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Sample records for dmp1 localize differently

  1. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Siyam, Arwa; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  2. Transgenic expression of Dspp partially rescued the long bone defects of Dmp1-null mice.

    PubMed

    Jani, Priyam H; Gibson, Monica P; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yongbo; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) belong to the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family. In addition to the features common to all SIBLING members, DMP1 and DSPP share several unique similarities in chemical structure, proteolytic activation and tissue localization. Mutations in, or deletion of DMP1, cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets along with dental defects; DSPP mutations or its ablation are associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta. While the roles and functional mechanisms of DMP1 in osteogenesis have been extensively studied, those of DSPP in long bones have been studied only to a limited extent. Previous studies by our group revealed that transgenic expression of Dspp completely rescued the dentin defects of Dmp1-null (Dmp1(-/-)) mice. In this investigation, we assessed the effects of transgenic Dspp on osteogenesis by analyzing the formation and mineralization of the long bones in Dmp1(-/-) mice that expresses a transgene encoding full-length DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col1a1 promoter (referred as "Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice"). We characterized the long bones of the Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice at different ages and compared them with those from Dmp1(-/-) and Dmp1(+/-) (normal control) mice. Our analyses showed that the long bones of Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice had a significant increase in cortical bone thickness, bone volume and mineral density along with a remarkable restoration of trabecular thickness compared to those of the Dmp1(-/-) mice. The long bones of Dmp1(-/-);Dspp-Tg mice underwent a dramatic reduction in the amount of osteoid, significant improvement of the collagen fibrillar network, and better organization of the lacunocanalicular system, compared to the Dmp1(-/-) mice. The elevated levels of biglycan, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in Dmp1(-/-) mice were also noticeably corrected by the transgenic expression of Dspp. These findings suggest that DSPP and DMP1 may function

  3. Constitutive Nuclear Expression of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Fails to Rescue the Dmp1-null Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Zhengguo; Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Kevin; Liu, Ying; McKee, Marc D.; Qin, Chunlin; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Jian Q.

    2014-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) plays multiple roles in bone, tooth, phosphate homeostasis, kidney, salivary gland, reproductive cycles, and the development of cancer. In vitro studies have indicated two different biological mechanisms: 1) as a matrix protein, DMP1 interacts with αvβ3 integrin and activates MAP kinase signaling; and 2) DMP1 serves as a transcription co-factor. In vivo studies have demonstrated its key role in osteocytes. This study attempted to determine whether DMP1 functions as a transcription co-factor and regulates osteoblast functions. For gene expression comparisons using adenovirus constructs, we targeted the expression of DMP1 either to the nucleus only by replacing the endogenous signal peptide with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence (referred to as NLSDMP1) or to the extracellular matrix as the WT type (referred to as SPDMP1) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. High levels of DMP1 in either form greatly increased osteogenic gene expression in an identical manner. However, the targeted NLSDMP1 transgene driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col 1α1 promoter in the nucleus of osteoblasts and osteocytes failed to rescue the phenotyope of Dmp1-null mice, whereas the SPDMP1 transgene rescued the rickets defect. These studies support the notion that DMP1 functions as an extracellular matrix protein, rather than as a transcription co-factor in vivo. We also show that DMP1 continues its expression in osteoblasts during postnatal development and that the deletion of Dmp1 leads to an increase in osteoblast proliferation. However, poor mineralization in the metaphysis indicates a critical role for DMP1 in both osteoblasts and osteocytes. PMID:24917674

  4. Aberrant splicing of the DMP1-ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of mRNA precursors is a ubiquitous mechanism for generating numerous transcripts with different activities from one genomic locus in mammalian cells. The gene products from a single locus can thus have similar, dominant-negative or even opposing functions. Aberrant AS has been found in cancer to express proteins that promote cell growth, local invasion and metastasis. This review will focus on the aberrant splicing of tumor suppressor/oncogenes that belong to the DMP1-ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway. Our recent study shows that the DMP1 locus generates both tumor-suppressive DMP1α (p53-dependent) and oncogenic DMP1β (p53-independent) splice variants, and the DMP1β/α ratio increases with neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells. This process is associated with high DMP1β protein expression and shorter survival of breast cancer (BC) patients. Accumulating pieces of evidence show that ARF is frequently inactivated by aberrant splicing in human cancers, demonstrating its involvement in human malignancies. Splice variants from the MDM2 locus promote cell growth in culture and accelerate tumorigenesis in vivo. Human cancers expressing these splice variants are associated with advanced stage/metastasis, and thus have negative clinical impacts. Although they lack most of the p53-binding domain, their activities are mostly dependent on p53 since they bind to wild-type MDM2. The p53 locus produces splice isoforms that have either favorable (β/γ at the C-terminus) or negative impact (Δ40, Δ133 at the N-terminus) on patients' survival. As the oncogenic AS products from these loci are expressed only in cancer cells, they may eventually become targets for molecular therapies. PMID:26802432

  5. PTH and Vitamin D Repress DMP1 in Cementoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Tran, A B; Nociti, F H; Thumbigere-Math, V; Foster, B L; Krieger, C C; Kantovitz, K R; Novince, C M; Koh, A J; McCauley, L K; Somerman, M J

    2015-10-01

    A complex feedback mechanism between parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) maintains mineral homeostasis, in part by regulating calcium and phosphate absorption/reabsorption. Previously, we showed that 1,25D regulates mineral homeostasis by repressing dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) via the vitamin D receptor pathway. Similar to 1,25D, PTH may modulate DMP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM.30), similar to osteoblasts and known to express DMP1, were treated with PTH (1-34). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot revealed that PTH decreased DMP1 gene transcription (85%) and protein expression (30%), respectively. PTH mediated the downregulation of DMP1 via the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the decreased localization of DMP1 in vivo in cellular cementum and alveolar bone of mice treated with a single dose (50 µg/kg) of PTH (1-34). RNA-seq was employed to further identify patterns of gene expression shared by PTH and 1,25D in regulating DMP1, as well as other factors involved in mineral homeostasis. PTH and 1,25D mutually upregulated 36 genes and mutually downregulated 27 genes by ≥2-fold expression (P ≤ 0.05). Many identified genes were linked with the regulation of bone/tooth homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, calcium signaling, and DMP1 transcription. Validation of RNA-seq results via PCR array confirmed a similar gene expression pattern in response to PTH and 1,25D treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that PTH and 1,25D share complementary effects in maintaining mineral homeostasis by mutual regulation of genes/proteins associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism while also exerting distinct roles on factors modulating mineral metabolism. Furthermore, PTH may modulate phosphate homeostasis by downregulating DMP1 expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Targeting

  6. The LPV Motif Is Essential for the Efficient Export of Secretory DMP1 From the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tian; Meng, Tian; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Lu, Yongbo

    2016-07-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is found abundantly in the extracellular matrices of bone and dentin. Secretory DMP1 begins with a tripeptide of leucine-proline-valine (LPV) after the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-entry signal peptide is cleaved. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the LPV motif in the secretion of DMP1. A series of DNA constructs was generated to express various forms of DMP1 with or without the LPV motif. These constructs were transfected into a preosteoblast cell line, the MC3T3-E1 cells, and the subcellular localization and secretion of various forms of DMP1 were examined by immunofluorescent staining and Western-blotting analyses. Immunofluorescent staining showed that the LPV-containing DMP1 variants were primarily localized in the Golgi complex, whereas the LPV-lacking DMP1 variants were found abundantly within the ER. Western-blotting analyses demonstrated that the LPV-containing DMP1 variants were rapidly secreted from the transfected cells, as they did not accumulate within the cells, and the amounts increased in the conditioned media over time. In contrast, the LPV-lacking DMP1 variants were predominantly retained within the cells, and only small amounts were secreted out of the cells over time. These results suggest that the LPV motif is essential for the efficient export of secretory DMP1 from the ER to the Golgi complex. PMID:26595451

  7. The Dmp1-SOST Transgene Interacts With and Downregulates the Dmp1-Cre Transgene and the Rosa(Notch) Allele.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26. PMID:26456319

  8. Chemical changes in DMP1-null murine bone & silica based pecvd coatings for titanium implant osseoapplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maginot, Megen

    In order to improve clinical outcomes in bone-implant systems, a thorough understanding of both local bone chemistry and implant surface chemistry is necessary. This study consists, therefore, of two main parts: one focused on determining the nature of the changes in bone chemistry in a DMP1-null transgenic disease model and the other on the development of amorphous silica-based coatings for potential use as titanium bone implant coatings. For the study of bone mineral in the DMP1 transgenic model, which is known to have low serum phosphate levels, transgenic DMP1-null and wild type mice were fed a high phosphate diet, sacrificed, and had their long bone harvested. This bone was characterized using SEM, FTIR, microCT and XANES and compared to DMP1-null and wild type control groups to assess the therapeutic effect of high Pi levels on the phenotype and the role of DMP1 in mineralization in vivo. Findings suggest that though the high phosphate diet results in restoring serum phosphate levels, it does not completely rescue the bone mineral phenotype at an ultrastructural level and implicates DMP1 in phosphate nucleation. Since plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silica like coatings have not previously been fabricated for use in oessoapplications, the second part of this study initially focused on the characterization of novel SiOx chemistries fabricated via a chemical vapor deposition process that were designed specifically to act as bioactive coatings with a loose, hydrogenated structure. These coatings were then investigated for their potential initial stage response to bone tissue through immersion in a simulated body fluid and through the culture of MC3T3 cells on the coating surfaces. Coating surfaces were characterized by SEM, FTIR, contact angle measurements, and XANES. Coating dissolution and ionic release were also investigated by ICP-OES. Findings suggest that some SiOx chemistries may form a bioactive coating while more highly substituted

  9. Cooperation between Dmp1 Loss and Cyclin D1 Overexpression in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sinan; Mott, Ryan T.; Fry, Elizabeth A.; Taneja, Pankaj; Kulik, George; Sui, Guangchao; Inoue, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a component of the core cell-cycle machinery and is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. It physically interacts with the tumor suppressor Dmp1 that attenuates the oncogenic signals from Ras and HER2 by inducing Arf/p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest. Currently, the biological significance of Dmp1–cyclin D1 interplay in breast cancer has not been determined. Here, we show that cyclin D1 bound to Dmp1 to activate both Arf and Ink4a promoters and, consequently, induced apoptosis or G2/M cell-cycle delay in normal cells to protect them from neoplastic transformation. The cyclin D1–induced Ink4a/Arf gene expression was dependent on Dmp1 because the induction was not detected in Dmp1-deficient or DMP1-depleted cells. Arf/Ink4a expression was increased in pre-malignant mammary glands from Dmp1+/+;MMTV-cyclin D1 and Dmp1+/+;MMTV-D1T286A mice but significantly down-regulated in those from Dmp1-deficient mice. Selective Dmp1 deletion was found in 21% of the MMTV-D1 and D1T286A mammary carcinomas, and the Dmp1 heterozygous status significantly accelerated mouse mammary tumorigenesis with reduced apoptosis and increased metastasis. Overall, our study reveals a pivotal role of combined Dmp1 loss and cyclin D1 overexpression in breast cancer. PMID:23938323

  10. DMP1-derived peptides promote remineralization of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Padovano, J D; Ravindran, S; Snee, P T; Ramachandran, A; Bedran-Russo, A K; George, A

    2015-04-01

    Remineralization of dentin during dental caries is of considerable clinical interest. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in biomineralization. In the present study, we tested if peptides derived from DMP1 can be used for dentin remineralization. Peptide pA (pA, MW = 1.726 kDa) and peptide pB (pB, MW = 2.185), containing common collagen-binding domains and unique calcium-binding domains, were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry. An extreme caries lesion scenario was created by collagenase digestion, and the biomineral-nucleating potential of these peptides was ascertained when coated on collagenase-treated dentin matrix and control, native human dentin matrix under physiological levels of calcium and phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that peptide pB was an effective nucleator when compared with pA. However, a 1:4 ratio of pA to pB was determined to be ideal for dentin remineralization, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) morphology and calcium/phosphorus ratios. Interestingly, HA was nucleated on collagenase-challenged dentin with as little as 20 min of 1:4 peptide incubation. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of large HA crystals that produced a diffraction pattern indicative of a rod-like crystal structure. These findings suggest that DMP1-derived peptides may be useful to modulate mineral deposition and subsequent formation of HA when exposed to physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate. PMID:25694469

  11. Dmp1α Inhibits HER2/neu-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Elizabeth A.; Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Zhu, Sinan; Sui, Guangchao; Inoue, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    Our recent study shows a pivotal role of Dmp1 in quenching hyperproliferative signals from HER2 to the Arf-p53 pathway as a safety mechanism to prevent breast carcinogenesis. To directly demonstrate the role of Dmp1 in preventing HER2/neu-driven oncogenic transformation, we established Flag-Dmp1α transgenic mice (MDTG) under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. The mice were viable but exhibited poorly developed mammary glands with markedly reduced milk production; thus more than half of parous females were unable to support the lives of new born pups. The mammary glands of the MDTG mice had very low Ki-67 expression but high levels of Arf, Ink4a, p53, and p21Cip1, markers of senescence and accelerated aging. In all strains of generated MDTG;neu mice, tumor development was significantly delayed with decreased tumor weight. Tumors from MDTG;neu mice expressed Flag-Dmp1α and Ki-67 in a mutually exclusive fashion indicating that transgenic Dmp1α prevented tumor growth in vivo. Genomic DNA analyses showed that the Dmp1α transgene was partially lost in half of the MDTG;neu tumors, and Western blot analyses showed Dmp1α protein downregulation in 80% of the cases. Our data demonstrate critical roles of Dmp1 in preventing mammary tumorigenesis and raise the possibility of treating breast cancer by restoring Dmp1α expression. PMID:24205004

  12. Dmp1α inhibits HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Fry, Elizabeth A; Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Zhu, Sinan; Sui, Guangchao; Inoue, Kazushi

    2013-01-01

    Our recent study shows a pivotal role of Dmp1 in quenching hyperproliferative signals from HER2 to the Arf-p53 pathway as a safety mechanism to prevent breast carcinogenesis. To directly demonstrate the role of Dmp1 in preventing HER2/neu-driven oncogenic transformation, we established Flag-Dmp1α transgenic mice (MDTG) under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. The mice were viable but exhibited poorly developed mammary glands with markedly reduced milk production; thus more than half of parous females were unable to support the lives of new born pups. The mammary glands of the MDTG mice had very low Ki-67 expression but high levels of Arf, Ink4a, p53, and p21(Cip1), markers of senescence and accelerated aging. In all strains of generated MDTG;neu mice, tumor development was significantly delayed with decreased tumor weight. Tumors from MDTG;neu mice expressed Flag-Dmp1α and Ki-67 in a mutually exclusive fashion indicating that transgenic Dmp1α prevented tumor growth in vivo. Genomic DNA analyses showed that the Dmp1α transgene was partially lost in half of the MDTG;neu tumors, and Western blot analyses showed Dmp1α protein downregulation in 80% of the cases. Our data demonstrate critical roles of Dmp1 in preventing mammary tumorigenesis and raise the possibility of treating breast cancer by restoring Dmp1α expression. PMID:24205004

  13. Critical roles of DMP1 in HER2/neu-Arf-p53 signaling and breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kendig, Robert D.; Frazier, Donna P.; Willingham, Mark C.; Inoue, Kazushi

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression stimulates cell growth in p53-mutated cells while it inhibits cell proliferation in those with wild-type p53, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. The Dmp1 promoter was activated by HER2/neu through the PI3K-Akt-NF-κB pathway, which in turn stimulated Arf transcription. Binding of p65 and p52 subunits of NF-κB was demonstrated to the Dmp1 promoter and that of Dmp1 to the Arf promoter upon HER2/neu overexpression. Both Dmp1 and p53 were induced in pre-malignant lesions from MMTV-neu mice and mammary tumorigenesis was significantly accelerated in both Dmp1+/− and Dmp1−/− mice. Selective deletion of Dmp1 and/or overexpression of Tbx2/Pokemon was found in >50 % of wild-type HER2/neu carcinomas while the involvement of Arf, Mdm2, or p53 was rare. Tumors from Dmp1+/−, Dmp1−/−, and wild-type neu mice with hemizygous Dmp1 deletion showed significant downregulation of Arf and p21Cip1/WAF1, showing p53 inactivity and more aggressive phenotypes than tumors without Dmp1 deletion. Notably, endogenous hDMP1 mRNA decreased when HER2 was depleted in human breast cancer cells. Our study demonstrates the pivotal roles of Dmp1 in HER2/neu-p53 signaling and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:21062982

  14. Disruption of the ARF transcriptional activator DMP1 facilitates cell immortalization, Ras transformation, and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Wen, Renren; Rehg, Jerold E.; Adachi, Masashi; Cleveland, John L.; Roussel, Martine F.; Sherr, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    The DMP1 transcription factor induces the ARF tumor suppressor gene in mouse fibroblasts, leading to cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. We disrupted sequences encoding the DNA-binding domain of DMP1 in mouse embryonic stem cells and derived animals lacking the functional protein. DMP1-null animals are small at birth, and males develop more slowly than their wild-type littermates. Some adult animals exhibit seizures and/or obstuctive uropathy, each of unknown cause. The growth of explanted DMP1-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) is progressively retarded as cells are passaged in culture on defined transfer protocols; but, unlike the behavior of normal cells, p19ARF, Mdm2, and p53 levels remain relatively low and DMP1-null MEFs do not senesce. Whereas the establishment of cell lines from MEFs is usually always accompanied by either p53 or ARF loss of function, continuously passaged DMP1-null cells readily give rise to established 3T3 and 3T9 cell lines that retain wild-type ARF and functional p53 genes. Early-passage DMP1-null cells, like MEFs from either ARF-null or p53-null mice, can be morphologically transformed by oncogenic Ha-Ras (Val-12) alone. Splenic lymphocytes harvested from both DMP1-null and ARF-null mice exhibit enhanced proliferative responses in long-term cultures when stimulated to divide with antibody to CD3 and interleukin-2. Although only 1 of 40 DMP1-null animals spontaneously developed a tumor in the first year of life, neonatal treatment with dimethylbenzanthracene or ionizing radiation induced tumors of various histologic types that were not observed in similarly treated DMP1+/+ animals. Karyotypic analyses of MEFs and lymphomas from DMP1-null animals revealed pseudodiploid chromosome numbers, consistent with the retention of wild-type p53. Together, these data suggest that ARF function is compromised, but not eliminated, in animals lacking functional DMP1. PMID:10898794

  15. Critical roles of DMP1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu-Arf-p53 signaling and breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kendig, Robert D; Frazier, Donna P; Willingham, Mark C; Inoue, Kazushi

    2010-11-15

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression stimulates cell growth in p53-mutated cells while it inhibits cell proliferation in those with wild-type p53, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. The Dmp1 promoter was activated by HER2/neu through the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase-Akt-NF-κB pathway, which in turn stimulated Arf transcription. Binding of p65 and p52 subunits of NF-κB was shown to the Dmp1 promoter and that of Dmp1 to the Arf promoter on HER2/neu overexpression. Both Dmp1 and p53 were induced in premalignant lesions from mouse mammary tumor virus-neu mice, and mammary tumorigenesis was significantly accelerated in both Dmp1+/- and Dmp1-/- mice. Selective deletion of Dmp1 and/or overexpression of Tbx2/Pokemon was found in >50% of wild-type HER2/neu carcinomas, although the involvement of Arf, Mdm2, or p53 was rare. Tumors from Dmp1+/-, Dmp1-/-, and wild-type neu mice with hemizygous Dmp1 deletion showed significant downregulation of Arf and p21Cip1/WAF1, showing p53 inactivity and more aggressive phenotypes than tumors without Dmp1 deletion. Notably, endogenous hDMP1 mRNA decreased when HER2 was depleted in human breast cancer cells. Our study shows the pivotal roles of Dmp1 in HER2/neu-p53 signaling and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:21062982

  16. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Oliveira Rodini, Camila; Cruvinel Silva, Thiago; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy.

  17. Overexpression of DMP1 Accelerates Mineralization and Alters Cortical Bone Biomechanical Properties in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Ankush; Albazzaz, Michael; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Inoue, Nozomu; Miller, Lisa M.; Acerbo, Alvin; George, Anne; Sumner, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p<0.01), more robust in cross-section (p<0.05), stronger (p<0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p<0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p<0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p<0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p<0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period. PMID:22100074

  18. Regulation of Bone–Renal Mineral and Energy Metabolism: The PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Peter S. N.

    2012-01-01

    More than 300 million years ago, vertebrates emerged from the vast oceans to conquer gravity and the dry land. With this transition, new adaptations occurred that included ingenious changes in reproduction, waste secretion, and bone physiology. One new innovation, the egg shell, contained an ancestral protein (ovocleidin-116) that likely first appeared with the dinosaurs and was preserved through the theropod lineage in modern birds and reptiles. Ovocleidin-116 is an avian homolog of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and belongs to a group of proteins called short integrin-binding ligand-interacting glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). These proteins are all localized to a defined region on chromosome 5q in mice and chromosome 4q in humans. A unifying feature of SIBLING proteins is an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM). Recent research has shown that the ASARM motif and the released ASARM peptide have regulatory roles in mineralization (bone and teeth), phosphate regulation, vascularization, soft-tissue calcification, osteoclastogenesis, mechanotransduction, and fat energy metabolism. The MEPE ASARM motif and peptide are physiological substrates for PHEX, a zinc metalloendopeptidase. Defects in PHEX are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). There is evidence that PHEX interacts with another ASARM motif containing the SIBLING protein, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). DMP1 mutations cause bone and renal defects that are identical with the defects caused by a loss of PHEX function. This results in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). In both HYP and ARHR, increased FGF23 expression plays a major role in the disease and in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), FGF23 half-life is increased by activating mutations. ASARM peptide administration in vitro and in vivo also induces increased FGF23 expression. FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of cytokines, which surfaced

  19. Regulation of bone-renal mineral and energy metabolism: the PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, MEPE ASARM pathway.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Peter S N

    2012-01-01

    More than 300 million years ago, vertebrates emerged from the vast oceans to conquer gravity and the dry land. With this transition, new adaptations occurred that included ingenious changes in reproduction, waste secretion, and bone physiology. One new innovation, the egg shell, contained an ancestral protein (ovocleidin-116) that likely first appeared with the dinosaurs and was preserved through the theropod lineage in modern birds and reptiles. Ovocleidin-116 is an avian homolog of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and belongs to a group of proteins called short integrin-binding ligand-interacting glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). These proteins are all localized to a defined region on chromosome 5q in mice and chromosome 4q in humans. A unifying feature of SIBLING proteins is an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM). Recent research has shown that the ASARM motif and the released ASARM peptide have regulatory roles in mineralization (bone and teeth), phosphate regulation, vascularization, soft-tissue calcification, osteoclastogenesis, mechanotransduction, and fat energy metabolism. The MEPE ASARM motif and peptide are physiological substrates for PHEX, a zinc metalloendopeptidase. Defects in PHEX are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP). There is evidence that PHEX interacts with another ASARM motif containing SIBLING protein, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). DMP1 mutations cause bone and renal defects that are identical with the defects caused by a loss of PHEX function. This results in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). In both HYP and ARHR, increased FGF23 expression plays a major role in the disease and in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), FGF23 half-life is increased by activating mutations. ASARM peptide administration in vitro and in vivo also induces increased FGF23 expression. FGF23 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of cytokines, which surfaced 500

  20. MMP2-cleavage of DMP1 generates a bioactive peptide promoting differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cell.

    PubMed

    Chaussain, Catherine; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Huet, Eric; Floris, Caroline; Ravindran, Sriram; Hao, Jianjun; Menashi, Suzanne; George, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) plays a regulatory role in dentin mineralization and can also function as a signaling molecule. MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) is a predominant protease in the dentin matrix that plays a prominent role in tooth formation and a potential role during the carious process. The possibility that MMP-2 can cleave DMP1 to release biologically active peptides was investigated in this study. DMP1, both in the recombinant form and in its native state within the dentin matrix, was shown to be a substrate for MMP-2. Proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 produced two major peptides, one that contains the C-terminal region of the protein known to carry both the ASARM (aspartic acid and serine rich domain) domain involved in biomineralization and the DNA binding site of DMP1. In vitro experiments with recombinant N- and C-terminal polypeptides mimicking the MMP-2 cleavage products of DMP1 demonstrated an effect of the C-polypeptide on the differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells to a putative odontoblast phenotype. In vivo implantation of this peptide in a rat injured pulp model induced a rapid formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge covered by a palisade of orientated cells expressing dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and DMP1, attesting an efficient repair process. These data suggest that a peptide generated through the proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 can regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal cells during dentinogenesis and thus sustain reparative dentin formation in pathological situations such as carious decay. In addition, these data open a new therapeutic possibility of using this peptide to regenerate dentin after an injury. PMID:19908197

  1. MMP2-CLEAVAGE OF DMP1 GENERATES A BIOACTIVE PEPTIDE PROMOTING DIFFERENTIATION OF DENTAL PULP STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Huet, Eric; Floris, Caroline; Ravindran, Sriram; Hao, Jianjun; Menashi, Suzanne; George, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) plays a regulatory role in dentin mineralization and can also function as a signaling molecule. MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) is a predominant protease in the dentin matrix that plays a prominent role in tooth formation and a potential role during the carious process. The possibility that MMP-2 can cleave DMP1 to release biologically active peptides was investigated in this study. DMP1, both in the recombinant form and in its native state within the dentin matrix, was shown to be a substrate for MMP-2. Proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 produced two major peptides, one that contains the C-terminal region of the protein known to carry both the ASARM (aspartic acid and serine rich domain) domain involved in biomineralization and the DNA binding site of DMP1. In vitro experiments with recombinant N- and C-terminal polypeptides mimicking the MMP-2 cleavage products of DMP1 demonstrated an effect of the C-polypeptide on the differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells to a putative odontoblast phenotype. In vivo implantation of this peptide in a rat injured pulp model induced a rapid formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge covered by a palisade of orientated cells expressing dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and DMP1, attesting an efficient repair process. These data suggest that a peptide generated through the proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 can regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal cells during dentinogenesis and thus sustain reparative dentin formation in pathological situations such as carious decay. In addition, these data open a new therapeutic possibility of using this peptide to regenerate dentin after an injury. PMID:19908197

  2. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) improves osteomalacia phenotype in dentin matrix protein 1(Dmp1) knockout mice with little impact on serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yinshi; Han, Xianglong; Jing, Yan; Yuan, Baozhi; Ke, Huazhu; Liu, Min; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-01-01

    Unlike treatments for most rickets, the treatment using 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 has little efficacy on patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, a set of rare genetic diseases. Thus, understanding the local cause for osteomalacia in hypophosphatemic rickets and developing an effective treatment to restore mineralization in this rare disease has been a longstanding goal in medicine. Here, we used Dmp1 knockout (KO) mice (whose mutations led to the same type of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets in humans) as the model in which the monoclonal antibody of sclerostin (Scl-Ab) was tested in two age groups for 8weeks: the prevention group (starting at age 4weeks) and the treatment group (starting at age 12weeks). Applications of Scl-Ab greatly improved the osteomalacia phenotype (>15%) and the biomechanical properties (3-point bending, ~60%) in the treated long-bone group. Our studies not only showed improvement of the osteomalacia in the alveolar bone, which has the highest bone metabolism rate, as well as the long bone phenotypes in treated mice. All these improvements attributed to the use of Scl-Ab are independent of the change in serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23, since Scl-Ab had little efficacy on those parameters. Finally, we propose a model to explain how Scl-Ab can improve the Dmp1 KO osteomalacia phenotype, in which the sclerostin level is already low. PMID:26721590

  3. Bone proteins PHEX and DMP1 regulate fibroblastic growth factor Fgf23 expression in osteocytes through a common pathway involving FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aline; Liu, Shiguang; David, Valentin; Li, Hua; Karydis, Anastasios; Feng, Jian Q.; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblastic growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating phosphaturic hormone. Inactivating mutations of the endopeptidase PHEX or the SIBLING protein DMP1 result in equivalent intrinsic bone mineralization defects and increased Fgf23 expression in osteocytes. The mechanisms whereby PHEX and DMP1 regulate Fgf23 expression are unknown. We examined the possibility that PHEX and DMP1 regulate Fgf23 through a common pathway by analyzing the phenotype of compound Phex and Dmp1 mutant mice (Hyp/Dmp1−/−). Compared to single-mutant littermates, compound-mutant Hyp/Dmp1−/− mice displayed nonadditive elevations of serum FGF23 (1912 ± 183, 1715 ± 178, and 1799 ± 181 pg/ml), hypophosphatemia (Pi: 6.0 ± 0.3, 5.8 ± 0.2, and 5.4 ± 0.1 mg/dl), and severity of rickets/osteomalacia (bone mineral density: −36, −36, and −30%). Microarray analysis of long bones identified gene expression profiles implicating common activation of the FGFR pathway in all the mutant groups. Furthermore, inhibiting FGFR signaling using SU5402 in Hyp- and Dmp1−/−-derived bone marrow stromal cells prevented the increase in Fgf23 mRNA expression (129- and 124-fold increase in Hyp and Dmp1−/− vs. 1.3-fold in Hyp+SU5402 and 2.5-fold in Dmp1−/−+SU5402, P<0.05). For all analyses, samples collected from nonmutant wild-type littermates served as controls. These findings indicate that PHEX and DMP1 control a common pathway regulating bone mineralization and FGF23 production, the latter involving activation of the FGFR signaling in osteocytes.—Martin, A., Liu, S., David, V., Li, H., Karydis, A., Feng, J. Q., Quarles, L. D. Bone proteins PHEX and DMP1 regulate fibroblastic growth factor Fgf23 expression in osteocytes through a common pathway. PMID:21507898

  4. mRNA expression and protein localization of dentin matrix protein 1 during dental root formation.

    PubMed

    Toyosawa, S; Okabayashi, K; Komori, T; Ijuhin, N

    2004-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic phosphoprotein. DMP1 was initially detected in dentin and later in other mineralized tissues including cementum and bone, but the DMP1 expression pattern in tooth is still controversial. To determine the precise localization of DMP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein in the tooth, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses using rat molars and incisors during various stages of root formation. During root dentin formation of molars, DMP1 mRNA was detected in root odontoblasts in parallel with mineralization of the dentin. However, the level of DMP1 mRNA expression in root odontoblasts decreased near the coronal part and was absent in coronal odontoblasts. DMP1 protein was localized along dentinal tubules and their branches in mineralized root dentin, and the distribution of DMP1 shifted from the end of dentinal tubules to the base of the tubules as dentin formation progressed. During the formation of the acellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementoblasts lining the acellular cementum where its protein was localized. During the formation of the cellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementocytes embedded in the cellular cementum but not in cementoblasts, and its protein was localized in the pericellular cementum of cementocytes including their processes. During dentin formation of incisors, DMP1 mRNA was detected in odontoblasts on the cementum-related dentin, where its protein was localized along dentinal tubules near the mineralization front. The localization of DMP1 mRNA and protein in dentin and cementum was related to their mineralization, suggesting that one of the functions of DMP1 may be involved in the mineralization of dentin and cementum during root formation. PMID:14751569

  5. Mapping of the human dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene (DMP1) to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II critical region at chromosome 4q21

    SciTech Connect

    Aplin, H.M.; Hirst, K.L.; Crosby, A.H.; Dixon, M.J.

    1995-11-20

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has been mapped to human chromosome 4q12-q21. The region most likely to contain the DGI1 locus is a 3.2-cM region surrounding the osteopontin (SPP1) locus. Recently, a novel dentin-specific acidic phosphoprotein (dmp1) has been cloned in the rat and mapped to mouse chromosome 5q21. In the current investigation, we have isolated a cosmid containing the human DMP1 gene. The isolation of a short tandem repeat polymorphism at this locus has allowed us to map the DMP1 locus to human chromosome 4q21 and demonstrate that it is tightly linked to DGI1 in two families (Z{sub max} = 11.01, {theta} = 0.001). The creation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig around SPP1 has further allowed us to demonstrate that DMP1 is located within 150 kb of the bone sialoprotein and 490 kb of the SPP1 loci, respectively. DMP1 is therefore a strong candidate for the DGI1 locus. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Simultaneous chromium reduction and phenol degradation in a coculture of Escherichia coli ATCC 33456 and Pseudomonas putida DMP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Hai; Wang, Yi-Tin

    1995-07-01

    In a defined coculture of a Cr(VI) reducer, Escherichia coli ATCC 33456, and a phenol degrader, Pseudomonas putida DMP-1, simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of phenol was observed. When Cr(VI) was present in the coculture, quantitative transformation of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) proceeded with simultaneous degradation of phenol. Cr(VI) reduction was correlated to phenol degradation in the coculture as demonstrated by a regression analysis of the cumulative Cr(VI) reduction and the cumulative phenol degradation. Both the rate and extent of Cr(VI) reduction and phenol degradation were significantly influenced by the population composition of the coculture. Although Cr(VI) reduction occurred as a result of E. coli metabolism, the rate of phenol degradation by P. putida may become a rate-limiting factor for Cr(VI) reduction at a low population ratio of P. putida to E. coli. Phenol degradation by P. putida was very susceptible to the presence of Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by E. coli was significantly influenced by phenol only when phenol was present at high concentrations (>9 mM). 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. An In Situ Hybridization Study of Perlecan, DMP1, and MEPE in Developing Condylar Cartilage of the Fetal Mouse Mandible and Limb Bud Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, K.; Yokohama-Tamaki, T.; Morita, T.; Baba, O.; Qin, C.; Shibata, S.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this in situ hybridization study was to investigate mRNA expression of three bone/cartilage matrix components (perlecan, DMP1, and MEPE) in developing primary (tibial) and secondary (condylar) cartilage. Perlecan mRNA expression was first detected in newly formed chondrocytes in tibial cartilage at E13.0, but this expression decreased in hypertrophic chondrocytes at E14.0. In contrast, at E15.0, perlecan mRNA was first detected in the newly formed chondrocytes of condylar cartilage; these chondrocytes had characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes, which confirmed the previous observation that progenitor cells of developing secondary cartilage rapidly differentiate into hypertrophic chondrocytes. DMP1 mRNA was detected in many chondrocytes within the lower hypertrophic cell zone in tibial cartilage at E14.0. In contrast, DMP1 mRNA expression was only transiently detected in a few chondrocytes of condylar cartilage at E15.0. Thus, DMP1 may be less important in the developing condylar cartilage than in the tibial cartilage. Another purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that MEPE may be a useful marker molecule for cartilage. MEPE mRNA was not detected in any chondrocytes in either tibial or condylar cartilage; however, MEPE immunoreactivity was detected throughout the cartilage matrix. Western immunoblot analysis demonstrated that MEPE antibody recognized two bands, one of 67 kDa and another of 59 kDa, in cartilage-derived samples. Thus MEPE protein may gradually accumulate in the cartilage, even though mRNA expression levels were below the limits of detection of in situ hybridization. Ultimately, we could not designate MEPE as a marker molecule for cartilage, and would modify our original hypothesis. PMID:26428891

  8. An in situ hybridization study of perlecan, DMP1, and MEPE in developing condylar cartilage of the fetal mouse mandible and limb bud cartilage.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, K; Yokohama-Tamaki, T; Morita, T; Baba, O; Qin, C; Shibata, S

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this in situ hybridization study was to investigate mRNA expression of three bone/cartilage matrix components (perlecan, DMP1, and MEPE) in developing primary (tibial) and secondary (condylar) cartilage. Perlecan mRNA expression was first detected in newly formed chondrocytes in tibial cartilage at E13.0, but this expression decreased in hypertrophic chondrocytes at E14.0. In contrast, at E15.0, perlecan mRNA was first detected in the newly formed chondrocytes of condylar cartilage; these chondrocytes had characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes, which confirmed the previous observation that progenitor cells of developing secondary cartilage rapidly differentiate into hypertrophic chondrocytes. DMP1 mRNA was detected in many chondrocytes within the lower hypertrophic cell zone in tibial cartilage at E14.0. In contrast, DMP1 mRNA expression was only transiently detected in a few chondrocytes of condylar cartilage at E15.0. Thus, DMP1 may be less important in the developing condylar cartilage than in the tibial cartilage. Another purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that MEPE may be a useful marker molecule for cartilage. MEPE mRNA was not detected in any chondrocytes in either tibial or condylar cartilage; however, MEPE immunoreactivity was detected throughout the cartilage matrix. Western immunoblot analysis demonstrated that MEPE antibody recognized two bands, one of 67 kDa and another of 59 kDa, in cartilage-derived samples. Thus MEPE protein may gradually accumulate in the cartilage, even though mRNA expression levels were below the limits of detection of in situ hybridization. Ultimately, we could not designate MEPE as a marker molecule for cartilage, and would modify our original hypothesis. PMID:26428891

  9. Postnatal β-catenin deletion from Dmp1-expressing osteocytes/osteoblasts reduces structural adaptation to loading, but not periosteal load-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Robling, Alexander G

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical signal transduction in bone tissue begins with load-induced activation of several cellular pathways in the osteocyte population. A key pathway that participates in mechanotransduction is Wnt/Lrp5 signaling. A putative downstream mediator of activated Lrp5 is the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein β-catenin (βcat), which migrates to the nucleus where it functions as a transcriptional co-activator. We investigated whether osteocytic βcat participates in Wnt/Lrp5-mediated mechanotransduction by conducting ulnar loading experiments in mice with or without chemically induced βcat deletion in osteocytes. Mice harboring βcat floxed loss-of-function alleles (βcat(f/f)) were bred to the inducible osteocyte Cre transgenic (10)(kb)Dmp1-CreERt2. Adult male mice were induced to recombine the βcat alleles using tamoxifen, and intermittent ulnar loading sessions were applied over the following week. Although adult-onset deletion of βcat from Dmp1-expressing cells reduced skeletal mass, the bone tissue was responsive to mechanical stimulation as indicated by increased relative periosteal bone formation rates in recombined mice. However, load-induced improvements in cross sectional geometric properties were compromised in recombined mice. The collective results indicate that the osteoanabolic response to loading can occur on the periosteal surface when β-cat levels are significantly reduced in Dmp1-expressing cells, suggesting that either (i) only low levels of β-cat are required for mechanically induced bone formation on the periosteal surface, or (ii) other additional downstream mediators of Lrp5 might participate in transducing load-induced Wnt signaling. PMID:27143110

  10. Adult-Onset Deletion of β-Catenin in (10kb)Dmp1-Expressing Cells Prevents Intermittent PTH-Induced Bone Gain.

    PubMed

    Kedlaya, Rajendra; Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Bettagere, Vidya; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Horan, Daniel; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Robling, Alexander G

    2016-08-01

    β-Catenin (βcat) is a major downstream signaling node in canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway, and its activity is crucial for canonical Wnt signal transduction. Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in the osteo-anabolic response to PTH, a potent calcium-regulating factor. We investigated whether βcat is essential for the anabolic action of intermittent PTH by generating male mice with adult-onset deletion of βcat in a subpopulation of bone cells (osteocytes and late-stage osteoblasts), treating them with an anabolic regimen of PTH, and measuring the skeletal responses. Male (10kb)Dmp1-CreERt2 transgenic mice that also harbored floxed loss-of-function βcat alleles (βcat(f/f)) were induced for Cre activity using tamoxifen, then injected daily with human PTH 1-34 (30 μg/kg) or vehicle for 5 weeks. Mice in which βcat was deleted showed either total lack of bone mineral density (BMD) gain, or BMD loss, and did not respond to PTH treatment. However, bone mass measurements in the trabecular compartment of the femur and spine revealed PTH-induced bone gain whether βcat was deleted or not. PTH-stimulated increases in periosteal and cancellous bone formation rates were not impaired by βcat deletion, but resorption markers and cortical porosity were significantly increased in induced mice, particularly induced mice treated with PTH. These results suggest that βcat is required for net-positive BMD effects of PTH therapy but that the anabolic effects per se of PTH treatment might not require osteocytic/osteoblastic βcat. PMID:27253995

  11. Different localization of Hsp105 family proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Youhei; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Hatayama, Takumi

    2007-10-15

    Hsp105{alpha} and Hsp105{beta} of the HSP105 family are alternatively spliced products derived from an hsp 105 gene transcript. Hsp105{alpha} is constitutively expressed and also induced by various stress, whereas Hsp105{beta}, lacking 44 amino acids from Hsp105{alpha}, is specifically expressed during mild heat shock. Although Hsp105{alpha} is shown to localize in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells, cellular localization of Hsp105{beta} is not known. In this study, we showed that Hsp105{beta} localized in the nucleus of cells in contrast to cytoplasmic Hsp105{alpha}, suggesting that these proteins function in different cellular compartments of cells. Using deletion and substitution mutants of Hsp105{alpha} and Hsp105{beta}, we revealed that these proteins had a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES). Furthermore, Hsp105{alpha} accumulated in the nucleus of cells when treated with leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of NES-dependent nuclear export. siRNA for importin {beta}, an essential component for NLS-dependent nuclear transport, inhibited the nuclear localization of Hsp105{beta}. Furthermore, the 44 amino acids sequence found in Hsp105{alpha} but not in Hsp105{beta} suppressed the NLS activity. Thus, the different localization of Hsp105{alpha} and Hsp105{beta} is suggested to be due to the suppressed NLS activity in Hsp105{alpha}.

  12. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  13. A class of difference schemes with flexible local approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukerman, Igor . E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2006-01-20

    Solutions of many physical problems have salient local features that are qualitatively known a priori (for example, singularities at point sources, edge and corners; boundary layers; derivative jumps at material interfaces; strong dipole field components near polarized spherical particles; cusps of electronic wavefunctions at the nuclei; electrostatic double layers around colloidal particles, etc.) The known methods capable of providing flexible local approximation of such features include the generalized finite element - partition of unity method, special variational-difference schemes in broken Sobolev spaces, and a few other specialized techniques. In the proposed new class of Flexible Local Approximation MEthods (FLAME), a desirable set of local approximating functions (such as cylindrical or spherical harmonics, plane waves, harmonic polynomials, etc.) defines a finite difference scheme on a chosen grid stencil. One motivation is to minimize the notorious 'staircase' effect at curved and slanted interface boundaries. However, the new approach has much broader applications. As illustrative examples, the paper presents arbitrarily high order 3-point schemes for the 1D Schroedinger equation and a 1D singular equation, schemes for electrostatic interactions of colloidal particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, plasmon resonances. Moreover, many classical finite difference schemes, including the Collatz 'Mehrstellen' schemes, are direct particular cases of FLAME.

  14. Reconstruction of the local inflationary potential with different correlation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, A.; Cabella, P.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-02-01

    We review the puzzles of the standard Big Bang model and cosmic inflation as their possible solutions. The relation between inflation and the spectra of the cosmological perturbations is emphasized. In particular we focus on the local reconstruction of the shape of the inflationary potential from observations and the consequences of a direct detection of cosmological gravitational waves, exploring different correlation levels between the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r of the primordial perturbations.

  15. Immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials.

    PubMed

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Marques, Nádia C T; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila O; Sakai, Vivien T; Abdo, Ruy Cesar C; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Santos, Carlos F; Oliveira, Thais M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1 in human primary teeth treated with different pulp capping materials. Twenty-five primary molars were divided into the following groups: formocresol (FC), calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), corticosteroid/antibiotic solution + CH (O + CH), and Portland cement (PC), and all received conventional pulpotomy treatment. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test (p < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the comparison among the groups through the use of a score system regarding the presence of hard tissue barrier, odontoblastic layer, and internal resorption, but not regarding pulp calcification. Immunohistochemical analysis showed immunostaining for DMP-1 in groups CH, MTA, O + CH, and PC. Internal resorption was observed in the groups FC and CH. MTA and PC showed pulp repair without inflammation and with the presence of hard tissue barrier. DMP-1 immunostaining was higher for MTA and PC, confirming the reparative and bioinductive capacity of these materials. PMID:25678029

  16. Gene flow in maize fields with different local pollen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggi, A. Susana; Lopez-Sanchez, Higinio; Caragea, Petrutza; Westgate, Mark; Arritt, Raymond; Clark, Craig A.

    2007-08-01

    The development of maize ( Zea mays L.) varieties as factories of pharmaceutical and industrial compounds has renewed interest in controlling pollen dispersal. The objective of this study was to compare gene flow into maize fields of different local pollen densities under the same environmental conditions. Two fields of approximately 36 ha were planted with a nontransgenic, white hybrid, in Ankeny, Iowa, USA. In the center of both fields, a 1-ha plot of a yellow-seeded stacked RR/Bt transgenic hybrid was planted as a pollen source. Before flowering, the white receiver maize of one field was detasseled in a 4:1 ratio to reduce the local pollen density (RPD). The percentage of outcross in the field with RPD was 42.2%, 6.3%, and 1.3% at 1, 10, and 35 m from the central plot, respectively. The percentage of outcross in the white maize with normal pollen density (NPD) was 30.1%, 2.7%, and 0.4%, respectively, at these distances. At distances greater than 100 m, the outcross frequency decreased below 0.1 and 0.03% in the field with RPD and NPD, respectively. A statistical model was used to compare pollen dispersal based on observed outcross percentages. The likelihood ratio test confirmed that the models of outcrossing in the two fields were significantly different ( P is practically 0). Results indicated that when local pollen is low, the incoming pollen has a competitive advantage and the level of outcross is significantly greater than when the local pollen is abundant.

  17. Error localization in RHIC by fitting difference orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Liu C.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    The presence of realistic errors in an accelerator or in the model used to describe the accelerator are such that a measurement of the beam trajectory may deviate from prediction. Comparison of measurements to model can be used to detect such errors. To do so the initial conditions (phase space parameters at any point) must be determined which can be achieved by fitting the difference orbit compared to model prediction using only a few beam position measurements. Using these initial conditions, the fitted orbit can be propagated along the beam line based on the optics model. Measurement and model will agree up to the point of an error. The error source can be better localized by additionally fitting the difference orbit using downstream BPMs and back-propagating the solution. If one dominating error source exist in the machine, the fitted orbit will deviate from the difference orbit at the same point.

  18. Different subcellular localizations and functions of Arabidopsis myosin VIII

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Lior; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Belausov, Eduard; Sadot, Einat

    2008-01-01

    Background Myosins are actin-activated ATPases that use energy to generate force and move along actin filaments, dragging with their tails different cargos. Plant myosins belong to the group of unconventional myosins and Arabidopsis myosin VIII gene family contains four members: ATM1, ATM2, myosin VIIIA and myosin VIIIB. Results In transgenic plants expressing GFP fusions with ATM1 (IQ-tail truncation, lacking the head domain), fluorescence was differentially distributed: while in epidermis cells at the root cap GFP-ATM1 equally distributed all over the cell, in epidermal cells right above this region it accumulated in dots. Further up, in cells of the elongation zone, GFP-ATM1 was preferentially positioned at the sides of transversal cell walls. Interestingly, the punctate pattern was insensitive to brefeldin A (BFA) while in some cells closer to the root cap, ATM1 was found in BFA bodies. With the use of different markers and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, it was found that myosin VIII co-localized to the plasmodesmata and ER, colocalized with internalized FM4-64, and partially overlapped with the endosomal markers ARA6, and rarely with ARA7 and FYVE. Motility of ARA6 labeled organelles was inhibited whenever associated with truncated ATM1 but motility of FYVE labeled organelles was inhibited only when associated with large excess of ATM1. Furthermore, GFP-ATM1 and RFP-ATM2 (IQ-tail domain) co-localized to the same spots on the plasma membrane, indicating a specific composition at these sites for myosin binding. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that myosin VIII functions differently in different root cells and can be involved in different steps of endocytosis, BFA-sensitive and insensitive pathways, ER tethering and plasmodesmatal activity. PMID:18179725

  19. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil). PMID:17511352

  20. Developmental differences in auditory detection and localization of approaching vehicles.

    PubMed

    Barton, Benjamin K; Lew, Roger; Kovesdi, Casey; Cottrell, Nicholas D; Ulrich, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Pedestrian safety is a significant problem in the United States, with thousands being injured each year. Multiple risk factors exist, but one poorly understood factor is pedestrians' ability to attend to vehicles using auditory cues. Auditory information in the pedestrian setting is increasing in importance with the growing number of quieter hybrid and all-electric vehicles on America's roadways that do not emit sound cues pedestrians expect from an approaching vehicle. Our study explored developmental differences in pedestrians' detection and localization of approaching vehicles. Fifty children ages 6-9 years, and 35 adults participated. Participants' performance varied significantly by age, and with increasing speed and direction of the vehicle's approach. Results underscore the importance of understanding children's and adults' use of auditory cues for pedestrian safety and highlight the need for further research. PMID:23357030

  1. Interactions of different types of localized corrosion in surgical implants.

    PubMed

    Mori, G; Dösinger, H

    2004-03-01

    Surgical implants often show different types of localized corrosion such as corrosion fatigue cracking, pitting and crevice corrosion on the same part. Interactions of these different corrosion phenomena were investigated. This was done by cyclic loading of electropolished tensile specimens at different constant and changing potentials. Material investigated was a surgical implant steel X2CrNiMo18-15-3 which was immersed in physiological NaCl solution. Pitting and repassivation potentials were determined. Samples with and without artificial cracks as well as masked specimens were tested. Incubation period for first damage, density and size of pits by coulometric and volumetric method were determined. The fracture surfaces were then investigated by SEM. Results show that not in all cases pitting corrosion was the cause for corrosion fatigue cracking. Also pitting is favoured by crack formation. Density of pits increases by a factor of 5 without any change to pitting potential. There are primary pits formed prior to crack initiation and secondary pits formed after crack initiation. At samples without crack there is almost no difference between the optically measured value of total pit volume and the coulometrically determined value. At samples with cracks coulometric volume of pits is much larger than optical one. This proves that there is a significant amount of crevice corrosion in the crack. The corrosion current density in the crack increases by two orders of magnitude when comparing it to electropolished surface of the sample. Results of laboratory experiments are confirmed by failure of a real implant. PMID:15334996

  2. Differences in local genomic context of bound and unbound motifs

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Loren; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Landsman, David

    2012-01-01

    Understanding gene regulation is a major objective in molecular biology research. Frequently, transcription is driven by transcription factors (TFs) that bind to specific DNA sequences. These motifs are usually short and degenerate, rendering the likelihood of multiple copies occurring throughout the genome due to random chance as high. Despite this, TFs only bind to a small subset of sites, thus prompting our investigation into the differences between motifs that are bound by TFs and those that remain unbound. Here we constructed vectors representing various chromatin- and sequence-based features for a published set of bound and unbound motifs representing nine TFs in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a machine learning approach, we identified a set of features that can be used to discriminate between bound and unbound motifs. We also discovered that some TFs bind most or all of their strong motifs in intergenic regions. Our data demonstrate that local sequence context can be strikingly different around motifs that are bound compared to motifs that are unbound. We concluded that there are multiple combinations of genomic features that characterize bound or unbound motifs. PMID:22692006

  3. Local structural differences in homologous proteins: specificities in different SCOP classes.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Valadié, Hélène; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2012-01-01

    The constant increase in the number of solved protein structures is of great help in understanding the basic principles behind protein folding and evolution. 3-D structural knowledge is valuable in designing and developing methods for comparison, modelling and prediction of protein structures. These approaches for structure analysis can be directly implicated in studying protein function and for drug design. The backbone of a protein structure favours certain local conformations which include α-helices, β-strands and turns. Libraries of limited number of local conformations (Structural Alphabets) were developed in the past to obtain a useful categorization of backbone conformation. Protein Block (PB) is one such Structural Alphabet that gave a reasonable structure approximation of 0.42 Å. In this study, we use PB description of local structures to analyse conformations that are preferred sites for structural variations and insertions, among group of related folds. This knowledge can be utilized in improving tools for structure comparison that work by analysing local structure similarities. Conformational differences between homologous proteins are known to occur often in the regions comprising turns and loops. Interestingly, these differences are found to have specific preferences depending upon the structural classes of proteins. Such class-specific preferences are mainly seen in the all-β class with changes involving short helical conformations and hairpin turns. A test carried out on a benchmark dataset also indicates that the use of knowledge on the class specific variations can improve the performance of a PB based structure comparison approach. The preference for the indel sites also seem to be confined to a few backbone conformations involving β-turns and helix C-caps. These are mainly associated with short loops joining the regular secondary structures that mediate a reversal in the chain direction. Rare β-turns of type I' and II' are also identified

  4. Local Structural Differences in Homologous Proteins: Specificities in Different SCOP Classes

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Valadié, Hélène; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; de Brevern, Alexandre G.

    2012-01-01

    The constant increase in the number of solved protein structures is of great help in understanding the basic principles behind protein folding and evolution. 3-D structural knowledge is valuable in designing and developing methods for comparison, modelling and prediction of protein structures. These approaches for structure analysis can be directly implicated in studying protein function and for drug design. The backbone of a protein structure favours certain local conformations which include α-helices, β-strands and turns. Libraries of limited number of local conformations (Structural Alphabets) were developed in the past to obtain a useful categorization of backbone conformation. Protein Block (PB) is one such Structural Alphabet that gave a reasonable structure approximation of 0.42 Å. In this study, we use PB description of local structures to analyse conformations that are preferred sites for structural variations and insertions, among group of related folds. This knowledge can be utilized in improving tools for structure comparison that work by analysing local structure similarities. Conformational differences between homologous proteins are known to occur often in the regions comprising turns and loops. Interestingly, these differences are found to have specific preferences depending upon the structural classes of proteins. Such class-specific preferences are mainly seen in the all-β class with changes involving short helical conformations and hairpin turns. A test carried out on a benchmark dataset also indicates that the use of knowledge on the class specific variations can improve the performance of a PB based structure comparison approach. The preference for the indel sites also seem to be confined to a few backbone conformations involving β-turns and helix C-caps. These are mainly associated with short loops joining the regular secondary structures that mediate a reversal in the chain direction. Rare β-turns of type I’ and II’ are also

  5. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. PMID:26879106

  6. Localizing Age-Related Individual Differences in a Hierarchical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 33 separate studies were combined to create an aggregate data set consisting of 16 cognitive variables and 6832 different individuals who ranged between 18 and 95 years of age. Analyses were conducted to determine where in a hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities individual differences associated with age, gender, education, and…

  7. Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features Is Different: Performance and Tympanic Membrane Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.; Hayrynen, Lauren; Schaeffer, David

    2009-01-01

    Vision researchers have investigated the differences between global and local feature perception. No one has, however, examined the role of global and local feature discrimination in sustained attention tasks. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local letter target discriminations or…

  8. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  9. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Carrie L.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male–male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  10. Prediction of compounds in different local structure-activity relationship environments using emerging chemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Balfer, Jenny; Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-05-27

    Active compounds can participate in different local structure-activity relationship (SAR) environments and introduce different degrees of local SAR discontinuity, depending on their structural and potency relationships in data sets. Such SAR features have thus far mostly been analyzed using descriptive approaches, in particular, on the basis of activity landscape modeling. However, compounds in different local SAR environments have not yet been predicted. Herein, we adapt the emerging chemical patterns (ECP) method, a machine learning approach for compound classification, to systematically predict compounds with different local SAR characteristics. ECP analysis is shown to accurately assign many compounds to different local SAR environments across a variety of activity classes covering the entire range of observed local SARs. Control calculations using random forests and multiclass support vector machines were carried out and a variety of statistical performance measures were applied. In all instances, ECP calculations yielded comparable or better performance than controls. The approach presented herein can be applied to predict compounds that complement local SARs or prioritize compounds with different SAR characteristics. PMID:24803014

  11. Local participation in biodiversity conservation initiatives: a comparative analysis of different models in South East Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Pritchard, Diana J; Sánchez González, María Consuelo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, biodiversity conservation is primarily implemented through three schemes: 1) protected areas, 2) payment-based schemes for environmental services, and 3) community-based conservation, officially recognized in some cases as Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas. In this paper we compare levels of local participation across conservation schemes. Through a survey applied to 670 households across six communities in Southeast Mexico, we document local participation during the creation, design, and implementation of the management plan of different conservation schemes. To analyze the data, we first calculated the frequency of participation at the three different stages mentioned, then created a participation index that characterizes the presence and relative intensity of local participation for each conservation scheme. Results showed that there is a low level of local participation across all the conservation schemes explored in this study. Nonetheless, the payment for environmental services had the highest local participation while the protected areas had the least. Our findings suggest that local participation in biodiversity conservation schemes is not a predictable outcome of a specific (community-based) model, thus implying that other factors might be important in determining local participation. This has implications on future strategies that seek to encourage local involvement in conservation. PMID:25105990

  12. Improving spatial localization in MEG inverse imaging by leveraging intersubject anatomical differences

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric; Maddox, Ross K.; Lee, Adrian K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern neuroimaging techniques enable non-invasive observation of ongoing neural processing, with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in particular providing direct measurement of neural activity with millisecond time resolution. However, accurately mapping measured MEG sensor readings onto the underlying source neural structures remains an active area of research. This so-called “inverse problem” is ill posed, and poses a challenge for source estimation that is often cited as a drawback limiting MEG data interpretation. However, anatomically constrained MEG localization estimates may be more accurate than commonly believed. Here we hypothesize that, by combining anatomically constrained inverse estimates across subjects, the spatial uncertainty of MEG source localization can be mitigated. Specifically, we argue that differences in subject brain geometry yield differences in point-spread functions, resulting in improved spatial localization across subjects. To test this, we use standard methods to combine subject anatomical MRI scans with coregistration information to obtain an accurate forward (physical) solution, modeling the MEG sensor data resulting from brain activity originating from different cortical locations. Using a linear minimum-norm inverse to localize this brain activity, we demonstrate that a substantial increase in the spatial accuracy of MEG source localization can result from combining data from subjects with differing brain geometry. This improvement may be enabled by an increase in the amount of available spatial information in MEG data as measurements from different subjects are combined. This approach becomes more important in the face of practical issues of coregistration errors and potential noise sources, where we observe even larger improvements in localization when combining data across subjects. Finally, we use a simple auditory N100(m) localization task to show how this effect can influence localization using a recorded neural dataset

  13. The Language of Fund-Raising Direct Mail: Differences between Letters for National and Local Constituencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, R. Jeffrey

    A study examined differences in the language of direct mail advertising used by political campaigns at different levels--national state, and local. Seventeen direct mail fund-raising political campaign letters were content analyzed with Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin's typology of compliance-gaining techniques, language style and readability. The…

  14. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  15. Local cerebral blood flow and partition coefficients measured in cerebral astrocytomas of different grades of malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Rose, J.E.; Kandula, P.

    1984-02-01

    Local cerebral blood flow and local partition coefficients were measured in patients with different grades of malignant cerebral astrocytomas (n . 5) who inhaled 35% stable xenon during computed tomography scanning. Results were compared with those in age-matched normal subjects (n . 5. Mean values for local cerebral blood flow in the gray matter in patients with astrocytomas were decreased throughout the tumor mass and surrounding brain that was apparently free of tumor. Patients with highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV; n . 2) showed more variable values for local cerebral blood flow and local partition coefficients compared to those with astrocytomas of lower grades (grades I-II; n . 3). Local partition coefficients in gray matter invaded by grade IV astrocytoma were significantly higher than those in gray matter invaded by grade I-III astrocytomas. Local cerebral blood flow and local partition coefficients in the brain tissue surrounding grade IV astrocytomas were reduced to a greater extent than those in more benign tumors.

  16. Intracultural Differences in Local Botanical Knowledge and Knowledge Loss among the Mexican Isthmus Zapotecs

    PubMed Central

    Saynes-Vásquez, Alfredo; Vibrans, Heike; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Caballero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the socio-demographic and locality factors that influence ethnobiological knowledge in three communities of Zapotec indigenous people of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. It uses local botanical nomenclature as a proxy for general ethnobiological knowledge. In each of these communities (one urban and two rural), 100 adult men were interviewed aided with a field herbarium. Fifty had a background in farming, and 50 worked in the secondary or tertiary sector as their main economic activity, totaling 300 interviews. Using a field herbarium with samples of 30 common and rare wild regional species, we documented visual recognition, knowledge of the local life form, generic and specific names and uses (five knowledge levels measuring knowledge depth). The relationship between sociodemographic variables and knowledge was analyzed with simple correlations. Differences between the three communities and the five knowledge levels were then evaluated with a discriminant analysis. A general linear analysis identified factors and covariables that influenced the observed differences. Differences between the groups with different economic activities were estimated with a t-test for independent samples. Most of the relationships found between sociodemographic variables and plant knowledge were expected: age and rurality were positively related with knowledge and years of formal schooling was negatively related. However, the somewhat less rural site had more traditional knowledge due to local circumstances. The general linear model explained 70–77% of the variation, a high value. It showed that economic activity was by far the most important factor influencing knowledge, by a factor of five. The interaction of locality and economic activity followed. The discriminant analysis assigned interviewees correctly to their localities in 94% of the cases, strengthening the evidence for intracultural variation. Both sociodemographic and historic intracultural

  17. Processing advances for localization of beaked whales using time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization of clicking Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) using an array of widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones. A set of signal and data processing advances are presented that together make reliable tracking a possibility. These advances include a species-specific detector, elimination of spurious time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimates, improved tracking of TDOA estimates, positive association of TDOA estimates using different hydrophone pairs, and joint localization of multiple whales. A key innovation in three of these advances is the principle of click-matching. The methods are demonstrated using real data. PMID:23742359

  18. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  19. A Study of Locale-Wise Differences in Certain Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the locale-wise differences among high school students on the basis of certain cognitive variables like general mental ability and academic achievement and non-cognitive variables such as anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200 boys and…

  20. Differences in spawning date between populations of common frog reveal local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Phillimore, Albert B.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Jones, Owen R.; Smithers, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic differences between populations often correlate with climate variables, resulting from a combination of environment-induced plasticity and local adaptation. Species comprising populations that are genetically adapted to local climatic conditions should be more vulnerable to climate change than those comprising phenotypically plastic populations. Assessment of local adaptation generally requires logistically challenging experiments. Here, using a unique approach and a large dataset (>50,000 observations from across Britain), we compare the covariation in temperature and first spawning dates of the common frog (Rana temporaria) across space with that across time. We show that although all populations exhibit a plastic response to temperature, spawning earlier in warmer years, between-population differences in first spawning dates are dominated by local adaptation. Given climate change projections for Britain in 2050–2070, we project that for populations to remain as locally adapted as contemporary populations will require first spawning date to advance by ∼21–39 days but that plasticity alone will only enable an advance of ∼5–9 days. Populations may thus face a microevolutionary and gene flow challenge to advance first spawning date by a further ∼16–30 days over the next 50 years. PMID:20404185

  1. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J.; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26456436

  2. Brain parcellation choice affects disease-related topology differences increasingly from global to local network levels.

    PubMed

    Lord, Anton; Ehrlich, Stefan; Borchardt, Viola; Geisler, Daniel; Seidel, Maria; Huber, Stefanie; Murr, Julia; Walter, Martin

    2016-03-30

    Network-based analyses of deviant brain function have become extremely popular in psychiatric neuroimaging. Underpinning brain network analyses is the selection of appropriate regions of interest (ROIs). Although ROI selection is fundamental in network analysis, its impact on detecting disease effects remains unclear. We investigated the impact of parcellation choice when comparing results from different studies. We investigated the effects of anatomical (AAL) and literature-based (Dosenbach) parcellation schemes on comparability of group differences in 35 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Global and local network properties, including network-based statistics (NBS), were assessed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at 3T. Parcellation schemes were comparably consistent on global network properties, while NBS and local metrics differed in location, but not metric type. Location of local metric alterations varied for AAL (parietal and cingulate cortices) versus Dosenbach (insula, thalamus) parcellation approaches. However, consistency was observed for the occipital cortex. Patient-specific global network properties can be robustly observed using different parcellation schemes, while graph metrics characterizing impairments of individual nodes vary considerably. Therefore, the impact of parcellation choice on specific group differences varies depending on the level of network organization. PMID:27000302

  3. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator and repressor proteins use different nuclear localization signals.

    PubMed

    Skiadopoulos, M H; McBride, A A

    1996-02-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least three nuclear phosphoproteins that regulate viral transcription and DNA replication. All three proteins have a common C-terminal domain that has DNA-binding and dimerization activities. A basic region in this domain forms an alpha helix which makes direct contact with the DNA target. In this study, it is shown that in addition to its role in DNA binding, this basic region functions as a nuclear localization signal both in the E2 DNA-binding domain and in a heterologous protein. Deletion of this signal sequence resulted in increased accumulation of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins in the cytoplasm, but nuclear localization was not eliminated. In the full-length transactivator protein, another signal, present in the N-terminal transactivation domain, is used for transport to the nucleus, and the C-terminal nuclear localization signal(s) are masked. The use of different nuclear localization signals could potentially allow differential regulation of the subcellular localization of the E2 transactivator and repressor proteins at some stage in the viral life cycle. PMID:8551571

  4. International-local remuneration differences across six countries: do they undermine poverty reduction work?

    PubMed

    Carr, Stuart C; McWha, Ishbel; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    Despite the rhetoric of a single global economy, professionals in poorer countries continue to be remunerated differently depending on whether they are compensated at a local vs. international rate. Project ADDUP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?) surveyed 1290 expatriate and local professionals (response rate = 47%) from aid, education, government, and business sectors in (1) Island Nations (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands), (2) landlocked economies (Malaŵi, Uganda), and (3) emerging economies (India, China). Difference in pay was estimated using purchasing power parity, from the World Bank's World Development Indicators 2007. Psychological measures included self-reported pay and benefits (remuneration), self-attributed ability, remuneration comparison, sense of justice in remuneration, remuneration-related motivation, thoughts of turnover and thoughts about international mobility. We included control measures of candour, culture shock, cultural values (horizontal/vertical individualism/collectivism), personality (from the "big five"), job satisfaction and work engagement. Controlling for these and country (small effects) and organization effects (medium), (a) pay ratios between international and local workers exceeded what were perceived to be acceptable pay thresholds among respondents remunerated locally; who also reported a combination of a sense of relative (b) injustice and demotivation; which (c) together with job satisfaction/work engagement predicted turnover and international mobility. These findings question the wisdom of dual salary systems in general, expose and challenge a major contradiction between contemporary development policy and practice, and have a range of practical, organizational, and theoretical implications for poverty reduction work. PMID:22044054

  5. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; <0.1 m/s air speed). Mean skin temperature was calculated from four local sites (neck, scapula, hand and shin) in accordance with International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (P<0.01), scapula (P<0.001) and shin (P<0.05); but not at the hand (P = 0.482). The largest difference (± SEM) at each site was as follows: neck 0.2 (0.1)°C; scapula 0.2 (0.0)°C; shin 0.1 (0.0)°C and hand 0.1 (0.1)°C. The largest potential error (mean ± SD) in weighted mean skin temperature was 0.4 (0.1)°C (P<0.001) and the associated 95% limits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. PMID:25774024

  6. Differences in Spending in School Districts across Geographic Locales in Minnesota. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Yinmei; Norbury, Heather; Molefe, Ayrin C.; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Meyers, Coby V.; Burke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in spending in school districts across geographic locales in Minnesota and factors that might contribute to these differences. The study finds that district spending per student in 2008/09 varied across locale types in Minnesota. These differences are largely accounted for by differences in regional characteristics…

  7. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  8. Local electromechanical properties of different phenotype models of vascular smooth muscle cells using force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary; Reukov, Vladimir; Nikiforov, Maxim; Guo, Senli; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei; Vertegel, Alexey

    2010-03-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exist as a spectrum of diverse phenotypes raning between contractile and synthetic, the latter being associated with disease states. Different VSMC phenotypes, modeled using serum-starvation, exhibit characteristic electromechanical responses that can be distinguished using band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy (BEPFM), which maps information at the same rate as the atomic force microscope (AFM) scan performed simultaneously. BEPFM image formation mechanism in the culture medium is determined using excitation steps from 1 mV to 100 V. High voltage improves contrast between cells and collagen-coated substrates. Viscoelasticity from AFM stress relaxation experiments and local elasticity from force maps correlate to BEPFM data providing a map of local mechanical properties on different VSMCs.

  9. Time difference of arrival blast localization using a network of disposable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Plummer, Thomas J.

    2007-04-01

    Determining the location of an explosive event using a networked sensor system within an acceptable accuracy is a challenging problem. McQ has developed such a system, using a mesh network of inexpensive acoustic sensors. The system performs a three-dimensional, time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) localization of blasts of various yields in several different environments. Localization information of the blast is provided to the end user by exfiltration over satellite communications. The system is able to perform accurately in the presence of various sources of error including GPS position, propagation effects, temperature, and error in determining the time of arrival (TOA). The system design as well as its performance are presented.

  10. Combined implementation of holographic and speckle interferometry for comparative local stress analysis at different vibration modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergey A.; Pisarev, Vladimir S.; Dzuba, Alexander S.; Grigoriev, Vladimir D.

    1998-09-01

    New capability of combined application of time-averaged holographic interferometry and defocused speckle photography, allowing us a comparative analysis of local stresses corresponding to different vibration modes, is considered. The main aspects of the technique developed are illustrated by using as an example bending oscillations of thin square plate with a large central circular hole. Experimental results are compared with corresponding numerical data obtained by means of the MSC/NASTRAN software.

  11. High frequency source localization in a shallow ocean sound channel using frequency difference matched field processing.

    PubMed

    Worthmann, Brian M; Song, H C; Dowling, David R

    2015-12-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an established technique for source localization in known multipath acoustic environments. Unfortunately, in many situations, particularly those involving high frequency signals, imperfect knowledge of the actual propagation environment prevents accurate propagation modeling and source localization via MFP fails. For beamforming applications, this actual-to-model mismatch problem was mitigated through a frequency downshift, made possible by a nonlinear array-signal-processing technique called frequency difference beamforming [Abadi, Song, and Dowling (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3018-3029]. Here, this technique is extended to conventional (Bartlett) MFP using simulations and measurements from the 2011 Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI experiment (KAM11) to produce ambiguity surfaces at frequencies well below the signal bandwidth where the detrimental effects of mismatch are reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results suggest that frequency difference MFP can be more robust against environmental mismatch than conventional MFP. In particular, signals of frequency 11.2 kHz-32.8 kHz were broadcast 3 km through a 106-m-deep shallow ocean sound channel to a sparse 16-element vertical receiving array. Frequency difference MFP unambiguously localized the source in several experimental data sets with average peak-to-side-lobe ratio of 0.9 dB, average absolute-value range error of 170 m, and average absolute-value depth error of 10 m. PMID:26723312

  12. Recognizing the bank robber and spotting the difference: emotional state and global vs. local attentional set.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Acosta, Alberto; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments (161 participants in total), we investigated how current mood influences processing styles (global vs. local). Participants watched a video of a bank robbery before receiving a positive, negative or neutral induction, and they performed two tasks: a face-recognition task about the bank robber as global processing measure, and a spot-the-difference task using neutral pictures (Experiment-1) or emotional scenes (Experiment-2) as local processing measure. Results showed that positive mood induction favoured a global processing style, enhancing participants' ability to correctly identify a face even when they watched the video before the mood-induction. This shows that, besides influencing encoding processes, mood state can be also related to retrieval processes. On the contrary, negative mood induction enhanced a local processing style, making easier and faster the detection of differences between nearly identical pictures, independently of their valence. This dissociation supports the hypothesis that current mood modulates processing through activation of different cognitive styles. PMID:25012231

  13. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M

    2016-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and α-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed. PMID:26459168

  14. A finite difference method with reciprocity used to incorporate anisotropy in electroencephalogram dipole source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Hese, Peter; D'Asseler, Yves; Lemahieu, Ignace; Van de Walle, Rik

    2005-08-01

    Many implementations of electroencephalogram (EEG) dipole source localization neglect the anisotropical conductivities inherent to brain tissues, such as the skull and white matter anisotropy. An examination of dipole localization errors is made in EEG source analysis, due to not incorporating the anisotropic properties of the conductivity of the skull and white matter. First, simulations were performed in a 5 shell spherical head model using the analytical formula. Test dipoles were placed in three orthogonal planes in the spherical head model. Neglecting the skull anisotropy results in a dipole localization error of, on average, 13.73 mm with a maximum of 24.51 mm. For white matter anisotropy these values are 11.21 mm and 26.3 mm, respectively. Next, a finite difference method (FDM), presented by Saleheen and Kwong (1997 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 44 800-9), is used to incorporate the anisotropy of the skull and white matter. The FDM method has been validated for EEG dipole source localization in head models with all compartments isotropic as well as in a head model with white matter anisotropy. In a head model with skull anisotropy the numerical method could only be validated if the 3D lattice was chosen very fine (grid size <=2 mm).

  15. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  16. An impact source localization technique for a nuclear power plant by using sensors of different types.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Jin-Ho; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, a loose part monitoring system (LPMS) provides information on the location and the mass of a loosened or detached metal impacted onto the inner surface of the primary pressure boundary. Typically, accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a reactor vessel to localize the impact location caused by the impact of metallic substances on the reactor system. However, in some cases, the number of accelerometers is not sufficient to estimate the impact location precisely. In such a case, one of useful methods is to utilize other types of sensor that can measure the vibration of the reactor structure. For example, acoustic emission (AE) sensors are installed on the reactor structure to detect leakage or cracks on the primary pressure boundary. However, accelerometers and AE sensors have a different frequency range. The frequency of interest of AE sensors is higher than that of accelerometers. In this paper, we propose a method of impact source localization by using both accelerometer signals and AE signals, simultaneously. The main concept of impact location estimation is based on the arrival time difference of the impact stress wave between different sensor locations. However, it is difficult to find the arrival time difference between sensors, because the primary frequency ranges of accelerometers and AE sensors are different. To overcome the problem, we used phase delays of an envelope of impact signals. This is because the impact signals from the accelerometer and the AE sensor are similar in the whole shape (envelope). To verify the proposed method, we have performed experiments for a reactor mock-up model and a real nuclear power plant. The experimental results demonstrate that we can enhance the reliability and precision of the impact source localization. Therefore, if the proposed method is applied to a nuclear power plant, we can obtain the effect of additional installed sensors. PMID:20851393

  17. Overview about the localization of nanoparticles in tissue and cellular context by different imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Boreham, Alexander; Holzhausen, Cornelia; Mundhenk, Lars; Graf, Christina; Meinke, Martina C; Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Lademann, Jürgen; Rühl, Eckart; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Summary The increasing interest and recent developments in nanotechnology pose previously unparalleled challenges in understanding the effects of nanoparticles on living tissues. Despite significant progress in in vitro cell and tissue culture technologies, observations on particle distribution and tissue responses in whole organisms are still indispensable. In addition to a thorough understanding of complex tissue responses which is the domain of expert pathologists, the localization of particles at their sites of interaction with living structures is essential to complete the picture. In this review we will describe and compare different imaging techniques for localizing inorganic as well as organic nanoparticles in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments. The visualization techniques include well-established methods, such as standard light, fluorescence, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy as well as more recent developments, such as light and electron microscopic autoradiography, fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging and linear unmixing, superresolution structured illumination, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray microscopy. Importantly, all methodologies described allow for the simultaneous visualization of nanoparticles and evaluation of cell and tissue changes that are of prime interest for toxicopathologic studies. However, the different approaches vary in terms of applicability for specific particles, sensitivity, optical resolution, technical requirements and thus availability, and effects of labeling on particle properties. Specific bottle necks of each technology are discussed in detail. Interpretation of particle localization data from any of these techniques should therefore respect their specific merits and limitations as no single approach combines all desired properties. PMID:25671170

  18. Overview about the localization of nanoparticles in tissue and cellular context by different imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Boreham, Alexander; Holzhausen, Cornelia; Mundhenk, Lars; Graf, Christina; Meinke, Martina C; Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Lademann, Jürgen; Rühl, Eckart; Alexiev, Ulrike; Gruber, Achim D

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest and recent developments in nanotechnology pose previously unparalleled challenges in understanding the effects of nanoparticles on living tissues. Despite significant progress in in vitro cell and tissue culture technologies, observations on particle distribution and tissue responses in whole organisms are still indispensable. In addition to a thorough understanding of complex tissue responses which is the domain of expert pathologists, the localization of particles at their sites of interaction with living structures is essential to complete the picture. In this review we will describe and compare different imaging techniques for localizing inorganic as well as organic nanoparticles in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments. The visualization techniques include well-established methods, such as standard light, fluorescence, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy as well as more recent developments, such as light and electron microscopic autoradiography, fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging and linear unmixing, superresolution structured illumination, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray microscopy. Importantly, all methodologies described allow for the simultaneous visualization of nanoparticles and evaluation of cell and tissue changes that are of prime interest for toxicopathologic studies. However, the different approaches vary in terms of applicability for specific particles, sensitivity, optical resolution, technical requirements and thus availability, and effects of labeling on particle properties. Specific bottle necks of each technology are discussed in detail. Interpretation of particle localization data from any of these techniques should therefore respect their specific merits and limitations as no single approach combines all desired properties. PMID:25671170

  19. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; de Luis, Martin; Gryc, Vladimír; Hacurová, Jana; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Čufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.] from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions. PMID:26442044

  20. Sub-plastidial localization of two different phage-type RNA polymerases in spinach chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Jacinthe; Courtois, Florence; Lerbs-Mache, Silva

    2006-01-01

    Plant plastids contain a circular genome of ∼150 kb organized into ∼35 transcription units. The plastid genome is organized into nucleoids and attached to plastid membranes. This relatively small genome is transcribed by at least two different RNA polymerases, one being of the prokaryotic type and plastid-encoded (PEP), the other one being of the phage-type and nucleus-encoded (NEP). The presumed localization of a second phage-type RNA polymerase in plastids is still questionable. There is strong evidence for a sequential action of NEP and PEP enzymes during plant development attributing a prevailing role of NEP during early plant and plastid development, although NEP is present in mature chloroplasts. In the present paper, we have analysed two different NEP enzymes from spinach with respect to subcellular and intra-plastidial localization in mature chloroplasts with the help of specific antibodies. Results show the presence of the two different NEP enzymes in mature chloroplasts. Both enzymes are entirely membrane bound but, unlike previously thought, this membrane binding is not mediated via DNA. This finding indicates that NEP enzymes are not found as elongating transcription complexes on the template DNA in mature chloroplasts and raises the question of their function in mature chloroplasts. PMID:16421271

  1. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of (125I)cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species.

  2. Sound Source Localization for HRI Using FOC-Based Time Difference Feature and Spatial Grid Matching.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Hong

    2013-08-01

    In human-robot interaction (HRI), speech sound source localization (SSL) is a convenient and efficient way to obtain the relative position between a speaker and a robot. However, implementing a SSL system based on TDOA method encounters many problems, such as noise of real environments, the solution of nonlinear equations, switch between far field and near field. In this paper, fourth-order cumulant spectrum is derived, based on which a time delay estimation (TDE) algorithm that is available for speech signal and immune to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is proposed. Furthermore, time difference feature of sound source and its spatial distribution are analyzed, and a spatial grid matching (SGM) algorithm is proposed for localization step, which handles some problems that geometric positioning method faces effectively. Valid feature detection algorithm and a decision tree method are also suggested to improve localization performance and reduce computational complexity. Experiments are carried out in real environments on a mobile robot platform, in which thousands of sets of speech data with noise collected by four microphones are tested in 3D space. The effectiveness of our TDE method and SGM algorithm is verified. PMID:26502430

  3. Drug localization in different lung cancer phenotypes by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Marko-Varga, György; Fehniger, Thomas E; Rezeli, Melinda; Döme, Balázs; Laurell, Thomas; Végvári, Akos

    2011-06-10

    Lung cancer is a common cause of cancer mortality in the world, largely due to the risk factor of tobacco smoking. The drug therapy at the molecular level includes targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity by using inhibitors, such as erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa). The heterogeneity of disease phenotypes and the somatic mutations presented in patient populations have a great impact on the efficacy of treatments using targeted personalized medicine. In this study, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of erlotinib and gefitinib in three different lung cancer tumor phenotypes, using MALDI instrumentation in imaging mode, providing spatial localization of drugs without chemical labeling. Erlotinib and gefitinib were analyzed in i) planocellular lung carcinoma, ii) adenocarcinoma and iii) large cell lung carcinoma following their deposition on the tissue surfaces by piezo-dispensing, using a controlled procedure. The importance of high-resolution sampling was crucial in order to accurately localize the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors deposited in heterogeneous cancer tissue compartments. This is the first report on personalized drug characterization with localizations at a lateral resolution of 30μm, which allowed us to map these compounds at attomolar concentrations within the lung tumor tissue microenvironments. PMID:21440690

  4. Constrained Simulations of the Local Universe in Different Dark Matter Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Yepes, G.; Martinez-Vaquero, L. A.; Gottloeber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2009-04-17

    Constrained simulations of the Local Universe are an invaluable tool to investigate in detail the nature of dark matter particles. Thanks to them, we can simulate the formation of dark halos in environments pretty much like the one our Milky Way happened to live. A direct comparison with observations of our Local Universe can be made in this way, minimizing the effects of cosmic variance in the simulations. In this paper we present the results of a comparison of high-resolution simulated Local Group (LG) objects done in 3 different dark matter scenarios: The standard Cold Dark Matter and two Warm Dark Matter models with particles masses ranging from 3 to 1 keV, that are still compatible with high-redshift observations. We focus here on the study of substructures and mass profiles for the CDM and WDM LG objects and draw some conclusions about the limits on the mass of warm dark matter particles to be compatible with the most recently discovered Milky Way ultra-faint satellites.

  5. Cold perception and cutaneous microvascular response to local cooling at different cooling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Music, Mark; Finderle, Zarko; Cankar, Ksenija

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quantitatively measured cold perception (CP) thresholds on microcirculatory response to local cooling as measured by direct and indirect response of laser-Doppler (LD) flux during local cooling at different temperatures. The CP thresholds were measured in 18 healthy males using the Marstock method (thermode placed on the thenar). The direct (at the cooling site) and indirect (on contralateral hand) LD flux responses were recorded during immersion of the hand in a water bath at 20°C, 15°C, and 10°C. The cold perception threshold correlated (linear regression analysis, Pearson correlation) with the indirect LD flux response at cooling temperatures 20°C (r=0.782, p<0.01) and 15°C (r=0.605, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no correlation between the CP threshold and the indirect LD flux response during cooling in water at 10°C. The results demonstrate that during local cooling, depending on the cooling temperature used, cold perception threshold influences indirect LD flux response. PMID:21256855

  6. Spatiotemporal Pattern of Root Water Uptake for Locally Differing Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Abbas; Moradi, Ahmad B.; Oswald, Sascha

    2013-04-01

    replaces each, were applied as: no stress (control), %50 stress (water available for 50% of the lateral roots) and 75% stress (water available for 25% of lateral roots in old and young parts in two individual treatments). Two levels of transpiration demand in 5-day periods each were also applied, interrupted by five days of recovering in between. Daily changes in soil water content and root water uptake rate in each compartment have been monitored by neutron radiography four times a day as well as daily transpiration rates. The results show a high compensatory water uptake by the root segments in the wet parts under water stress. This root compensation increases significantly with increasing portion of the root system suffering water scarcity. ; While for low transpiration demand, there was not a significant difference in transpiration rate between 50% and 25% local water availability, for higher transpiration demand transpiration demand cannot be fully compensated when water is provided for the root system locally. In respect to root topology , root segments in the top with less distance to the shoot show higher rates of water uptake then those in the lower position while the difference in local root water uptake between old and young roots is not that high.

  7. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks. PMID:24682567

  8. Racial Differences in Diffusion of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cobran, Ewan K; Chen, Ronald C; Overman, Robert; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; O'Brien, Jonathon; Sturmer, Til; Sheets, Nathan C; Goldin, Gregg H; Penn, Dolly C; Godley, Paul A; Carpenter, William R

    2016-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), an innovative treatment option for prostate cancer, has rapidly diffused over the past decade. To inform our understanding of racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes, this study compared diffusion of IMRT in African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer patients during the early years of IMRT diffusion using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. A retrospective cohort of 947 AA and 10,028 CA patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer from 2002 through 2006, who were treated with either IMRT or non-IMRT as primary treatment within 1 year of diagnoses was constructed. Logistic regression was used to examine potential differences in diffusion of IMRT in AA and CA patients, while adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical covariates. A significantly smaller proportion of AA compared with CA patients received IMRT for localized prostate cancer (45% vs. 53%, p < .0001). Racial differences were apparent in multivariable analysis though did not achieve statistical significance, as time and factors associated with race (socioeconomic, geographic, and tumor related factors) explained the preponderance of variance in use of IMRT. Further research examining improved access to innovative cancer treatment and technologies is essential to reducing racial disparities in cancer care. PMID:25657192

  9. Local differences in parasitism and competition shape defensive investment in a polymorphic eusocial bee.

    PubMed

    Segers, Francisca H I D; von Zuben, Lucas; Grüter, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Many colonial animals rely for their defense on a soldier caste. Adaptive colony demography theory predicts that colonies should flexibly adjust the investment in different worker castes depending on the colony needs. For example, colonies should invest more in defensive workers (e.g., soldiers) in dangerous environments. However, evidence for this prediction has been mixed. We combined descriptive and experimental approaches to examine whether defensive investment and worker size are adjusted to local ecology in the only known bee with polymorphic workers, Tetragonisca angustula. Colonies of this species are defended by a morphologically specialized soldier caste. Our study included three populations that differed in the density of food competition and the occurrence of a parasitic robber bee. We found that colonies coexisting with robber bees had on average 43% more soldiers defending the nest entrance, while colonies facing stronger foraging competition had soldiers that were -6-7% smaller. We then experimentally relocated colonies to areas with different levels of competition. When released from intense food competition, body sizes of guards and foragers increased. After introducing chemical robber bee cues at nest entrances, we found both a short-term and a long-term up-regulation of the number of soldiers defending the colony. Active soldier numbers remained high after the experiment for a duration equivalent to 2-3 worker life spans. How information about past parasite threat is stored in the colony is currently unknown. In summary, T. angustula adjusts both the number and the body size of active soldiers to local ecological conditions. Competitor density also affects forager (or minor) size, an important colony trait with potential community ecological consequences. Our study supports adaptive colony demography theory in a eusocial bee and highlights the importance of colony threats and competition as selective forces shaping colony phenotype. PMID:27145616

  10. Responses of different ion species to fast plasma flows and local dipolarization in the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, S.; Nosé, M.; Miyashita, Y.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    2015-01-01

    investigate the responses of different ion species (H+, He+, He++, and O+) to fast plasma flows and local dipolarization in the plasma sheet in terms of energy density. We use energetic (9-210 keV) ion composition measurements made by the Geotail satellite at r = 10~31 RE. The results are summarized as follows: (1) whereas the O+-to-H+ ratio decreases with earthward flow velocity, it increases with tailward flow velocity with steeper Vx dependence for perpendicular flows than for parallel flows; (2) for fast earthward flows, the energy density of each ion species increases without any clear preference for heavy ions; (3) for fast tailward flows, the ion energy density initially increases, then it decreases to below the preceding levels except for O+; (4) the O+-to-H+ ratio does not increase through local dipolarization irrespective of dipolarization amplitude, background Bz, X distance, and Vx; (5) in general, the H+ and He++ ions behave similarly. Result (1) can be attributed to radial transport in the presence of the earthward gradient of the background O+-to-H+ ratio. Results (2) and (4) suggest that ion energization at local dipolarization is not mass dependent in the energy range of our interest because the ions are not magnetized irrespective of species. Result (3) can be attributed to the thinning of the plasma sheet and the preferable field-aligned escape of the H+ ions on the tailward side of the reconnection site. Result (5) suggests that the solar wind is the primary source of the high-energy H+ ions.

  11. Silicon and boron differ in their localization and loading in bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Pedro, Liliana D.; Watson, Abigail; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon and boron share many similarities, both chemically and biochemically, including having similar effects on bone, although their mechanisms of action are not known. Here we compared the loading of silicon and boron into bone, their localization and how they are influenced by age (growth & development), to obtain further clues as to the biological effects of these elements and, especially, to see if they behave the same or not. Bone samples were obtained from two different studies where female Sprague Dawley rats had been maintained on a normal maintenance diet for up to 43 weeks. Total bone elemental levels were determined by ICP-OES following microwave assisted acid digestion. Silicon and boron levels in the decalcified bones (i.e. the collagen fraction) were also investigated. Silicon and boron showed marked differences in loading and in their localization in bone. Highest silicon and lowest boron concentrations were found in the under-mineralized bone of younger rats and lowest silicon and highest boron concentrations were found in the fully mineralized bone of the adult rat. Overall, however total bone silicon content increased with age, as did boron content, the latter mirroring the increase in calcium (mineral) content of bone. However, whereas silicon showed equal distribution in the collagen and mineral fractions of bone, boron was exclusively localized in the mineral fraction. These findings confirm the reported association between silicon and collagen, especially at the early stages of bone mineralization, and show that boron is associated with the bone mineral but not connective tissues. These data suggest that silicon and boron have different biological roles and that one is unlikely, therefore, to substitute for the other, or at least boron would not substitute for Si in the connective tissues. Finally, we noted that silicon levels in the mineral fraction varied greatly between the two studies, suggesting that one or more nutritional factor

  12. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.

    PubMed

    Aibinu, Ibukun; Adenipekun, Tayo; Adelowotan, Toyin; Ogunsanya, Tolu; Odugbemi, Tolu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. The antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. The solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink, water, ethanol and fermented water from 3 days soaked milled maize known as "ekan-ogi" or "omidun" in the Yoruba dialect. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion. The clinical isolates used included Anaerobic facultative bacteria, namely: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25213, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Streptococcus faecalis, Citrobacter spp, Serratia spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Escherichia coli; Fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans; and Anaerobes which includes Bacteroides spp, Porphyromonas spp, and Clostridium spp. Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. The anaerobes and the gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32 mg/ml-128 g/ml. The activity against the fungi showed only the oil extract potent for A. niger, while Candida albicans was susceptible to all the extracts with MIC ranging from 256 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. The gram-negatives have MIC ranging from 64 mg/ml-512 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged between 32 mg/ml to 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. The oil and palm-wine extract of "epa-ijebu" showed greater activity than the other extracts. The killing rate of the schnapps extract on S. aureus and E. coli was 1 and 3.5 hours respectively. PMID:20162090

  13. Targeting capacity and conservation of PreP homologues localization in mitochondria of different species.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Nyosha; Berglund, Anna-Karin; Engmann, Tanja; Spånning, Erika; Vögtle, F-Nora; Pavlov, Pavel; Meisinger, Chris; Langer, Thomas; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2011-07-15

    Mitochondrial presequences and other unstructured peptides are degraded inside mitochondria by presequence proteases (PrePs) identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPreP), humans (hPreP), and yeast (Cym1/Mop112). The presequences of A. thaliana and human PreP are predicted to consist of 85 and 29 amino acids, respectively, whereas the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cym1/Mop112 presequence contains only 7 residues. These differences may explain the reported targeting of homologous proteins to different mitochondrial subcompartments. Here we have investigated the targeting capacity of the PreP homologues' presequences. We have produced fusion constructs containing N-terminal portions of AtPreP(1-125), hPreP(1-69), and Cym1(1-40) coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied their import into isolated plant, mammalian, and yeast mitochondria, followed by mitochondrial subfractionation. Whereas the AtPreP presequence has the capacity to target GFP into the mitochondrial matrix of all three species, the hPreP presequence only targets GFP to the matrix of mammalian and yeast mitochondria. The Cym1/Mop112 presequence has an overall much weaker targeting capacity and only ensures mitochondrial sorting in its host species yeast. Revisiting the submitochondrial localization of Cym1 revealed that endogenous Cym1/Mop112 is localized to the matrix space, as has been previously reported for the plant and human homologues. Moreover, complementation studies in yeast show that native AtPreP restores the growth phenotype of yeast cells lacking Cym1, demonstrating functional conservation. PMID:21621546

  14. Investigation of in-body path loss in different human subjects for localization of capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Ara, Perzila; Cheng, Shaokoon; Heimlich, Michael; Dutkiewicz, Eryk

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in capsule endoscopy have highlighted the need for accurate techniques to estimate the location of a capsule endoscope. A highly accurate location estimation of a capsule endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in the range of several millimeters is a challenging task. This is mainly because the radio-frequency signals encounter high loss and a highly dynamic channel propagation environment. Therefore, an accurate path-loss model is required for the development of accurate localization algorithms. This paper presents an in-body path-loss model for the human abdomen region at 2.4 GHz frequency. To develop the path-loss model, electromagnetic simulations using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method were carried out on two different anatomical human models. A mathematical expression for the path-loss model was proposed based on analysis of the measured loss at different capsule locations inside the small intestine. The proposed path-loss model is a good approximation to model in-body RF propagation, since the real measurements are quite infeasible for the capsule endoscopy subject. PMID:26737527

  15. Tolerance for local and global differences in the integration of shape information.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, J Edwin; Cribb, Serena J; Riddell, Hugh; Badcock, David R

    2015-01-01

    Shape is a critical cue to object identity. In psychophysical studies, radial frequency (RF) patterns, paths deformed from circular by a sinusoidal modulation of radius, have proved valuable stimuli for the demonstration of global integration of local shape information. Models of the mechanism of integration have focused on the periodicity in measures of curvature on the pattern, despite the fact that other properties covary. We show that patterns defined by rectified sinusoidal modulation also exhibit global integration and are indistinguishable from conventional RF patterns at their thresholds for detection, demonstrating some indifference to the modulating function. Further, irregular patterns incorporating four different frequencies of modulation are globally integrated, indicating that uniform periodicity is not critical. Irregular patterns can be handed in the sense that mirror images cannot be superimposed. We show that mirror images of the same irregular pattern could not be discriminated near their thresholds for detection. The same irregular pattern and a pattern with four cycles of a constant frequency of modulation completing 2π radians were, however, perfectly discriminated, demonstrating the existence of discrete representations of these patterns by which they are discriminated. It has previously been shown that RF patterns of different frequencies are perfectly discriminated but that patterns with the same frequency but different numbers of cycles of modulation were not. We conclude that such patterns are identified, near threshold, by the set of angles subtended at the center of the pattern by adjacent points of maximum convex curvature. PMID:25814547

  16. Sequence variation in ROP8 gene among Toxoplasma gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical localities.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Y; Chen, J; Lu, J; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution; it can cause serious diseases in humans and almost all other warm-blooded animals. Different genotypes of T. gondii result in different lesions in the same host. T. gondii rhoptry protein 8 (TgROP8) is a major factor of T. gondii acute virulence. We examined sequence variation in the TgROP8 gene among T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical localities. The TgROP8 gene was amplified from individual isolates and sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood based on the sequences obtained plus TgME49 from the ToxoDB database. The TgROP8 gene was 1728 bp in length for all the examined T. gondii strains, and their A+T contents were 45.37-45.95%. Sequence analysis detected 140 (0.06-5.56%) variable nucleotide positions resulting in 96 (0-10.78%) amino acid substitutions. Sequence variations in the TgROP8 gene resulted in polymorphic restriction sites for endonucleases BstBI, BsaI, and XhoI, which allowed the differentiation of the three classical genotype strains (types I, II, and III) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). However, phylogenetic analyses indicated that the TgROP8 gene is not a suitable genetic marker for population studies of T. gondii. PMID:26436382

  17. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  18. Local difference measures between complex networks for dynamical system model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Stefan; Donges, Jonathan F; Volkholz, Jan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A faithful modeling of real-world dynamical systems necessitates model evaluation. A recent promising methodological approach to this problem has been based on complex networks, which in turn have proven useful for the characterization of dynamical systems. In this context, we introduce three local network difference measures and demonstrate their capabilities in the field of climate modeling, where these measures facilitate a spatially explicit model evaluation.Building on a recent study by Feldhoff et al. [8] we comparatively analyze statistical and dynamical regional climate simulations of the South American monsoon system [corrected]. types of climate networks representing different aspects of rainfall dynamics are constructed from the modeled precipitation space-time series. Specifically, we define simple graphs based on positive as well as negative rank correlations between rainfall anomaly time series at different locations, and such based on spatial synchronizations of extreme rain events. An evaluation against respective networks built from daily satellite data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 V7 reveals far greater differences in model performance between network types for a fixed but arbitrary climate model than between climate models for a fixed but arbitrary network type. We identify two sources of uncertainty in this respect. Firstly, climate variability limits fidelity, particularly in the case of the extreme event network; and secondly, larger geographical link lengths render link misplacements more likely, most notably in the case of the anticorrelation network; both contributions are quantified using suitable ensembles of surrogate networks. Our model evaluation approach is applicable to any multidimensional dynamical system and especially our simple graph difference measures are highly versatile as the graphs to be compared may be constructed in whatever way required. Generalizations to directed as well as edge- and node

  19. Local Difference Measures between Complex Networks for Dynamical System Model Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Stefan; Donges, Jonathan F.; Volkholz, Jan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A faithful modeling of real-world dynamical systems necessitates model evaluation. A recent promising methodological approach to this problem has been based on complex networks, which in turn have proven useful for the characterization of dynamical systems. In this context, we introduce three local network difference measures and demonstrate their capabilities in the field of climate modeling, where these measures facilitate a spatially explicit model evaluation. Building on a recent study by Feldhoff et al. [1] we comparatively analyze statistical and dynamical regional climate simulations of the South American monsoon system. Three types of climate networks representing different aspects of rainfall dynamics are constructed from the modeled precipitation space-time series. Specifically, we define simple graphs based on positive as well as negative rank correlations between rainfall anomaly time series at different locations, and such based on spatial synchronizations of extreme rain events. An evaluation against respective networks built from daily satellite data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 V7 reveals far greater differences in model performance between network types for a fixed but arbitrary climate model than between climate models for a fixed but arbitrary network type. We identify two sources of uncertainty in this respect. Firstly, climate variability limits fidelity, particularly in the case of the extreme event network; and secondly, larger geographical link lengths render link misplacements more likely, most notably in the case of the anticorrelation network; both contributions are quantified using suitable ensembles of surrogate networks. Our model evaluation approach is applicable to any multidimensional dynamical system and especially our simple graph difference measures are highly versatile as the graphs to be compared may be constructed in whatever way required. Generalizations to directed as well as edge- and node

  20. Composite scheme using localized relaxation with non-standard finite difference method for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Raghurama Rao, S. V.

    2008-04-01

    Non-standard finite difference methods (NSFDM) introduced by Mickens [ Non-standard Finite Difference Models of Differential Equations, World Scientific, Singapore, 1994] are interesting alternatives to the traditional finite difference and finite volume methods. When applied to linear hyperbolic conservation laws, these methods reproduce exact solutions. In this paper, the NSFDM is first extended to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, by a novel utilization of the decoupled equations using characteristic variables. In the second part of this paper, the NSFDM is studied for its efficacy in application to nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws. The original NSFDMs introduced by Mickens (1994) were not in conservation form, which is an important feature in capturing discontinuities at the right locations. Mickens [Construction and analysis of a non-standard finite difference scheme for the Burgers-Fisher equations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 257 (4) (2002) 791-797] recently introduced a NSFDM in conservative form. This method captures the shock waves exactly, without any numerical dissipation. In this paper, this algorithm is tested for the case of expansion waves with sonic points and is found to generate unphysical expansion shocks. As a remedy to this defect, we use the strategy of composite schemes [R. Liska, B. Wendroff, Composite schemes for conservation laws, SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis 35 (6) (1998) 2250-2271] in which the accurate NSFDM is used as the basic scheme and localized relaxation NSFDM is used as the supporting scheme which acts like a filter. Relaxation schemes introduced by Jin and Xin [The relaxation schemes for systems of conservation laws in arbitrary space dimensions, Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics 48 (1995) 235-276] are based on relaxation systems which replace the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws by a semi-linear system with a stiff relaxation term. The relaxation parameter ( λ) is chosen locally

  1. Measurement of mechanical characteristics of tibial periosteum and evaluation of local differences.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, E; Yamakoshi, K; Sasaki, T

    1998-02-01

    Stress-strain relationships of bovine tibial periosteum, harvested from anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior aspects of tibia, were successfully measured using a newly developed experimental system. Results showed a curvilinear stress-strain pattern having three regions, i.e., toe, almost linear, and rupture regions, which resembled those of biological soft tissues like ligaments, skin, etc. Tensile moduli in the toe region (Ee) and in the linear region (Ec) were obtained by linear regressional analyses. These values and the tensile strength (sigma t) showed clear local differences. The values of Ee, Ec, and sigma t in the longitudinal direction in the metaphyseal regions where ligaments or connective tissues attach were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis, where muscles or connective tissues attach. However, these properties in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions with muscle attachments were almost the same. In the transverse direction, these properties in the anterior proximal metaphysis were approximately two times larger than those in the diaphysis and in the distal metaphysis. In the other regions, these properties appeared not to be significantly different. These results clearly demonstrate that the mechanical properties of periosteum are strongly influenced by the ligament and muscle attachments. PMID:9675685

  2. GLOBAL AND LOCAL MORPHOMETRIC DIFFERENCES IN RECENTLY ABSTINENT METHAMPHETAMINE-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Mitchell, Alex D.; Lahna, David L.; Luber, Hannah S.; Huckans, Marilyn S.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Hoffman, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits that may be related to macrostructural abnormalities. Quantitative anatomical comparisons between controls and methamphetamine-dependent individuals have produced conflicting results. We examined local and global differences in brain structure in 61 abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals and 44 controls with voxel-based morphometry and tissue segmentation. We related regional differences in gray matter density and whole brain segmentation volumes to performance on a behavioral measure of impulsivity and group membership using multiple linear regression. Within the MA group, we related cortical and subcortical gray matter density to MA use history, length of abstinence and age of first use. Controls had greater density relative to MA in bilateral insula and left middle frontal gyrus. Impulsivity was higher in the MA group and, within all subjects, impulsivity was positively correlated with gray matter density in posterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum and negatively correlated in left superior frontal gyrus. Length of abstinence from MA was associated with greater amygdalar density. Earlier age of first use of MA (in subjects who initiated use before age 21) was associated with smaller intracranial volume. The findings are consistent with multiple possible mechanisms including neuroadaptations due to addictive behavior, neuroinflammation as well as dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. PMID:20096794

  3. Far-field DOA estimation and source localization for different scenarios in a distributed sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Shadnaz

    Recent developments in the integrated circuits and wireless communications not only open up many possibilities but also introduce challenging issues for the collaborative processing of signals for source localization and beamforming in an energy-constrained distributed sensor network. In signal processing, various sensor array processing algorithms and concepts have been adopted, but must be further tailored to match the communication and computational constraints. Sometimes the constraints are such that none of the existing algorithms would be an efficient option for the defined problem and as the result; the necessity of developing a new algorithm becomes undeniable. In this dissertation, we present the theoretical and the practical issues of Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) estimation and source localization using the Approximate-Maximum-Likelihood (AML) algorithm for different scenarios. We first investigate a robust algorithm design for coherent source DOA estimation in a limited reverberant environment. Then, we provide a least-square (LS) solution for source localization based on our newly proposed virtual array model. In another scenario, we consider the determination of the location of a disturbance source which emits both wideband acoustic and seismic signals. We devise an enhanced AML algorithm to process the data collected at the acoustic sensors. For processing the seismic signals, two distinct algorithms are investigated to determine the DOAs. Then, we consider a basic algorithm for fusion of the results yielded by the acoustic and seismic arrays. We also investigate the theoretical and practical issues of DOA estimation in a three-dimensional (3D) scenario. We show that the performance of the proposed 3D AML algorithm converges to the Cramer-Rao Bound. We use the concept of an isotropic array to reduce the complexity of the proposed algorithm by advocating a decoupled 3D version. We also explore a modified version of the decoupled 3D AML algorithm which

  4. Differences among Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Does Support for the Local Teacher Union Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Although some school improvement literature has suggested that schools will improve when unions are removed from the school system, unions have rarely been isolated in the research. This study involved a mixed method case study approach to explore whether support of the local teacher union affected perceptions of school climate, as measured by the…

  5. Differences in hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase ubiquitination explain localized sensitivity to thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Werneck de Castro, Joao Pedro; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ueta, Cintia B.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Abdalla, Sherine; Wittmann, Gabor; Lechan, Ronald M.; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    The current treatment for patients with hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (L-T4) along with normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). However, normalization of serum TSH with L-T4 monotherapy results in relatively low serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and high serum thyroxine/T3 (T4/T3) ratio. In the hypothalamus-pituitary dyad as well as the rest of the brain, the majority of T3 present is generated locally by T4 deiodination via the type 2 deiodinase (D2); this pathway is self-limited by ubiquitination of D2 by the ubiquitin ligase WSB-1. Here, we determined that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination account for the high T4/T3 serum ratio in adult thyroidectomized (Tx) rats chronically implanted with subcutaneous L-T4 pellets. While L-T4 administration decreased whole-body D2-dependent T4 conversion to T3, D2 activity in the hypothalamus was only minimally affected by L-T4. In vivo studies in mice harboring an astrocyte-specific Wsb1 deletion as well as in vitro analysis of D2 ubiquitination driven by different tissue extracts indicated that D2 ubiquitination in the hypothalamus is relatively less. As a result, in contrast to other D2-expressing tissues, the hypothalamus is wired to have increased sensitivity to T4. These studies reveal that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination are an inherent property of the TRH/TSH feedback mechanism and indicate that only constant delivery of L-T4 and L-T3 fully normalizes T3-dependent metabolic markers and gene expression profiles in Tx rats. PMID:25555216

  6. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ∼ 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ∼8% from local to z ≲ 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub −6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ∼20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub −8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ≲ 1 (U)LIRGs is only ∼17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ∼ 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ∼30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  7. Evaluation of clip localization for different kilovoltage imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation setup

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, Andreas; Ng, Sook-Kien; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Jurgen; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2009-03-15

    Surgical clip localization and image quality were evaluated for different types of kilovoltage cone beam imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation (PBI) setup. These modalities included (i) clinically available radiographs and cone beam CT (CB-CT) and (ii) various alternative modalities based on partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. An anthropomorphic torso-breast phantom with surgical clips was used for the imaging studies. The torso phantom had artificial lungs, and the attached breast phantom was a mammographic phantom with realistic shape and tissue inhomogeneities. Three types of clips of variable size were used in two orthogonal orientations to assess their in-/cross-plane characteristics for image-guided setup of the torso-breast phantom in supine position. All studies were performed with the Varian on-board imaging (OBI, Varian) system. CT reconstructions were calculated with the standard Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm. First, the radiographs were studied for a wide range of viewing angles to characterize image quality for various types of body anatomy in the foreground/background of the clips. Next, image reconstruction quality was evaluated for partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. Since these modalities led to reconstructions with strong artifacts due to insufficient input data, a knowledge-based CT reconstruction method was also tested. In this method, the input data to the reconstruction algorithm were modified by combining complementary data sets selected from the treatment and reference projections. Different partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT scan types were studied depending on the total arc angle, angular increment between the consequent views (CT projections), orientation of the arc center with respect to the imaged breast and chest wall, and imaging field size. The central angles of the viewing arcs were either tangential or orthogonal to the chest wall. Several offset positions of the phantom with respect to the reference position were

  8. A Pulse-type Hardware Level Difference Detection Model Based on Sound Source Localization Mechanism in Barn Owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Tsubasa; Sekine, Yoshifumi

    Auditory information processing is very important in the darkness where vision information is extremely limited. Barn owls have excellent hearing information processing function. Barn owls can detect a sound source in the high accuracy of less than two degrees in both of the vertical and horizontal directions. When they perform the sound source localization, the barn owls use the interaural time difference for localization in the horizontal plane, and the interaural level difference for localization in the vertical plane. We are constructing the two-dimensional sound source localization model using pulse-type hardware neuron models based on sound source localization mechanism of barn owl for the purpose of the engineering application. In this paper, we propose a pulse-type hardware model for level difference detection based on sound source localization mechanism of barn owl. Firstly, we discuss the response characteristics of the mathematical model for level difference detection. Next we discuss the response characteristics of the hardware mode. As a result, we show clearly that this proposal model can be used as a sound source localization model of vertical direction.

  9. Local Dynamics of Chemical Kinetics at Different Phases of Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat

    2015-08-01

    The local dynamics of chemical kinetics at different phases of the nitriding process have been studied. The calculations are performed under the conditions where the temperature and composition data are provided experimentally from an in-service furnace. Results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It is shown that if it is available in the furnace, the adsorption of the N2 gas can seemingly start at temperatures as low as 200 °C. However, at such low temperatures, as the diffusion into the material is very unlikely, this results in the surface poisoning. It becomes clear that, contrary to common knowledge, the nitriding heat treatment with ammonia as a nitrogen-providing medium is possible at temperatures like 400 °C. Under these conditions, however, the presence of excess amounts of product gas N2 in the furnace atmosphere suppresses the forward kinetics in the nitriding process. It seems that the best operating point in the nitriding heat treatment is achieved with a mixture of 6% N2. When the major nitriding species NH3 is substituted by N2 and the N2 fraction increases above 30%, the rate of the forward reaction decreases drastically, so that there is no point to continue the furnace operation any further. Hence, during the initial heating phase, the N2 gas must be purged from the furnace to keep its fraction less than 30% before the furnace reaches the temperature where the reaction starts.

  10. Intercomparison of Different Types of Locally Prepared Concretes and Its Usability for Reactor Neutron Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kolaly, M. A.; Makarious, A. S.; Bashter, I. I.; Kansouh, W. A.

    Measurements have been carried out to study the attenuation of neutron from a horizontal channel of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The assessments of neutron distribution inside three different types of locally prepared concretes have been evaluated.Neutron intensities in ilmenite-limonite concrete shield show an exponential decrease with increasing concrete thickness. Ilmenite concrete is a good attenuator for thermal and intermediate neutrons. However, ordinary and ilmenite-limonite concretes show efficient shielding for fast neutrons.Translated AbstractVergleich verschiedener Zementarten hinsichtlich ihrer Brauchbarkeit zur Neutronenabschirmung von ReaktorenMessungen zur Untersuchung der Neutronenabschwächung in einem horizontalen Kanal eines ET-RR-1-Reaktors wurden durchgeführt. Die Charakteristika der Neutronenverteilung innerhalb dreier unterschiedlich zusammengesetzter Zemente wurden bestimmt. Die Neutronenintensität in einem Schild aus Ilmenite-Limonitezement zeigt einen exponentiellen Abfall mit wachsender Dicke. Ilmenitezement ist ein guter Schild für thermale und mittlere Neutronen. Normaler und Ilmenite-Limonitezement zeigen effektive Abschirmung bei schnellen Neutronen.

  11. Seasonal and Local Differences in Leaf Litter Flammability of Six Mediterranean Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauf, Zorica; Fangmeier, Andreas; Rosavec, Roman; Španjol, Željko

    2015-03-01

    One of the suggested management options for reducing fire danger is the selection of less flammable plant species. Nevertheless, vegetation flammability is both complex and dynamic, making identification of such species challenging. While large efforts have been made to connect plant traits to fire behavior, seasonal changes and within species variability of traits are often neglected. Currently, even the most sophisticated fire danger systems presume that intrinsic characteristics of leaf litter stay unchanged, and plant species flammability lists are often transferred from one area to another. In order to assess if these practices can be improved, we performed a study examining the relationship between morphological characteristics and flammability parameters of leaf litter, thereby taking into account seasonal and local variability. Litter from six Mediterranean tree species was sampled throughout the fire season from three different locations along a climate gradient. Samples were subjected to flammability testing involving an epiradiator operated at 400 °C surface temperature with 3 g sample weight. Specific leaf area, fuel moisture content, average area, and average mass of a single particle had significant influences on flammability parameters. Effects of sampling time and location were significant as well. Due to the standardized testing conditions, these effects could be attributed to changes in intrinsic characteristics of the material. As the aforementioned effects were inconsistent and species specific, these results may potentially limit the generalization of species flammability rankings. Further research is necessary in order to evaluate the importance of our findings for fire danger modeling.

  12. Different subcellular localization of muscarinic and serotonin (S2) receptors in human, dog, and rat brain.

    PubMed

    Luabeya, M K; Maloteaux, J M; De Roe, C; Trouet, A; Laduron, P M

    1986-02-01

    Cortex from rat, dog, and human brain was submitted to subcellular fractionation using an analytical approach consisting of a two-step procedure. First, fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation and were analyzed for their content of serotonin S2 and muscarinic receptors, serotonin uptake, and marker enzymes. Second, the cytoplasmic extracts were subfractionated by equilibration in sucrose density gradient. In human brain, serotonin and muscarinic receptors were found associated mostly with mitochondrial fractions which contain synaptosomes, whereas in rat brain they were concentrated mainly in the microsomal fractions. Density gradient centrifugation confirmed a more marked synaptosomal localization of receptors in human than in rat brain, the dog displaying an intermediate profile. In human brain, indeed, more receptor sites were found to be associated with the second peak characterized in electron microscopy by the largest number of nerve terminals. In addition, synaptosomes from human brain are denser than those from rat brain and some marker enzymes reveal different subcellular distribution in the three species. These data indicate that more receptors are of synaptosomal nature in human brain than in other species and this finding is compatible with a larger amount of synaptic contacts in human brain. PMID:2934515

  13. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    In this work we used an "in-diffusion" method to study the effects of pH, solution concentration and packing density on Cs diffusion by packing local Taiwan laterite (LTL) into modified capillary columns with 5mm diameter. These packed columns were first pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater (GW) for 3 weeks. The diffusion experiments were then carried out at ambient condition for 2 weeks. Our experimental results showed that the Cs diffusion profile fits Fick's second law very well in given experimental conditions, indicating the validity of modified capillary column method. Generally speaking, Cs diffusion in LTL decreases as the pH increases and as Cs concentration decreases. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D(a)) increases from 5.52 x 10(-12) (10(-7)M) to 2.18 x 10(-11) (10(-3)M)m(2)/s, while the effective diffusion coefficient (D(e)) shows slight variation as the Cs concentration changes. Both the derived D(a) and D(e) values decrease as the pH increases, implying that the diffusion mechanisms of Cs nuclide in alkaline and acid environment are different. In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. PMID:18321721

  14. Calcium current diversity in physiologically different local interneuron types of the antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Husch, Andreas; Paehler, Moritz; Fusca, Debora; Paeger, Lars; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2009-01-21

    Behavioral and physiological studies show that neuronal interactions among the glomeruli in the insect antennal lobe (AL) take place during the processing of odor information. These interactions are mediated by a complex network of inhibitory and excitatory local interneurons (LNs) that restructure the olfactory representation in the AL, thereby regulating the tuning profile of projection neurons. In Periplaneta americana, we characterized two LN types with distinctive physiological properties: (1) type I LNs that generated Na(+)-driven action potentials on odor stimulation and exhibited GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR) and (2) type II LNs, in which odor stimulation evoked depolarizations, but no Na(+)-driven action potentials (APs). Type II LNs did not express voltage-dependent transient Na(+) currents and accordingly would not trigger transmitter release by Na(+)-driven APs. Ninety percent of type II LNs did not exhibit GLIR. The distinct intrinsic firing properties were reflected in functional parameters of their voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)). Consistent with graded synaptic release, we found a shift in the voltage for half-maximal activation of I(Ca) to more hyperpolarized membrane potentials in the type II LNs. These marked physiological differences between the two LN types imply consequences for their computational capacity, synaptic output kinetics, and thus their function in the olfactory circuit. PMID:19158298

  15. Isolation and characterization of glutaminyl cyclases from Drosophila: evidence for enzyme forms with different subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Stephan; Lindner, Christiane; Koch, Birgit; Wermann, Michael; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; von Bohlen, Alex; Rudolph, Thomas; Reuter, Gunter; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-09-25

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) present in plants and vertebrates catalyze the formation of pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) from N-terminal glutamine. Pyroglutamyl hormones also identified in invertebrates imply the involvement of QC activity during their posttranslational maturation. Database mining led to the identification of two genes in Drosophila, which putatively encode QCs, CG32412 (DromeQC) and CG5976 (isoDromeQC). Analysis of their primary structure suggests different subcellular localizations. While DromeQC appeared to be secreted due to an N-terminal signal peptide, isoDromeQC contains either an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting or a secretion signal due to generation of different transcripts from gene CG5976. According to the prediction, homologous expression of the corresponding cDNAs in S2 cells revealed either secreted protein in the medium or intracellular QC activity. Subcellular fractionation and immunochemistry support export of isoDromeQC into the mitochondrion. For enzymatic characterization, DromeQC and isoDromeQC were expressed heterologously in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli, respectively. Compared to mammalian QCs, the specificity constants were about 1 order of magnitude lower for most of the analyzed substrates. The pH dependence of the specificity constant was similar for both enzymes, indicating the necessity of an unprotonated substrate amino group and two protonated groups of the enzyme, resulting in an asymmetric bell-shaped characteristic. The determination of the metal content of DromeQC revealed equimolar protein-bound zinc. These results prove conserved enzymatic mechanisms between QCs from invertebrates and mammals. Drosophila is the first organism for which isoenzymes of glutaminyl cyclase have been isolated. The identification of a mitochondrial QC points toward yet undiscovered physiological functions of these enzymes. PMID:17722885

  16. Evaluation of the thermal behaviour of different 'local climate zones' in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdonck, Marie-Leen; Demuzere, Matthias; Hooyberghs, Hans; Van Coillie, Frieke

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are one of the most important human habitats; already 50% of the world's population is living there and this percentage is expected to rise to 70% by 2050. Global warming and the increasing world population will only put more pressure on the living conditions in these habitats. From a thermal comfort point of view it is clear that there is a need for sustainable urban planning that integrates the thermal behaviour of these new developments. To develop sustainable urban planning it is key to know what the influence of a new development will be on the thermal behaviour of the city. Classifying the city according to the local climate zone (LCZ) scheme can provide insights in the thermal behaviour of a city. The WUDAPT LCZ classification framework makes it possible to do so in a spatially explicit manner. This study presents an evaluation of the thermal behaviour of LCZ in three different Belgian cities (Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent) based on modelled air and surface temperature. First LCZ maps were delineated for the three cities. The maps were built based on Landsat and high resolution LiDAR images conform to the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework. Meter- resolution LiDAR images provide useful information on building height and were used to improve the LCZ maps. An accuracy assessment stage was added to confirm the validity of the maps. Secondly, the LCZ maps were used as input data for the URBCLIM model to model air and surface temperature. With the modelling results we characterized the thermal behaviour of every LCZ. In a next step the results for the different cities are compared and the generic character of the WUDAPT LCZ classification framework is evaluated. The main incentive for this study is to investigate whether LCZ maps can be used to foresee the influence of future urban growth scenario's on the thermal comfort in cities in Belgium.

  17. Comparison of the microbial community structures of untreated wastewaters from different geographic locales.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Newton, Ryan J; Kelty, Catherine A; Huse, Susan M; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-05-01

    Microbial sewage communities consist of a combination of human fecal microorganisms and nonfecal microorganisms, which may be residents of urban sewer infrastructure or flowthrough originating from gray water or rainwater inputs. Together, these different microorganism sources form an identifiable community structure that may serve as a signature for sewage discharges and as candidates for alternative indicators specific for human fecal pollution. However, the structure and variability of this community across geographic space remains uncharacterized. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of the V6 region in 16S rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from 13 untreated sewage influent samples collected from a wide range of geographic locations in the United States. We obtained a total of 380,175 high-quality sequences for sequence-based clustering, taxonomic analyses, and profile comparisons. The sewage profile included a discernible core human fecal signature made up of several abundant taxonomic groups within Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. DNA sequences were also classified into fecal, sewage infrastructure (i.e., nonfecal), and transient groups based on data comparisons with fecal samples. Across all sewage samples, an estimated 12.1% of sequences were fecal in origin, while 81.4% were consistently associated with the sewage infrastructure. The composition of feces-derived operational taxonomic units remained congruent across all sewage samples regardless of geographic locale; however, the sewage infrastructure community composition varied among cities, with city latitude best explaining this variation. Together, these results suggest that untreated sewage microbial communities harbor a core group of fecal bacteria across geographically dispersed wastewater sewage lines and that ambient water quality indicators targeting these select core microorganisms may perform well across the United States. PMID:23435885

  18. Zooming into creativity: individual differences in attentional global-local biases are linked to creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Zmigrod, Leor; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    While recent studies have investigated how processes underlying human creativity are affected by particular visual-attentional states, we tested the impact of more stable attention-related preferences. These were assessed by means of Navon's global-local task, in which participants respond to the global or local features of large letters constructed from smaller letters. Three standard measures were derived from this task: the sizes of the global precedence effect, the global interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the global level on local processing), and the local interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the local level on global processing). These measures were correlated with performance in a convergent-thinking creativity task (the Remote Associates Task), a divergent-thinking creativity task (the Alternate Uses Task), and a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's matrices). Flexibility in divergent thinking was predicted by the local interference effect while convergent thinking was predicted by intelligence only. We conclude that a stronger attentional bias to visual information about the "bigger picture" promotes cognitive flexibility in searching for multiple solutions. PMID:26579030

  19. Zooming into creativity: individual differences in attentional global-local biases are linked to creative thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Zmigrod, Leor; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    While recent studies have investigated how processes underlying human creativity are affected by particular visual-attentional states, we tested the impact of more stable attention-related preferences. These were assessed by means of Navon’s global-local task, in which participants respond to the global or local features of large letters constructed from smaller letters. Three standard measures were derived from this task: the sizes of the global precedence effect, the global interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the global level on local processing), and the local interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the local level on global processing). These measures were correlated with performance in a convergent-thinking creativity task (the Remote Associates Task), a divergent-thinking creativity task (the Alternate Uses Task), and a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven’s matrices). Flexibility in divergent thinking was predicted by the local interference effect while convergent thinking was predicted by intelligence only. We conclude that a stronger attentional bias to visual information about the “bigger picture” promotes cognitive flexibility in searching for multiple solutions. PMID:26579030

  20. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically. PMID:17929084

  1. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  2. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process.

  3. Texture analysis of collagen second-harmonic generation images based on local difference local binary pattern and wavelets differentiates human skin abnormal scars from normal scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Guannan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for noninvasive diagnosis of scars are a challenging issue in medicine. This work aims to implement a texture analysis method for quantitatively discriminating abnormal scars from normal scars based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) images. A local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) operator combined with a wavelet transform was explored to extract diagnosis features from scar SHG images that were related to the alteration in collagen morphology. Based on the quantitative parameters including the homogeneity, directional and coarse features in SHG images, the scar collagen SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal scars by a support vector machine classifier in a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Our experiments and data analyses demonstrated apparent differences between normal and abnormal scars in terms of their morphological structure of collagen. By comparing with gray level co-occurrence matrix, wavelet transform, and combined basic local binary pattern and wavelet transform with respect to the accuracy and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the method proposed herein was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy and more reliable classification of SHG images. This result indicated that the extracted texture features with the proposed method were effective in the classification of scars. It could provide assistance for physicians in the diagnostic process. PMID:25611867

  4. Enterotoxemia in the goat: the humoral response and local tissue reaction following vaccination with two different bacterin-toxoids.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T E; Butler, D G; Bell, J A

    1983-04-01

    A vaccination trial involving 72 goats was designed to compare the epsilon antitoxin titres and local reactions at the injection sites, of two commercial enterotoxemia vaccines. Three dosage regimens were used for each vaccine (12 goats per group). Although no significant differences were noted in humoral immune response between the two vaccines (P = 0.05), one vaccine regime resulted in low titres (P = 0.05) on two occasions. Local tissue reactions at injection sites persisted for six months in 53% of the goats regardless of vaccine used or dosage administered. No immunological basis for the reported differences in vaccine efficacy between sheep and goats was observed in this trial. PMID:6309346

  5. What Difference Do Local Schools Make? A Literature Review and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salant, Priscilla; Waller, Anita

    This paper reviews the literature on the noneducational impacts of rural schools on their communities and provides an annotated bibliography of sources. Taken as a whole, the literature suggests that the school-community relationship is multifaceted. Community schools have positive economic impacts related to local employment, retail sales, and…

  6. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  7. AIRWAY RETENTION OF MATERIALS OF DIFFERENT SOLUBILITY FOLLOWING LOCAL INTRABRONCHIAL DEPOSITION IN DOGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a gamma camera to monitor the retention and clearance of radiolabeled human serum albumin (HSA), a water-soluble material with molecular weight of 66,000 Daltons, and radiolabeled sulfur colloid (SC), an insoluble submicron (0.22 microm) particle, following localized depo...

  8. Functional Hemispheric Differences for the Categorization of Global and Local Information in Naturalistic Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubner, Ronald; Studer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Up to now functional hemispheric asymmetries for global/local processing have mainly been investigated with hierarchical letters as stimuli. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to examine whether corresponding visual-field (VF) effects can also be obtained with more naturalistic stimuli. To this end, images of animals with a…

  9. Ecological drift and local exposures drive enteric bacterial community differences within species of Galápagos iguanas.

    PubMed

    Lankau, Emily W; Hong, Pei-Ying; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-04-01

    Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing between proximate heterospecific host populations suggests that contemporary local exposures also influence the gut community assembly. While selective forces such as host-bacterial interactions or dietary differences are dominant drivers of intestinal community differences among hosts, historical and contemporary processes of ecological drift may lead to differences in bacterial composition within a host species. Whether such differences in community structure translate into geographic variation in benefits derived from these intimate microbial communities remains to be explored. PMID:22369350

  10. Spatial repartition of local plastic processes in different creep regimes in a granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, A.; Darnige, T.; Crassous, J.; Clément, E.; Amon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Granular packings under constant shear stress display below the Coulomb limit a logarithmic creep dynamics. However, the addition of small stress modulations induces a linear creep regime characterized by an effective viscous response. Using Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, we investigate the relation between creep and local plastic events spatial distribution (“hot spots”) contributing to the plastic yield. The study is done in the two regimes, i.e. with and without mechanical activation. The hot-spot dynamics is related to the material effective fluidity. We show that far from the threshold, a local visco-elastic rheology coupled to an ageing of the fluidity parameter, is able to render the essential spatio-temporal features of the observed creep dynamics.

  11. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective toward a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates. PMID:25565953

  12. Spatial covariation of local abundance among different parasite species: the effect of shared hosts.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, C; Poulin, R

    2015-10-01

    Within any parasite species, abundance varies spatially, reaching higher values in certain localities than in others, presumably reflecting the local availability of host resources or the local suitability of habitat characteristics for free-living stages. In the absence of strong interactions between two species of helminths with complex life cycles, we might predict that the degree to which their abundances covary spatially is determined by their common resource requirements, i.e. how many host species they share throughout their life cycles. We test this prediction using five trematode species, all with a typical three-host cycle, from multiple lake sampling sites in New Zealand's South Island: Stegodexamene anguillae, Telogaster opisthorchis, Coitocaecum parvum, Maritrema poulini, and an Apatemon sp. Pairs of species from this set of five share the same host species at either one, two, or all three life cycle stages. Our results show that when two trematode species share the same host species at all three life stages, they show positive spatial covariation in abundance (of metacercarial and adult stages) across localities. When they share hosts at two life stages, they show positive spatial covariation in abundance in some cases but not others. Finally, if two trematode species share only one host species, at a single life stage, their abundances do not covary spatially. These findings indicate that the extent of resource sharing between parasite species can drive the spatial match-mismatch between their abundances, and thus influence their coevolutionary dynamics and the degree to which host populations suffer from additive or synergistic effects of multiple infections. PMID:26113509

  13. A safety and tolerability study of differently-charged nanoparticles for local pulmonary drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Harush-Frenkel, Oshrat; Bivas-Benita, Maytal; Nassar, Taher; Springer, Chaim; Sherman, Yoav; Avital, Avraham; Altschuler, Yoram; Borlak, Jurgen; Benita, Simon

    2010-07-15

    Nanoparticle (NP) based drug delivery systems provide promising opportunities in the treatment of lung diseases. Here we examined the safety and tolerability of pulmonary delivered NPs consisting of PEG-PLA as a function of particle surface charge. The rationale for such a comparison should be attributed to the differential pulmonary toxicity of positively and negatively charged PEG-PLA NP. Thus, the local and systemic effects of pulmonary administered NPs were investigated following 5 days of daily endotracheal instillation to BALB/c mice that were euthanized on the eighth or nineteenth day of the experiment. We collected bronchoalveolar lavages and studied hematological as well as histochemistry parameters. Notably, the cationic stearylamine based PEG-PLA NPs elicited increased local and systemic toxic effects both on the eighth and nineteenth day. In contrast, anionic NPs of similar size were much better tolerated with local inflammatory effects observed only on the eighth experimental day after pulmonary instillation. No systemic toxicity effect was observed although a moderate change was noted in the platelet count that was not considered to be of clinical significance. No pathological observations were detected in the internal organs following instillation of anionic NPs. Overall these observations suggest that anionic PEG-PLA NPs are useful pulmonary drug carriers that should be considered as a promising therapeutic drug delivery system.

  14. (Ir)reconcilable differences? Local reactions to provincial neoliberal educational reform.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Jean; Elliott, Danielle; Johnson, Joy

    2005-01-01

    In this case study, we explore the intersections of neoliberal educational reform and the everyday experiences of people living in a rural region in northern British Columbia, Canada. Reflecting on the provincial Ministry of Education's Strategic Plan, we explore one region's responses to a set of provincial promises, which include providing regional school districts with more autonomy and control over the delivery of education services and a mandate for a balanced budget. The region faced declining student enrolments and funding shortfalls. As a cost-saving measure, the local school district in the region launched a four-day school week. We used ethnographic fieldwork techniques to examine a set of local practices and consequences that arose following the implementation of this measure. The findings demonstrate how provincial promises of educational reform can conflict with local educational needs and create a set of problematic everyday realities with repercussions on youth health, amplifying health inequalities that are irreconcilable with the purported goals of advancing the interests of students and society. PMID:16161848

  15. From Paper to Forest: Local Motives for Participation in Different Conservation Initiatives. Case Studies in Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2015-09-01

    Under the assumption that local participation can contribute toward conservation, various policies have sought to increase the participation of local communities in conservation, but not always with success. Despite this failure, the drivers that explain local participation remain unclear and few studies have attempted to understand the motivations behind involvement (or lack of it) in different conservation initiatives and adopting the perspective of the local stakeholder. In this study, we analyze the motives behind the participation (or lack thereof) of local populations in three conservation schemes: Protected Areas, Areas Voluntary Devoted to Conservation, and areas under Payment for Environmental Services. The study, conducted in 6 communities of southeastern Mexico, comprises an ethnographic stage and the application of a survey exploring the motives for participation. Our results show similarities among the motives for participation in these three initiatives, predominantly the obligation to comply with acquired commitments and a desire to "care for the land". Results also show that 77 % of the people interviewed did not participate in any conservation initiatives, often due to the lack of mechanisms by which to participate. We conclude by questioning the feasibility of achieving local participation in conservation as currently proposed and for the aims that are outlined. PMID:25931299

  16. From Paper to Forest: Local Motives for Participation in Different Conservation Initiatives. Case Studies in Southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2015-09-01

    Under the assumption that local participation can contribute toward conservation, various policies have sought to increase the participation of local communities in conservation, but not always with success. Despite this failure, the drivers that explain local participation remain unclear and few studies have attempted to understand the motivations behind involvement (or lack of it) in different conservation initiatives and adopting the perspective of the local stakeholder. In this study, we analyze the motives behind the participation (or lack thereof) of local populations in three conservation schemes: Protected Areas, Areas Voluntary Devoted to Conservation, and areas under Payment for Environmental Services. The study, conducted in 6 communities of southeastern Mexico, comprises an ethnographic stage and the application of a survey exploring the motives for participation. Our results show similarities among the motives for participation in these three initiatives, predominantly the obligation to comply with acquired commitments and a desire to "care for the land". Results also show that 77 % of the people interviewed did not participate in any conservation initiatives, often due to the lack of mechanisms by which to participate. We conclude by questioning the feasibility of achieving local participation in conservation as currently proposed and for the aims that are outlined.

  17. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, A; Sardans, J; Hódar, J A; Garcia-Porta, J; Guenther, A; Oravec, M; Urban, O; Peñuelas, J

    2016-05-01

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at element and molecular levels have focused on the elemental composition or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defence metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and avoid those with higher levels of defence compounds. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, both local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under attack from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing relative concentrations of terpenes and some phenolics. Systemic responses differed between pine subspecies, and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Our results support the hypothesis that foliar nutrient concentrations are not a key factor for plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition, since folivory was not associated with any of the elements analysed. Phenolic compounds generally did not increase in the attacked trees, questioning the suggestion of induction of phenolics following folivory attack and the anti-feeding properties of phenolics. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, in both primary and secondary metabolism, which was less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Local pine responses were similar between pine subspecies, while systemic responses were more distant. PMID:26642818

  18. Robust and low complexity localization algorithm based on head-related impulse responses and interaural time difference.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinwang; Liang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a biologically inspired localization algorithm using two microphones, for a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm has two steps. First, the coarse azimuth angle of the sound source is estimated by cross-correlation algorithm based on interaural time difference. Then, the accurate azimuth angle is obtained by cross-channel algorithm based on head-related impulse responses. The proposed algorithm has lower computational complexity compared to the cross-channel algorithm. Experimental results illustrate that the localization performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the cross-correlation and cross-channel algorithms. PMID:23298016

  19. Comparisons of AM fungal spore communities with the same hosts but different soil chemistries over local and geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baoming; Bentivenga, Stephen P; Casper, Brenda B

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and ecologically important microbes in grasslands. Both the host plant species and soil properties have been suggested as potentially important factors structuring AM fungal communities based on studies within local field sites. However, characterizations of the communities in relation to both host plant identity and soil properties in natural plant communities across both local and broader geographic scales are rare. We examined the AM fungal spore communities associated with the same C(4) grasses in two Eastern serpentine grasslands, where soils have elevated heavy metals, and two Iowa tallgrass prairie sites. We compared AM fungal spore communities among host plants within each site, looked for correlations between fungal communities and local soil properties, and then compared communities among sites. Spore communities did not vary with host plant species or correlate with local soil chemical properties at any site. They did not differ between the two serpentine sites or between the two prairie sites, despite geographic separation, but they did differ between serpentine and prairie. Soil characteristics are suggested as a driving force because spore communities were strongly correlated with soil properties when data from all four sites are considered, but climatic differences might also play a role. PMID:21769630

  20. Chromosomal localization and molecular characterization of three different 5S ribosomal DNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Clemente, Ann Maria; Sisino, Giorgia; Barbieri, Rainer

    2007-09-01

    In this paper the chromosomal localization and molecular cloning and characterization of three 5S rDNA clusters of 700 bp (base pairs), 900 bp, and 950 bp in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus are reported. Southern blot hybridization demonstrated the existence of three 5S rDNA repeats of differing length in the P. lividus genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, performed in parallel on both haploid and diploid metaphases and interphase nuclei using different 5S rDNA units as probes, localized these 5S rDNA clusters in 3 different pairs of P. lividus chromosomes. This is the first complete gene mapping not only in a sea urchin but also in the phylum of echinoderms as a whole. PMID:17893727

  1. Coral Reef Disturbance and Recovery Dynamics Differ across Gradients of Localized Stressors in the Mariana Islands

    PubMed Central

    Houk, Peter; Benavente, David; Iguel, John; Johnson, Steven; Okano, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The individual contribution of natural disturbances, localized stressors, and environmental regimes upon longer-term reef dynamics remains poorly resolved for many locales despite its significance for management. This study examined coral reefs in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands across a 12-year period that included elevated Crown-of-Thorns Starfish densities (COTS) and tropical storms that were drivers of spatially-inconsistent disturbance and recovery patterns. At the island scale, disturbance impacts were highest on Saipan with reduced fish sizes, grazing urchins, and water quality, despite having a more favorable geological foundation for coral growth compared with Rota. However, individual drivers of reef dynamics were better quantified through site-level investigations that built upon island generalizations. While COTS densities were the strongest predictors of coral decline as expected, interactive terms that included wave exposure and size of the overall fish assemblages improved models (R2 and AIC values). Both wave exposure and fish size diminished disturbance impacts and had negative associations with COTS. However, contrasting findings emerged when examining net ecological change across the 12-year period. Wave exposure had a ubiquitous, positive influence upon the net change in favorable benthic substrates (i.e. corals and other heavily calcifying substrates, R2 = 0.17 for all reeftypes grouped), yet including interactive terms for herbivore size and grazing urchin densities, as well as stratifying by major reeftypes, substantially improved models (R2 = 0.21 to 0.89, lower AIC scores). Net changes in coral assemblages (i.e., coral ordination scores) were more sensitive to herbivore size or the water quality proxy acting independently (R2 = 0.28 to 0.44). We conclude that COTS densities were the strongest drivers of coral decline, however, net ecological change was most influenced by localized stressors, especially herbivore

  2. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

  3. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  4. Comparison of the Microbial Community Structures of Untreated Wastewaters from Different Geographic Locales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial sewage communities consist of a combination of human fecal microorganisms and nonfecal microorganisms, which may be residents of urban sewer infrastructure or flowthrough originating from gray water or rainwater inputs. Together, these different microorganism sources f...

  5. DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN UNTREATED WASTEWATER FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC LOCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial sewage communities consist of a combination of human faecal microorganisms and urban infrastructure-derived microbes originating from infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs. Together these different sources of microbial diversity form a unique population struc...

  6. Texton segregation by associated differences in global and local luminance distribution.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, H C

    1990-04-23

    Perceptual segregation of visual textures has been attributed to certain features ('textons') such as (elongated) blobs of given size and orientation, line crossings, and line ends. Differences in the spatial distribution of these features were assumed to be detected pre-attentively and to provide the instantaneous impression of segregating texture areas and of borders between them. This paper questions the validity of this general view and, in particular, the role of some of these features in texture discrimination. It is demonstrated that for some textons, perceptual segregation is independent of detection and discrimination of the texton itself. In addition, segregation can be strongly affected by positional or luminance jitter of texture elements or by other modifications that change the luminance distribution in the pattern but do not affect the supposed texton differences. From the textons reported in the literature, only differences in orientation were found to be fairly robust against such modifications. PMID:2163056

  7. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bertazzoni, Umberto; Turci, Marco; Avesani, Francesca; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Bidoia, Carlo; Romanelli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity. PMID:21994745

  8. Differences in peroxidase localization of rabbit peritoneal macrophages after surface adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Bodel, P. T.; Nichols, B. A.; Bainton, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike resident peritoneal macrophages, which contain peroxidase in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and perinuclear cisternae (PN), macrophages elicited into the rabbit peritoneal cavity by various stimulants lack the enzyme. Since we had previously found that such peroxidase reactivity rapidly appears in the RER and PN of blood monocytes after surface adherence in vitro, we wondered whether the enzyme could be similarly produced in elicited macrophages by adherence. Cells from peritoneal exudates (96 hours after endotoxin injection) were harvested, suspended in culture medium, and allowed to adhere to fibrin-coated or plastic surfaces. Following culture for various intervals, they were fixed, incubated for peroxidase, and examined by electron microscopy. We observed that these elicited cells, which initially contained no cytochemically detectable peroxidase, acquired peroxidatic activity in the RER and PN within 2 hours after adherence in culture. Thus macrophages, like blood monocytes, may rapidly acquire peroxidase reactivity as a consequence of plasma membrane: external surface interaction. In view of this finding, it would seem unwise to use peroxidase localization as the basis for advocating the existence of two separate lines of peritoneal macrophages, as has been proposed by previous investigators. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 PMID:645814

  9. Attention, Awareness of Contingencies, and Control in Spatial Localization: A Qualitative Difference Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Joaquin M. M.; Fiacconi, Chris; Milliken, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative difference method for distinguishing between aware and unaware processes was applied here to a spatial priming task. Participants were asked simply to locate a target stimulus that appeared in one of four locations, and this target stimulus was preceded by a prime in one of the same four locations. The prime location predicted the…

  10. Uterine Artery Embolization Combined with Local Methotrexate and Systemic Methotrexate for Treatment of Cesarean Scar Pregnancy with Different Ultrasonographic Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Fan; Wang Yu Chen Wei; Li Jiaping; Zhan Zhongping; Ye Yujin; Zhu, Yunxiao; Huang Jia; Xu Hanshi; Yang Xiuyan; Liang Liuqin; Yang Jianyong

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of systemic methotrexate (MTX) with uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with local MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with different ultrasonographic pattern, and to indicate the preferable therapy in CSP patients. Methods: The results of 21 CSP cases were reviewed. All subjects were initially administrated with systemic MTX (50 mg/m{sup 2} body surface area). UAE combined with local MTX was added to the patients who had failed systemic MTX. The transvaginal ultrasonography data were retrospectively assessed, and two different ultrasonographic patterns were found: surface implantation and deep implantation of amniotic sac. The management and its effectiveness for patients with the two ultrasonographic patterns were studied retrospectively. Ultrasound scan and serum {beta}-hCG were monitored during follow-up. Data were analyzed with the Student's t test. Results: Nine patients were successfully treated with systemic MTX. The remaining 12 cases were successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. According to the classification by Vial et al. of CSP on ultrasonography, most surface implanted CSPs (8/11, 72.7%) could be successfully treated with systemic MTX, whereas most deeply implanted CSPs (9/10, 90%) had failed systemic MTX but still could be successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. All patients recovered without severe side effects. Most patients with a future desire for reproduction achieved subsequent pregnancy. Conclusions: For CSP patients suitable for nonsurgical treatment, UAE combined with local MTX would be the superior option compared with systemic MTX in the cases with deep implantation of amniotic sac.

  11. Postoperative Radiotherapy After Surgical Resection of Thymoma: Differing Roles in Localized and Regional Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Forquer, Jeffrey A.; Rong Nan; Fakiris, Achilles J.; Loehrer, Patrick J.; Johnstone, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry data to determine the impact of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for thymoma and thymic carcinoma (T/TC). Methods and Materials: Patients with surgically resected localized (LOC) or regional (REG) malignant T/TC with or without PORT were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) by querying the SEER database from 1973-2005. Patients dying within the first 3 months after surgery were excluded. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses with Cox proportional hazards were performed. Results: A total of 901 T/TC patients were identified (275 with LOC disease and 626 with REG disease). For all patients with LOC disease, PORT had no benefit and may adversely impact the 5-year CSS rate (91% vs. 98%, p = 0.03). For patients with REG disease, the 5-year OS rate was significantly improved by adding PORT (76% vs. 66% for surgery alone, p = 0.01), but the 5-year CSS rate was no better (91% vs. 86%, p = 0.12). No benefit was noted for PORT in REG disease after extirpative surgery (defined as radical or total thymectomy). On multivariate OS and CSS analysis, stage and age were independently correlated with survival. For multivariate CSS analysis, the outcome of PORT is significantly better for REG disease than for LOC disease (hazard ratio, 0.167; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results from SEER show that PORT for T/TC had no advantage in patients with LOC disease (Masaoka Stage I), but a possible OS benefit of PORT in patients with REG disease (Masaoka Stage II-III) was found, especially after non-extirpative surgery. The role of PORT in T/TC needs further evaluation.

  12. Prediction of individual differences in risky behavior in young adults via variations in local brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Nasiriavanaki, Zahra; ArianNik, Mohsen; Abbassian, Abdolhosein; Mahmoudi, Elham; Roufigari, Neda; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the problem of how inter-individual differences play a role in risk-taking behavior has become a much debated issue. We investigated this problem based on the well-known balloon analog risk task (BART) in 48 healthy subjects in which participants inflate a virtual balloon opting for a higher score in the face of a riskier chance of the balloon explosion. In this study, based on a structural Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) technique we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between BART score and size of the gray matter volume in the anterior insula in riskier subjects. Although the anterior insula is among the candidate brain areas that were involved in the risk taking behavior in fMRI studies, here based on our structural data it is the only area that was significantly related to structural variation among different subjects. PMID:26500482

  13. Comparison of metal accumulation in mussels at different local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-02-01

    Cadmium and zinc uptake from the dissolved phase, assimilation efficiency (AE) from the dietary phase, and body burden as well as clearance rate were measured in green mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossulus. Perna viridis was collected from four sites differentially enriched with trace metals in Hong Kong and blue mussels were collected from different climatic zones, i.e., subarctic and temperate, to allow comparisons with the more tropical green mussels. Despite similar shell length, the dry weight of mussels varied significantly between sites and species and this had a large effect on Cd and Zn accumulation, clearance rate, and metal body burden. All data were, therefore, weight adjusted to allow comparison without this confounding factor. Trace-metal body concentrations were significantly different between sites, and P. viridis collected from Tsing Yi, Hong Kong, had the highest levels of all measured metals when compared with other Hong Kong sites. There was, however, no relationship between the degree of metal enrichment and the Cd and Zn uptake (both from dissolved and particulate sources) and clearance rates. Furthermore, Cd and Zn uptake (dissolved and particulate) and clearance rate varied little between species or climatic zones of collection. Thus, over the range of body trace-metal concentrations measured and between mussel species over large geographical distances and climatic zones, the uptake rates, AEs, and clearance rates are similar when measured under the same laboratory conditions after body-size correction. When other factors such as salinity are also corrected, biomonitoring data from different areas and even utilizing different mussel species may be directly comparable. This study therefore provides important evidence in support of Mussel Watch Programs. PMID:12558172

  14. Wenchuan Event Detection And Localization Using Waveform Correlation Coupled With Double Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinkard, M.; Heck, S.; Schaff, D. P.; Young, C. J.; Richards, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The well-studied Wenchuan aftershock sequence triggered by the May 12, 2008, Ms 8.0, mainshock offers an ideal test case for evaluating the effectiveness of using waveform correlation coupled with double difference relocation to detect and locate events in a large aftershock sequence. We use Sandia's SeisCorr detector to process 3 months of data recorded by permanent IRIS and temporary ASCENT stations using templates from events listed in a global catalog to find similar events in the raw data stream. Then we take the detections and relocate them using the double difference method. We explore both the performance that can be expected with using just a small number of stations, and, the benefits of reprocessing a well-studied sequence such as this one using waveform correlation to find even more events. We benchmark our results against previously published results describing relocations of regional catalog data. Before starting this project, we had examples where with just a few stations at far-regional distances, waveform correlation combined with double difference did and impressive job of detection and location events with precision at the few hundred and even tens of meters level.

  15. Localization by interaural time difference (ITD): Effects of interaural frequency mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Bonham, B.H.; Lewis, E.R.

    1999-07-01

    A commonly accepted physiological model for lateralization of low-frequency sounds by interaural time delay (ITD) stipulates that binaural comparison neurons receive input from frequency-matched channels from each ear. Here, the effects of hypothetical interaural frequency mismatches on this model are reported. For this study, the cat{close_quote}s auditory system peripheral to the binaural comparison neurons was represented by a neurophysiologically derived model, and binaural comparison neurons were represented by cross-correlators. The results of the study indicate that, for binaural comparison neurons receiving input from one cochlear channel from each ear, interaural CF mismatches may serve to either augment or diminish the effective difference in ipsilateral and contralateral axonal time delays from the periphery to the binaural comparison neuron. The magnitude of this increase or decrease in the effective time delay difference can be up to 400 {mu}s for CF mismatches of 0.2 octaves or less for binaural neurons with CFs between 250 Hz and 2.5 kHz. For binaural comparison neurons with nominal CFs near 500 Hz, the 25-{mu}s effective time delay difference caused by a 0.012-octave CF mismatch is equal to the ITD previously shown to be behaviorally sufficient for the cat to lateralize a low-frequency sound source. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  16. Putative Excitatory and Putative Inhibitory Inputs Localize to Different Dendritic Domains in a Drosophila Flight Motoneuron

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Claudia; Duch, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Input-output computations of individual neurons may be affected by the three-dimensional structure of their dendrites and by the targeting of input synapses to specific parts of their dendrites. However, only few examples exist where dendritic architecture can be related to behaviorally relevant computations of a neuron. By combining genetic, immunohistochemical, and confocal laser scanning methods this study estimates the location of the spike initiating zone and the dendritic distribution patterns of putative synaptic inputs on an individually identified Drosophila flight motorneuron, MN5. MN5 is a monopolar neuron with more than 4000 dendritic branches. The site of spike initiation was estimated by mapping sodium channel immunolabel onto geometric reconstructions of MN5. Maps of putative excitatory cholinergic and of putative inhibitory GABAergic inputs on MN5 dendrites were created by charting tagged Dα7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Rdl GABAA receptors onto MN5 dendritic surface reconstructions. Although these methods provided only an estimate of putative input synapse distributions, the data indicated that inhibitory and excitatory synapses were targeted preferentially to different dendritic domains of MN5, and thus, computed mostly separately. Most putative inhibitory inputs were close to spike initiation, which was consistent with sharp inhibition, as predicted previously based on recordings of motoneuron firing patterns during flight. By contrast, highest densities of putative excitatory inputs at more distant dendritic regions were consistent with the prediction that in response to different power demands during flight, tonic excitatory drive to flight motoneuron dendrites must be smoothly translated into different tonic firing frequencies. PMID:23279094

  17. Anderson localization for one-dimensional difference Schrödinger operator with quasiperiodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinai, Ya. G.

    1987-03-01

    The Schrödinger difference operator considered here has the form (H_\\varepsilon (α )ψ )(n) = - (ψ (n + 1) + ψ (n - 1)) + V(nω + α )ψ (n) where V is a C 2-periodic Morse function taking each value at not more than two points. It is shown that for sufficiently small ɛ the operator H ɛ(α) has for a.e. α a pure point spectrum. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially outside a finite set. The integrated density of states is an incomplete devil's staircase with infinitely many flat pieces.

  18. Localization of calmodulin in epidermis and skin glands: a comparative immunohistological investigation in different vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Wevers, A; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The study deals with the immunolocalization of calmodulin-reactive epithelial cells in different vertebrates (Tinca tinca, Ambystoma mexicanum, Xenopus laevis, Rana ridibunda, Columba domestica, Sus scrofa domestica, Homo sapiens sapiens). The immunoperoxidase technique was performed on acetone fixed frozen sections using monoclonal (BF8) and polyclonal (ACAM) anti-calmodulin antibodies. We were able to differentiate 2 major types of staining patterns: 1. A more superficial epidermal staining in species adapted to an aqueous environment and 2. a staining along the epidermal-dermal junction in species adapted to a terrestrial environment. It seems most likely that epithelial cells immunoreactive for calmodulin are involved in skin permeability control. PMID:1718122

  19. Chagas disease vector control through different intervention modalities in endemic localities of Paraguay.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas de Arias, A.; Ferro, E. A.; Ferreira, M. E.; Simancas, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    In a field study carried out in three rural communities in Paraguay in a zone endemic for Chagas disease, we implemented three different vector control interventions--spraying, housing improvement, and a combination of spraying plus housing improvement--which effectively reduced the triatomine infestation. The reduction of triatomine infestation was 100% (47/47) in the combined intervention community, whereas in the community where housing improvement was carried out it was 96.4% (53/55). In the community where fumigation alone was used, the impact was 97.6% (40/41) in terms of domiciliary infestation. In all the houses where an intervention was made, an 18-month follow-up showed reinfestation rates of less than 10%. A serological survey of the population in the pre- and post-intervention periods revealed a shift in positive cases towards older age groups, but no significant differences were observed. The rate of seroconversion was 1.3% (three new cases) in the community with housing improvement only, but none of these cases could have resulted from vector transmission. The most cost-effective intervention was insecticide spraying, which during a 21-month follow-up period had a high impact on triatomine infestation and cost US$ 29 per house as opposed to US$ 700 per house for housing improvement. PMID:10327712

  20. Effect of Different Levels of Localized Muscle Fatigue on Knee Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Gear, William S.

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key points A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion. A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue. A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found. Secondary

  1. [EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF LOCAL HEMOSTATIC MATERIALS BASED ON OXIDIZE CELLULOSE IN THE EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Tarkova, A R; Chernyavskiy, A M; Grigor'ev, I A; Morozov, S V; Rodionov, V I; Kravchenko, N I

    2015-01-01

    The bleeding of intraoperative period is one of the actual problem in surgery. There aren't any universal hemostatic means in spite of large variety of modern hemostatic methods. An experimental research studied the results of hemostatic activity of different forms of materials on the basis of oxidize cellulose (a gauze, a powder) as compared with their foreign analog (a hemostatic gauze "SurgiceI"). Median of hemostasis time consisted of (120 ± 59.9) and (73 ± 46.8) s, in case of application of gauze and powder preparations, respectively. The rate of group using the hemostatic gauze "Surgicel" was (142 ± 77.4) s. The authors made a conclusion on the basis of given research, that the hemostatic material based on oxidize cellulose (the powder form) showed a more expressed hemostatic activity and reliably twice reduced the time of hemostasis as compared with their analog forms of gauze (p < 0.05). PMID:27066660

  2. Localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for cochlear implant recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear.

    PubMed

    Gifford, René H; Grantham, D Wesley; Sheffield, Sterling W; Davis, Timothy J; Dwyer, Robert; Dorman, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate horizontal plane localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for 14 adult cochlear implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear. Localization to broadband noise was assessed in an anechoic chamber with a 33-loudspeaker array extending from -90 to +90°. Three listening conditions were tested including bilateral hearing aids, bimodal (implant + contralateral hearing aid) and best aided (implant + bilateral hearing aids). ITD thresholds were assessed, under headphones, for low-frequency stimuli including a 250-Hz tone and bandpass noise (100-900 Hz). Localization, in overall rms error, was significantly poorer in the bimodal condition (mean: 60.2°) as compared to both bilateral hearing aids (mean: 46.1°) and the best-aided condition (mean: 43.4°). ITD thresholds were assessed for the same 14 adult implant recipients as well as 5 normal-hearing adults. ITD thresholds were highly variable across the implant recipients ranging from the range of normal to ITDs not present in real-world listening environments (range: 43 to over 1600 μs). ITD thresholds were significantly correlated with localization, the degree of interaural asymmetry in low-frequency hearing, and the degree of hearing preservation related benefit in the speech reception threshold (SRT). These data suggest that implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear have access to binaural cues and that the sensitivity to ITDs is significantly correlated with localization and degree of preserved hearing in the implanted ear. PMID:24607490

  3. Ways of making-sense: Local gamma synchronization reveals differences between semantic processing induced by music and language.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Paulo; Chavez, Mario; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity. Similar results were observed after linguistic semantic violation except for gamma activity, which increased after semantic congruence between sentence-word pairs. Our findings indicate that local gamma activity is a neural marker that signals different ways of semantic processing between music and language, revealing the dynamic and self-organized nature of the semantic processing. PMID:26734990

  4. Integrating age information from different localities for stratigraphic marker beds: discussion of the Eltville Tephra age (Western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Zens, Joerg; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Stratigraphic marker beds are often used in geosciences for regional and global correlation. For various reasons dating those layers directly proves to be difficult sometimes. In such cases ages from above and below such a horizon represent minimum- and maximum-ages. If these ages are determined from more than one location, it is possible to combine these ages, test their consistency and finally derive an age in agreement with the findings from most localities. Several approaches to integrate the age information from different localities are discussed, resulting in combined ages consistent with both stratigraphy and most of the dating results. All approach rely on assumptions, most importantly the correctness of ages and their reported uncertainty. The Eltville Tephra originates from an unknown eruption in the Eifel volcanic field is an important maker bed in Rhine-Meuse Area nearby the boundary between the deposition of reworked and primary loess during the LGM (ca. 20 ka). The Eltville Tephra is usually imbedded in loess; dates from directly above and below come almost exclusively from luminescence dating. As different luminescence dating techniques were applied to samples over- and underlying the Eltville Tephra a systematic bias of the sum of these techniques seems unlikely, but may be present due to the fact that most ages are feldspar ages uncorrected for fading. The results of several statistical approaches to deal with ages from various localities are compared, and their chances and shortcomings using well understood artificial data are discussed. These are also used to obtain an integrated datum for the Eltville Tephra including a reproducible uncertainty. This has the potential to improve on existing dates for various other stratigraphic marker beds especially in the terrestrial realm, where often dates for (or around) correlative sediments are obtained from various localities.

  5. Factors affecting characterization and localization of interindividual differences in functional connectivity using MRI.

    PubMed

    Airan, Raag D; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Pillai, Jay J; Caffo, Brian; Pekar, James J; Sair, Haris I

    2016-05-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to quantifying anatomic and functional neuroimaging on the individual subject level. For optimal individual subject characterization, specific acquisition and analysis features need to be identified that maximize interindividual variability while concomitantly minimizing intra-subject variability. We delineate the effect of various acquisition parameters (length of acquisition, sampling frequency) and analysis methods (time course extraction, region of interest parcellation, and thresholding of connectivity-derived network graphs) on characterizing individual subject differentiation. We utilize a non-parametric statistical metric that quantifies the degree to which a parameter set allows this individual subject differentiation by both maximizing interindividual variance and minimizing intra-individual variance. We apply this metric to analysis of four publicly available test-retest resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data sets. We find that for the question of maximizing individual differentiation, (i) for increasing sampling, there is a relative tradeoff between increased sampling frequency and increased acquisition time; (ii) for the sizes of the interrogated data sets, only 3-4 min of acquisition time was sufficient to maximally differentiate each subject with an algorithm that utilized no a priori information regarding subject identification; and (iii) brain regions that most contribute to this individual subject characterization lie in the default mode, attention, and executive control networks. These findings may guide optimal rs-fMRI experiment design and may elucidate the neural bases for subject-to-subject differences. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1986-1997, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012314

  6. No difference in local structure about a Zn dopant for congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, F.; Mackeen, C.; Kovács, L.

    2016-07-01

    We compare extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data at the Zn K edge for a low concentration of Zn (0.7 mol%) in a stoichiometric crystal with that for higher Zn concentrations (nominally 5 and 9 mol%) in congruent LiNbO3 (LNO). Note that stoichiometric and congruent LNO have significantly different optical properties. We find no significant difference in the local structure about Zn out to 4 Å for the two types of crystals and different dopant levels. Although some earlier theoretical models suggest a self-compensation model with 75% of Zn on a Li site and 25% Zn on Nb, we find no clear evidence for a significant fraction of Zn on the Nb site, and estimate at most 2%-3% of Zn might be ZnN b.

  7. Robust Huber-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filtering with Application to Cooperative Localization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results. PMID:25536004

  8. Robust Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering with application to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results. PMID:25536004

  9. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  10. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  11. Characterization of two different Asf1 histone chaperones with distinct cellular localizations and functions in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Pascoalino, Bruno; Dindar, Gülcin; Vieira-da-Rocha, João P.; Machado, Carlos Renato; Janzen, Christian J.; Schenkman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The anti-silencing function protein 1 (Asf1) is a chaperone that forms a complex with histones H3 and H4 facilitating dimer deposition and removal from chromatin. Most eukaryotes possess two different Asf1 chaperones but their specific functions are still unknown. Trypanosomes, a group of early-diverged eukaryotes, also have two, but more divergent Asf1 paralogs than Asf1 of higher eukaryotes. To unravel possible different functions, we characterized the two Asf1 proteins in Trypanosoma brucei. Asf1A is mainly localized in the cytosol but translocates to the nucleus in S phase. In contrast, Asf1B is predominantly localized in the nucleus, as described for other organisms. Cytosolic Asf1 knockdown results in accumulation of cells in early S phase of the cell cycle, whereas nuclear Asf1 knockdown arrests cells in S/G2 phase. Overexpression of cytosolic Asf1 increases the levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation. In contrast to cytosolic Asf1, overexpression of nuclear Asf1 causes less pronounced growth defects in parasites exposed to genotoxic agents, prompting a function in chromatin remodeling in response to DNA damage. Only the cytosolic Asf1 interacts with recombinant H3/H4 dimers in vitro. These findings denote the early appearance in evolution of distinguishable functions for the two Asf1 chaperons in trypanosomes. PMID:24322299

  12. Responses of toad tadpoles to ammonium nitrate fertilizer and predatory stress: differences between populations on a local scale.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Lizana, Miguel; Marco, Adolfo

    2011-06-01

    Agriculture-related pollution is among the major causes of global amphibian population declines. The multiple stressors to which amphibians are exposed in the field, such as predation pressure, can make agrochemicals far more deadly than when they act in isolation. Even within a small area, diffuse agricultural pollution does not affect all aquatic environments equally, which could account for local differences in amphibian sensitivity to agrochemicals. We examined the combined effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0 to 45.2 mg N-NH 4(+)/L) and predator stress on larval Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes), using adult caged male marbled newts (Triturus marmoratus) as predators. We compared the interaction between both stressors in tadpoles from two ponds separated by 3 km. No significant mortality was observed (survival > 80% in all cases). Local differences were detected when analyzing larval growth, with a significant interaction between factors for one of the two populations tested (Fornillos de Fermoselle). Although tadpoles exposed to 45.2 mg N-NH 4(+)/L were 7% smaller than controls, the presence of predators from a foreign community resulted in animals 15% larger than those raised without predators after 15 d of experiment. Interestingly, predators from the same community as the tadpoles did not affect larval growth. The length of the tadpoles from a nearby location (Mámoles) was unaffected after exposure to ammonium nitrate and predatory stress. PMID:21384420

  13. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of An. pseudopunctipennis with that of An. argyritarsis could solve the question. Methods The two species were sampled throughout Bolivia to estimate their degree of co-existence in their distribution range. Vectorial efficiencies of the two species were compared in two ecologically different localities where the species were sympatric by analysing their vectorial capacities and components (i e, human biting rates, human biting index, survival, durations of the gonotrophic cycle and extrinsic cycle), and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during more than one year in the two localities. A monthly sample consisted in hourly captures in four houses (inside and outside) in each locality, during four consecutive nights. Climatic variables (temperature, humidity, potential evapo-transpiration and precipitations) were recorded to better understand variability in the entomological parameters. Relationships were analysed using multivariate methods. Results Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis are “altitude” species, sharing the same geographical distribution range in the Andes of Bolivia. No Plasmodium parasite was identified in An. argyritarsis and estimates of the vectorial capacity indicated that it is not a malaria vector in the two studied localities, unlike An. pseudopunctipennis which showed positive EIRs. This latter species, although not a very good malaria vector, exhibited better life traits values and better behavioural

  14. Large-Scale, Complex Shaped Coastline Responses to Different Forms of Local Shoreline Stabilization and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ells, K.; Murray, A. B.; Slott, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nowhere is the importance of research addressing the dynamics of coupled human-landscape processes more pronounced than on the world’s coasts, where human shoreline stabilization alters the natural evolution of the coastline on large spatial and temporal scales. Slott et al. (2010) extended a recently developed large-scale coastline evolution model to include the effects of beach ‘nourishment’ (importing sand into the nearshore system at a long term rate sufficient to counteract shoreline erosion) on a complex-shaped coastline, finding a surprising human signal over large (100s km) distances (Figure 1); even localized shoreline stabilization efforts, when maintained over decadal time scales, can significantly affect the regional pattern of coastline morphological adjustment in response to changing storm behaviors (Slott, et al., 2010). In this work, we examine the effects of shoreline-stabilization method that involve hard structures, such as sea walls and groyne fields. These methods differ significantly from beach nourishment in terms of large-scale impacts; they hold the shoreline location fixed without adding a flux of sediment into the system. Like beach nourishment, these human manipulations have widespread, significant effects on shoreline change rates, even when the manipulations only occur locally. However, the effects on large-scale coastline morphodynamics also exhibit interesting differences when compared to the beach nourishment case. References Slott, Jordan, A. B. Murray, Andrew Ashton, 2010. Large-Scale Responses of Complex-Shaped Coastlines to Local Shoreline Stabilization and Climate Change, Journal of Geophysical Research—Earth Surface. Figure 1. Evolution of a cuspate-cape shoreline in response to ongoing beach nourishment over 200 years, for six different site selections. a. Initial model shoreline, developed in response to a wave climate approximating recent conditions off of the Carolina coast, USA. b. The influence that beach

  15. Understanding differences in the local food environment across countries: A case study in Madrid (Spain) and Baltimore (USA).

    PubMed

    Díez, Julia; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Buczynski, Amanda; Lawrence, Robert S; Glass, Thomas; Escobar, Francisco; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Places where we buy food influence dietary patterns, making local food environments a good example of a mass influence on population diets. Cross-cultural studies, using reliable methods, may help understanding the relationship between food environments and diet-related health outcomes. We aimed to understand cross-national differences in the local food environment between Madrid and Baltimore by comparing an average neighborhood in each city in terms of food store types, healthy food availability, and residents' pedestrian access. During 2012-2013, we assessed one neighborhood (~15,000 residents) in each city selecting median areas in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (segregation, education, aging, and population density). We collected on-field data on (a) number and types of all food stores, (b) overall healthy food availability and (c) specific availability of fruits & vegetables. Throughout a street network analysis (200m, 400m and 800m) of food stores with high healthy food availability, we estimated residents' pedestrian accessibility. We found 40 stores in Madrid and 14 in Baltimore. Small food stores carrying fresh foods in Madrid contrasted with the high presence of corner and chain convenience stores in Baltimore. In Madrid, 77% of the residents lived within less than 200m from a food store with high healthy food availability. In contrast, 95% of Baltimore's residents lived further than 400m from these stores. Our results may help promoting interventions from local city agencies to allocate resources to existing small-sized food stores, and to improve walkable urban environments. These actions may influence food choices, especially for those residents lacking access to private vehicles. PMID:27311334

  16. Stable Collocated-grid Finite Difference Seismic Wave Modeling Using Discontinuous Grids with Locally Variable Time Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that they are oversampled in spatial grid spacing and temporal time step in the high speed medium if uniform grids are used for the numerical simulation. This oversampled grid spacing and time step will lower the efficiency of the calculation, especially high velocity contrast exists. Based on the collocated-grid finite-difference method (FDM), we present an algorithm of spatial discontinuous grid, with localized grid blocks and locally varying time steps, which will increase the efficiency of simulation of seismic wave propagation and earthquake strong ground motion. According to the velocity structure, we discretize the model into discontinuous grid blocks, and the time step of each block is determined according to the local stability. The key problem of the discontinuous grid method is the connection between grid blocks with different grid spacing. We use a transitional area overlapped by both of the finer and the coarser grids to deal with the problem. In the transitional area, the values of finer ghost points are obtained by interpolation from the coarser grid in space and time domain, while the values of coarser ghost points are obtained by downsampling from the finer grid. How to deal with coarser ghost points can influent the stability of long time simulation. After testing different downsampling methods and finally we choose the Gaussian filtering. Basically, 4th order Rung-Kutta scheme will be used for the time integral for our numerical method. For our discontinuous grid FDM, discontinuous time steps for the coarser and the finer grids will be used to increase the simulation efficiency. Numerical tests indicate that our method can provide a stable solution even for the long time simulation without any additional filtration for grid spacing ratio n=2. And for larger grid spacing ratio, Gaussian filtration could be used to preserve the stability. With the collocated-grid FDM, which is flexible and accurate in implementation of free

  17. Locally non-uniform finite-difference time domain with application to stealth, crosstalk, and narrow apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, D. J.

    1993-04-01

    A technique to integrate a dense, locally non-uniform mesh into finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) codes is presented. The method is designed for the full-wave analysis of multi-material layers that are physically thin, but perhaps electrically thick. Such layers are often used for the purpose of suppressing electromagnetic reflections from conducting surfaces. Throughout the non-uniform local mesh, average values for the conductivity and permittivity are used, where as variations in permeability are accommodated by splitting H-field line integrals and enforcing continuity of the normal B field. A unique interpolation scheme provides accuracy and late-time stability for mesh discontinuities as large as 1000 to 1. Application is made to resistive sheets, the absorbing Salisbury screen, crosstalk on printed circuit boards, and apertures that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to a uniform cell. Where appropriate, comparisons are made with the MoM code CARLOS and transmission-line theory. The hybrid mesh formulation has been highly optimized for both vector and parallel-processing on Cray Y-MP architectures.

  18. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zied, Osama K; Zahid, N Idayu; Khyasudeen, M Faisal; Giera, David S; Thimm, Julian C; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-01-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism. PMID:25731606

  19. Locally non-uniform finite-difference time domain with application to stealth, crosstalk, and narrow apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.

    1993-04-01

    A technique to integrate a dense, locally non-uniform mesh into finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) codes is presented. The method is designed for the full-wave analysis of multi-material layers that are physically thin, but perhaps electrically thick. Such layers are often used for the purpose of suppressing electromagnetic reflections from conducting surfaces. Throughout the non-uniform local mesh, average values for the conductivity and permittivity are used, where as variations in permeability are accommodated by splitting H-field line integrals and enforcing continuity of the normal B field. A unique interpolation scheme provides accuracy and late-time stability for mesh discontinuities as large as 1000 to 1. Application is made to resistive sheets, the absorbing Salisbury screen, crosstalk on printed circuit boards, and apertures that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to a uniform cell. Where appropriate, comparisons are made with the MoM code CARLOS and transmission-line theory. The hybrid mesh formulation has been highly optimized for both vector and parallel-processing on Cray YMP architectures.

  20. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; Zahid, N. Idayu; Khyasudeen, M. Faisal; Giera, David S.; Thimm, Julian C.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-01-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism. PMID:25731606

  1. Determination of the local contact potential difference of PTCDA on NaCl: a comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Burke, S A; LeDue, J M; Miyahara, Y; Topple, J M; Fostner, S; Grütter, P

    2009-07-01

    There has been increasing focus on the use of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for the determination of local electronic structure in recent years, especially in systems where other methods, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy, may be intractable. We have examined three methods for determining the local apparent contact potential difference (CPD): frequency modulation KPFM (FM-KPFM), amplitude modulation KPFM (AM-KPFM), and frequency shift-bias spectroscopy, on a test system of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on NaCl, an example of an organic semiconductor on a bulk insulating substrate. We will discuss the influence of the bias modulation on the apparent CPD measurement by FM-KPFM compared to the DC-bias spectroscopy method, and provide a comparison of AM-KPFM, AM-slope detection KPFM and FM-KPFM imaging resolution and accuracy. We will also discuss the distance dependence of the CPD as measured by FM-KPFM for both the PTCDA organic deposit and the NaCl substrate. PMID:19509452

  2. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; Zahid, N. Idayu; Khyasudeen, M. Faisal; Giera, David S.; Thimm, Julian C.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-03-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism.

  3. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Kristine; Verbeke, Joren; De Visscher, Anneleen; Piepers, Sofie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S. chromogenes IM) and a S. chromogenes strain isolated from a heifer's teat apex (S. chromogenes TA). Each heifer was inoculated in the mammary gland with 1.0 × 10(6) colony forming units of each bacterial strain (one strain per udder quarter), whereas the remaining quarter was infused with phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, the CNS evoked a mild local host response. The somatic cell count increased in all S. fleurettii-inoculated quarters, although the strain was eliminated within 12 h. The two S. chromogenes strains were shed in larger numbers for a longer period. Bacterial and somatic cell counts, as well as neutrophil responses, were higher after inoculation with S. chromogenes IM than with S. chromogenes TA. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response. PMID:27176792

  4. Local Outer Radiating Boundary Conditions for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method Applied to Maxwell's Equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steich, David James

    1995-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is a simple yet powerful method for numerically solving electromagnetic wave phenomenon on computers. The FDTD technique discretizes Maxwell's equations with finite difference equations. These finite difference equations, which approximate local field behavior, are applied to large spatial lattices allowing calculation of a vast array of electromagnetical phenomenon. The greatest strengths of the FDTD method are in its simplicity, efficiency, and diversity. FDTD is capable of modeling the scattering and coupling to lossy dielectrics, lossy magnetics, anisotropic media, dispersive media, and nonlinear materials for general geometric shapes. Wideband frequency information can be obtained using FDTD for both near and far field observation points in a single computational run. However, along with all of its benefits, the FDTD algorithm has some deficiencies. For most problems of interest, poor accuracy at geometry interfaces of differing media and at outer problem space boundarys where the spatial lattice must be truncated are the two largest error sources of the FDTD algorithm. Although most accuracy issues can be circumvented by expending large amounts of computer memory and cpu time, using excessive computer resources is not always possible and is never appealing. The purpose of this thesis is to generalize, analyze, and test various mainstream local Outer Radiating Boundary Conditions (ORBCs) for the FDTD method applied to Maxwell's equations in order to help gain a better understanding of present ORBC limitations. A common mathematical model is presented for the boundary conditions. Boundary conditions shown to fit the model include Mur, Superabsorption, Liao, Higdon, and Lindman ORBCs of varying orders. Simple operators are defined and then used to generate the final discretized equations for each of the boundary conditions, automatically, without requiring complicated high order equations. The procedure also allows

  5. Field-induced detrapping in doped organic semiconductors with Gaussian disorder and different carrier localizations on host and guest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheb, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Jungemann, C.

    2015-09-01

    For organic host-guest systems with a low fraction of guest sites, i.e., the trap-limited case, field-induced detrapping of charge carriers is studied via master equation calculations under the assumption of Miller-Abrahams rates and two Gaussian distributions of uncorrelated energy levels. Among existing descriptions of carrier redistributions in the presence of an electric field, the effective temperature derived by F. Jansson, S. D. Baranovskii, F. Gebhard, and R. Österbacka [Phys. Rev. B 77, 195211 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.195211] for pure host materials shows the best agreement with the simulation results. The detrapping description based on carrier heating is extended to the case that the two material-specific hopping rate parameters ν0 (attempt frequency) and α (decay constant or inverse localization length of charge carriers) are different for host and guest sites.

  6. Vector analysis of bending waveguides by using a modified finite-difference method in a local cylindrical coordinate system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinbiao; Sun, Xiaohan

    2012-09-10

    A vector mode solver for bending waveguides by using a modified finite-difference (FD) method is developed in a local cylindrical coordinate system, where the perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary conditions are incorporated. Utilizing Taylor series expansion technique and continuity condition of the longitudinal field components, a standard matrix eigenvalue equation without the averaged index approximation approach for dealing with the discrete points neighboring the dielectric interfaces is obtained. Complex effective indexes and field distributions of leaky modes for a typical rib bending waveguide and a silicon wire bend are presented, and solutions accord well with those from the film mode matching method, which shows the validity and utility of the established method. PMID:23037277

  7. Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine; Clasie, Benjamin; Kry, Stephen F.; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-01

    In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of Hp(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

  8. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III. PMID:27284224

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP-78 Mediates Endocytosis of Dentin Matrix Protein 1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Hao, Jianjun; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Blond, Sylvie; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a phosphorylated protein present in the mineral phase of both vertebrates and invertebrates, is a key regulatory protein during biogenic formation of mineral deposits. Previously we showed that DMP1 is localized in the nuclear compartment of preosteoblasts and preodontoblasts. In the nucleus DMP1 might play an important role in the regulation of genes that control osteoblast or odontoblast differentiation. Here, we show that cellular uptake of DMP1 occurs through endocytosis. Interestingly, this process is initiated by DMP1 binding to the glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) localized on the plasma membrane of preodontoblast cells. Binding of DMP1 to GRP-78 receptor was determined to be specific and saturable with a binding dissociation constant KD = 85 nm. We further depict a road map for the endocytosed DMP1 and demonstrate that the internalization is mediated primarily by caveolae and that the vesicles containing DMP1 are routed to the nucleus along microtubules. Immunohistochemical analysis and binding studies performed with biotin-labeled DMP1 confirm spatial co-localization of DMP1 and GRP-78 in the preodontoblasts of a developing mouse molar. Co-localization of DMP1 with GRP-78 was also observed in T4-4 preodontoblast cells, dental pulp stem cells, and primary preodontoblasts. By small interfering RNA techniques, we demonstrate that the receptor for DMP1 is GRP-78. Therefore, binding of DMP1 with GRP-78 receptor might be an important mechanism by which DMP1 is internalized and transported to the nucleus during bone and tooth development. PMID:18757373

  10. Mycobiota of biological soil crusts in the Negev desert, Israel - differences on a regional and local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkan, I.; Zaady, E.; Kidron, G.

    2012-04-01

    On a regional scale, we examined variations in microfungal communities inhabiting the biological soil crusts (BSC) and non-crusted soil of the northern and central Negev desert in 10 locations along a southward rainfall gradient (from 325 mm to 81 mm of annual rainfall). A total of 87 species from 49 genera were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. The mycobiota of BSC (80 species) was characterized by dominance of melanin-containing fungi, remarkable contribution of sexual Ascomycota, and low abundance of the typical soil genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. Morphological adaptations to the stressful desert environment were expressed in the prevalence of dark-colored microfungi with large, many-celled spores in the localities of the "drier" part of the rainfall gradient and in dark thick-walled fruit bodies of sexual ascomycetes. The abundance of melanin-containing species with multicellular spores was the only characteristic showed a highly significant (negative) correlation with the rainfall amount. We assume that the main factor influencing the content of these species was the latitudinal position of the locations, determining also the intensity of solar (UV) radiation. In the BSC communities, the xeric "desert" component (melanics, slow-reproducing fungi with large, thick-walled spores) was significantly more pronounced and the mesic "forest" component (Penicillium, fast-reproducing fungi with small, light-colored, and thin-walled spores) was much less represented than in the non-crusted shrub communities. In BSC, density of fungal isolates which can be considered an indirect characteristic of fungal biomass was significantly lower than in the non-crusted soil. Cluster analysis indicated that in most cases, the BSC and shrub localities, separated only by a few meters or less, differed on microfungal community structure much more significantly than BSC or shrub localities in the distance of tens of kilometers. The results of this analysis, together

  11. Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients

  12. Visual Search Targeting Either Local or Global Perceptual Processes Differs as a Function of Autistic-Like Traits in the Typically Developing Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Renita A.; Dickinson, J. Edwin; Maybery, Murray T.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Badcock, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Relative to low scorers, high scorers on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) show enhanced performance on the Embedded Figures Test and the Radial Frequency search task (RFST), which has been attributed to both enhanced local processing and differences in combining global percepts. We investigate the role of local and global processing further using…

  13. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; Bouwman, H; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H; Hofmann, D

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live specimens were compared between nestlings from two natural breeding colonies, adults from a wildlife area and birds held in captivity. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences between populations were detected in geometric means calculated for gamma-BHC (lindane), alpha(cis)-chlordane and alpha-endosulfan. Five of the organochlorine contaminants displayed significant variations between concentrations detected in the clotted blood, organs and muscles excised from vulture carcasses. This includes residues of gamma-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide. Values of the respective biocides measured in vulture samples were generally low in comparison to results documented for a number of avian species. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochloride pesticides, continual monitoring of especially breeding colonies is recommended. Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. PMID:11461840

  14. Correlation between International Normalized Ratio values and sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mohamed Zaghlool; Mourad, Samah I.; Salem, Ahmed S.; Abdelfadil, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) undergoing minor oral surgeries is controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and the sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in controlling postextraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty patients receiving Warfarin OAT were included in this study. Patients were selected so that 80 patients have INR values of ≤2, whereas the remaining patients have the INR values ranging from 2 to 3. Forty patients were then randomly selected from each category to form two equal groups. Forty-five patients who had never been on OAT were selected as a negative control group (group 1). Failure to achieve hemostasis using a pressure pack was managed using either tranexamic acid (group 2) or Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) (group 3). Results: The INR values of patients included in group 2 and 3 ranged from 1.5 to 3, with a mean of 2.2. No significant difference was recorded between the use of either tranexamic acid or ABS in achieving hemostasis in anticoagulated patients with INR values ranging between 2 and 3 (P = 0.93). Conclusion: Based on our findings, ABS is a hemostatic agent of good efficacy. The effect of ABS in controlling post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients with INR values ≤3 is comparable to tranexamic acid with no evidence to support the superiority of tranexamic acid over ABS. PMID:25512727

  15. Treatment of localized neuropathic pain of different etiologies with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster – a case series

    PubMed Central

    Likar, Rudolf; Demschar, Susanne; Kager, Ingo; Neuwersch, Stefan; Pipam, Wolfgang; Sittl, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of the topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in the treatment of localized neuropathic pain. Study design This was a case series at an Austrian pain clinic, using retrospective analysis. Patients and methods Data of 27 patients treated for localized neuropathic pain with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster were retrospectively analyzed. Assessment included changes in overall pain intensity, in intensity of different pain qualities, and of hyperalgesia and allodynia, and changes in sleep quality. Results Patients (17 female, ten male; mean age 53.4±11.4 years) presented mainly with dorsalgia (16 patients) or postoperative/posttraumatic pain (seven patients); one patient suffered from both. The mean overall pain intensity prior to treatment with lidocaine medicated plaster was 8.4±1.2 on the 11-point Likert scale. In the majority of cases, the lidocaine plaster was applied concomitantly with preexisting pain medication (81.5% of the patients). During the 6-month observation period, overall mean pain intensity was reduced by almost 5 points (4.98) to 3.5±2.6. Substantial reductions were also observed for neuralgiform pain (5 points from 7.9±2.6 at baseline) and burning pain (3 points from 5.2±4.1). Sleep quality improved from 4.6±2.6 at baseline to 5.5±1.8. Stratification by pain diagnosis showed marked improvements in overall pain intensity for patients with dorsalgia or postoperative/posttraumatic pain. The lidocaine plaster was well tolerated. Conclusion Overall, topical treatment with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster was associated with effective pain relief and was well tolerated. PMID:25565882

  16. Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N = 54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N = 14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p < 0.005) suggesting differences in implant performance. Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p = 0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p = 0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T

  17. Localized structures of the (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with different diffractions and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Li, Ji-Tao; Li, Shao-Feng; Liu, Quan-Tao

    2016-06-01

    We study a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with different diffractions and power-law nonlinearity in PT-symmetric potentials. Considering different PT-symmetric potentials, we obtain two kinds of analytical sech-type localized soliton solutions. From these solutions, we analytically discuss the powers and power-flow densities. Moreover, we study compression and expansion of localized structures in the periodic distributed amplification system.

  18. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T; Carlson, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia. PMID:27131647

  19. Differences in influence between pitched-from-vertical lines and slanted-from-frontal horizontal lines on egocentric localization.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Matin, L

    1995-01-01

    The visual field exerts powerful effects on egocentric spatial localization along both horizontal and vertical dimensions. Thus, (1) prism-produced visual pitch and visual slant generate similar mislocalizations of visually perceived eye level (VPEL) and visually perceived straight ahead (VPSA) and (2) in darkness curare-produced extraocular muscle paresis under eccentric gaze generates similar mislocalizations in VPEL and VPSA that are essentially eliminated by introducing a normal visual field. In the present experiments, however, a search for influences of real visual slant on VPSA to correspond to the influences of visual pitch on VPEL failed to find one. Although the elevation corresponding to VPEL changes linearly with the pitch of a visual field consisting of two isolated 66.5 degrees-long pitched-from-vertical lines, the corresponding manipulation of change in the slant of either a horizontal two-line or a horizontal four-line visual field on VPSA did not occur. The average slope of the VPEL-versus-pitch function across 5 subjects was +0.40 over a +/- 30 degrees pitch range, but was indistinguishable from 0.00 for the VPSA-versus-slant function over a +/- 30 degrees slant range. Possible contributions to the difference between susceptibility of VPEL and VPSA to visual influence from extraretinal eye position information, gravity, and several retinal gradients are discussed. PMID:7885809

  20. Spastin subcellular localization is regulated through usage of different translation start sites and active export from the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Claudiani, Pamela; Riano, Elena; Errico, Alessia; Andolfi, Gennaro; Rugarli, Elena I. . E-mail: rugarli@tigem.it

    2005-10-01

    Most cases of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia are linked to mutations in SPG4 encoding spastin, a protein involved in microtubule dynamics and membrane trafficking. In pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex and in immortalized motor neurons, spastin is localized to the synaptic terminals and growth cones. However, in other neurons and in proliferating cells spastin is prevalently nuclear. The mechanisms that determine targeting of spastin to the nucleus or the cytoplasm are unknown. We show here that the SPG4 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of two spastin isoforms, 68 and 60 kDa, respectively, through usage of two different translational start sites. Both isoforms are imported into the nucleus, but the 68-kDa isoform contains two nuclear export signals that efficiently drive export to the cytoplasm. Nuclear export is leptomycin-B sensitive. The cytoplasmic 68-kDa spastin isoform is more abundant in the brain and the spinal cord than in other tissues. Our data indicate that spastin function is modulated through usage of alternative translational start sites and active nuclear import and export, and open new perspectives for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  1. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  2. An efficient locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method based on the conformal scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Shi, Sheng-Bing; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    An efficient conformal locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (LOD-CFDTD) method is presented for solving two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic (EM) scattering problems. The formulation for the 2D transverse-electric (TE) case is presented and its stability property and numerical dispersion relationship are theoretically investigated. It is shown that the introduction of irregular grids will not damage the numerical stability. Instead of the staircasing approximation, the conformal scheme is only employed to model the curve boundaries, whereas the standard Yee grids are used for the remaining regions. As the irregular grids account for a very small percentage of the total space grids, the conformal scheme has little effect on the numerical dispersion. Moreover, the proposed method, which requires fewer arithmetic operations than the alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) CFDTD method, leads to a further reduction of the CPU time. With the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) boundary and the perfectly matched layer (PML), the radar cross section (RCS) of two 2D structures is calculated. The numerical examples verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007 and 61471105).

  3. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  4. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in peach fruit: potential role of two transporters localized in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Laura; Falchi, Rachele; Santi, Simonetta; Vizzotto, Giannina

    2015-06-01

    Several complex physiological processes, which include long-distance translocation in the phloem and unloading in sink tissues, govern the partitioning of sugars in economically important organs, such as peach fruit. In this study, we took advantage of a symplastic tracer, carboxyfluorescein (CF), providing evidence for an apoplastic sucrose transfer in the early (SI) and middle (SIII) phases of peach fruit development. Moreover, using a combination of in situ hybridization and laser microdissection-assisted expression analysis, three putative sucrose transporters encoding genes (PpSUT1, PpSUT2, PpSUT4) were transcriptionally analyzed to relate their expression with sucrose storage in this organ. Our study revealed that PpSUT2 and PpSUT4 are the genes predominantly expressed in fruit flesh, and the detailed analysis of their expression pattern in the different cell types enabled us to suggest a specialized role in sucrose distribution. Both PpSUTs transporters could be involved in the retrieval of sucrose lost from the symplastic continuum of the phloem and, when expressed in parenchyma cells, they could be active in the import of sucrose into sink tissues, via symport from the apoplast. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed and discussed for PpSUT4 because of its putative tonoplastic localization. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underpinning sucrose unloading and accumulation in peach fruit. PMID:25348206

  5. Comparative two- and three-dimensional analysis of nanoparticle localization in different cell types by Raman spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräutigam, Katharina; Bocklitz, Thomas; Silge, Anja; Dierker, Christian; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    The increasing production and application of engineered nanomaterials requires a detailed understanding of the potential toxicity of nanoparticles and their uptake in living cells and tissue. For that purpose, a highly sensitive and selective method for detecting single nonlabeled nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerations in cells and animal tissue is required. Here, we show that Raman microspectroscopy allows for the specific detection of TiO2 nanoparticles inside cultured NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The spatial position of TiO2 nanoparticles and in parallel the relative intracellular concentration and distribution of cellular constituents such as proteins or DNA residues were identified and displayed by construction of two- and three-dimensional Raman maps. The resulting Raman images reflected the significant differences in nanoparticle uptake and intracellular storage of fibroblasts and macrophages. Furthermore, TiO2 nanomaterials could be characterized and the presence of rutile- and anatase-phase TiO2 were determined inside cells. Together, the data shown here prove that Raman spectroscopic imaging is a promising technique for studying the interaction of nanomaterials with living cells and for differentiating intracellular nanoparticles from those localized on the cell membrane. The technology provides a label-free, non-destructive, material-specific analysis of whole cells with high spatial resolution, along with additional information on the current status of the material properties.

  6. Cloning, expression and localization of the Daphnia carinata transformer gene DcarTra during different reproductive stages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling; Lv, Weiwei; Huang, Youhui; Liu, Zhiquan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Yunlong

    2015-07-25

    In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Transformer (Tra) gene from the common freshwater species Daphnia carinata (DcarTra; GenBank accession no. KJ735445) was cloned using primers based on homologous sequences and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The relative expression and localization of DcarTra and the cellular abundance of the DcarTra protein during different sexual phases were subsequently investigated. The full-length DcarTra cDNA was 1620 bp with an ORF of 1143 bp encoding a 380 amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis identified closely related genes in Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and more distantly related genes in other insects. Quantitative PCR showed that DcarTra expression was highest in males, followed by sexual females, and lowest in parthenogenetic females. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that DcarTra was mainly expressed in the thoracic limbs, ovaries and rectum in parthenogenetic females, and in the joints of second antennae, ovaries, rectum and ventral processes in sexual females. Western blotting showed two differently phosphorylated forms of the Tra protein. When Tra is phosphorylated, DcarTra protein levels were much higher in males than in two females. Otherwise, when Tra is dephosphorylated, the highest Tra protein levels were in sexual females, which revealed that D. carinata can control the sexual transition via these two forms. Together these results suggest that DcarTra plays significant roles in the reproductive transformation of D. carinata and dephosphorylation of DcarTra may be the trigger for females to transform into males. PMID:25917617

  7. On the integral inversion of satellite-to-satellite velocity differences for local gravity field recovery: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshagh, Mehdi; Šprlák, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The gravity field can be recovered locally from the satellite-to-satellite velocity differences (VDs) between twin-satellites moving in the same orbit. To do so, three different integral formulae are derived in this paper to recover geoid height, radial component of gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance at sea level. Their kernel functions contain the product of two Legendre polynomials with different arguments. Such kernels are relatively complicated and it may be impossible to find their closed-forms. However, we could find the one related to recovering the geoid height from the VD data. The use of spectral forms of the kernels is possible and one does not have to generate them to very high degrees. The kernel functions are well-behaving meaning that they reduce the contribution of far-zone data and for example a cap margin of 7° is enough for recovering gravity anomalies. This means that the inversion area should be larger by 7° from all directions than the desired area to reduce the effect of spatial truncation error of the integral formula. Numerical studies using simulated data over Fennoscandia showed that when the distance between the twin-satellites is small, higher frequencies of the anomalies can be recovered from the VD data. In the ideal case of having short distance between the satellites flying at 250 km level, recovering radial component of gravity anomaly with an accuracy of 7 mGal is possible over Fennoscandia, if the VD data is contaminated only with the spatial truncation error, which is an ideal assumption. However, the problem is that the power of VD signal is very low when the satellites are close and it is very difficult to recognise the signal amongst the noise of the VD data. We also show that for a successful determination of gravity anomalies at sea level from an altitude of 250 km mean VDs with better accuracy than 0.01 mm/s are required. When coloured noise at this level is used for the VDs at 250 km with separation of 300 km, the

  8. A Monoclonal Antibody Specific for Candida albicans Als4 Demonstrates Overlapping Localization of Als Family Proteins on the Fungal Cell Surface and Highlights Differences between Als Localization in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, David A.; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Manfra-Maretta, Sandra L.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2011-01-01

    The Candida albicans ALS (agglutinin-like sequence) family encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins that function in adhesion of the fungus to host and abiotic surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for each Als protein were developed to study Als localization on the C. albicans surface. An anti-Als4 mAb demonstrated that Als4 covers the surface of yeast cells, with a greater abundance of Als4 on cells grown at 30°C compared to 37°C. On germ tubes, Als4 is localized in a restricted area proximal to the mother yeast. Immunolabeling with several anti-Als mAbs showed overlapping localization of Als1 and Als4 on yeast cells and Als1, Als3 and Als4 on germ tubes. Overlapping localization of Als proteins was also observed on yeast and hyphae recovered from mouse models of disseminated and oral candidiasis. Differences between Als localization in vivo and in vitro suggested changes in regulation of Als production in the host compared to the culture flask. Characterization with the anti-Als mAbs reveals the simultaneous presence and differences in relative abundance of Als proteins, creating an accurate image of Als representation and localization that can be used to guide conclusions regarding individual and collective Als protein function. PMID:22106872

  9. Achievement of local thermodynamic equilibrium for ns laser-induced plasmas on aluminium sample at different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud

    2014-11-01

    The Collisional-Radiative model CoRaM-Al is elaborated and implemented in a 0D numerical approach in the purpose of describing the formation of the plasma resulting from the interaction between a τ = 4 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse and an aluminium sample in vacuum. The influence of the four harmonics at 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm on the behavior of the nascent plasma is studied. In each case, the fluence is set equal to the threshold above which a phase explosion takes place (fluence of 7.7, 7.4, 6.8, 5.1 J cm-2 in order of increasing wavelength). The model takes into account free electrons and excited states of Al, Al+, Al2+ and Al3+. Both groups of particles are characterized by their translation temperature in thermal non-equilibrium. Besides, each population density is assumed to be in chemical non-equilibrium and to behave freely through the involved seven elementary processes (electron impact induced excitation and ionization, elastic collisions, multiphoton ionization, inverse laser Bremsstrahlung, direct thermal Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous emission). Atoms passing from the sample to the gas are described by considering classical vaporization phenomena (governed by the Hertz-Knudsen law) so that the surface temperature is limited to values less than the critical point (Tc = 6700 K). The relative role of the elementary processes is discussed and the time-evolution of the excitation of the species is analyzed for the four considered wavelengths. This study allows to determine the different excitation temperatures as well as their evolution in time. Thus the conditions required for the achievement of the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium can be precisely described.

  10. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = ‑ QN ‑ QH ‑ QG ‑ Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through

  11. Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions and Locality: The Impact of Different Teaching Approaches on the Ecological Affinity of Indonesian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusmawan, Udan; O'Toole, John Mitchell; Reynolds, Ruth; Bourke, Sid

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the interaction between teaching method and school locality in aligning student environmental beliefs, attitudes and intentions. Data for this study were collected from 236 adolescent upper secondary school students and chemistry teachers in Indonesia who were completing environmental topics from the local…

  12. Locally refined block-centred finite-difference groundwater models: Evaluation of parameter sensitivity and the consequences for inverse modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Models with local grid refinement, as often required in groundwater models, pose special problems for model calibration. This work investigates the calculation of sensitivities and the performance of regression methods using two existing and one new method of grid refinement. The existing local grid refinement methods considered are: (a) a variably spaced grid in which the grid spacing becomes smaller near the area of interest and larger where such detail is not needed, and (b) telescopic mesh refinement (TMR), which uses the hydraulic heads or fluxes of a regional model to provide the boundary conditions for a locally refined model. The new method has a feedback between the regional and local grids using shared nodes, and thereby, unlike the TMR methods, balances heads and fluxes at the interfacing boundary. Results for sensitivities are compared for the three methods and the effect of the accuracy of sensitivity calculations are evaluated by comparing inverse modelling results. For the cases tested, results indicate that the inaccuracies of the sensitivities calculated using the TMR approach can cause the inverse model to converge to an incorrect solution.

  13. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL. PMID:27478574

  14. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (p<0.05). The third objective compared the immune responses (hemagglutination-HA titers) and complement fixation (CF) titers in mature does of the two breeds to chicken red blood cells (c-RBC). The HA titers showed a significant seroconversion only in imported Saanen (p<0.05) but not in local does; however, the CF titers increased significantly at 4 weeks following priming with c-RBC in local (p<0.05) but not in the imported Saanen does. The impact of the differences in blood immune components and responses to antigens in the compared goats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed. PMID:21720787

  15. Rickettsia ‘In’ and ‘Out’: Two Different Localization Patterns of a Bacterial Symbiont in the Same Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Inbar, Moshe; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Mouton, Laurence; Hunter, Martha S.; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular symbionts of arthropods have diverse influences on their hosts, and their functions generally appear to be associated with their localization within the host. The effect of localization pattern on the role of a particular symbiont cannot normally be tested since the localization pattern within hosts is generally invariant. However, in Israel, the secondary symbiont Rickettsia is unusual in that it presents two distinct localization patterns throughout development and adulthood in its whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci (B biotype). In the “scattered” pattern, Rickettsia is localized throughout the whitefly hemocoel, excluding the bacteriocytes, where the obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and some other secondary symbionts are housed. In the “confined” pattern, Rickettsia is restricted to the bacteriocytes. We examined the effects of these patterns on Rickettsia densities, association with other symbionts (Portiera and Hamiltonella defensa inside the bacteriocytes) and on the potential for horizontal transmission to the parasitoid wasp, Eretmocerus mundus, while the wasp larvae are developing within the whitefly nymph. Sequences of four Rickettsia genes were found to be identical for both localization patterns, suggesting that they are closely related strains. However, real-time PCR analysis showed very different dynamics for the two localization types. On the first day post-adult emergence, Rickettsia densities were 21 times higher in the “confined” pattern vs. “scattered” pattern whiteflies. During adulthood, Rickettsia increased in density in the “scattered” pattern whiteflies until it reached the “confined” pattern Rickettsia density on day 21. No correlation between Rickettsia densities and Hamiltonella or Portiera densities were found for either localization pattern. Using FISH technique, we found Rickettsia in the gut of the parasitoid wasps only when they developed on whiteflies with the “scattered” pattern. The

  16. An implicit difference scheme for the long-time evolution of localized solutions of a generalized Boussinesq system

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.I.; Maugin, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear system of equations built up from a generalized Boussinesq equation coupled with a wave equation which is a model for the one-dimensional dynamics of phases in martensitic alloys. The strongly implicit scheme employing Newton`s quasilinearisation allows us to track the long time evolution of the localized solutions of the system. Two distinct classes of solutions are encountered for the pure Boussinesq equation. The first class consists of oscillatory pulses whose envelopes are localized waves. The second class consists of smoother solutions whose shapes are either heteroclinic (kinks) or homoclinic (bumps). The homoclinics decrease in amplitude with time while their support increases. An appropriate self-similar scaling is found analytically and confirmed by the direct numerical simulations to high accuracy. The rich phenomenology resulting from the coupling with the wave equation is also investigated. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Adaptation of Locally Available Portion Sizes for Food Frequency Questionnaires in Nutritional Epidemiological Studies: How Much Difference does it Make?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Verma, Sonika; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Nikhil; Puri, Seema; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. Methodology: The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site), Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml), medium (320 ml) and large (600 ml). The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. Results: The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local) portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. Conclusion: In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique. PMID:27385878

  18. Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks Using Tera-Scale Optical Core Devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot bemore » readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.« less

  19. A study of optical reflectance and localization modes of 1-D Fibonacci photonic quasicrystals using different graded dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study on the reflection properties of light through one-dimensional (1-D) quasi-periodic multilayer structures. The considered structures are as follows: F7, F8, F9, (F2)10, (F3)10 and some combinations such as: [(F2)10 (F7) (F2)10], [(F2)10 (F8) (F2)10], [(F3)10 (F7) (F3)10], [(F3)10 (F8) (F3)10], [(F2)10(F3)10], [(F2)10 (F7) (F3)10] and [(F2)10 (F8) (F3)10], where (Fj)n represents n period of the Fibonacci sequence of jth generation. These multilayer structures are considered of two types of layers. One type of layer is considered of graded material like normal, linear or exponential graded material, and the second type of layer is considered of constant refractive index material. Transfer matrix method is utilized to calculate the reflection spectra and localization modes of such structures in the frequency range 150-450 THz. This work would provide the basis of understanding of the effect of graded materials on the reflection and localization modes in Fibonacci photonic quasicrystal structures and obtained spectra can be used in the recognition of grading of materials. The considered heterostructures provide the broad reflection band and some localization modes in the calculated region.

  20. Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

  1. Are There Differences in Antibiotic Use Between the Recent-Immigrants from Mainland China and the Local-Born in Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    Wun, Yuk Tsan; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Ho, Pak Leung; Yung, Wai Hung Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Immigrants, especially the first-generation, were thought to have different knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) with antibiotics. Doctors often perceived extra pressure from them to prescribe antibiotics. To test these perceptions, we studied the difference in KAP with antibiotics between the recent-immigrants from mainland China and the local-born of Hong Kong-places with significantly different healthcare and socio-economic systems. Focus groups (including one specific group of recent-immigrants) with 56 participants and territory-wide telephone questionnaire survey with 2,471 randomly selected respondents. Recent-immigrants shared similar KAP with the local-born. After adjustment for age, sex and education, the main significant difference was the new-immigrants' behaviour of acquiring antibiotics without prescription and keeping the leftover. They, like the local-born, preferred doctors who prescribed antibiotics cautiously. Immigration status could be the surrogate for age, sex and education in the KAP with antibiotics. For antibiotic use, health education and patient care could be similar between the recent-immigrants and the local-born. PMID:24969039

  2. Same, same—but different: on the use of Navon derived measures of global/local processing in studies of face processing.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christian; Krumborg, Julie R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have reported a significant correlation between face discrimination/recognition ability and indexes of global/local processing derived from the Navon paradigm. Other studies, however, have failed to find such a relationship. In this paper we examine three aspects related to the Navon paradigm that may have contributed to this discrepancy but which have been largely neglected: (i) the use of different types of compound stimuli across studies, (ii) differences between studies in the type of index derived from the Navon paradigm, and (iii) the reliability of these indexes. In a Navon experiment comparing performance with compound letters and compound shapes in normal participants, we find little consistency both within and across participants in how they perform with these stimulus types, despite the fact that both stimulus types give rise to the typical effects. In addition we find that many of the Navon derived indexes of global/local effects used in studies examining face processing have low reliability and do not measure the same aspects of global/local processing. Echoing the results from the normal participants, we also find little consistency in how a congenital prosopagnosic performs in the Navon paradigm. With compound letters, she responds much faster to local than to global aspects of the stimuli; a pattern not seen in a single of the normal participants. With compound shapes, however, she exhibits no such abnormality. These findings question the validity of the conclusions in studies relating Navon derived indexes of global/local processing to face processing. PMID:25282198

  3. Interaction of colloidal nanoparticles with their local environment: the (ionic) nanoenvironment around nanoparticles is different from bulk and determines the physico-chemical properties of the nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Rehbock, Christoph; Hühn, Dominik; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; de Aberasturi, Dorleta Jimenez; Merk, Vivian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) are influenced by their local environment, as, in turn, the local environment influences the physico-chemical properties of the NPs. In other words, the local environment around NPs has a profound impact on the NPs, and it is different from bulk due to interaction with the NP surface. So far, this important effect has not been addressed in a comprehensive way in the literature. The vicinity of NPs can be sensitively influenced by local ions and ligands, with effects already occurring at extremely low concentrations. NPs in the Hückel regime are more sensitive to fluctuations in the ionic environment, because of a larger Debye length. The local ion concentration hereby affects the colloidal stability of the NPs, as it is different from bulk owing to Debye Hückel screening caused by the charge of the NPs. This can have subtle effects, now caused by the environment to the performance of the NP, such as for example a buffering effect caused by surface reaction on ultrapure ligand-free nanogold, a size quenching effect in the presence of specific ions and a significant impact on fluorophore-labelled NPs acting as ion sensors. Thus, the aim of this review is to clarify and give an unifying view of the complex interplay between the NP's surface with their nanoenvironment. PMID:24759541

  4. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given. PMID:24570055

  5. Studies of impurity occupation and local angular distortions for Cu2+ in CdS films at different concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Liang; Wu, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Xu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-02-01

    In order to clarify impurity occupation and local structures for Cu2+ in the CdS films, the g factors and hyperfine structure constants (HSCs) and their concentration dependences are theoretically studied from the perturbation calculations for both the cases of tetragonally compressed tetrahedral (TCT) and tetragonally elongated octahedral (TEO) 3d9 clusters. Despite similar g anisotropies g // > g ⊥ > 2, the calculated g factors and HSCs and their concentration dependences based on the TCT [CuS4]6- cluster show much better agreement with the experimental data than those based on the previously assigned TEO [CuS6]10- cluster. So, the g factors and HSCs can be ascribed to the substitutional TCT [CuS4]6- cluster on Cd2+ site, and the possibility of the previous assignment of interstitial TEO [CuS6]10- cluster may be tentatively excluded. In the TCT [CuS4]6- clusters, the local Cu2+-S2- bond angles θ related to C4 axis are found to be about 1.54° larger than the ideal value θ 0 (≈54.736°) of a regular tetrahedron owing to the Jahn-Teller effect. The magnitudes of g factors and HSCs demonstrate the overall increasing trends with increasing Cu2+ concentration, attributable to the decrease of covalency (increase of covalency factor N) and the increases of the angular deviation Δθ (=θ - θ 0) and the core polarization constant κ.

  6. Effect of local energy supply to a hypersonic flow on the drag of bodies with different nose bluntness

    SciTech Connect

    Borzov, V.Yu.; Rybka, I.V.; Yur`ev, A.S.

    1995-06-01

    Parameters of the axisymmetric flow around bodies with different bluntness are compared in the case of constant energy supply to the main hypersonic flow. Flow structures, drag coefficients, and expenditure of energy on overcoming drag are analyzed with the effect of thermal energy on the flow taken into account for different bodies with equal volume.

  7. Morphological variation of freshwater crabs Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) among localities from the middle Paraná River basin during different hydrological periods

    PubMed Central

    Torres, María Victoria; Collins, Pablo Agustín; Giri, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Measures of hydrologic connectivity have been used extensively to describe spatial connections in riverine landscapes. Hydrologic fluctuations constitute an important macrofactor that regulates other environmental variables and can explain the distribution and abundance of organisms. We analysed morphological variations among individuals of two freshwater crab species, Zilchiopsis collastinensis and Trichodactylus borellianus, from localities of the middle Paraná River basin during two phases of the local hydrological regime. Specimens were sampled at sites (localities) of Paraná River, Saladillo Stream, Salado River and Coronda River when water levels were falling and rising. The conductivity, pH, temperature and geographical coordinates were recorded at each site. The dorsal cephalothorax of each crab was represented using 16 landmarks for Zilchiopsis collastinensis and 14 landmarks for Trichodactylus borellianus. The Canonical Variate Analyses showed differences in shape (for both species) among the crabs collected from the Paraná and Salado Rivers during the two hydrologic phases. We did not find a general distribution pattern for shape among the crab localities. During falling water, the shapes of Zilchiopsis collastinensis were not related to latitude-longitude gradient (i.e., showing greater overlap in shape), while during rising water the shapes were ordered along a distributional gradient according to geographical location. Contrary, shapes of Trichodactylus borellianus were related to latitude-longitude during falling water and were not related to distributional gradient during rising water. The cephalothorax shape showed, in general, no statistically significant covariations with environmental variables for either species. These results show that each freshwater crab species, from different localities of the middle Paraná River, remain connected; however, these connections change throughout the hydrologic regime of the floodplain system

  8. Distinct tissue distributions and subcellular localizations of differently phosphorylated forms of the myosin regulatory light chain in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (myosin hereafter) has well-established roles in generating contractile force on actin filaments during morphogenetic processes in all metazoans. Myosin activation is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, encoded by spaghettisquash or sqh in Drosophila) first on Ser21 and subsequently on Thr20. These phosphorylation events are positively controlled by a variety of kinases including myosin light chain kinase, Rho kinase, citron kinase, and AMP kinase and are negatively regulated by myosin phosphatase. The activation of myosin is thus highly regulated and likely developmentally controlled. In order to monitor the activity of myosin during development, we have generated antibodies against the monophosphorylated (Sqh1P) and diphosphorylated (Sqh2P) forms of Sqh. We first show that the antibodies are highly specific. We then used these antibodies to monitor myosin activation in wild type Drosophila tissues. Interestingly, Sqh1P and Sqh2P show distinct patterns of expression in embryos. Sqh1P is expressed nearly ubiquitously and outlines cells consistent with a junctional localization, whereas Sqh2P is strongly expressed on the apical surfaces and in filopodia of tissues undergoing extensive cell shape change or cell movements including the invaginating fore- and hindgut, the invaginating tracheal system, the dorsal pouch and the dorsal most row of epidermal (DME) cells during dorsal closure. In imaginal discs, Sqh1P predominantly localizes in the adherens junction, whereas Sqh2P locates to the apical domain. These antibodies thus have the potential to be very useful in monitoring myosin activation for functional studies of morphogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:20920606

  9. Gender differences in the expression and cellular localization of lipin 1 in the hearts of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Romić, Snježana; Tepavčević, Snežana; Žakula, Zorica; Milosavljević, Tijana; Kostić, Milan; Petković, Marijana; Korićanac, Goran

    2014-07-01

    To give new insight to alterations of cardiac lipid metabolism accompanied by a fructose-rich diet (FRD), rats of both sexes were exposed to 10 % fructose in drinking water during 9 weeks. The protein level and subcellular localization of the main regulators of cardiac lipid metabolism, such as lipin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α), carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI), and CD36 were studied. Caloric intake in fructose-fed rats (FFR) of both sexes was increased. Circulating triacylglyceroles (TAG) and non-esterified fatty acids were increased in male FFR, while females increased visceral adiposity and blood TAG. Total expression of lipin 1 in cardiac cell lysate and its cytosolic and microsomal level were increased in the hearts of male FFR. PPARα and PGC-1α content were decreased in the nuclear extract. In addition, cardiac deposition of TAG in male FFR was elevated, as well as inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). In contrast, in female FFR, lipin 1 level was increased in nuclear extract only, while overall CPTI expression and phosphorylation of IRS-1 at serine 307 were decreased. The results of our study suggest that fructose diet causes gender-dependent alterations in cardiac lipid metabolism. Potentially detrimental effects of FRD seem to be limited to male rats. Most of the observed changes might be a consequence of elevated expression and altered localization of lipin 1. Increased inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1 is possible link between cardiac lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in FFR. PMID:24788483

  10. Modeling the Quality of Videos Displayed With Local Dimming Backlight at Different Peak White and Ambient Light Levels.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Claire; Sogaard, Jacob; Bech, Soren; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard; Forchhammer, Soren

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the impact of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness of a display) on the perceived quality of videos displayed using local backlight dimming. Two subjective tests providing quality evaluations are presented and analyzed. The analyses of variance show significant interactions of the factors peak white and ambient light with the perceived quality. Therefore, we proceed to predict the subjective quality grades with objective measures. The rendering of the frames on liquid crystal displays with light emitting diodes backlight at various ambient light and peak white levels is computed using a model of the display. Widely used objective quality metrics are applied based on the rendering models of the videos to predict the subjective evaluations. As these predictions are not satisfying, three machine learning methods are applied: partial least square regression, elastic net, and support vector regression. The elastic net method obtains the best prediction accuracy with a spearman rank order correlation coefficient of 0.71, and two features are identified as having a major influence on the visual quality. PMID:27295667

  11. Medicago truncatula and Glycine max: Different Drought Tolerance and Similar Local Response of the Root Nodule Proteome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Quintana, Erena; Lyon, David; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; González, Esther M

    2015-12-01

    Legume crops present important agronomical and environmental advantages mainly due to their capacity to reduce atmospheric N2 to ammonium via symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). This process is very sensitive to abiotic stresses such as drought, but the mechanism underlying this response is not fully understood. The goal of the current work is to compare the drought response of two legumes with high economic impact and research importance, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max, by characterizing their root nodule proteomes. Our results show that, although M. truncatula exhibits lower water potential values under drought conditions compared to G. max, SNF declined analogously in the two legumes. Both of their nodule proteomes are very similar, and comparable down-regulation responses in the diverse protein functional groups were identified (mainly proteins related to the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur). We suggest lipoxygenases and protein turnover as newly recognized players in SNF regulation. Partial drought conditions applied to a split-root system resulted in the local down-regulation of the entire proteome of drought-stressed nodules in both legumes. The high degree of similarity between both legume proteomes suggests that the vast amount of research conducted on M. truncatula could be applied to economically important legume crops, such as soybean. PMID:26503705

  12. Medicago truncatula and Glycine max: Different Drought Tolerance and Similar Local Response of the Root Nodule Proteome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Legume crops present important agronomical and environmental advantages mainly due to their capacity to reduce atmospheric N2 to ammonium via symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). This process is very sensitive to abiotic stresses such as drought, but the mechanism underlying this response is not fully understood. The goal of the current work is to compare the drought response of two legumes with high economic impact and research importance, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max, by characterizing their root nodule proteomes. Our results show that, although M. truncatula exhibits lower water potential values under drought conditions compared to G. max, SNF declined analogously in the two legumes. Both of their nodule proteomes are very similar, and comparable down-regulation responses in the diverse protein functional groups were identified (mainly proteins related to the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur). We suggest lipoxygenases and protein turnover as newly recognized players in SNF regulation. Partial drought conditions applied to a split-root system resulted in the local down-regulation of the entire proteome of drought-stressed nodules in both legumes. The high degree of similarity between both legume proteomes suggests that the vast amount of research conducted on M. truncatula could be applied to economically important legume crops, such as soybean. PMID:26503705

  13. Pedestal and edge localized mode characteristics with different first wall materials and nitrogen seeding in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P. A.; Barrera Orte, L.; Burckhart, A.; Dunne, M. G.; Fuchs, C.; Gude, A.; Kurzan, B.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) discharges performed with carbon and the full tungsten wall shows that the pedestal performance at low triangularity is not altered without gas puffing. The pedestal electron pressure is the same for both wall materials as is the confinement. With the tungsten wall the natural density is higher even without an additional gas puff. In typical operation with gas puffing the density is again higher in tungsten. This results in a higher collisionality with the tungsten wall. Pedestal pressure and plasma confinement, however, are not degraded until very large amounts of deuterium are puffed. The edge localized mode (ELM) crash in typical AUG discharges is observed to be composed of two independent phases. This is observed for both the carbon and the tungsten wall. The 1st phase of the crash is unaffected by scans of the plasma parameters as long as the pedestal pressure remains constant. The duration of the 2nd phase is strongly anti-correlated with the separatrix density and can be suppressed by the application of nitrogen seeding for divertor cooling. A consistent explanation for the two phases of the ELM crash does not seem possible when considering only the pre-ELM pedestal profiles. The scrape off layer (SOL) plasma provides the necessary free parameter for a consistent explanation, indicating the importance of the SOL in understanding the ELM crash evolution.

  14. Genome-wide localization analysis of a complete set of Tafs reveals a specific effect of the taf1 mutation on Taf2 occupancy and provides indirect evidence for different TFIID conformations at different promoters.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Kazushige; Kasahara, Koji; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2010-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TFIID and SAGA principally mediate transcription of constitutive housekeeping genes and stress-inducible genes, respectively, by delivering TBP to the core promoter. Both are multi-protein complexes composed of 15 and 20 subunits, respectively, five of which are common and which may constitute a core sub-module in each complex. Although genome-wide gene expression studies have been conducted extensively in several TFIID and/or SAGA mutants, there are only a limited number of studies investigating genome-wide localization of the components of these two complexes. Specifically, there are no previous reports on localization of a complete set of Tafs and the effects of taf mutations on localization. Here, we examine the localization profiles of a complete set of Tafs, Gcn5, Bur6/Ncb2, Sua7, Tfa2, Tfg1, Tfb3 and Rpb1, on chromosomes III, IV and V by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip analysis in wild-type and taf1-T657K mutant strains. In addition, we conducted conventional and sequential ChIP analysis of several ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) and non-RPGs. Intriguingly, the results revealed a novel relationship between TFIIB and NC2, simultaneous co-localization of SAGA and TFIID on RPG promoters, specific effects of taf1 mutation on Taf2 occupancy, and an indirect evidence for the existence of different TFIID conformations. PMID:20026583

  15. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of rare events: a different look at local structure and chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Glatzel, Pieter; Robblee, John H.; Messinger, Johannes; Fernandez, Carmen; Cinco, Roehl; Visser, Henk; McFarlane, Karen; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Pizarro, Shelly; Sauer, Kenneth; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Klein, Melvin P.; Cox, Billie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of large-acceptance high-resolution X-ray optics with bright synchrotron sources permits quantitative analysis of rare events such as X-ray fluorescence from very dilute systems, weak fluorescence transitions or X-ray Raman scattering. Transition-metal Kβ fluorescence contains information about spin and oxidation state; examples of the characterization of the Mn oxidation states in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and Mn-consuming spores from the marine bacillus SG-1 are presented. Weaker features of the Kβ spectrum resulting from valence-level and ‘interatomic’ ligand to metal transitions contain detailed information on the ligand-atom type, distance and orientation. Applications of this spectral region to characterize the local structure of model compounds are presented. X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) is an extremely rare event, but also represents a unique technique to obtain bulk-sensitive low-energy (<600 eV) X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra using hard (~10 keV) X-rays. A photon is inelastically scattered, losing part of its energy to promote an electron into an unoccupied level. In many cases, the cross section is proportional to that of the corresponding absorption process yielding the same X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) features. XRS finds application for systems that defy XAFS analysis at low energies, e.g. liquids or highly concentrated complex systems, reactive compounds and samples under extreme conditions (pressure, temperature). Recent results are discussed. PMID:11512725

  16. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, A A

    2014-11-01

    The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher α-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad α-band 8-14 Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of α-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean α-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n=14, r=0.55, P=0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger α-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that α-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD. PMID:24514569

  17. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chuan; Yun, Chun-Ho; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Yang, Fei-Shih; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-01-01

    Background The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown. Methods and Results We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF) and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT) using dedicated computed tomography (CT) software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA), with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI) and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG), including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women), we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p<0.001). These associations became attenuated after accounting for BMI and baseline clinical co-variates, with greater PCF remained independently associated with prolonged QRS duration (β = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.52, 1.31] per 1-SD increase in PCF, p<0.001). Finally, both PCF and TAT showed incremental value in identifying abnormally high PR interval (>200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT) and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05) when superimposed on age and BMI. Conclusion We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect. PMID:27391045

  18. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  19. Localized Electrical Impedance Myography of the Biceps Brachii Muscle during Different Levels of Isometric Contraction and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Shin, Henry; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed changes in electrical impedance myography (EIM) at different levels of isometric muscle contraction as well as during exhaustive exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. The EIM was performed on the biceps brachii muscle of 19 healthy subjects. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the muscle resistance (R) measured during the isometric contraction and when the muscle was completely relaxed. Post hoc analysis shows that the resistance increased at higher contractions (both 60% MVC and MVC), however, there were no significant changes in muscle reactance (X) during the isometric contractions. The resistance also changed during different stages of the fatigue task and there were significant decreases from the beginning of the contraction to task failure as well as between task failure and post fatigue rest. Although our results demonstrated an increase in resistance during isometric contraction, the changes were within 10% of the baseline value. These changes might be related to the modest alterations in muscle architecture during a contraction. The decrease in resistance seen with muscle fatigue may be explained by an accumulation of metabolites in the muscle tissue. PMID:27110795

  20. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 shows different patterns of localization within the parallel visual pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Shostak, Yuri; Wenger, Ashley; Mavity-Hudson, Julia; Casagrande, Vivien A

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is used as an excitatory neurotransmitter by the koniocellular (K), magnocellular (M), and parvocellular (P) pathways to transfer signals from the primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to primary visual cortex (V1). Glutamate acts through both fast ionotropic receptors, which appear to carry the main sensory message, and slower, modulatory metabotropic receptors (mGluRs). In this study, we asked whether mGluR5 relates in distinct ways to the K, M, and P LGN axons in V1. To answer this question, we used light microscopic immunocytochemistry and preembedding electron microscopic immunogold labeling to determine the localization of mGluR5 within the layers of V1 in relation to the K, M, and P pathways in macaque and squirrel monkeys. These pathways were labeled separately via wheat germ agglutinin–horseradish peroxidase (WGA–HRP) injections targeting the LGN layers. mGluR5 is of interest because it: 1) has been shown to be expressed in the thalamic input layers; 2) appears to be responsible for some types of oscillatory firing, which could be important in the binding of visual features; and 3) has been associated with a number of sensory-motor gating-related pathologies, including schizophrenia and autism. Our results demonstrated the presence of mGluR5 in the neuropil of all V1 layers. This protein was lowest in IVCα (M input) and the infragranular layers. In layer IVC, mGluR5 also was found postsynaptic to about 30% of labeled axons, but the distribution was uneven, such that postsynaptic mGluR5 label tended to occur opposite smaller (presumed P), and not larger (presumed M) axon terminals. Only in the K pathway in layer IIIB, however, was mGluR5 always found in the axon terminals themselves. The presence of mGluR5 in K axons and not in M and P axons, and the presence of mGluR5 postsynaptic mainly to smaller P and not larger M axons suggest that the response to the release of glutamate is modulated in distinct ways within and between the parallel

  1. [Features of clinical course and proteinase inhibitor balance in tears in eye burns of different localization (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, N B; Malarpv, P V; Beznos, O V

    2001-01-01

    Chemical burns of the eye of different location (cornea, corneal fragment with adjacent conjunctiva, and limbus) were studied in experiments. Clinical picture and changes in the lacrimal proteinase inhibitor balance were analyzed. Burn disease is less severe and the number of complications is less if a fragment of the cornea with adjacent conjunctiva and a fragment of the limbus are injured than in case of a corneal burn of the same depth and area. Burn of the total limbus area is a severe injury involving essential shifts in the proteinase inhibitor balance, leading to deep organic changes in the cornea and inner structures of the eye, eventuating in its subatrophy. PMID:11510165

  2. Calculation of Shallow Shell Subject to Influence of Load Local Effect by the Difference Technique on Irregular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Duc, Chinh

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of shallow shell with positive Gauss radius, and boundaries supported on the rectangular plane subject to influence of uniform load and concentrated forces has been considered. In order to solve differential equations (written in the form that assumes deflections as unknowns) of bending shallow shell theory, the author has used the finite difference technique on irregular networks. A detailed algorithm has been formulated that enables to solve the problem by computer. By the above algorithm, the author has obtained numerical results in the form of internal forces and deflections diagrams.

  3. Nano-structure fabrication of GaAs using AFM tip-induced local oxidation method: different doping types and plane orientations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated nano-scaled oxide structures on GaAs substrates that are doped in different conductivity types of p- and n-types and plane orientations of GaAs(100) and GaAs(711), respectively, using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-induced local oxidation method. The AFM-induced GaAs oxide patterns were obtained by varying applied bias from approximately 5 V to approximately 15 V and the tip loading forces from 60 to 180 nN. During the local oxidation, the humidity and the tip scan speed are fixed to approximately 45% and approximately 6.3 μm/s, respectively. The local oxidation rate is further improved in p-type GaAs compared to n-type GaAs substrates whereas the rate is enhanced in GaAs(100) compared to and GaAs(711), respectively, under the identical conditions. In addition, the oxide formation mechanisms in different doping types and plane orientations were investigated and compared with two-dimensional simulation results. PMID:21978373

  4. Transportation and localization of phenanthrene and its interaction with different species of arsenic in Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Ma, Xu; Yan, Xiulan; Lin, Longyong; Shi, Peili; Wu, Zeying

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between arsenic (As) and phenanthrene (PHE) in Pteris vittata L. was investigated in this study. The migration and occurrence of PHE in P. vittata were determined by two-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy. Data indicated that PHE supplementation lowers the As concentration in P. vittata, decreasing As levels by 16.8-39.9% in the pinnae, 30.0-49.0% in the rachis, and 45-51.5% in the roots, respectively. Different arsenic species inhibited P. vittata PHE absorption. The most significant effect was observed using dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), which decreased PHE accumulation by 20.73%. With the exception of elevated As(V) concentrations in As(III)-treated plants, PHE treatment significantly reduced inorganic As concentrations in P. vittata. However, PHE elevated root DMA concentrations by 9%. According to in situ visualization, PHE is primarily found in the upper and lower epidermis and stomatal cells, particularly the stomata guard cells. PMID:27023118

  5. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (p<0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  6. Local Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  7. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.

    PubMed

    Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-09-10

    Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. PMID:22877870

  8. Development and evaluation of a local grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using shared nodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    A new method of local grid refinement for two-dimensional block-centered finite-difference meshes is presented in the context of steady-state groundwater-flow modeling. The method uses an iteration-based feedback with shared nodes to couple two separate grids. The new method is evaluated by comparison with results using a uniform fine mesh, a variably spaced mesh, and a traditional method of local grid refinement without a feedback. Results indicate: (1) The new method exhibits quadratic convergence for homogeneous systems and convergence equivalent to uniform-grid refinement for heterogeneous systems. (2) Coupling the coarse grid with the refined grid in a numerically rigorous way allowed for improvement in the coarse-grid results. (3) For heterogeneous systems, commonly used linear interpolation of heads from the large model onto the boundary of the refined model produced heads that are inconsistent with the physics of the flow field. (4) The traditional method works well in situations where the better resolution of the locally refined grid has little influence on the overall flow-system dynamics, but if this is not true, lack of a feedback mechanism produced errors in head up to 3.6% and errors in cell-to-cell flows up to 25%. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Different Models for Ground-Level Atmospheric Attenuation Prediction with New Models According to Local Weather Data for FSO Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia Bazil Raj, A.; Arputha Vijaya Selvi, J.

    2015-06-01

    A dedicated Free Space Optical Link (FSOL) for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m is established and explained. The power levels of the received signal with meteorological parameters are continuously measured using the opto-electronic assembly and developed weather station respectively and stored in a computer. The existing models selected for comparative analysis are briefed. Measured meteorological parameters and optical attenuation of size [2000×4] are used for linear regression analysis as well as to design the mathematical models more suitable at the test field. In addition, the prediction accuracy of the proposed and selected models during different seasons in one-year period are investigated and validated in terms of RMSE. The average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.041 dB/km for the optical attenuation is achieved in the longer range dynamic of meteorological parameters during different local seasons.

  10. Phenology of Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae) under different landscape management regimes and a proposal for a rapid phenological diagnosis using local knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies aimed at investigating the influence of habitat change on species phenology. Studies that investigate people's perceptions of the phenology of certain species still area few; yet this approach is important for effective decision-making for conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenology of Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae), a native species of economic and ecological importance in northeastern Brazil, in five landscape units (LUs) (Mountain, Mountain Base, Pasture, Cultivated Areas and Homegardens) of a Caatinga region in Altinho, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. These data could then be compared with local people's perceptions of the species’ phenophases. Method Collection of phenological data was carried out monthly from February 2007 to January 2009 and included activity, intensity and synchronization of reproductive and vegetative phenophases. Ethnobotanical data were gathered using a collaborative approach to access local people’s knowledge about the species’ phenological schedule. Results There were no significant differences in the intensity of phenophases among LUs, and there was a correspondence between people’s perception of phenophases and the phenological data collected. The data show that the different management practices for LUs did not influence the phenology of the species. Conclusion The main conclusion of this study is the use of traditional knowledge as interesting tool for rapid phenological diagnosis. However further studies need to be developed to test this tool in other environments and cultural contexts. PMID:23369197