPs were acquired by simply dispersing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The major parameters affecting extraction efficiency were optimized, including the type and volume of desorption solvents, extraction and desorption time, washing solution, and sorbent amount. The limit of quantifications and limit of detections were from 0.03μg/kg to 43.00μg/kg and from 0.01μg/kg to 13.60μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were in the range of 83.8-125.9% with inter-day and intra-day precisions of less than 13.2%. It was confirmed that this method was simple, rapid and reliable with an excellent potential for routine analysis of phenolic compounds in oil samples. PMID:26988510

  7. NOTE: Development of modified voxel phantoms for the numerical dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents involving external sources: implementation in SESAME tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courageot, Estelle; Sayah, Rima; Huet, Christelle

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the dose distribution in a victim's body is a relevant indicator in assessing biological damage from exposure in the event of a radiological accident caused by an external source. When the dose distribution is evaluated with a numerical anthropomorphic model, the posture and morphology of the victim have to be reproduced as realistically as possible. Several years ago, IRSN developed a specific software application, called the simulation of external source accident with medical images (SESAME), for the dosimetric reconstruction of radiological accidents by numerical simulation. This tool combines voxel geometry and the MCNP(X) Monte Carlo computer code for radiation-material interaction. This note presents a new functionality in this software that enables the modelling of a victim's posture and morphology based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces. The procedure for constructing the modified voxel phantoms is described, along with a numerical validation of this new functionality using a voxel phantom of the RANDO tissue-equivalent physical model.

  8. Diversity Statements: How Faculty Applicants Address Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Karen B.; Trevino, Amira Y.; Lind, Justin R.; Blume, Arthur W.; Baker, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine application materials for assistant professor positions in 3 academic disciplines. Applicants were asked to write a diversity statement describing how they would advance diversity through their research, teaching, and service. The sample included application materials submitted by 191 candidates for…

  9. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  10. Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

  11. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  12. Insights on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

    This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

  13. BioDiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

    The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

  14. The State of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines what is being done to implement cultural diversity in libraries. Topics addressed include affirmative action; defining cultural diversity, including the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace; problems in implementing cultural diversity; and examples of successful implementation programs. (Contains three…

  15. Leadership and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  16. Thinking about Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Before companies attempt to increase the diversity in their management ranks, it is necessary for them to learn to manage diversity. Managers should have a plan; focus on individual learning, human-relations, motivational, and communication styles; examine organizational culture; and offer diversity training. (JOW)

  17. Managing Generational Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Many school leaders have explored the issue of diversity when it comes to students, teachers and staff. Their focus typically has been on gender and ethnicity. However, generational diversity, an area of diversity that warrants serious consideration, has received less attention. Generational intelligence is important today for two reasons. First…

  18. Take action: influence diversity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative. PMID:24579394

  19. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  20. Assessment of pectinase production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 using an economical substrate and its potential application in oil sesame extraction.

    PubMed

    Ghazala, Imen; Sayari, Nadhem; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Haddar, Anissa

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) peels, local agricultural waste product, is rich in lignocellulolytic material, including pectin which can act as an inducer of pectinase production. Pectinolytic enzymes production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 was studied in liquid state fermentation using carrot peel as a substrate. Medium composition and culture conditions for the pectinase production by I4 were optimized using two statistical methods: Taguchi design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the value of the four significant variables: carrot peels powder, NH4Cl, inoculum size and incubation time. The optimal conditions for higher production of pectinase were carrot peels powder 6.5 %, NH4Cl 0.3 %, inoculum level 3 % and cultivation time 32 h. Under these conditions, the pectinase experimental yield (64.8 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (63.55 U/ml) with R (2) = 0.963. The best pectinase activity was observed at the temperature of 60 °C and at pH 8.0. The enzyme retained more than 90 % of its activity after 24 h at pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0. The enzyme preserved more than 85 % of its initial activity after 60 min of pre-incubation at 30-40 °C and more than 67 % at 50 °C. The extracellular juice of I4 was applied in the process of sesame seeds oil extraction. An improvement of 3 % on the oil yield was obtained. The findings demonstrated that the B. mojavensis I4 has a promising potential for future use in a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:26604345

  1. Anti-Colitic Effects of Kanjangs (Fermented Soy Sauce and Sesame Sauce) in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces. PMID:25188463

  2. [Cultural diversity reflexive learning].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

    2007-10-01

    Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

  3. Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) on board Rosetta/Philae: Millimetric particle flux at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Attila; Albin, Thomas; Apáthy, István; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Flandes, Alberto; Loose, Alexander; Péter, Attila; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Krüger, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Context. The Philae lander of the Rosetta mission, aimed at the in situ investigation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, was deployed to the surface of the comet nucleus on 12 November 2014 at 2.99 AU heliocentric distance. The Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) as part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME) on the lander employed piezoelectric detectors to detect the submillimetre- and millimetre-sized dust and ice particles emitted from the nucleus. Aims: We determine the upper limit of the ambient flux of particles in the measurement range of DIM based on the measurements performed with the instrument during Philae's descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia at distances of about 22 km, 18 km, and 5 km from the nucleus barycentre and at the final landing site Abydos. Methods: The geometric factor of the DIM sensor was calculated assuming an isotropic ambient flux of the submillimetre- and millimetre-sized particles. For the measurement intervals when no particles were detected the maximum true impact rate was calculated by assuming Poisson distribution of the impacts, and it was given as the detection limit at a 95% confidence level. The shading by the comet environment at Abydos was estimated by simulating the pattern of illumination on Philae and consequently the topography around the lander. Results: Based on measurements performed with DIM, the upper limit of the flux of particles in the measurement range of the instrument was of the order of 10-8-10-7 m-2 s-1 sr-1 during descent. The upper limit of the ambient flux of the submillimetre- and millimetre-sized dust and ice particles at Abydos was estimated to be 1.6 × 10-9 m-2 s-1 sr-1 on 13 and 14 November 2014. A correction factor of roughly 1/3 for the field of view of the sensors was calculated based on an analysis of the pattern of illumination on Philae. Conclusions: Considering particle speeds below escape velocity, the upper limit for the volume density of particles in

  4. Observations performed by the SESAME/Permittivity Probe during the descent and after the landing of Philae upon the nucleus of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Le Gall, Alice; Hamelin, Michel; Caujolle-Bert, Sylvain; Lethuillier, Anthony; Ciarletti, Valerie; Grard, Réjean

    2015-04-01

    The Permittivity Probe (PP), a component of the SESAME instrument on board Rosetta's Lander Philae, was operated prior to the separation of Philae from Rosetta, during the descent and at the location of the final landing site. The working principle of PP consists in measuring, with a receiving dipole, the voltage induced in the medium by a current of known phase and amplitude injected by a transmitting antenna. The primary objective of PP is to analyse the electrical properties of the comet surface material down to a depth of about 2 m, and to record their variations with temperature, solar illumination and heliocentric distance. These observations are particularly sensitive to the concentration of water ice at the landing site. The second objective of the instrument is to monitor the spectrum of the electromagnetic and electrostatic waves generated by the interaction between the comet and the solar wind at frequencies of up to 20 kHz. The measurements performed during the descent were mainly devoted to the calibration of the instrument in its nominal configuration, with deployed landing gear and away from the Rosetta spacecraft influence, in an environment of known permittivity, either a vacuum or a plasma whose density and temperature would have been derived from the LAP and MIP data. This approach is unfortunately invalidated owing to the fact the PP receiver was most of the time saturated by the operation of the CONSERT radar during the descent, an interference which seemed to have been minimized during in-flight interference tests, but which was significantly stronger after separation of Philae from Rosetta. Nevertheless, it was possible to recover some information about the instrument's transmitter and receiver performances then used during the analysis of the data measured on the cometary surface. Undisturbed measurements were fortunately performed at the landing site, under various solar illuminations, using the three feet of Philae as transmitting and

  5. Numerical simulations of PP-SESAME/Philae/ROSETTA operations during the Descent Phase and at the surface of the Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lethuillier, Anthony; Hamelin, Michel; Le Gall, Alice; Caujolle-Bert, Sylvain; Schmidt, Walter; Grard, Réjean

    2014-05-01

    The ROSETTA probe has never been so close to its target; the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko that it will reach later this year. Among the instruments on board the lander, Philae, the Permittivity Probe (PP) experiment, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME) package, will measure the low frequency complex permittivity (i.e. dielectric constant and electrical conductivity) of the first 2 meters of the subsurface of the cometary nucleus. At frequencies below 10 kHz, the electrical signature of the matter is especially sensitive to the presence of water ice and its temperature behavior. PP will thus allow to determine the water ice content in the near-surface and to monitor its diurnal and orbital variations thus providing essential insight on the activity and evolution of the cometary nucleus. The PP instrument is based on the quadrupole array technique, which employs a set of transmitter and receiver electrodes for emitting alternating currents into a medium of interest. The complex permittivity of the cometary surface material is determined by measuring the magnitude and phase shift of both the emitted currents and the resulting potential difference at a pair of receiver electrodes. This technique has been used for many decades on Earth and recently helped to determine the electrical properties of the Huygens landing site on Titan (PWA/HASI experiment on Cassini-Huygens). In the case of PP, 5 electrodes can be used: 2 receiver electrodes are integrated into the lander feet while the transmitter electrodes are mounted on the third foot and on 2 other instruments. In this paper we will present results from numerical simulations performed in order to model PP operations and prepare the scientific return of this experiment. Though simple in theory, the inference of the complex permittivity from PP measurements is not straightforward in practice. In particular, the actual environment of the electrodes (lander body, feet

  6. Diversity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  7. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  8. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  9. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  10. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  11. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  12. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  13. Assessing Diverse Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This keynote address begins with examples that underscore how profoundly the issues of multiculturalism and diversity impact the consciousness of society at the end of the 20th century. Changes in assessment that can lead to assessment for change in a culturally diverse society are based on the ideas that "assessment as a process must be…

  14. Diversity in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a lecture given at the 17th Annual Lecture of the Association of University Administrators (AUA). The subject of the lecture is equality and diversity in higher education (HE) leadership, or possibly the absence of equality and diversity. The author focuses on what can be done to ensure that capable women enter HE leadership…

  15. Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects…

  16. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  17. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  18. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  19. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  20. Past Planktonic Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, M. M.; Salgueiro, E.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Abrantes, F. F. G.

    2014-12-01

    Planktonic organisms have been extensively used in paleoceanographic studies as proxies for most marine environmental variables (temperature, salinity, currents, frontal zones, upwelling, etc.), both directly by species occurrences and indirectly through particular chemical components produced (e.g. Mg/Ca, stable isotopes, alkanones). In 1965 Stehli pioneered by suggesting the use of planktonic organisms diversity to decipher ancient oceanic circulation, instead of the traditional approaches based on particular indicator species or assemblages composition (transfer functions). The use of species diversity has two main advantages. First, it is not restricted to a temporal epoch where the species existed and second, it does not assume that the species ecology is the same as in the present. In the current work, we compare planktonic organisms diversity on the Atlantic Ocean, obtained from surface samples, with the main satellite measured oceanographic variables, i.e. SST (Sea Surface Temperature), CHL (as an indicator of primary productivity) and the main currents in the area. Three indices were used to quantify diversity: Shannon-Weaver diversity (H), specific richness (S) and Hulbert's probability of interspecific encounter index of species evenness (PIE). Diversity was then modelled spatially using geostatistical tools at two scales: Atlantic Ocean oceanographic scale and the Iberian margin regional scale. The main conclusions will then be used to interpret measured down core diversity, on a paleo perspective. This work will understand how did diversity reacted to major climatic events, and how long it took to recover - system resilience.

  1. Determinants of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Genetic polymorphism varies among species and within genomes, and has important implications for the evolution and conservation of species. The determinants of this variation have been poorly understood, but population genomic data from a wide range of organisms now make it possible to delineate the underlying evolutionary processes, notably how variation in the effective population size (Ne) governs genetic diversity. Comparative population genomics is on its way to providing a solution to 'Lewontin's paradox' - the discrepancy between the many orders of magnitude of variation in population size and the much narrower distribution of diversity levels. It seems that linked selection plays an important part both in the overall genetic diversity of a species and in the variation in diversity within the genome. Genetic diversity also seems to be predictable from the life history of a species. PMID:27265362

  2. Embracing cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Casady, W M

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

  3. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  4. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  5. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  6. The Cultivation of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1972-01-01

    Presidential address at the American Psychological Association meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, September 1972. Examines some implications of diversity with regard to psychology in relation to other disciplines, as well as within psychology itself. (DM)

  7. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

    ... type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for emergency transfusions. Minority and diverse ... levels. “I was deferred from giving blood 10 times or more.” However, in October 2005 Rosalyn’s iron ...

  8. Diversity in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Karen; Kalata, Emily A; Hingorani, Anil P

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of literature in vascular surgery demonstrates disparities in the type of health care that racial/ethnic minorities receive in the United States. Numerous recommendations, including those of the Institute of Medicine, have been set forth, which identify increasing the number of minority health professionals as a key strategy to eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this study is to compare the racial/ethnic distribution of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership, the SVS leadership, vascular surgery trainees, and medical students. The results demonstrate that the racial/ethnic distribution of the SVS membership reflects a considerable lack of diversity with a paucity of diversity among the SVS leadership. An increasing rate of racial/ethnic diversity among vascular surgery trainees may indicate that the SVS will see an improvement in diversity in the future. PMID:23182481

  9. How to Make Diversity Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Faye

    1994-01-01

    Companies that manage diversity successfully have common characteristics: chief executives' commitment, diversity as a business objective, fair compensation and career tracking, careful diversity training, consistent focus during downsizing, and plans that address the concerns of white males. (SK)

  10. Leadership in diversity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P L

    1994-12-01

    As principal change agents, healthcare leaders are well positioned to integrate diversity into their institutions' organizational structure. Thus healthcare leaders must be competent in handling diversity issues. Diversity refers to any characteristic that helps shape a person's attitudes, behaviors, perspective, and interpretation of what is "normal." In the healthcare ministry, diversity encompasses the cultural differences that can be found across functions or among organizations when they merge or partner. Managers and supervisors will have to be familiar with the nuances of diversity if they are to be effective. Those managers who are not adept at incorporating diversity into human resource management may incorrectly evaluate subordinates' capabilities and provide inappropriate training or supervision. As a result, some employees may be underutilized. Others may resist needed direction, overlook instructions, or hide problems such as a language barrier. If executives, marketers, and strategic planners are to develop relevant healthcare services that take into account the needs of their constituencies, they will need to determine how different groups understand and access healthcare. Healthcare leaders who know how to uncover cultural dynamics and challenge cultural assumptions will go far in enabling their staff and managers to confront personal attitudes about community residents. Ultimately, quality of service delivery will be improved. PMID:10138586

  11. Identification of 2-ethyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline for the first time in nature by the comprehensive analysis of sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, David; Bardsley, Kathryn; Brown, Sharon; Kraut, Kenneth; Psota-Kelty, Linda; Trinnaman, Laurence

    2011-04-01

    Toasted sesame seed oil was comprehensively analyzed. It was extracted using the SAFE (Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation) technique. The extract was analyzed by GC and GC-MS on 2 phases and a total of 87 components were identified, confirmed, and are presented in this paper. The major components were methylpyrazine; 2,5-dimethylpyrazine; 2,6-dimethylpyrazine; 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine; furfuryl alcohol; and guaiacol. In addition, as part of this analysis, 2-ethyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-3-thiazoline were confirmed as being present in a natural product for the first time. Their identification, confirmation, and sensory evaluation have been documented here. PMID:21535804

  12. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 12 November 2014. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91% range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependencies. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  13. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

  14. Capturing nature's diversity.

    PubMed

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  15. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  16. Nucleotide diversity in gorillas.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of the levels of nucleotide diversity in humans and apes may provide valuable information for inferring the demographic history of these species, the effect of social structure on genetic diversity, patterns of past migration, and signatures of past selection events. Previous DNA sequence data from both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes suggested a much higher level of nucleotide diversity in the African apes than in humans. Noting that the nuclear DNA data from the apes were very limited, we previously conducted a DNA polymorphism study in humans and another in chimpanzees and bonobos, using 50 DNA segments randomly chosen from the noncoding, nonrepetitive parts of the human genome. The data revealed that the nucleotide diversity (pi) in bonobos (0.077%) is actually lower than that in humans (0.087%) and that pi in chimpanzees (0.134%) is only 50% higher than that in humans. In the present study we sequenced the same 50 segments in 15 western lowland gorillas and estimated pi to be 0.158%. This is the highest value among the African apes but is only about two times higher than that in humans. Interestingly, available mtDNA sequence data also suggest a twofold higher nucleotide diversity in gorillas than in humans, but suggest a threefold higher nucleotide diversity in chimpanzees than in humans. The higher mtDNA diversity in chimpanzees might be due to the unique pattern in the evolution of chimpanzee mtDNA. From the nuclear DNA pi values, we estimated that the long-term effective population sizes of humans, bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are, respectively, 10,400, 12,300, 21,300, and 25,200. PMID:15082556

  17. Capturing Nature's Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  18. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  19. NASFAA Diversity and Inclusion: Recommendations of the Professional Diversity Caucus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2015

    2015-01-01

    NASFAA's Diversity and Inclusion Report emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusivity to NASFAA. Included in this report is a diversity statement developed by NASFAA's Professional Diversity Caucus, and approved by NASFAA's Board in March of 2015. The Caucus convened in the summer of 2014 to better understand issues related to diversity…

  20. Reshaping Antibody Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ekiert, Damian C.; Ahmad, Insha; Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yong; Bazirgan, Omar; Torkamani, Ali; Raudsepp, Terje; Mwangi, Waithaka; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Wilson, Ian A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Unlike humans or mice, some species have limited genome encoded combinatorial diversity potential, yet mount a robust antibody response. Cows are unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 loops and few V-regions, but the mechanism for creating diversity is not understood. Deep sequencing revealed that ultralong CDR H3s contain a remarkable complexity of cysteines, suggesting that disulfide-bonded mini-domains may arise during repertoire development. Indeed, crystal structures of two cow antibodies reveal that these CDR H3s form a very unusual architecture composed of a β-strand “stalk” that supports a structurally diverse, disulfide-bonded, “knob” domain. Sequence analysis suggests that diversity arises from somatic hypermutation of an ultralong DH with a severe codon bias towards mutation to cysteine. These unusual antibodies can be elicited to recognize defined antigens through the knob domain. Thus, the bovine immune system produces an antibody repertoire composed of CDR H3s of unprecedented length that fold into a diversity of mini-domains generated through combinations of somatically generated disulfides. PMID:23746848

  1. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  2. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  3. Diversity and leadership.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jean Lau; Sanchez-Hucles, Janis

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors express concern that the special issue failed to include attention to issues of diversity and intersecting identities as they pertain to leadership. A Special Issue Part II on Diversity and Leadership is being proposed to (a) advance new models of leadership, (b) expand on existing leadership theories, and (c) incorporate diversity and multiple identities in the formulation of more inclusive leadership research and theory. The goal of this special issue will be to revise our theories of leadership and our understanding of effective leadership to include gender, racial/ethnic minority status, sexual orientation, and disability status. PMID:17874910

  4. Diversity as strategy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David A

    2004-09-01

    IBM's turnaround in the last decade is an impressive and well-documented business story. But behind that success is a less told people story, which explains how the corporation dramatically altered its already diverse composition and created millions of dollars in new business. By the time Lou Gerstner took the helm in 1993, IBM had a long history of progressive management when it came to civil rights and equal-opportunity employment. But Gerstner felt IBM wasn't taking full advantage of a diverse market for talent, nor was it maximizing the potential of its diverse customer and employee base. So in 1995, he launched a diversity task force initiative to uncover and understand differences among people within the organization and find ways to appeal to an even broader set of employees and customers. Gerstner established a task force for each of eight constituencies: Asians; blacks; the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered community; Hispanics; white men; Native Americans; people with disabilities; and women. He asked the task forces to research four questions: What does your constituency need to feel welcome and valued at IBM? What can the corporation do, in partnership with your group, to maximize your constituency's productivity? What can the corporation do to influence your constituency's buying decisions so that IBM is seen as a preferred solution provider? And with which external organizations should IBM form relationships to better understand the needs of your constituency? The answers to these questions became the basis for IBM's diversity strategy. Thomas stresses that four factors are key to implementing any major change initiative: strong support from company leaders, an employee base that is fully engaged with the initiative, management practices that are integrated and aligned with the effort, and a strong and well-articulated business case for action. All four elements have helped IBM make diversity a key corporate strategy tied to real growth. PMID

  5. The interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams.

    PubMed

    Homan, Astrid C; Buengeler, Claudia; Eckhoff, Robert A; van Ginkel, Wendy P; Voelpel, Sven C

    2015-09-01

    Attaining value from nationality diversity requires active diversity management, which organizations often employ in the form of diversity training programs. Interestingly, however, the previously reported effects of diversity training are often weak and, sometimes, even negative. This situation calls for research on the conditions under which diversity training helps or harms teams. We propose that diversity training can increase team creativity, but only for teams with less positive pretraining diversity beliefs (i.e., teams with a greater need for such training) and that are sufficiently diverse in nationality. Comparing the creativity of teams that attended nationality diversity training versus control training, we found that for teams with less positive diversity beliefs, diversity training increased creative performance when the team's nationality diversity was high, but undermined creativity when the team's nationality diversity was low. Diversity training had less impact on teams with more positive diversity beliefs, and training effects were not contingent upon these teams' diversity. Speaking to the underlying process, we showed that these interactive effects were driven by the experienced team efficacy of the team members. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for nationality diversity management. PMID:25688641

  6. Diversity Networking Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  7. Education and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.; Cookson, Peter; Gay, Geneva; Hawley, Willis D.; Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; Nieto, Sonia; Schofield, Janet Ward; Stephan, Walter G.

    2005-01-01

    What do we know about education and diversity, and how do we know it? This two-part question guided the work of the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel, which included the eight scholars named above. The panel's work was sponsored by the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington and the Common Destiny Alliance at the…

  8. This Trend Called Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderrama, Sandra Rios

    2000-01-01

    The work of diversity in libraries begins at the crossroad where superiority, inaction, and denial become intolerable. The paradoxes involved present questions that serve as teachable moments or paralyzing hurdles. Once at the crossroads, however, there are systematic strategies and operating principles for bringing significance, meaning, and…

  9. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  10. Campus Diversity Climate Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindes, Victoria

    In order to be responsive to the changing demographics of the emerging community college student population, and in an attempt to answer the Chancellor's Office's call to discover how community colleges serve the diverse needs of students, Shasta College, California, collaborated with Feather River College, California, to conduct a study that…

  11. Supply and Demand Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

  12. Separation, Separatism and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Maya

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, once legal integration was achieved and the White male culture was challenged for real power, minority groups began to question the wisdom of cultural and social integration and celebrate diversity. An acceptable line between healthy separation and unhealthy separatism must be found. (MSE)

  13. The Quest for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    The current promotion of diversity encourages people from assorted backgrounds and mutual goals to find compatible but not necessarily identical ways to work together. Each literacy program will have a different need to expand its circle. It must consider all the characteristics that might widen its constituency, analyze all participants, and be…

  14. Diversity and International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Madeline, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3) "Technology and the…

  15. Affirming Diversity at Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ann D.

    2003-01-01

    In its much-anticipated review of affirmative action, the Supreme Court upheld the educational importance of diversity. Amid great controversy, confusion, and debate, the U.S. Supreme Court this June issued its much-anticipated decisions in two University of Michigan cases addressing affirmative action in higher education admissions. The Court was…

  16. Managing a Diverse Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziolkowski, Darlene M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of managing diversity in student academic library employment. Provides suggestions for orientation, policy review and enforcement, supervisory and management training, task training, interviewing techniques, correct placement, job descriptions, performance reviews, and scheduling. Notes importance of communication,…

  17. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  18. Academies and School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the implications of Academies for the diversity of schooling in England. It seeks to establish the extent to which Academies are distinctive compared to other types of state secondary schools and whether this has been affected by a number of recent reforms. Different types of Academies are also be examined. Previous work in…

  19. How Symbiosis Creates Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

  20. Institutionalizing Diversity Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.; Van Natta, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Metropolitan universities are in the forefront of developing new administrative approaches to support and expand minority opportunities in higher education. Three design principles are at the heart of successful efforts to institutionalize diversity: strategic planning; the learning model; and integration across goals and functions. The experience…

  1. Accepting Tolerance and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoss, Madeleine; Wylie, Roslyn

    Exploring diversity instills in children an awareness and respect for themselves and others. Research projects that address stereotyping, race relations, and prejudice within ourselves can be developed through collaboration between the librarian and classroom teacher (who may themselves be of different cultures). These research projects help…

  2. Marine Protistan Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  4. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  5. Diversity as Asset.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Nersessian, Nancy J

    2015-10-01

    We begin our commentary by summarizing the commonalities and differences in cognitive phenomena across cultures, as found by the seven papers of this topic. We then assess the commonalities and differences in how our various authors have approached the study of cognitive diversity, and speculate on the need for, and potential of, cross-disciplinary collaboration. PMID:26350021

  6. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  7. "An Engine of Diversity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article features North Carolina's Research Triangle Park (RTP), which provides research and career opportunities for the region and creates a diverse work force. The convergence of higher education and research at the famed RTP has been all but idyllic for years. What happened there is a strong example of how regions can start their own…

  8. Making Diversity More Manageable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    A framework using value orientations can make diversity training more manageable. Orientations shared by all include the following: (1) relationship to nature; (2) relationship to the supernatural; (3) relationship to other human beings; (4) time orientation; and (5) activity orientation. (JOW)

  9. Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

  10. Supernovae and Their Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    The number of supernovae discovered annually has exploded and this has led to a growing diversity in observed supernova luminosities and properties. Stripped core-collapse supernovae show a range of expansion velocities with the broad-line events associated to gamma-ray bursts. Several types of extremely luminous supernovae have been identified in the past five years. Some may result from a pair-production instability in very massive stars while others appear to come from less massive progenitors and have an uncertain power source. Thermonuclear (type Ia) events are often thought of as uniform in their properties and that is what makes them good distance indicators. But type Ia supernovae are diverse in subtle and not so subtle ways that may reveal the nature of their explosion mechanism and progenitors. Wider, deeper time-domain sky surveys such as DES and LSST are likely to find even more variety in stellar explosions.

  11. Imposing genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The idea that a world in which everyone was born "perfect" would be a world in which something valuable was missing often comes up in debates about the ethics of technologies of prenatal testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This thought plays an important role in the "disability critique" of prenatal testing. However, the idea that human genetic variation is an important good with significant benefits for society at large is also embraced by a wide range of figures writing in the bioethics literature, including some who are notoriously hostile to the idea that we should not select against disability. By developing a number of thought experiments wherein we are to contemplate increasing genetic diversity from a lower baseline in order to secure this value, I argue that this powerful intuition is more problematic than is generally recognized, especially where the price of diversity is the well-being of particular individuals. PMID:26030484

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  13. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  14. Education & Diversity Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-03-01

    Join us to relax, unwind, and recognize new fellows and award winners at the Education & Diversity Reception sponsored by the Forum on Education, the Committee on Minorities, and the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics. We will recognize new Forum on Education Fellows, recipients of the Committee on Education's Award for Improving Undergraduate Physics Education, as well as women and minority physicists who have received APS prizes, awards, and fellowships. Light refreshments will be served. All are welcome; no registration required.

  15. Strength through Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sacha B.; Turrigiano, Gina G.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable versatility of the mammalian brain is made possible by a huge diversity of cellular plasticity mechanisms. These include long-term potentiation and depression at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, as well as a variety of intrinsic and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. A fundamental challenge for the field is to assemble our detailed knowledge of these specific mechanisms into a coherent picture of how plasticity within cortical circuits works to tune network properties. PMID:18995822

  16. Sessions Focus on Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2013-01-01

    Education and outreach play a significant role in AGU's mission; one of our major strategic goals is developing and nurturing the next generation of Earth and space scientists. Particular emphasis is placed on exploring ways to strengthen the numbers and diversity of the Earth and space science workforce and helping to strengthen Earth and space science departments and undergraduate teaching at the college and university levels.

  17. Diversity: The Business Case?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding perceptions and managing expectations are learnable skills that do not necessarily come with project funding. Finding life balance as one moves through a STEM career path poses unique challenges that require a certain skill set that is not always intuitive. Some of those challenges include: selecting grad or post doc positions; balancing work and family commitments; and dealing with employer/advisor perceptions and expectations. As in nature, the STEM enterprise requires multiple perspectives to flourish (necessity of peer review), and in a changing environment (e.g., budget, generations, technology, etc.), embracing diversity in thought and application may help drive the evolution of STEM in the U.S. Many Agencies and organizations have ';workforce development' programs that focus on preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers at the graduate and undergraduate level that focus on preparing students in the diverse disciplines that are unique to those Agency and organizational missions. While financial support certainly is critical to assist students in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and other fields, professional development is just as important to equip students with a balanced arsenal of tactics to be successful professionals in the STEM workforce of today. Success in these efforts requires an honest look at the issue of inequality in the STEM ecosystem... meaning, what initiatives have been successful in addressing the imbalance in sources of thought and application, therefore promoting the importance of diversity.

  18. Activities for Exploring Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents topics for parents to use when discussing cultural diversity with their children (basic needs, cultural attitudes, body language, the arts, and language). Activities for exploring cultural diversity are suggested, and a list of multicultural resources is included. (SM)

  19. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a method using immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup with postcolumn derivatization and LC with a fluorescence detector (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2) in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil have been established in a collaborative study involving 15 laboratories from six countries. Blind duplicate samples of blank, spiked at levels ranging from 0.25 to 20.0 microg/kg for AF, were analyzed. A naturally contaminated peanut oil sample was also included. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an IAC, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC-FLD analysis after postcolumn derivatization. Average recoveries of AFs from olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 84 to 92% (at spiking levels ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg); of AFB1 from 86 to 93% (at spiking levels ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg); of AFB2 from 89 to 95% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg); of AFG1 from 85 to 97% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microg/kg); and of AFG2 from 76 to 85% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg). RSDs for within-laboratory repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 3.4 to 10.2% for AF, from 3.5 to 10.9% for AFB1, from 3.2 to 9.5% for AFB2, from 6.5 to 14.9% for AFG1, and from 4.8 to 14.2% for AFG2. RSDs for between-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 14.5% for AF, from 7.5 to 15.4% for AFB1, from 7.1 to 14.6% for AFB2, from 10.8 to 18.1% for AFG1, and from 7.6 to 23.7% for AFG2. Horwitz ratio values were < or = 2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:23451385

  20. Religious Diversity in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

    This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

  1. 2008-09 Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Board of Regents' policy, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) prepares a diversity report intended to provide an overview of the current status of enrollment and employment of members of diverse groups across the System. The information presented in this report follows the NSHE "2007-08 Diversity Report" that was presented to…

  2. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  3. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  4. Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

  5. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households

    PubMed Central

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T.; Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin

    2015-01-01

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifying production on these smallholder farms is widely perceived as a useful approach to improve dietary diversity. However, empirical evidence on the link between production and consumption diversity is scarce. Here, this issue is addressed with household-level data from Indonesia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. Regression models show that on-farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity in some situations, but not in all. When production diversity is already high, the association is not significant or even turns negative, because of foregone income benefits from specialization. Analysis of other factors reveals that market access has positive effects on dietary diversity, which are larger than those of increased production diversity. Market transactions also tend to reduce the role of farm diversity for household nutrition. These results suggest that increasing on-farm diversity is not always the most effective way to improve dietary diversity in smallholder households and should not be considered a goal in itself. Additional research is needed to better understand how agriculture and food systems can be made more nutrition-sensitive in particular situations. PMID:26261342

  7. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households.

    PubMed

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T; Krishna, Vijesh V; Qaim, Matin

    2015-08-25

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifying production on these smallholder farms is widely perceived as a useful approach to improve dietary diversity. However, empirical evidence on the link between production and consumption diversity is scarce. Here, this issue is addressed with household-level data from Indonesia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. Regression models show that on-farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity in some situations, but not in all. When production diversity is already high, the association is not significant or even turns negative, because of foregone income benefits from specialization. Analysis of other factors reveals that market access has positive effects on dietary diversity, which are larger than those of increased production diversity. Market transactions also tend to reduce the role of farm diversity for household nutrition. These results suggest that increasing on-farm diversity is not always the most effective way to improve dietary diversity in smallholder households and should not be considered a goal in itself. Additional research is needed to better understand how agriculture and food systems can be made more nutrition-sensitive in particular situations. PMID:26261342

  8. Quasicrystals: diversity and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Jean-Marie; Lifshitz, Ron

    2011-07-01

    Scientific presentations at ICQ11 - the 11th International Conference on Quasicrystals, which took place in Sapporo, Japan, in June 2010 - offered a variety of stimulating new experimental data and novel theoretical results. New aperiodic crystals were presented; new theoretical ideas were described; exciting experimental results were revealed; and potential applications of quasicrystals were reviewed, showing an unprecedented level of development. ICQ11 was a great success thanks to the high standard of its scientific content and to the efficiency of its organization. ICQ11 proved that quasicrystal research is sure to continue offering diverse challenges and profound insights into the complexity of matter.

  9. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  10. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Institutionalising Campus Diversity in South African Higher Education: Review of Diversity Scholarship and Diversity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly the social, educational, cultural, linguistic, religious and racial diversity of South African society is finding expression within South African institutions of higher education. Consequently, "diversity'', "diversity issues'' and "diversification'', have become part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South…

  12. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span. PMID:23432089

  13. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%. PMID:26838445

  14. Human phylogeography and diversity.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Alexander H

    2016-07-19

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species' origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last-arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2-1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers-mountains and oceans-is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins-northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas-allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases. PMID:27432967

  15. Human phylogeography and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens phylogeography begins with the species’ origin nearly 200 kya in Africa. First signs of the species outside Africa (in Arabia) are from 125 kya. Earliest dates elsewhere are now 100 kya in China, 45 kya in Australia and southern Europe (maybe even 60 kya in Australia), 32 kya in northeast Siberia, and maybe 20 kya in the Americas. Humans reached arctic regions and oceanic islands last—arctic North America about 5 kya, mid- and eastern Pacific islands about 2–1 kya, and New Zealand about 700 y ago. Initial routes along coasts seem the most likely given abundant and easily harvested shellfish there as indicated by huge ancient oyster shell middens on all continents. Nevertheless, the effect of geographic barriers—mountains and oceans—is clear. The phylogeographic pattern of diasporas from several single origins—northeast Africa to Eurasia, southeast Eurasia to Australia, and northeast Siberia to the Americas—allows the equivalent of a repeat experiment on the relation between geography and phylogenetic and cultural diversity. On all continents, cultural diversity is high in productive low latitudes, presumably because such regions can support populations of sustainable size in a small area, therefore allowing a high density of cultures. Of course, other factors operate. South America has an unusually low density of cultures in its tropical latitudes. A likely factor is the phylogeographic movement of peoples from the Old World bringing novel and hence, lethal diseases to the New World, a foretaste, perhaps, of present day global transport of tropical diseases. PMID:27432967

  16. Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

  17. Root exudate diversity regulates soil fungal community composition and diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant diversity is thought to influence diversity of the soil microbial community, though how this occurs is poorly understood. We report that under greenhouse conditions, two model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula) show an inability to support the native soil fungal comm...

  18. Why Diversity for Diversity's Sake Won't Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delton, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of "diversity hiring" insist that faculty members of color have a different perspective on issues of race and ethnicity that will increase students' understanding of the multiracial, multicultural world they will inhabit in the 21st century. The mere presence of "diverse" faculty members will prepare students for workplace realities,…

  19. Diversity Management and Respect for Diversity at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylik, Ahmet; Polatcan, Mahmut; Saylik, Numan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine employees' individual attitudes towards diversity management and respect for diversity in secondary education in views of secondary school administrators and teachers, and to explore the relationship between these concepts. According to the results of the study, administrators and teachers in secondary…

  20. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  1. WATER DIVERSION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    1999-12-21

    The distribution of seepage in the proposed repository will be highly variable due in part to variations in the spatial distribution of percolations. The performance of the drip shield and the backfill system may divert the water flux around the waste packages to the invert. Diversion will occur along the drift surface, within the backfill, at the drip shield, and at the Waste Package (WP) surface, even after the drip shield and WP have been breached by corrosion. The purpose and objective of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) are to develop a conceptual model and constitutive properties for bounding the volume and rate of seepage water that flows around the drip shield (CRWMS M&O 1999c). This analysis model is to be compatible with the selected repository conceptual design (Wilkins and Heath, 1999) and will be used to evaluate the performance of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), and to provide input to the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Model. This model supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) postclosure performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (SR). This document characterizes the hydrological constitutive properties of the backfill and invert materials (Section 6.2) and a third material that represents a mixture of the two. These include the Overton Sand which is selected as a backfill (Section 5.2), crushed tuff which is selected as the invert (Section 5.1), and a combined material (Sections 5.9 and 5.10) which has retention and hydraulic conductivity properties intermediate to the selected materials for the backfill and the invert. The properties include the grain size distribution, the dry bulk density and porosity, the moisture retention, the intrinsic permeability, the relative permeability, and the material thermal properties. The van Genuchten relationships with curve fit parameters are used to define the basic retention relationship of moisture potential to volumetric moisture content, and the basic relationship of unsaturated

  2. The Sahara's Diverse Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast stretches of uninterrupted sand are only one kind of Saharan landscape. This true-color MODIS image from November 9, 2001, reveals a diversity of land surface features, including ancient lava flows and volcanoes. Beginning at upper left and moving clockwise are the countries of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Chad, and Niger. Evidence of previous volcanic activity in the Sahara can be found in northeastern Chad, in particular, in a region known as Tibesti. Reaching up out of the surrounding desert, the dark rock of the Tibesti Plateau stands out in dark brown against the sand. Scattered throughout the region are the circular cones and calderas of several volcanoes. The dark remains of a lava flow mark the location of the Tousside volcano. North of Tibesti, in Libya, more dark-colored lava beds leave their mark on the landscape. Variety exists in Algeria, where the Grand Erg Oriental desert (far upper left) is hemmed in to the south by the Tinrhert Plateau. South of the Plateau, desert resumes briefly, only to give way to a mountainous region traced with impermanent rivers. In northern Niger, a sinuous gray-green line marks the edge of an escarpment that separates the Mangueni Plateau to the north from the rock deserts to the south. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816

  4. Diversity: Gender, Color, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essed, Philomena

    This book serves as an introduction to issues of diversity. Each chapter addresses an issue relevant to life and work in gender-conscious and ethnically diverse environments. Taken together, the chapters challenge the reader to develop alternative views on gender, color, culture, and human relations. The first chapter introduces key notions, such…

  5. Leisure Today: Educating for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Kathleen, Ed.; Ibrahim, Hilmi, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Three articles propose diversity strategies for teachers, recreation leaders, and program managers to include in their classrooms and programs. The articles are "Diversity Education for Professional Practice" (Sharon Washington); "Just Recreation for Girls and Women" (Karla Henderson); and "A Different Set of Footprints: A Portrayal of One Woman's…

  6. Feed your soil through diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our soil resource is fundamental to plant and animal life, therefore, proper management is essential. One of the key tools to maintain our soil resource is diversity both below and above ground. Diversity is an important concept in all areas of our lives, from the food we eat, to the weather we ex...

  7. Love Me; I Celebrate Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    According to this author, by now everyone in America has learned to celebrate diversity. People do so to signify that they are a good person, they are hip, trendy, and "down with the program." He claims, however, that in academe, the word "diversity" still functions as a rhetorical trump card, always uttered with the tonal implication that the…

  8. The Scoop on Board Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Robert, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, a prominent college trustee discusses strategies for increasing ethnic and cultural diversity on governing boards, the relationship between board diversity and institutional policies, effects on the student body, the responsibility of the board, and the challenges and rewards of trusteeship. (MSE)

  9. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  10. Citizenship, Diversity and National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the issues of citizenship, diversity and national identity in the context of the introduction of citizenship education in the UK. It considers the historical context of national identity in the UK and notes that the "British national identity has historically implied diversity". It also analyses the views of British national…

  11. The Changing Face of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Noni Mendoza; Mendez, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    As the nation's schools strive to provide quality education for students most at risk for failure, the notion of diversity continues to lead the discussion. Revisiting understandings about diversity as a response to creating equitable learning opportunities to foster achievement for all students has become increasingly urgent given that, while the…

  12. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  13. States' Diversity Requirements for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Maurice (Maury); Strosnider, Roberta; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Documents from all states were analyzed for requirements for teachers in preparation for teaching diverse students including the definition of diversity used, whether documents listed specific standards, and whether preparation for teaching students with exceptionalities was also listed. Although 41 states had some requirements, specifics,…

  14. Genetic Diversity of Toscana Virus

    PubMed Central

    Collao, Ximena; Palacios, Gustavo; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Negredo, Ana I.; Navarro-Marí, José-María; Grandadam, Marc; Aransay, Ana Maria; Lipkin, W. Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of Toscana virus (TOSV) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (Mediterranean Basin). To characterize genetic diversity of TOSV, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from Spain and France. TOSV is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,Rift Valley fever virus). PMID:19331735

  15. Pathways to Tolerance: Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Dorothy, Ed.; Stanhope, Victoria, Ed.

    Ideas for schools to support tolerance and celebrate student diversity are presented in this volume of reprinted articles. Titles include: (1) "One of Us, One of Them: Lessons in Diversity for a School Psychologist" (M. M. Chittooran); (2) "The Tolerance-in-Action Campaign" (H. M. Knoff); (3) "Immigrant Parents and the School" (R. Rhodes, D.…

  16. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  17. Diversity Research as Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suyemoto, Karen L.; Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Diversity Research Initiative at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, which involves students in seminars and research related to diversity. Concludes that these efforts have positively impacted curriculum and pedagogy, and have given students the opportunity to experience collaborative learning communities, become engaged in…

  18. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  19. Facilitating Respectful Diversity Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David L.; Thomas, Earl E.

    2007-01-01

    Changing demographics continue to challenge professional development programs to prepare school personnel to serve a rapidly expanding diverse student body. Popular diversity professional development models are on a continuum. They range from preparing teachers to design themes and activities that are culturally relevant all the way to enabling…

  20. Why School Psychology for Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the dilemma faced by psychologists in responding to diversity. It is based on a qualitative review of relevant literature over the past decade. It first describes psychologists as frontrunners in recognizing the uniqueness and autonomy of each of their diverse clients but within the biomedical model that locates problems…

  1. Diversity Cascades and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    CARLSON, JOHN C.; DYER, LEE A.; OMLIN, FRANCOIS X.; BEIER, JOHN C.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between predator diversity and primary consumer abundance can include direct effects and indirect, cascading effects. Understanding these effects on immature Anopheles mosquitoes is important in sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases of malaria occur. Aquatic predators and immature mosquitoes were collected from shallow pools of varying age previously excavated by brickmakers in the western highlands of Kenya. Path analysis showed an indirect negative effect of habitat age on An. gambiae (Giles, 1902) mediated by effects on predator diversity. Disturbance resets habitats to an earlier successional stage, diminishing predator diversity and increasing An. gambiae populations. The increase in vector abundance as a result of reduced predator diversity highlights the public health value in conserving native insect diversity. PMID:19496413

  2. Study of the biochemical effects induced by X-ray irradiations in combination with gadolinium nanoparticles in F98 glioma cells: first FTIR studies at the Emira laboratory of the SESAME synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ibraheem; Seksek, Olivier; Gil, Sílvia; Prezado, Yolanda; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Martínez-Rovira, Immaculada

    2016-04-01

    One strategy to improve the clinical outcome of radiotherapy is to use nanoparticles as radiosensitizers. Along this line, numerous studies have shown the enhanced effectiveness of tumour cell killing when nanoparticles are exposed to irradiation. However, the mechanisms of action are not clear yet. In addition to the damage due to a possible local radiation dose enhancement, the interaction of nanoparticles with essential biological macromolecules could lead to changes in the cells, such as cell arrest at radiosensitive phases. Within this framework, vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the biochemical changes in F98 glioma cells induced by X-ray irradiations combined with gadolinium nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy experiments were performed at the Emira laboratory of the SESAME synchrotron (Jordan), allowing the characterisation of spectral signatures of nanoparticle-induced effects in glioma cells. Multivariate analysis of the spectra recorded using principal component analysis reveals clear differences in the DNA, protein and lipid regions in the presence of nanoparticles. Prior to irradiation, results show that nanoparticles induce biochemical modifications in the cells, probably due to changes in the cellular function. Biochemical alterations are amplified in the presence of radiation. In particular, variations in the intensity and in the position of the PO2(-) symmetric and asymmetric modes are observed due to radiation damage to the DNA, which is increased in nanoparticle-treated cells. At 24 hours post-irradiation, biochemical changes related to the hallmark characteristics of cell death are detected. This includes a shift towards low wavenumbers in the amide I and II bands, relative amplitude changes in the CH2 and CH3 stretching modes, along with DNA chromatin condensation indications. Results were confirmed by two complementary cell viability assays. PMID:26933694

  3. Diverse Bacterial Microcompartment Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chun, Sunny; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are sophisticated protein-based organelles used to optimize metabolic pathways. They consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell, which creates an ideal environment for catalysis and facilitates the channeling of toxic/volatile intermediates to downstream enzymes. The metabolic processes that require MCPs are diverse and widely distributed and play important roles in global carbon fixation and bacterial pathogenesis. The protein shells of MCPs are thought to selectively control the movement of enzyme cofactors, substrates, and products (including toxic or volatile intermediates) between the MCP interior and the cytoplasm of the cell using both passive electrostatic/steric and dynamic gated mechanisms. Evidence suggests that specialized shell proteins conduct electrons between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the MCP and/or help rebuild damaged iron-sulfur centers in the encapsulated enzymes. The MCP shell is elaborated through a family of small proteins whose structural core is known as a bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain. BMC domain proteins oligomerize into flat, hexagonally shaped tiles, which assemble into extended protein sheets that form the facets of the shell. Shape complementarity along the edges allows different types of BMC domain proteins to form mixed sheets, while sequence variation provides functional diversification. Recent studies have also revealed targeting sequences that mediate protein encapsulation within MCPs, scaffolding proteins that organize lumen enzymes and the use of private cofactor pools (NAD/H and coenzyme A [HS-CoA]) to facilitate cofactor homeostasis. Although much remains to be learned, our growing understanding of MCPs is providing a basis for bioengineering of protein-based containers for the production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and for use as molecular delivery vehicles. PMID:25184561

  4. Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Steve C.; Dodson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Despite current interest in estimating the diversity of fossil and extant groups, little effort has been devoted to estimating the diversity of dinosaurs. Here we estimate the diversity of nonavian dinosaurs at ≈1,850 genera, including those that remain to be discovered. With 527 genera currently described, at least 71% of dinosaur genera thus remain unknown. Although known diversity declined in the last stage of the Cretaceous, estimated diversity was steady, suggesting that dinosaurs as a whole were not in decline in the 10 million years before their ultimate extinction. We also show that known diversity is biased by the availability of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Finally, by using a logistic model, we predict that 75% of discoverable genera will be known within 60–100 years and 90% within 100–140 years. Because of nonrandom factors affecting the process of fossil discovery (which preclude the possibility of computing realistic confidence bounds), our estimate of diversity is likely to be a lower bound. PMID:16954187

  5. Detecting diversity: emerging methods to estimate species diversity.

    PubMed

    Iknayan, Kelly J; Tingley, Morgan W; Furnas, Brett J; Beissinger, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Estimates of species richness and diversity are central to community and macroecology and are frequently used in conservation planning. Commonly used diversity metrics account for undetected species primarily by controlling for sampling effort. Yet the probability of detecting an individual can vary among species, observers, survey methods, and sites. We review emerging methods to estimate alpha, beta, gamma, and metacommunity diversity through hierarchical multispecies occupancy models (MSOMs) and multispecies abundance models (MSAMs) that explicitly incorporate observation error in the detection process for species or individuals. We examine advantages, limitations, and assumptions of these detection-based hierarchical models for estimating species diversity. Accounting for imperfect detection using these approaches has influenced conclusions of comparative community studies and creates new opportunities for testing theory. PMID:24315534

  6. On the uses of diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D

    1976-01-01

    An examination is made of the uses of diversity in medical library activities and personnel. This concept is extended also to the broader field of librarianship and to some forecasts of future directions for medical libraries. PMID:974292

  7. Marine Technology: Diversity and Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Dale R.

    1973-01-01

    Training for a specific field must reflect the diversity of that field and also remain flexible enough to accommodate fluctuations in the job market and the field, as marine technology illustrates. (Editor)

  8. The Phylogenetic Diversity of Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Green, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity—patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities—provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  9. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  10. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  11. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Diane; Gries, Corinna; Zhu, Weixing; Fagan, William F.; Redman, Charles L.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Nelson, Amy L.; Martin, Chris; Kinzig, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by traditional ecological theory. Here we use data from a probability-based survey to explore the variation in plant diversity across a large metropolitan area using spatial statistical analyses that incorporate biotic, abiotic, and human variables. Our prediction for the city was that land use, along with distance from urban center, would replace the dominantly geomorphic controls on spatial variation in plant diversity in the surrounding undeveloped Sonoran desert. However, in addition to elevation and current and former land use, family income and housing age best explained the observed variation in plant diversity across the city. We conclude that a functional relationship, which we term the “luxury effect,” may link human resource abundance (wealth) and plant diversity in urban ecosystems. This connection may be influenced by education, institutional control, and culture, and merits further study. PMID:12847293

  12. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    PubMed

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  13. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitz, Patricia; /SLAC

    2007-10-15

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply diversity management best practices and provides a reading list for leaders and human resource managers wishing to optimize their organization's approach to diversity.

  14. Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perales, Hugo R; Benz, Bruce F; Brush, Stephen B

    2005-01-18

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether ethnolinguistic diversity influences crop diversity. Factors suggest a correlation between biological diversity of crops and cultural diversity. Although this correlation has been noted, little systematic research has focused on the role of culture in shaping crop diversity. This paper reports on research in the Maya highlands (altitude >1,800 m) of central Chiapas in southern Mexico that examined the distribution of maize (Zea mays) types among communities of two groups, the Tzeltal and Tzotzil. The findings suggest that maize populations are distinct according to ethnolinguistic group. However, a study of isozymes indicates no clear separation of the region's maize into two distinct populations based on ethnolinguistic origin. A reciprocal garden experiment shows that there is adaptation of maize to its environment but that Tzeltal maize sometimes out-yields Tzotzil maize in Tzotzil environments. Because of the proximity of the two groups and selection for yield, we would expect that the superior maize would dominate both groups' maize populations, but we find that such domination is not the case. The role of ethnolinguistic identity in shaping social networks and information exchange is discussed in relation to landrace differentiation. PMID:15640353

  15. Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Perales, Hugo R.; Benz, Bruce F.; Brush, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether ethnolinguistic diversity influences crop diversity. Factors suggest a correlation between biological diversity of crops and cultural diversity. Although this correlation has been noted, little systematic research has focused on the role of culture in shaping crop diversity. This paper reports on research in the Maya highlands (altitude > 1,800 m) of central Chiapas in southern Mexico that examined the distribution of maize (Zea mays) types among communities of two groups, the Tzeltal and Tzotzil. The findings suggest that maize populations are distinct according to ethnolinguistic group. However, a study of isozymes indicates no clear separation of the region's maize into two distinct populations based on ethnolin-guistic origin. A reciprocal garden experiment shows that there is adaptation of maize to its environment but that Tzeltal maize sometimes out-yields Tzotzil maize in Tzotzil environments. Because of the proximity of the two groups and selection for yield, we would expect that the superior maize would dominate both groups' maize populations, but we find that such domination is not the case. The role of ethnolinguistic identity in shaping social networks and information exchange is discussed in relation to landrace differentiation. PMID:15640353

  16. Diversion ahead: imaging appearance of urinary diversions and reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; Tabatabaei, Shahin; McDermott, Shaunagh; Feldman, Adam; Dahl, Douglas M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

    2014-01-01

    The imaging appearance of urinary diversion is determined by the indication and type of surgical procedure performed. These patients often undergo an imaging follow-up to detect complications or recurrence. Understanding the postoperative anatomy and early detection of complications are keys to adept interpretation of radiological evaluation of urinary reservoirs. The purpose of following review is to offer a brief account of commonly used surgical techniques, relevant anatomy, and concise overview of the imaging techniques for evaluation of the urinary diversions and features of their complications. PMID:24602415

  17. Does M. tuberculosis genomic diversity explain disease diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Coscolla, Mireilla; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of tuberculosis infection and disease is highly variable. This variation has been attributed primarily to host and environmental factors, but better understanding of the global genomic diversity in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) suggests that bacterial factors could also be involved. Review of nearly 100 published reports shows that MTBC strains differ in their virulence and immunogenicity in experimental models, but whether this phenotypic variation plays a role in human disease remains unclear. Given the complex interactions between the host, the pathogen and the environment, linking MTBC genotypic diversity to experimental and clinical phenotypes requires an integrated systems epidemiology approach embedded in a robust evolutionary framework. PMID:21076640

  18. Diversity and Community Can Coexist.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alex; Robins, Garry; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We examine the (in)compatibility of diversity and sense of community by means of agent-based models based on the well-known Schelling model of residential segregation and Axelrod model of cultural dissemination. We find that diversity and highly clustered social networks, on the assumptions of social tie formation based on spatial proximity and homophily, are incompatible when agent features are immutable, and this holds even for multiple independent features. We include both mutable and immutable features into a model that integrates Schelling and Axelrod models, and we find that even for multiple independent features, diversity and highly clustered social networks can be incompatible on the assumptions of social tie formation based on spatial proximity and homophily. However, this incompatibility breaks down when cultural diversity can be sufficiently large, at which point diversity and clustering need not be negatively correlated. This implies that segregation based on immutable characteristics such as race can possibly be overcome by sufficient similarity on mutable characteristics based on culture, which are subject to a process of social influence, provided a sufficiently large "scope of cultural possibilities" exists. PMID:27217326

  19. Lung Macrophage Diversity and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Carey N

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages (MPs) are one of the most prominent leukocyte populations in the lung and, in many ways, a forgotten player in asthma pathogenesis. Diverse functions in asthma initiation and maintenance in chronic disease have been demonstrated, which has led to confusion as to if pulmonary MPs are agents of good or evil in asthma. Much of this is due to the wide diversity of MP populations in the lung, many of which are inaccessible experimentally in most clinical studies. This review frames lung MP biology in the context of location, phenotype, function, and response phase in asthma pathogenesis. It also assesses new findings regarding MP diversity that have challenged old dogmas and generates new ways to understand how MPs function. PMID:27027949

  20. The diversity of fungal genome.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed genomic information of 172 fungal species among different fungal genomes and found that fungal genomes are very diverse in nature. In fungi, the diversity of genomes varies from 8.97 Mb to 177.57 Mb. The average genome sizes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi are 36.91 and 46.48 Mb respectively. But higher genome size is observed in Oomycota (74.85 Mb) species, a lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. The average coding genes of Oomycota species are almost doubled than that of Acomycota and Basidiomycota fungus. PMID:25866485

  1. Diversity, Differences and Leisure Services. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on diversity, examining similarities and differences between diverse groups and noting the implications for recreation professionals. Presents several common principles that recreation professionals must consider in programming for diverse populations (training and education about diversity, cooperation and advocacy,…

  2. Reactions to Diversity Training: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Courtney L.; Quinones, Miguel A.

    2005-01-01

    As the workplace becomes more diverse and global in nature, organizations are implementing diversity training to manage this trend. However, previous research has rarely explored empirically employees' perceptions toward diversity training in different cultures. The study presented here examined reactions to a diversity training program conducted…

  3. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitz, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply…

  4. 30 CFR 817.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the peak runoff of a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a permanent diversion. (4) A permanent stream-channel diversion or a... runoff of a 2-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year,...

  5. Making Diversity a Reality within Our Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Clay; Lentz, Glenda F.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that diversity perspective is coming into focus for the College Placement Council (CPC) and the seven regional associations. Calls for diverse leadership to develop programs and services needed by recruiters and career services professionals serving diverse clientele. Describes activities of diversity task force designed to make CPC more…

  6. Diversity in Kansas Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Kansas is not typically considered a state with a great deal of diversity. In the past few years, however, Kansas has become more ethnically diverse. Kansas adult education programs could serve as a bellwether for diversity across Kansas. This article discusses the diversity in Kansas adult education programs. The author stresses the need to…

  7. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  8. 30 CFR 817.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the peak runoff of a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a permanent diversion. (4) A permanent stream-channel diversion or a... runoff of a 2-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year,...

  9. 30 CFR 817.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the peak runoff of a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a permanent diversion. (4) A permanent stream-channel diversion or a... runoff of a 2-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year,...

  10. 30 CFR 817.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the peak runoff of a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a permanent diversion. (4) A permanent stream-channel diversion or a... runoff of a 2-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year,...

  11. 30 CFR 817.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the peak runoff of a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a permanent diversion. (4) A permanent stream-channel diversion or a... runoff of a 2-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year,...

  12. Plant Functional Diversity and Species Diversity in the Mongolian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guofang; Xie, Xiufang; Ye, Duo; Ye, Xuehua; Tuvshintogtokh, Indree; Mandakh, Bayart; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mongolian steppe is one of the most important grasslands in the world but suffers from aridization and damage from anthropogenic activities. Understanding structure and function of this community is important for the ecological conservation, but has seldom been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a total of 324 quadrats located on the three main types of Mongolian steppes were surveyed. Early-season perennial forbs (37% of total importance value), late-season annual forbs (33%) and late-season perennial forbs (44%) were dominant in meadow, typical and desert steppes, respectively. Species richness, diversity and plant functional type (PFT) richness decreased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes, but evenness increased; PFT diversity in the desert and meadow steppes was higher than that in typical steppe. However, above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was far lower in desert steppe than in the other two steppes. In addition, the slope of the relationship between species richness and PFT richness increased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes. Similarly, with an increase in species diversity, PFT diversity increased more quickly in both the desert and typical steppes than that in meadow steppe. Random resampling suggested that this coordination was partly due to a sampling effect of diversity. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that desert steppe should be strictly protected because of its limited functional redundancy, which its ecological functioning is sensitive to species loss. In contrast, despite high potential forage production shared by the meadow and typical steppes, management of these two types of steppes should be different: meadow steppe should be preserved due to its higher conservation value characterized by more species redundancy and higher spatial heterogeneity, while typical steppe could be utilized moderately because its dominant grass genus Stipa is resistant to

  13. Principles and guidelines for diversity in teamwork

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Crespin, G.; Garcia, L.R.; Jansma, R.; Lovato, L.; Randall, G.; Sanchez, A.

    1994-08-01

    As part of Sandia`s Corporate Diversity Program, a Diversity Action Team was assembled to study the impact of diversity on teamwork. We reviewed the available literature on successful teaming, both with homogeneous (more alike than different) and heterogeneous teams. Although many principles and guidelines for successful homogeneous teams also apply to diverse teams, we believe that a document concentrating on diverse teams will be useful both for Sandians and for the outside world.

  14. Mapping Diversity Efforts as Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halualani, Rona Tamiko; Haiker, Hugh; Lancaster, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss the importance for a higher education institution to participate in self-inquiry, or a reflexive practice of identifying where a university is with regard to establishing an embedded campus structure grounded in diversity in terms of values, principles, objectives and goals, outcomes and resource allocations. This process…

  15. Language Diversity and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on language diversity and bilingual processing is based on papers presented at the "Exploratory Workshop on Speaking, Thinking and Gesturing in Two Languages," at the University of Reading, UK, in September 2012, sponsored by the European Science Foundation (IM/SCH/EW11-145). The workshop brought together a…

  16. Beyond Mainstreaming: Dealing with Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that an educational philosophy grounded in motivation and a positive attitude leads to successful implementation of mainstreaming instructional strategies. Outlines 12 strategies for dealing with mainstreamed students and their diverse needs that include instructional objectives, lesson plans, themes, using tutors and teachers' aides,…

  17. Leadership Training for Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Searetha

    1996-01-01

    Addresses leadership in a diverse society, especially in schools and the workplace, and examines one school administrator's success at getting a resistant faculty and principal to incorporate multicultural education into the school environment and curriculum. A 10-day multicultural leadership training program is described. (GR)

  18. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  19. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  20. When Diversity Training Goes Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    Initially, Courtney Halligan, a first-year student at the University of Delaware (UD), was not opposed to attending a diversity training session that was required of all incoming freshmen. In fact, the 18-year-old New Jersey native assumed that the experience would be an opportunity for her to learn more about students from different backgrounds.…

  1. Shifting Patterns of Agricultural Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although monocultural cropping systems can provide the greatest yield efficiency in the short term, more diverse agricultural landscapes may contribute multiple ecosystem benefits. The USDA's Cropland Data Layer provides a yearly map of the agricultural lands of the continental United States broken ...

  2. Diversity: a grazier's best friend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiversity is a hot topic, but can understanding biodiversity help with pasture management? A diverse pasture may use resources more efficiently, extend the grazing season longer, resist weed invasion, and be more successful in stressful conditions. Animal production can be as good or better on a ...

  3. The Mixed Benefits of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Colleges have talked for decades about the educational benefits of diversity on their campuses without offering much research to show how students are affected by exposure to members of other racial and ethnic groups. In an effort to fill that gap, James Sidanius, a professor of psychology and of African and African-American studies at Harvard…

  4. Teaching Relationship Skills in Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ron J.

    In-class activities that provide students with intercultural interactions and supplemental lectures that define critical concepts can facilitate the appreciation of diversity in the classroom. One such activity, useful for the beginning of courses, involves the creation of two separate culture codes, or set of instructions, for introducing…

  5. Tying Diverse Data Bases Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokicki, Philip S.; Springer, Peggy B.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to institutions seeking to interface their diverse student and administrative databases. Administrative costs associated with maintaining separate data systems are often unnecessary, and duplication of data can make consistent and accurate reports hard to achieve. (Author/MLW)

  6. Epigenomic Landscapes Reflect Neuronal Diversity.

    PubMed

    Henikoff, Steven

    2015-06-17

    Epigenomic profiling of complex tissues obscures regulatory elements that distinguish one cell type from another. In this issue of Neuron, Mo et al. (2015) apply cell-type-specific profiling to mouse neuronal subtypes and discover an unprecedented level of neuronal diversity. PMID:26087157

  7. Diversity and Domestication of Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species within Malus are genetically diverse. Individuals within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System have been identified with ploidies ranging from diploid to hexaploid. Chloroplast sequence data from seven regions have revealed genetic relationships among apple species and has aided in ...

  8. Diversity, Pedagogy, and Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgy, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    As new approaches have emerged in art education, teacher preparation programs in higher education have revised existing courses or created new ones that reflect those new approaches. At the university where the author teaches, one such course is Diversity, Pedagogy, and Visual Culture (A ED 225). A ED 225 is intended to offer preservice art…

  9. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

  10. Promoting Diversity in Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Oscar C.

    2003-01-01

    The challenge every college, university, and state higher education coordinating board has is changing demographics. In most states, minorities are becoming majorities, and the importance of gaining an understanding of other cultures becomes much more evident. To promote diversity in academic leadership, educators must recognize that the college…

  11. Ethnic Diversity: Challenging the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity in society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Pluralism" (Joseph Giordano; Irving M. Levine); (2) "Does TV Shape…

  12. Educating Citizens in Diverse Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration is increasing racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistics, and religious diversity in nations around the world, which is challenging existing concepts of citizenship and citizenship education. In this article, I challenge assimilationist conceptions of citizenship education and argue that citizenship education should be transformed so that…

  13. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  14. Raising the Bar on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles Dr. Lawrence T. Potter, Allegheny College's first chief diversity officer. Dr. Potter comes from a family that is committed to higher education. As a third generation college graduate, he has mixed his education between Stillman, a historically Black college in Tuscaloosa, AL, where he earned bachelor's degrees in English,…

  15. Diversity and the Postsecondary Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.; Lundell, Dana B., Ed.; Duranczyk, Irene M., Ed

    2007-01-01

    During the past year the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy (CRDEUL) has moved from the former General College (GC), which after 74 years of service to a diverse student body closed its doors on June 30, 2006, to the University of Minnesota's new College of Education and Human Development (CEHD). The new mission…

  16. The Creativity-Diversity Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The growing dominance of the creative economy challenges cities and regions to move beyond the impulse toward "big ticket" economic development strategies like stadiums and convention centres and consider increased support for community-level strategies that encourage social and cultural diversity. Vibrant street scenes, eclectic restaurants and…

  17. Freedom, Diversity, and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Grant H.; Stoddard, Eve Walsh

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors state that liberal education depends upon--presupposes--unfettered thought, inquiry, and expression. This is necessary not only for the production of knowledge but also for the preparation of citizens in a diverse democracy. A vital campus is one where ideas meet, mix, conflict, engage, and emerge changed by the…

  18. Information Diversity in Web Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiahui

    2009-01-01

    The web is a rich and diverse information source with incredible amounts of information about all kinds of subjects in various forms. This information source affords great opportunity to build systems that support users in their work and everyday lives. To help users explore information on the web, web search systems should find information that…

  19. Workplace Readiness for Communicating Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a model for communicating change about diversity using a workplace-readiness approach. Discusses ways organizational change agents can assess the company's current interpersonal and social dynamics, use appropriate influence strategies, and create effective messages that will appeal to employees and help to achieve the desired acceptance…

  20. Institutionalizing Diversity: Transforming Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae-Yates, Velda

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines plausible efforts to institutionalize diversity in a higher education setting so it becomes part of the strategic mission, and permeates the interactions, discussions, and operations. Review of literature, surveys, and in-depth interviews are conducted at a Massachusetts institution to gather information from faculty,…

  1. Confronting the Challenge of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Pedro A.

    1999-01-01

    Framing diversity as a problem sets the stage for how communities will react to the change. Unfortunately, American schools have historically seen cultural assimilation of immigrants and nonwhites as central to their mission. Instead of responding with fear and insecurity, communities should treat plurality as an asset that can benefit everyone.…

  2. Diversity in the Workforce: A Literature Review. Diversity in the Workforce Series Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    The literature on diversity in the work force was reviewed to determine the complexity and breadth of workplace diversity issue and identify trends in diversity management and training. The literature review focused on the following: definition of diversity; changing society and work force; reasons organizations are managing and valuing diversity;…

  3. Salmonella bacteriophage diversity reflects host diversity on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Switt, Andrea I Moreno; den Bakker, Henk C; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Hoelzer, Karin; Warnick, Lorin D; Cummings, Kevin J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella is an animal and human pathogen of worldwide concern. Surveillance programs indicate that the incidence of Salmonella serovars fluctuates over time. While bacteriophages are likely to play a role in driving microbial diversity, our understanding of the ecology and diversity of Salmonella phages is limited. Here we report the isolation of Salmonella phages from manure samples from 13 dairy farms with a history of Salmonella presence. Salmonella phages were isolated from 10 of the 13 farms; overall 108 phage isolates were obtained on serovar Newport, Typhimurium, Dublin, Kentucky, Anatum, Mbandaka, and Cerro hosts. Host range characterization found that 51% of phage isolates had a narrow host range, while 49% showed a broad host range. The phage isolates represented 65 lysis profiles; genome size profiling of 94 phage isolates allowed for classification of phage isolates into 11 groups with subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showing considerable variation within a given group. Our data not only show an abundance of diverse Salmonella phage isolates in dairy farms, but also show that phage isolates that lyse the most common serovars causing salmonellosis in cattle are frequently obtained, suggesting that phages may play an important role in the ecology of Salmonella on dairy farms. PMID:24010608

  4. Diversity of endodontic microbiota revisited.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2009-11-01

    Although fungi, archaea, and viruses contribute to the microbial diversity in endodontic infections, bacteria are the most common micro-organisms occurring in these infections. Datasets from culture and molecular studies, integrated here for the first time, showed that over 460 unique bacterial taxa belonging to 100 genera and 9 phyla have been identified in different types of endodontic infections. The phyla with the highest species richness were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Diversity varies significantly according to the type of infection. Overall, more taxa have been disclosed by molecular studies than by culture. Many cultivable and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes have emerged as candidate pathogens based on detection in several studies and/or high prevalence. Now that a comprehensive inventory of the endodontic microbial taxa has been established, future research should focus on the association with different disease conditions, functional roles in the community, and susceptibility to antimicrobial treatment procedures. PMID:19828883

  5. Urinary diversion and bowel cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M.

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 278 patients who underwent urinary diversion for benign disease has revealed an excess risk factor for cancer at the ureterocolic anastomosis of approximately 100 fold. No malignancies were detected in isolated ileal or colon conduits, although recently a few such cases have been reported. Coupling this experience with a review of the literature, it would appear that the tumour is of colonic origin, adenoma and adenocarcinoma occurring at, or close to, the ureteric implant into the colon after a long latency of approximately 25 years, often in young patients. Nitrate reducing bacteria and N.nitroso compounds have been demonstrated in rectal urines of patients with ureterocolic anastomoses and also in some isolated loop urines. In fact, N.nitrosation and, possibly, carcinogenesis appears to depend not so much upon the kind of diversion, but rather the presence or absence of a mixed bacterial flora in the urine. PMID:3954318

  6. Diversity to the Next Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When Colgate University decided a few years ago to recast its diversity efforts, it joined a small, but growing, number of schools across the U.S. in taking a new approach to a decades-old challenge of how best to make their school more appealing to people from all walks of life and more compelling to employers as a good place to recruit. Colgate,…

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  8. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  9. Human Genome Diversity workshop 1

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD) is an international interdisciplinary program whose goal is to reveal as much as possible about the current state of genetic diversity among humans and the processes that were responsible for that diversity. Classical premolecular techniques have already proved that a significant component of human genetic variability lies within populations rather than among them. New molecular techniques will permit a dramatic increase in the resolving power of genetic analysis at the population level. Recent social changes in many parts of the world threaten the identity of a number of populations that may be extremely important for understanding human evolutionary history. It is therefore urgent to conduct research on human variation in these areas, while there is still time. The plan is to identify the most representative descendants of ancestral human populations worldwide and then to preserve genetic records of these populations. This is a report of the Population Genetics Workshop (Workshop 1), the first of three to be held to plan HGD, which was focused on sampling strategies and analytic methods from population genetics. The topics discussed were sampling and population structure; analysis of populations; drift versus natural selection; modeling migration and population subdivision; and population structure and subdivision.

  10. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  11. Genetic Diversity among Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; LeBlanc, Donald J.; Moellering, Robert C.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, a ubiquitous member of mammalian gastrointestinal flora, is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and a growing public health concern. The enterococci responsible for these infections are often resistant to multiple antibiotics and have become notorious for their ability to acquire and disseminate antibiotic resistances. In the current study, we examined genetic relationships among 106 strains of E. faecalis isolated over the past 100 years, including strains identified for their diversity and used historically for serotyping, strains that have been adapted for laboratory use, and isolates from previously described E. faecalis infection outbreaks. This collection also includes isolates first characterized as having novel plasmids, virulence traits, antibiotic resistances, and pathogenicity island (PAI) components. We evaluated variation in factors contributing to pathogenicity, including toxin production, antibiotic resistance, polymorphism in the capsule (cps) operon, pathogenicity island (PAI) gene content, and other accessory factors. This information was correlated with multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) data, which was used to define genetic lineages. Our findings show that virulence and antibiotic resistance traits can be found within many diverse lineages of E. faecalis. However, lineages have emerged that have caused infection outbreaks globally, in which several new antibiotic resistances have entered the species, and in which virulence traits have converged. Comparing genomic hybridization profiles, using a microarray, of strains identified by MLST as spanning the diversity of the species, allowed us to identify the core E. faecalis genome as consisting of an estimated 2057 unique genes. PMID:17611618

  12. 30 CFR 816.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event... precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a...

  13. Tapping the Power of a Diverse Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Diversity has become a business issue because it affects performance. Only a few companies are training managers and formulating policies for managing diversity, but all will have to face the issue during the next decade. (JOW)

  14. Components of Effective Diversity Training Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 12 diversity experts uncovered components of effective diversity training programs: management commitment and support, inclusion in strategic planning, attention to specific organizational needs, qualified trainers, mandatory attendance, inclusiveness, trust and confidentiality, accountability, and clearly focused evaluation. (SK)

  15. 30 CFR 816.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event... precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a...

  16. 30 CFR 816.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event... precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a...

  17. 30 CFR 816.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event... precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a...

  18. 30 CFR 816.43 - Diversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 100-year, 6-hour precipitation event... precipitation event for a temporary diversion and a 10-year, 6-hour precipitation event for a...

  19. Student Heterogeneity and Diversity at Catholic Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Diane Cardenas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine structural diversity at Catholic colleges; more specifically, the variation in the student body diversity characteristics of a sample of freshman students matriculated at Catholic colleges. For the purpose of this article, diversity characteristics include background characteristics associated with student…

  20. Diversity & Community: Right Objectives and Wrong Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Frank E.

    1991-01-01

    Cultural diversity is an urgent challenge to higher education institutions requiring a communitywide coordinated effort among community sectors. Pluralism is not an end in itself, but a means to the larger purpose of gaining intellectual growth and human insight. Diversity without community is anarchy; community without diversity is fantasy. (MSE)

  1. Diversity Management. Time for a New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; Gilbert, Jacqueline A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the history of diversity management resulted in a call for a new agenda that encourages more collaboration between scholars and administrators, increased researcher observation of workplace reactions to diversity management initiatives, more informative and rigorous case studies, and more third-party evaluations of diversity management…

  2. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Diversity Digest" grows out of one recent effort to raise the visibility of science in diversity and global learning initiatives. Articles in this issue include: (1) Science, Diversity, and Global Learning: Untangling Complex Problems (Kevin Hovland); (2) Breaking the Pyramid: Putting Science in the Core (Darcy Kelley); (3) Science…

  3. What It Takes to Do Diversity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    An overwhelming majority of college students feel that diversity is important. Students want to explore diversity and need to be guided in ways that help them negotiate what often feels like a social and emotional minefield. While many staff and faculty share a belief that diversity education does not require specific training beyond either a…

  4. Diversity in Mass Communication Theory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how prominent mass communication theories can be employed to further knowledge of diversity-related issues. Provides examples of how diversity-related issues can be addressed in mass communication theory courses. Concludes that, by definition, mass communication must take into account diversity. (PM)

  5. Instruction of Diverse Students in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the instruction of diverse students in mainstream classrooms. The first part summarizes academic achievement of diverse students from different ethnicity, gender, language and social class. The second part discusses the characteristics of different diverse instruction. The third part suggests specific instructional…

  6. Diversity in Higher Education: The Three Rs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Shekhar; McMahon, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that a diverse student body is beneficial for education. The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation standards also include a commitment to diversity. In California, as well as in some other states, preferential treatment in admissions to bring about a diverse student body is against the law,…

  7. Diversity-Related Burnout among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed Israeli teachers to determine whether diversity related burnout was empirically distinguishable from general teacher burnout and explore the extent to which diversity related burnout was predicted by variables related to school cultural heterogeneity, organizational culture, and teacher background and attitudes. Diversity related burnout…

  8. Supervising across Cultures: Navigating Diversity and Multiculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    Most colleges and universities have an expressed commitment to diversity. For most campuses, this means having aspirations to recruit and retain diverse students, staff, and faculty. In the process of becoming more diverse, institutions will need supervisors who can navigate the interpersonal, intergroup, and within-group relationships that come…

  9. The Campus Diversity Initiative: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Sharada

    2005-01-01

    This Case Study presents the Campus Diversity Initiative (CDI), a three-phase project lead by the Educational Resources Project Centre Trust, in New Delhi, India. In a historic and cultural context different from that of India, the American Diversity Initiative was launched by the Ford Foundation in 1990 and addressed their diversity issues by…

  10. Measuring the Diversity Inclusivity of College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of curricular diversity have focused on the effects of participation in diversity courses on student outcomes. Though the results have been positive, these studies have used limited measures of curricular diversity and there is a great need for a complimentary body of research demonstrating what faculty and what types of courses are…

  11. Genomic Diversity of Escherichia Isolates from Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Tiedje, James M.; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the Escherichia genus is heavily biased toward pathogenic or commensal isolates from human or animal hosts. Recent studies have recovered Escherichia isolates that persist, and even grow, outside these hosts. Although the environmental isolates are typically phylogenetically distinct, they are highly related to and phenotypically indistinguishable from their human counterparts, including for the coliform test. To gain insights into the genomic diversity of Escherichia isolates from diverse habitats, including freshwater, soil, animal, and human sources, we carried out comparative DNA-DNA hybridizations using a multi-genome E. coli DNA microarray. The microarray was validated based on hybridizations with selected strains whose genome sequences were available and used to assess the frequency of microarray false positive and negative signals. Our results showed that human fecal isolates share two sets of genes (n>90) that are rarely found among environmental isolates, including genes presumably important for evading host immune mechanisms (e.g., a multi-drug transporter for acids and antimicrobials) and adhering to epithelial cells (e.g., hemolysin E and fimbrial-like adhesin protein). These results imply that environmental isolates are characterized by decreased ability to colonize host cells relative to human isolates. Our study also provides gene markers that can distinguish human isolates from those of warm-blooded animal and environmental origins, and thus can be used to more reliably assess fecal contamination in natural ecosystems. PMID:23056556

  12. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  13. The Diversity Outbred mouse population.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Gary A; Gatti, Daniel M; Munger, Steven C; Svenson, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    The Diversity Outbred (DO) population is a heterogeneous stock derived from the same eight founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred strains. Genetically heterogeneous DO mice display a broad range of phenotypes. Natural levels of heterozygosity provide genetic buffering and, as a result, DO mice are robust and breed well. Genetic mapping analysis in the DO presents new challenges and opportunities. Specialized algorithms are required to reconstruct haplotypes from high-density SNP array data. The eight founder haplotypes can be combined into 36 possible diplotypes, which must be accommodated in QTL mapping analysis. Population structure of the DO must be taken into account here. Estimated allele effects of eight founder haplotypes provide information that is not available in two-parent crosses and can dramatically reduce the number of candidate loci. Allele effects can also distinguish chance colocation of QTL from pleiotropy, which provides a basis for establishing causality in expression QTL studies. We recommended sample sizes of 200-800 mice for QTL mapping studies, larger than for traditional crosses. The CC inbred strains provide a resource for independent validation of DO mapping results. Genetic heterogeneity of the DO can provide a powerful advantage in our ability to generalize conclusions to other genetically diverse populations. Genetic diversity can also help to avoid the pitfall of identifying an idiosyncratic reaction that occurs only in a limited genetic context. Informatics tools and data resources associated with the CC, the DO, and their founder strains are developing rapidly. We anticipate a flood of new results to follow as our community begins to adopt and utilize these new genetic resource populations. PMID:22892839

  14. Addressing the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse Society. OUS Diversity Report, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The report includes an overview of the relevance of diverse educational environments and descriptions of the current initiatives within OUS to enhance the representation, inclusion, and engagement of diverse racial/ethnic populations. The issues associated with higher education diversity are multifaceted. Within OUS, the vision for diversity is a…

  15. Software fault tolerance using data diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Research on data diversity is discussed. Data diversity relies on a different form of redundancy from existing approaches to software fault tolerance and is substantially less expensive to implement. Data diversity can also be applied to software testing and greatly facilitates the automation of testing. Up to now it has been explored both theoretically and in a pilot study, and has been shown to be a promising technique. The effectiveness of data diversity as an error detection mechanism and the application of data diversity to differential equation solvers are discussed.

  16. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  17. Bacterial actins and their diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ozyamak, Ertan; Kollman, Justin M.; Komeili, Arash

    2015-01-01

    For many years bacteria were considered rather simple organisms, but the dogmatic notion that subcellular organization is a eukaryotic trait has been overthrown for more than a decade. The discovery of homologs of the eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, and intermediate filaments in bacteria has been instrumental in changing this view. Over the recent years we gained an incredible level of insight into the diverse family of bacterial actins and their molecular workings. Here we review the functional, biochemical and structural features of the most well-studied bacterial actins. PMID:24015924

  18. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  19. Generational diversity--the Nexters.

    PubMed

    Clausing, Sherry L; Kurtz, Doris L; Prendeville, Judith; Walt, Janet Lynn

    2003-09-01

    For the first time in recent history, the workforce includes four generations of employees--Veterans, Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, and Nexters. These generations share some common values and beliefs, but they also exhibit differences stemming from the experiences of their eras. Understanding and appreciating these differences will help decrease generational conflict and support all generations in welcoming diversity. The Nexter generation includes more than 81 million people, approximately 30% of the current population. Nexters will enter the workforce in large numbers and will influence changes in the work environment just as Baby Boomers did. PMID:14507119

  20. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  1. Global coccolithophore diversity: Drivers and future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Colleen J.; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We use the MAREDAT global compilation of coccolithophore species distribution and combine them with observations of climatological environmental conditions to determine the global-scale distribution of coccolithophore species diversity, its underlying drivers, and potential future changes. To this end, we developed a feed-forward neural network, which predicts 78% of the observed variance in coccolithophore diversity from environmental input variables (temperature, PAR, nitrate, silicic acid, mixed layer depth, excess phosphate (P∗) and chlorophyll). Light and temperature are the strongest predictors of coccolithophore diversity. Coccolithophore diversity is highest in the low latitudes, where coccolithophores are a relatively dominant component of the total phytoplankton community. Particularly high diversity is predicted in the western equatorial Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean, with additional peaks at approximately 30°N and 30°S. The global, zonal mean pattern is dominated by the Pacific Ocean, which shows a clear latitudinal gradient with diversity peaking at the equator, whereas in the Atlantic Ocean diversity is highest in the subtropics. We find a unimodal relationship between coccolithophore diversity and biomass, as has previously been observed for total phytoplankton assemblages. In contrast, diversity shows a negative relationship with total chlorophyll. Applying our diversity model to projections from the CMIP5 climate models, we project an increase in the diversity of coccolithophore assemblages by the end of this century.

  2. Enhancing the diversity of the pediatrician workforce.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Aaron L

    2007-04-01

    This policy statement describes the key issues related to diversity within the pediatrician and health care workforce to identify barriers to enhancing diversity and offer policy recommendations to overcome these barriers in the future. The statement addresses topics such as health disparities, affirmative action, recent policy developments and reports on workforce diversity, and research on patient and provider diversity. It also broadens the discussion of diversity beyond the traditional realms of race and ethnicity to include cultural attributes that may have an effect on the quality of health care. Although workforce diversity is related to the provision of culturally effective pediatric care, it is a discrete issue that merits separate discussion and policy formulation. At the heart of this policy-driven action are multiorganizational and multispecialty collaborations designed to address substantive educational, financial, organizational, and other barriers to improved workforce diversity. PMID:17403859

  3. Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton J; Mora, Germán

    2006-03-31

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of plant diversity in the Neotropics today, but little is known about diversification patterns of Neotropical floras through geological time. Here, we present the longest time series compiled for palynological plant diversity of the Neotropics (15 stratigraphic sections, 1530 samples, 1411 morphospecies, and 287,736 occurrences) from the Paleocene to the early Miocene (65 to 20 million years ago) in central Colombia and western Venezuela. The record shows a low-diversity Paleocene flora, a significantly more diverse early to middle Eocene flora exceeding Holocene levels, and a decline in diversity at the end of the Eocene and early Oligocene. A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern. Alternatively, the good correspondence may result from the control that climate exerts on the area available for tropical plants to grow. PMID:16574860

  4. Genome diversity of Shigella boydii.

    PubMed

    Kania, Dane A; Hazen, Tracy H; Hossain, Anowar; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Shigella boydiiis one of the four ITALIC! Shigellaspecies that causes disease worldwide; however, there are few published studies that examine the genomic variation of this species. This study compares genomes of 72 total isolates; 28 ITALIC! S. boydiifrom Bangladesh and The Gambia that were recently isolated as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), 14 historical ITALIC! S. boydiigenomes in the public domain and 30 ITALIC! Escherichia coliand ITALIC! Shigellareference genomes that represent the genomic diversity of these pathogens. This comparative analysis of these 72 genomes identified that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates separate into three phylogenomic clades, each with specific gene content. Each of the clades contains ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from geographic and temporally distant sources, indicating that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from the GEMS are representative of ITALIC! S. boydii.This study describes the genome sequences of a collection of novel ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates and provides insight into the diversity of this species in comparison to the ITALIC! E. coliand other ITALIC! Shigellaspecies. PMID:27056949

  5. Bacterial Strain Diversity Within Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Rare bacterial taxa (taxa of low relative frequency) are numerous and ubiquitous in virtually any sample—including wound samples. In addition, even the high-frequency genera and species contain multiple strains. These strains, individually, are each only a small fraction of the total bacterial population. Against the view that wounds contain relatively few kinds of bacteria, this newly recognized diversity implies a relatively high rate of migration into the wound and the potential for diversification during infection. Understanding the biological and medical importance of these numerous taxa is an important new element of wound microbiology. Recent Advances: Only recently have these numerous strains been discovered; the technology to detect, identify, and characterize them is still in its infancy. Multiple strains of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria have been found in a single wound. In the few cases studied, the distribution of the bacteria suggests microhabitats and biological interactions. Critical Issues: The distribution of the strains, their phenotypic diversity, and their interactions are still largely uncharacterized. The technologies to investigate this level of genomic detail are still developing and have not been largely deployed to investigate wounds. Future Directions: As advanced metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and advanced microscopy develop, the study of wound microbiology will better address the complex interplay of numerous individually rare strains with both the host and each other. PMID:25566411

  6. Intraspecific Diversity of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Andrey P.; Lindler, Luther E.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the pathogenic potential of Yersinia pestis has emerged because of the potential threats from bioterrorism. Pathogenic potential is based on genetic factors present in a population of microbes, yet most studies evaluating the role of specific genes in virulence have used a limited number of strains. For Y. pestis this issue is complicated by the fact that most strains available for study in the Americas are clonally derived and thus genetically restricted, emanating from a strain of Y. pestis introduced into the United States in 1902 via marine shipping and subsequent spread of this strain throughout North and South America. In countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia, and China there are large areas of enzootic foci of Y. pestis infection containing genetically diverse strains that have been intensely studied by scientists in these countries. However, the results of these investigations are not generally known outside of these countries. Here we describe the variety of methods used in the FSU to classify Y. pestis strains based on genetic and phenotypic variation and show that there is a high level of diversity in these strains not reflected by ones obtained from sylvatic areas and patients in the Americas. PMID:15084509

  7. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  8. Ethnocultural diversity in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Midence, Liz; Mola, Ana; Terzic, Carmen M; Thomas, Randal J; Grace, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally. Despite a greater burden of disease, ethnocultural minorities in both the United States and Canada are significantly less likely to access cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Without equitable access to CR, these patients may be more likely to experience recurrent cardiac events and unnecessarily premature death. In this article, the current state of ethnocultural diversity in CR patients and unique barriers that ethnocultural minority patients face are reviewed. Strategies for CR program delivery and diversity of CR program staff are considered. Guidance on ethnocultural considerations in American and Canadian associations of CR is also reviewed. Lower rates of access to CR are seen among ethnocultural minorities in both American and Canadian CR programs. Only 2 studies evaluating ethnoculturally tailored CR could be identified in the literature. American CR staff are predominantly white (∼96%), whereas ethnocultural data are not collected from Canadian CR professionals. American guidelines emphasize the importance of ethnocultural competency. Meanwhile, Canadian guidelines underscore the low use of CR services among ethnocultural minorities, and support ethnoculturally informed CR delivery. The American and Canadian populations are rapidly diversifying, yet the CR workforce is not, and ethnocultural minorities continue to be underrepresented in our programs. Although recent CR guidelines have made some preliminary recommendations to overcome these discrepancies, more focused efforts are needed. Thirteen points of action are proposed for the CR community with the goal of promoting the development and delivery of more ethnoculturally sensitive CR services. PMID:25357126

  9. Rodent sociality and parasite diversity.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Frédéric; Blumstein, Daniel T; Morand, Serge

    2007-12-22

    The risk of parasitism is considered to be a general cost of sociality and individuals living in larger groups are typically considered to be more likely to be infected with parasites. However, contradictory results have been reported for the relationship between group size and infection by directly transmitted parasites. We used independent contrasts to examine the relationship between an index of sociality in rodents and the diversity of their macroparasites (helminths and arthropods such as fleas, ticks, suckling lice and mesostigmatid mites). We found that the species richness of directly transmitted ectoparasites, but not endoparasites, decreased significantly with the level of rodent sociality. A greater homogeneity in the biotic environment (i.e. a reduced number of cohabiting host species) of the more social species may have reduced ectoparasites' diversity by impairing ectoparasites transmission and exchange. Our finding may also result from beneficial outcomes of social living that include behavioural defences, like allogrooming, and the increased avoidance of parasites through dilution effects. PMID:17925270

  10. Selection of Nectar Plants for Use in Ecological Engineering to Promote Biological Control of Rice Pests by the Predatory Bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I.; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests. PMID:25254377

  11. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests. PMID:25254377

  12. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace. PMID:21902491

  13. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.

    PubMed

    Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

  14. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  15. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Diversity and similarity of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of comets from an early stage where they were all similar, to the later diversity is reviewed. The elemental abundances of all pristine comets are likely to be primitive, that is in solar abundance ratios for all elements including C, N, O, S, but with the exception of H (and assumedly He and Ne) that are severely depleted. The solid phase was originally in very fine grains, typically 0.1 micron or less, eventually sintered into larger grain clusters. The volatile phase contains H, C, N, O, and S molecules frozen in the pores of the grain clusters; cosmic ray plus solar irradiation changes the volatile to refractory ratio of the crust. Differences in dust tails, in plasma tails, in photometry between young and old comets, and in the variable carbon depletion of the gas phase seem to be induced by the decay processes.

  17. Diversity sustains an evolving network

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Soni, Vikram; Jain, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    We study an evolutionary model of a complex system that evolves under catalytic dynamics and Darwinian selection and exhibits spontaneous growth, stasis and then a collapse of its structure. We find that the typical lifetime of the system increases sharply with the diversity of its components or species. We also find that the prime reason for crashes is a naturally occurring internal fragility of the system. This fragility is captured in the network organizational character and is related to a reduced multiplicity of pathways or feedback loops between its components. These results apply to several generalizations of the model as well. This work suggests new parameters for understanding the robustness of evolving molecular networks, ecosystems, societies and markets. PMID:19033136

  18. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations. PMID:23702460

  19. Diversity in human behavioral ecology.

    PubMed

    Hames, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist's thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25277060

  20. The diversity of actinorhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-10-01

    Filamentous aerobic soil actinobacteria of the genus Frankia can induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a diverse group of plants from eight dicotyledonous families, collectively called actinorhizal plants. Within nodules, Frankia can fix nitrogen while being hosted inside plant cells. Like in legume/rhizobia symbioses, bacteria can enter the plant root either intracellularly through an infection thread formed in a curled root hair, or intercellularly without root hair involvement, and the entry mechanism is determined by the host plant species. Nodule primordium formation is induced in the root pericycle as for lateral root primordia. Mature actinorhizal nodules are coralloid structures consisting of multiple lobes, each of which represents a modified lateral root without a root cap, a superficial periderm and with infected cells in the expanded cortex. In this review, an overview of nodule induction mechanisms and nodule structure is presented including comparisons with the corresponding mechanisms in legume symbioses. PMID:22398987