Science.gov

Sample records for dna cationic polymers

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic investigation of cationic polymer/DNA complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Bassi, Andrea; Taroni, Paola; Pezzoli, Daniele; Volonterio, Alessandro; Candiani, Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    Since DNA is not internalized efficiently by cells, the success of gene therapy depends on the availability of carriers to efficiently deliver genetic material into target cells. Gene delivery vectors can be broadly categorized into viral and non-viral ones. Non-viral gene delivery systems are represented by cationic lipids and polymers rely on the basics of supramolecular chemistry termed "self-assembling": at physiological pH, they are cations and spontaneously form lipoplexes (for lipids) and polyplexes (for polymers) complexing nucleic acids. In this scenario, cationic polymers are commonly used as non-viral vehicles. Their effectiveness is strongly related to key parameters including DNA binding ability and stability in different environments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of SYBR Green I (DNA dye) was carried out to characterize cationic polymer/DNA complex (polyplex) formation dispersed in aqueous solution. Both fluorescence amplitude and lifetime proved to be very sensitive to the polymer/DNA ratio (N/P ratio, +/-).

  2. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Kiviaho, Jenny K; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-06-01

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications. PMID:27219684

  3. A novel cationic conjugated polymer for homogeneous fluorescence-based DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2006-09-21

    A novel water-soluble cationic conjugated polymer, poly({2,5-bis[3-(N,N-diethylamino)-1-oxapropyl]-para-phenylenevinylene}-alt-para-phenylenevinylene) dibromide, was synthesized and used to develop a simple label-free DNA detection essay. PMID:17047828

  4. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviaho, Jenny K.; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa, Affc; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-06-01

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications.DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The

  5. DNA Compaction Induced by a Cationic Polymer or Surfactant Impact Gene Expression and DNA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Bartles, Andrew; Muck, Joscha; Dias, Rita S.; Carnerup, Anna M.; Zink, Daniele; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in achieving gene regulation in biotechnological and biomedical applications by using synthetic DNA-binding agents. Most studies have so far focused on synthetic sequence-specific DNA-binding agents. Such approaches are relatively complicated and cost intensive and their level of sophistication is not always required, in particular for biotechnological application. Our study is inspired by in vivo data that suggest that DNA compaction might contribute to gene regulation. This study exploits the potential of using synthetic DNA compacting agents that are not sequence-specific to achieve gene regulation for in vitro systems. The semi-synthetic in vitro system we use include common cationic DNA-compacting agents, poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which we apply to linearized plasmid DNA encoding for the luciferase reporter gene. We show that complexing the DNA with either of the cationic agents leads to gene expression inhibition in a manner that depends on the extent of compaction. This is demonstrated by using a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. We show that compaction can also protect DNA against degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our study shows that these effects are reversible and DNA can be released from the complexes. Release of DNA leads to restoration of gene expression and makes the DNA susceptible to degradation by Dnase. A highly charged polyelectrolyte, heparin, is needed to release DNA from dendrimers, while DNA complexed with CTAB dissociates with the non-ionic surfactant C12E5. Our results demonstrate the relation between DNA compaction by non-specific DNA-binding agents and gene expression and gene regulation can be achieved in vitro systems in a reliable dose-dependent and reversible manner. PMID:24671109

  6. Release of cationic polymer-DNA complexes from the endosome: A theoretical investigation of the proton sponge hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; May, Sylvio

    2008-11-14

    Polyplexes are complexes composed of DNA and cationic polymers; they are promising transport vehicles for nonviral gene delivery. Cationic polymers that contain protonatable groups, such as polyethylenimine, have been suggested to trigger endosomal escape of polyplexes according to the "proton sponge hypothesis." Here, osmotic swelling is induced by a decrease in the endosomal pH value, leading to an accumulation of polymer charge accompanied by the influx of Cl(-) ions to maintain overall electroneutrality. We study a theoretical model of the proton sponge mechanism. The model is based on the familiar Poisson-Boltzmann approach, modified so as to account for the presence of ionizable polyelectrolytes within self-consistent field theory with assumed ground state dominance. We consider polyplexes, composed of fixed amounts of DNA and cationic polymer, to coexist with uncomplexed cationic polymer in an enclosing vesicle of fixed volume. For such a system, we calculate the increase in osmotic pressure upon moderately decreasing the pH value and relate that pressure to the rupture tension of the enclosing membrane. Our model predicts membrane rupture upon pH decrease only within a certain range of free polymer content in the vesicle. That range narrows with increasing amount of DNA. Consequently, there exists a maximal amount of DNA that can be incorporated into a vesicle while maintaining the ability of content release through the proton sponge mechanism. PMID:19045433

  7. Highly sensitive colorimetric sensor for Hg(2+) detection based on cationic polymer/DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingyue; Cai, Yilin; Zhu, Yibo; Zheng, Lixue; Ding, Jianying; Quan, Ying; Wang, Limei; Qi, Bin

    2015-07-15

    The detection of ultralow concentrations of mercury is a currently significant challenge. Here, a novel strategy is proposed: the colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) driven by a cationic polymer. In this three-component system, DNA combines electrostatically with phthalic diglycol diacrylate (PDDA) in a solution of AuNPs. In the presence of Hg(2+), thymine (T)-Hg(2+)-T induced hairpin turns are formed in the DNA strands, which then do not interact with PDDA, enabling the freed PDDA to subsequently facilitate aggregation of the AuNPs. Thus, according to the change in color from wine-red to blue-purple upon AuNPs aggregation, a colorimetric sensor is established to detect Hg(2+). Under optimal conditions, the color change is clearly seen with the naked eye. A linear range of 0.25-500nM was obtained by absorption spectroscopy with a detection limit of approximately 0.15nM. Additionally, the proposed method shows high selectivity toward Hg(2+) in the presence of other heavy metal ions. Real sample analysis was evaluated with the use of lake water and the results suggest good potential for practical application. PMID:25727033

  8. Quantitative Measurement of Cationic Polymer Vector and Polymer-pDNA Polyplex Intercalation into the Cell Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Anderson, Kevin B; Merzel, Rachel L; Jacobovitz, Binyamin; Kaushik, Milan P; Kelly, Christina N; van Dongen, Mallory A; Dougherty, Casey A; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2015-06-23

    Cationic gene delivery agents (vectors) are important for delivering nucleotides, but are also responsible for cytotoxicity. Cationic polymers (L-PEI, jetPEI, and G5 PAMAM) at 1× to 100× the concentrations required for translational activity (protein expression) induced the same increase in plasma membrane current of HEK 293A cells (30-50 nA) as measured by whole cell patch-clamp. This indicates saturation of the cell membrane by the cationic polymers. The increased currents induced by the polymers are not reversible for over 15 min. Irreversibility on this time scale is consistent with a polymer-supported pore or carpet model and indicates that the cell is unable to clear the polymer from the membrane. For polyplexes, although the charge concentration was the same (at N/P ratio of 10:1), G5 PAMAM and jetPEI polyplexes induced a much larger current increase (40-50 nA) than L-PEI polyplexes (<20 nA). Both free cationic lipid and lipid polyplexes induced a lower increase in current than cationic polymers (<20 nA). To quantify the membrane bound material, partition constants were measured for both free vectors and polyplexes into the HEK 293A cell membrane using a dye influx assay. The partition constants of free vectors increased with charge density of the vectors. Polyplex partition constants did not show such a trend. The long lasting cell plasma permeability induced by exposure to the polymer vectors or the polyplexes provides a plausible mechanism for the toxicity and inflammatory response induced by exposure to these materials. PMID:25952271

  9. Controlled complexation of plasmid DNA with cationic polymers: effect of surfactant on the complexation and stability of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Marjukka; Murtomäki, Lasse; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2008-10-01

    The aggregation of the cationic polymer-plasmid DNA complexes of two commonly used polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly-l-lysine (PLL) were systematically compared. The complexation was studied in 5% glucose solution at 25 degrees C using dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry. The aggregation of the complexes was controlled by addition of the surfactant polyoxyethylene stearate (POES). The stability of the complexes was evaluated using dextran sulphate (DS) as relaxing agent. The relaxation of the complexes in the presence of DS was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis. This study elucidates the role of surfactant in controlling the size of the PEI/pDNA complex and reveals the differences of the two polymers as complexing agents. PMID:18583110

  10. Time-resolved FRET and PCT in cationic conjugated polymer/dye-labeled DNA complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inhong; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Bumjin; Kang, Mijeong; Woo, Han Young; Kyhm, Kwangseuk

    2011-12-01

    The energy transfer mechanism between cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes and a single stranded DNA labeled with fluorescein was investigated in terms of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and photo-induced charge transfer (PCT) by time-resolved fluorescence. Both FRET and PCT rate efficiencies were obtained by phenomenological coupled rate equations, which are in excellent agreement with experiments. We found the total energy transfer in the complex is maximized as a consequence of FRET and PCT at an optimum distance 32.7Å.

  11. Recyclable magnetite nanoparticle coated with cationic polymers for adsorption of DNA.

    PubMed

    Rutnakornpituk, B; Theppaleak, T; Rutnakornpituk, M; Vilaivan, T

    2016-08-01

    Magnetite nanoparticle (MNP) grafted with a cationic copolymer between poly(2-(N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) and poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)) for efficient and recyclable adsorption of 5'-fluorescein-tagged DNA (FAM-dT9) was prepared. MNP having highest degree of positive charge (+32.1 ± 1.9 mV) retained 100% adsorption of FAM-dT9 during eight adsorption-separation-desorption cycles. The MNP having lower degree of positive charge showed a slight decrease in adsorption percentages (94-98% adsorption) after multiple recycling processes. This biocompatible hybrid material with charged surface and magnetic-responsive properties might be applicable for use as a nanosolid support for efficient and facile separation of various bioentities. PMID:27206488

  12. Cationic Polymer Intercalation into the Lipid Membrane Enables Intact Polyplex DNA Escape from Endosomes for Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Chen, Junjie; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2016-06-01

    Developing improved cationic polymer-DNA polyplexes for gene delivery requires improved understanding of DNA transport from endosomes into the nucleus. Using a FRET-capable oligonucleotide molecular beacon (OMB), we monitored the transport of intact DNA to cell organelles. We observed that for effective (jetPEI) and ineffective (G5 PAMAM) vectors, the fraction of cells displaying intact OMB in the cytosol (jetPEI ≫ G5 PAMAM) quantitatively predicted the fraction expressing transgene (jetPEI ≫ G5 PAMAM). Intact OMB delivered with PAMAM and confined to endosomes could be released to the cytosol by the subsequent addition of L-PEI, with a corresponding 10-fold increase in transgene expression. These results suggest that future vector development should optimize vectors for intercalation into, and destabilization of, the endosomal membrane. Finally, the study highlights a two-step strategy in which the pDNA is loaded in cells using one vector and endosomal release is mediated by a second agent. PMID:27111496

  13. Compaction and multiple chain assembly of DNA with the cationic polymer poly(aluminum chloride) (PAC).

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Yukiko; Kanbe, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2004-07-20

    Assembly of DNA molecules by the addition of poly(aluminum chloride) (PAC) was studied. In the absence of PAC, electron microscopy indicated the formation of elongated coiled DNA molecules. In the presence of PAC, multiple doughnut-like structures, 8-15 nm thick, formed and fused together. When salt was added, the doughnut-like structures tended to be thinner and the morphology of the fused doughnuts became irregular. We obtained a view of a single DNA structure by fluorescent microscopy, which revealed that individual DNA molecules undergo a discrete transition from an elongated to compacted state with an increase in PAC concentration. Electron microscopic observation showed that a regular doughnut is the typical structure seen under low salt conditions. At high salt concentrations, the doughnut shape deformed, yielding results similar to those produced by the salt effect on DNA assembly at high DNA concentrations. PMID:15248734

  14. Viscoelastic cationic polymers containing the urethane linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method for the synthesis and manufacturing of elastomeric compositions and articles containing quaternary nitrogen centers and condensation residues along the polymeric backbone of the centers is presented. Linear and cross-linked straight chain and block polymers having a wide damping temperature range were synthesized. Formulae for the viscoelastic cationic polymers are presented.

  15. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  16. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-01-01

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. PMID:23665898

  17. Innate cation sensitivity in a semiconducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Althagafi, Talal M; Algarni, Saud A; Grell, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Water-gated organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) using the hole transporting semiconducting polymer, poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT), show an innate response of their threshold voltage to the addition of divalent metal cations to the gating water, without deliberately introducing an ion-sensitive component. A similar threshold response is shown for several divalent cations, but is absent for monovalent cations. Response is absent for transistors using the inorganic semiconductor ZnO, or the similar organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT), instead of PBTTT. We assign innate cation sensitivity to residues of the organometallic Pd(0) complex used as catalyst in PBTTT synthesis which bears strong resemblance to typical metal chelating agents. Organometallic Pd(0) residues are absent from ZnO, and also from rrP3HT which is polymerised with a different type of catalyst. However, when Pd(0) complex is deliberately added to rrP3HT casting solutions, resulting OTFTs also display threshold response to a divalent cation. PMID:27343580

  18. Cationic polymers and their self-assembly for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Deka, Smriti Rekha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradee

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the amphiphilic cationic polymers as antibacterial agents. These polymers undergo self-assembly in aqueous conditions and impart biological activity by efficiently interacting with the bacterial cell wall, hence, used in preparing chemical disinfectants and biocides. Both cationic charge as well as hydrophobic segments facilitate interactions with the bacterial cell surface and initiate its disruption. The perturbation in transmembrane potential causes leakage of cytosolic contents followed by cell death. Out of two categories of macromolecules, peptide oligomers and cationic polymers, which have extensively been used as antibacterials, we have elaborated on the current advances made in the area of cationic polymer-based (naturally occurring and commonly employed synthetic polymers and their modified analogs) antibacterial agents. The development of polymer-based antibacterials has helped in addressing challenges posed by the drug-resistant bacterial infections. These polymers provide a new platform to combat such infections in the most efficient manner. This review presents concise discussion on the amphiphilic cationic polymers and their modified analogs having low hemolytic activity and excellent antibacterial activity against array of fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. PMID:25858132

  19. Star polymers with a cationic core prepared by ATRP for cellular nucleic acids delivery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong Y; Averick, Saadyah E; Paredes, Eduardo; Wegner, Katarzyna; Averick, Amram; Jurga, Stefan; Das, Subha R; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2013-05-13

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based star polymers with a cationic core were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for in vitro nucleic acid (NA) delivery. The star polymers were synthesized by ATRP of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Star polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. These star polymers were combined with either plasmid DNA (pDNA) or short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes to form polyplexes for intracellular delivery. These polyplexes with either siRNA or pDNA were highly effective in NA delivery, particularly at relatively low star polymer weight or molar ratios, highlighting the importance of NA release in efficient delivery systems. PMID:23560989

  20. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  3. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-05-01

    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  4. Physicochemical and transfection properties of cationic Hydroxyethylcellulose/DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fayazpour, Farzaneh; Lucas, Bart; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Sanders, Niek N; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C

    2006-10-01

    In this study the physicochemical and transfection properties of cationic hydroxyethylcellulose/plasmid DNA (pDNA) nanoparticles were investigated and compared with the properties of DNA nanoparticles based on polyethylene imine (PEI), which is widely investigated as a gene carrier. The two types of cationic hydroxyethylcelluloses studied, polyquaternium-4 (PQ-4) and polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10), are already commonly used in cosmetic and topical drug delivery devices. Both PQ-4 and PQ-10 spontaneously interact with pDNA with the formation of nanoparticles approximately 200 nm in size. Gel electrophoresis and fluorescence dequenching experiments indicated that the interactions between pDNA and the cationic celluloses were stronger than those between pDNA and PEI. The cationic cellulose/pDNA nanoparticles transfected cells to a much lesser extent than the PEI-based pDNA nanoparticles. The low transfection property of the PQ-4/pDNA nanoparticles was attributed to their neutrally charged surface, which does not allow an optimal binding of PQ-4/pDNA nanoparticles to cellular membranes. Although the PQ-10/pDNA nanoparticles were positively charged and thus expected to be taken up by cells, they were also much less efficient in transfecting cells than were PEI/pDNA nanoparticles. Agents known to enhance the endosomal escape were not able to improve the transfection properties of PQ-10/pDNA nanoparticles, indicating that a poor endosomal escape is, most likely, not the major reason for the low transfection activity of PQ-10/pDNA nanoparticles. We hypothesized that the strong binding of pDNA to PQ-10 prohibits the release of pDNA from PQ-10 once the PQ-10/pDNA nanoparticles arrive in the cytosol of the cells. Tailoring the nature and extent of the cationic side chains on this type of cationic hydroxyethylcellulose may be promising to further enhance their DNA delivery properties. PMID:17025362

  5. The Structure of DNA within Cationic Lipid/DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Chad S.; Jas, Gouri S.; Choosakoonkriang, Sirirat; Koe, Gary S.; Smith, Janet G.; Middaugh, C. Russell

    2003-01-01

    The structure of DNA within CLDCs used for gene delivery is controversial. Previous studies using CD have been interpreted to indicate that the DNA is converted from normal B to C form in complexes. This investigation reexamines this interpretation using CD of model complexes, FTIR as well as Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to address this issue. CD spectra of supercoiled plasmid DNA undergo a significant loss of rotational strength in the signal near 275 nm upon interaction with either the cationic lipid dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide or 1,2-dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane. This loss of rotational strength is shown, however, by both FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to occur within the parameters of the B-type conformation. Contributions of absorption flattening and differential scattering to the CD spectra of complexes are unable to account for the observed spectra. Model studies of the CD of complexes prepared from synthetic oligonucleotides of varying length suggest that significant reductions in rotational strength can occur within short stretches of DNA. Furthermore, some alteration in the hydrogen bonding of bases within CLDCs is indicated in the FTIR and Raman spectroscopy results. In addition, alterations in base stacking interactions as well as hydrogen bonding are suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. A global interpretation of all of the data suggests the DNA component of CLDCs remains in a variant B form in which base/base interactions are perturbed. PMID:12547792

  6. Cationic polymer mud solves gumbo problems in North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, O.; Lee, L.J. )

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports on a recently developed cationic polymer mud, compatible with conventional polymer additives and designed to meet environmental regulations, which significantly minimized the gumbo problems common to the water-sensitive shales in the North Sea. The cationic polymer mud was used to drill highly reactive Tertiary shale formations which have caused severe gumbo problems on nearby wells drilled with other inhibitive water-based muds. Although many citonic polymers are toxic, aquatic toxicity tests performed by the Norwegian Statens Forurensningstilsyn (SFT) at the end of the test wells showed results far exceeding the SFT limits on the three species tested. The mud system on these wells was a seawater-based 15.0-ppg mud enhanced with 3% NaCl. A low molecular weight quaternary polyamine and a high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide were used to suppress the swelling and dispersion of shales, respectively. Starch and polyanionic cellulose (PAC) polymers maintained fluid-loss control, and a lubricant reduced the torque and drag.

  7. Influence of cationic lipid concentration on properties of lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Rajendran JC; Arai, Yoshie; Ahn, Jong Chan; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely used for nonviral gene delivery. Recently, cationic hybrid nanoparticles consisting of two different materials were suggested as a promising delivery vehicle. In this study, nanospheres with a poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core and cationic lipid shell were prepared, and the effect of cationic lipid concentrations on the properties of lipid polymer hybrid nanocarriers investigated. Lipid–polymer hybrid nanospheres (LPHNSs) were fabricated by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of cationic lipids and characterized for size, surface charge, stability, plasmid DNA-binding capacity, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. All LPHNSs had narrow size distribution with positive surface charges (ζ-potential 52–60 mV), and showed excellent plasmid DNA-binding capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements with HEK293T, HeLa, HaCaT, and HepG2 cells also showed that LPHNSs exhibited less cytotoxicity than conventional transfection agents, such as Lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine–PLGA. As cationic lipid concentrations increased, the particle size of LPHNSs decreased while their ζ-potential increased. In addition, the in vitro transfection efficiency of LPHNSs increased as lipid concentration increased. PMID:26379434

  8. Complexation Between Cationic Diblock Copolymers and Plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seyoung; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), as polyanions, can spontaneously bind with polycations to form polyelectrolyte complexes. When the polycation is a diblock copolymer with one cationic block and one uncharged hydrophilic block, the polyelectrolyte complexes formed with plasmid DNA (pDNA) are often colloidally stable, and show great promise in the field of polymeric gene therapy. While the resulting properties (size, stability, and toxicity to biological systems) of the complexes have been studied for numerous cationic diblocks, the fundamentals of the pDNA-diblock binding process have not been extensively investigated. Herein, we report how the cationic block content of a diblock influences the pDNA-diblock interactions. pDNA with 7164 base pairs and poly(2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido glucopyranose)-block-poly(N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide) (PMAG-b-PAEMA) are used as the model pDNA and cationic diblock, respectively. To vary the cationic block content, two PMAG-b-PAEMA copolymers with similar PMAG block lengths but distinct PAEMA block lengths and a PAEMA homopolymer are utilized. We show that the enthalpy change from pDNA-diblock interactions is dependent on the cationic diblock composition, and is closely associated with both the binding strength and the pDNA tertiary structure.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  12. Amylose-Based Cationic Star Polymers for siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomoki; Umezaki, Kaori; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    A new siRNA delivery system using a cationic glyco-star polymer is described. Spermine-modified 8-arm amylose star polymer (with a degree of polymerization of approximately 60 per arm) was synthesized by chemoenzymatic methods. The cationic star polymer effectively bound to siRNA and formed spherical complexes with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 230 nm. The cationic 8-arm star polymer complexes showed superior cellular uptake characteristics and higher gene silencing effects than a cationic 1-arm polymer. These results suggest that amylose-based star polymers are a promising nanoplatform for glycobiomaterials. PMID:26539548

  13. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule onto a force cantilever using the optical tweezer and local heating. With this method, a force versus extension assay of double stranded DNA was realized. The resolution was about 10 picoN. To improve on this force measurement resolution, a simple light backscattering technique was developed and used to probe the DNA polymer flexibility and its fluctuations. It combined the optical tweezer to trap a DNA tethered bead and the laser backscattering to detect the beads Brownian fluctuations. With this technique the resolution was about 0.1 picoN with a millisecond access time, and the whole entropic part of the DNA force-extension was measured. With this experimental strategy, we measured the polymerization of the protein RecA on an isolated double stranded DNA. We observed the progressive decoration of RecA on the l DNA molecule, which results in the extension of l , due to unwinding of the double helix. The dynamics of polymerization, the resulting change in the DNA entropic elasticity and the role of ATP hydrolysis were the main parts of the study. A simple model for RecA assembly on DNA was proposed. This work presents a first step in the study of genetic recombination. Recently we have started a study of equilibrium binding which utilizes fluorescence polarization methods to probe the polymerization of RecA on single stranded DNA. In addition to the study of material properties of DNA and DNA-RecA, we have developed experiments for which the code of the DNA is central. We studied one aspect of DNA as a molecular code, using different techniques. In particular the programmatic use of template specificity makes

  14. Mechanism for radical cation transport in duplex DNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Sheng; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Schuster, Gary B

    2004-03-10

    We investigated the photoinduced one-electron oxidation of a series of DNA oligomers having a covalently linked anthraquinone group (AQ) and containing [(A)(n)GG](m) or [(T)(n)GG](m) segments. These oligomers have m GG steps, where m = 4 or 6, separated by (A)(n) or (T)(n) segments, where n = 1-7 for the (A)(n) set and 1-5 for the (T)(n) set. Irradiation with UV light that is absorbed by the AQ causes injection of a radical cation into the DNA. The radical cation migrates through the DNA, causing chemical reaction, primarily at GG steps, that leads to strand cleavage after piperidine treatment. The uniform, systematic structure of the DNA oligonucleotides investigated permits the numerical solution of a kinetic scheme that models these reactions. This analysis yields two rate constants, k(hop), for hopping of the radical cation from one site to adjacent sites, and k(trap), for irreversible reaction of the radical cation with H(2)O or O(2). Analysis of these findings indicates that radical cation hopping in these duplex DNA oligomers is a process that occurs on a microsecond time scale. The value of k(hop) depends on the number of base pairs in the (A)(n) and (T)(n) segments in a systematic way. We interpret these results in terms of a thermally activated adiabatic mechanism for radical cation hopping that we identify as phonon-assisted polaron hopping. PMID:14995205

  15. Weakly charged cationic nanoparticles induce DNA bending and strand separation.

    PubMed

    Railsback, Justin G; Singh, Abhishek; Pearce, Ryan C; McKnight, Timothy E; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Melechko, Anatoli V

    2012-08-16

    Weakly charged cationic nanoparticles cause structural changes including local denaturing and compaction to DNA under mild conditions. The charged ligands bind to the phosphate backbone of DNA and the uncharged ligands penetrate the helix and disrupt base pairing. Mobility shifts in electrophoresis, molecular dynamics, and UV-vis spectrophotometry give clues to the details of the interactions. PMID:22711427

  16. Interaction between DNA and cationic surfactants: effect of DNA conformation and surfactant headgroup.

    PubMed

    Dias, Rita S; Magno, Luís M; Valente, Artur J M; Das, Dibyendu; Das, Prasanta K; Maiti, Souvik; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn

    2008-11-20

    The interactions between DNA and a number of different cationic surfactants, differing in headgroup polarity, were investigated by electric conductivity measurements and fluorescence microscopy. It was observed that, the critical association concentration (cac), characterizing the onset of surfactant binding to DNA, does not vary significantly with the architecture of the headgroup. However, comparing with the critical micelle concentration (cmc) in the absence of DNA, it can be inferred that the micelles of a surfactant with a simple quaternary ammonium headgroup are much more stabilized by the presence of DNA than those of surfactants with hydroxylated head-groups. In line with previous studies of polymer-surfactant association, the cac does not vary significantly with either the DNA concentration or its chain length. On the other hand, a novel observation is that the cac is much lower when DNA is denaturated and in the single-stranded conformation, than for the double-helix DNA. This is contrary to expectation for a simple electrostatically driven association. Thus previous studies of polyelectrolyte-surfactant systems have shown that the cac decreases strongly with increasing linear charge density of the polyion. Since double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has twice as large linear charge density as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the stronger binding in the latter case indicates an important role of nonelectrostatic effects. Both a higher flexibility of ssDNA and a higher hydrophobicity due to the exposed bases are found to play a role, with the hydrophobic interaction argued to be more important. The significance of hydrophobic DNA-surfactant interaction is in line with other observations. The significance of nonelectrostatic effects is also indicated in significant differences in cac between different surfactants for ssDNA but not for dsDNA. For lower concentrations of DNA, the conductivity measurements presented an "anomalous" feature, i.e., a second inflection point

  17. Cationic Polybutyl Cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles for DNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghua; Zhang, Yangde; Chen, Wei; Shen, Chengrong; Liao, Mingmei; Pan, Yifeng; Wang, Jiwei; Deng, Xingming; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2009-01-01

    To enhance the intracellular delivery potential of plasmid DNA using nonviral vectors, we used polybutyl cyanoacrylate (PBCA) and chitosan to prepare PBCA nanoparticles (NPs) by emulsion polymerization and prepared NP/DNA complexes through the complex coacervation of nanoparticles with the DNA. The object of our work is to evaluate the characterization and transfection efficiency of PBCA-NPs. The NPs have a zeta potential of 25.53 mV at pH 7.4 and size about 200 nm. Electrophoretic analysis suggested that the NPs with positive charges could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation and cell viability assay showed that the NPs exhibit a low cytotoxicity to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of transfection in HepG2 cells by the nanoparticles carrying plasmid DNA encoding for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-N1) was done by digital fluorescence imaging microscopy system and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Qualitative results showed highly efficient expression of GFP that remained stable for up to 96 hours. Quantitative results from FACS showed that PBCA-NPs were significantly more effective in transfecting HepG2 cells after 72 hours postincubation. The results of this study suggested that PBCA-NPs have favorable properties for nonviral delivery. PMID:19300519

  18. Weakly Charged Cationic Nanoparticles Induce DNA Bending and Strand Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, Justin; Singh, Abhishek; Pearce, Ryan; McKnight, Timothy E; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Yingling, Yaroslava; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between double stranded (ds) DNA and charged nanoparticles will have a broad bearing on many important applications from drug delivery [ 1 4 ] to DNAtemplated metallization. [ 5 , 6 ] Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) can bind to DNA, a negatively charged molecule, through a combination of electrostatic attraction, groove binding, and intercalation. Such binding events induce changes in the conformation of a DNA strand. In nature, DNA wraps around a cylindrical protein assembly (diameter and height of 6 nm) [ 7 ] with an 220 positive charge, [ 8 ] creating the complex known as chromatin. Wrapping and bending of DNA has also been achieved in the laboratory through the binding of highly charged species such as molecular assemblies, [ 9 , 10 ] cationic dendrimers, [ 11 , 12 ] and nanoparticles. [ 13 15 ] The charge of a nanoparticle plays a crucial role in its ability to induce DNA structural changes. If a nanoparticle has a highly positive surface charge density, the DNA is likely to wrap and bend upon binding to the nanoparticle [ 13 ] (as in the case of chromatin). On the other hand, if a nanoparticle is weakly charged it will not induce dsDNA compaction. [ 9 , 10 , 15 ] Consequently, there is a transition zone from extended to compact DNA conformations which depends on the chemical nature of the nanoparticle and occurs for polycations with charges between 5 and 10. [ 9 ] While the interactions between highly charged NPs and DNA have been extensively studied, the processes that occur within the transition zone are less explored.

  19. Temperature-controlled interaction of thermosensitive polymer-modified cationic liposomes with negatively charged phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kono, K; Henmi, A; Takagishi, T

    1999-09-21

    To obtain cationic liposomes of which affinity to negatively charged membranes can be controlled by temperature, cationic liposomes consisting of 3beta-[N-(N', N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbamoyl]cholesterol and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine were modified with poly(N-acryloylpyrrolidine), which is a thermosensitive polymer exhibiting a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at ca. 52 degrees C. The unmodified cationic liposomes did not change its zeta potential between 20-60 degrees C. The polymer-modified cationic liposomes revealed much lower zeta potential values below the LCST of the polymer than the unmodified cationic liposomes. However, their zeta potential increased significantly above this temperature. The unmodified cationic liposomes formed aggregates and fused intensively with anionic liposomes consisting of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid in the region of 20-60 degrees C, due to the electrostatic interaction. In contrast, aggregation and fusion of the polymer-modified cationic liposomes with the anionic liposomes were strongly suppressed below the LCST. However, these interactions were enhanced remarkably above the LCST. In addition, the polymer-modified cationic liposomes did not cause leakage of calcein from the anionic liposomes below the LCST, but promoted the leakage above this temperature as the unmodified cationic liposomes did. Temperature-induced conformational change of the polymer chains from a hydrated coil to a dehydrated globule might affect the affinity of the polymer-modified cationic liposomes to the anionic liposomes. PMID:10561483

  20. Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation of three surface waters was conducted with aluminum salt and/or cationic polymer to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate removed equal or slightly lower amounts of DON as compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). At aluminum sulfate dosages up to 5mg per mg DOC, the cationic polymer improved DON removal by an additional 15% to 20% over aluminum sulfate alone. At very high aluminum sulfate dosages (>8 mg aluminum sulfate per mg DOC), however, the cationic polymer addition negligibly increased DON removal. Molecular weight fractionation before and after coagulation experiments indicated that cationic polymer addition can increase the removal of all molecular weight fractions of DON with the highest molecular weight fraction (>10,000 Da) being preferentially removed. Results indicated that the DON added as part of the cationic polymer was almost completely removed at optimum aluminum sulfate and polymer doses. PMID:17023020

  1. Efficient gene transfection using novel cationic polymers poly(hydroxyalkylene imines).

    PubMed

    Zaliauskiene, Lolita; Bernadisiute, Ula; Vareikis, Ausvydas; Makuska, Ricardas; Volungeviciene, Ieva; Petuskaite, Agne; Riauba, Laurynas; Lagunavicius, Arunas; Zigmantas, Sarunas

    2010-09-15

    A series of novel cationic polymers poly(hydroxyalkylene imines) were synthesized and tested for their ability to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo. Poly(hydroxyalkylene imines), in particular, poly(2-hydroxypropylene imine) (pHP), poly(2-hydroxypropylene imine ethylene imine) (pHPE), and poly(hydroxypropylene imine propylene imine) (pHPP) were synthesized by polycondensation reaction from 1,3-diamino-2-propanol and the appropriate dibromide. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated that the resulting polymers condensed DNA into toroid shape complexes of 100-150 nm in size. Transfection studies showed that all three polymers were able to deliver genetic material into the cell, with pHP being superior to pHPP and pHPE. pHP acted as an efficient gene delivery agent in a variety of different cell lines and outcompeted most of the widely used polymer or lipid based transfection reagents. Intravenous administration of pHP-DNA polyplexes in mice followed by the reporter gene analysis showed that the reagent was suitable for in vivo applications. In summary, the results indicate that pHP is a new efficient reagent for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20695432

  2. Adsorption of Divalent Cations on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Morfin, Isabelle; Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Bley, Françoise; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Rochas, Cyrille; Geissler, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of divalent ions in semidilute solutions of high-molecular-mass DNA containing both sodium chloride and strontium chloride in near-physiological conditions is studied by small-angle x-ray scattering and by small-angle neutron scattering. Both small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering reveal a continuous increase in the scattering intensity at low q with increasing divalent ion concentration, while at high q the scattering curves converge. The best fit to the data is found for a configuration in which DNA strands of cross-sectional radius 10 Å are surrounded by a counterion sheath of outer radius ∼13.8 Å, independent of the strontium chloride concentration. When the strontium chloride is replaced by calcium chloride, similar results are obtained, but the thickness of the sheath increases when the divalent salt concentration decreases. These results correspond in both cases to partial localization of the counterions within a layer that is thinner than the effective Debye screening length. PMID:15454479

  3. Long-term expression with a cationic polymer derived from a natural polysaccharide: schizophyllan.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Takeshi; Hojo, Masaya; Uno, Atsushi; Satoh, Taku; Koumoto, Kazuya; Mizu, Masami; Sakurai, Kazuo; Shinkai, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    Among the various synthetic gene carriers based on biomaterials, cationic polymers with polysaccharide backbones have long been studied as nonviral vectors due to their low immunogenicity and high water solubility. Schizophyllan, a beta-(1,3)-glucan, is one of the various polysaccharides that are clinically administered. Furthermore, its safety in the human body has already been confirmed. Various functional groups can be selectively introduced into the side chain, not into the main chain of schizophyllan. Therefore, we have synthesized various oligoamine conjugates from schizophyllan. It was confirmed that their in vitro transfection efficiencies are superior to that of polyethylenimine by adjusting the molecular weight and the degree of amination of cationic schizophyllan. While it was possible to reduce cytotoxicity by adjusting the amount of DNA complex per cell, as seen with poly-L-lysine, polyethylenimine, and chitosan, PEGylation was the most effective means of reducing toxicity. Furthermore, using cationic schizophyllan carriers, it was also possible to express a reporter protein for a long period of time due to a long residence time of plasmid DNA in cells. PMID:15025520

  4. Cation charge dependence of the forces driving DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    DeRouchey, Jason; Parsegian, V Adrian; Rau, Donald C

    2010-10-20

    Understanding the strength and specificity of interactions among biologically important macromolecules that control cellular functions requires quantitative knowledge of intermolecular forces. Controlled DNA condensation and assembly are particularly critical for biology, with separate repulsive and attractive intermolecular forces determining the extent of DNA compaction. How these forces depend on the charge of the condensing ion has not been determined, but such knowledge is fundamental for understanding the basis of DNA-DNA interactions. Here, we measure DNA force-distance curves for a homologous set of arginine peptides. All forces are well fit as the sum of two exponentials with 2.4- and 4.8-Å decay lengths. The shorter-decay-length force is always repulsive, with an amplitude that varies slightly with length or charge. The longer-decay-length force varies strongly with cation charge, changing from repulsion with Arg¹ to attraction with Arg². Force curves for a series of homologous polyamines and the heterogeneous protein protamine are quite similar, demonstrating the universality of these forces for DNA assembly. Repulsive amplitudes of the shorter-decay-length force are species-dependent but nearly independent of charge within each species. A striking observation was that the attractive force amplitudes for all samples collapse to a single curve, varying linearly with the inverse of the cation charge. PMID:20959102

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) and Cationic Polymers for Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Ndeboko, Bénédicte; Lemamy, Guy Joseph; Nielsen, Peter. E; Cova, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. Because current anti-HBV treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for development of alternative antiviral approaches. In this context, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and cationic polymers, such as chitosan (CS), appear of particular interest as nonviral vectors due to their capacity to facilitate cellular delivery of bioactive cargoes including peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) or DNA vaccines. We have investigated the ability of a PNA conjugated to different CPPs to inhibit the replication of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), a reference model for human HBV infection. The in vivo administration of PNA-CPP conjugates to neonatal ducklings showed that they reached the liver and inhibited DHBV replication. Interestingly, our results indicated also that a modified CPP (CatLip) alone, in the absence of its PNA cargo, was able to drastically inhibit late stages of DHBV replication. In the mouse model, conjugation of HBV DNA vaccine to modified CS (Man-CS-Phe) improved cellular and humoral responses to plasmid-encoded antigen. Moreover, other systems for gene delivery were investigated including CPP-modified CS and cationic nanoparticles. The results showed that these nonviral vectors considerably increased plasmid DNA uptake and expression. Collectively promising results obtained in preclinical studies suggest the usefulness of these safe delivery systems for the development of novel therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B. PMID:26633356

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) and Cationic Polymers for Chronic Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Ndeboko, Bénédicte; Lemamy, Guy Joseph; Nielsen, Peter E; Cova, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem worldwide. Because current anti-HBV treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for development of alternative antiviral approaches. In this context, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and cationic polymers, such as chitosan (CS), appear of particular interest as nonviral vectors due to their capacity to facilitate cellular delivery of bioactive cargoes including peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) or DNA vaccines. We have investigated the ability of a PNA conjugated to different CPPs to inhibit the replication of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), a reference model for human HBV infection. The in vivo administration of PNA-CPP conjugates to neonatal ducklings showed that they reached the liver and inhibited DHBV replication. Interestingly, our results indicated also that a modified CPP (CatLip) alone, in the absence of its PNA cargo, was able to drastically inhibit late stages of DHBV replication. In the mouse model, conjugation of HBV DNA vaccine to modified CS (Man-CS-Phe) improved cellular and humoral responses to plasmid-encoded antigen. Moreover, other systems for gene delivery were investigated including CPP-modified CS and cationic nanoparticles. The results showed that these nonviral vectors considerably increased plasmid DNA uptake and expression. Collectively promising results obtained in preclinical studies suggest the usefulness of these safe delivery systems for the development of novel therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B. PMID:26633356

  7. Fluorescence quenching of water-soluble conjugated polymer by metal cations and its application in sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Guo; Zhao, Dan; He, Zhi-Ke; Ai, Xin-Ping

    2007-02-01

    The effects of different metal cations on the fluorescence of water-soluble conjugated polymer (CP) and their quenching mechanism have been explored. Most transition metal cations, especially noble metal cations, such as Pd 2+, Ru 3+, and Pt 2+ possessed higher quenching efficiency to CP fluorescence than that of the main group metal cations and other transition metal cations, which have filled or half-full outmost electron layer configurations. Base on this, rapid, sensitive detection of noble metal cations can be realized and a novel quencher-tether-ligand (QTL) probe was developed to detect avidin and streptavidin.

  8. One-step Conjugation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid to Cationic Polymers for High-performance Gene Delivery to Cultured Liver Cell

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yue; Shi, Bingyang; Lu, Yiqing; Wen, Shihui; Chung, Roger; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapies represent a promising therapeutic route for liver cancers, but major challenges remain in the design of safe and efficient gene-targeting delivery systems. For example, cationic polymers show good transfection efficiency as gene carriers, but are hindered by cytotoxicity and non-specific targeting. Here we report a versatile method of one-step conjugation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the cultured liver cell -targeting capability of cationic polymers. We have explored a series of cationic polymer derivatives by coupling different ratios of GA to polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer. These new gene carriers (GA-PPI dendrimer) were systematically characterized by UV-vis,1H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that GA-PPI dendrimers can efficiently load and protect pDNA, via formation of nanostructured GA-PPI/pDNA polyplexes. With optimal GA substitution degree (6.31%), GA-PPI dendrimers deliver higher liver cell transfection efficiency (43.5% vs 22.3%) and lower cytotoxicity (94.3% vs 62.5%, cell viability) than the commercial bench-mark DNA carrier bPEI (25kDa) with cultured liver model cells (HepG2). There results suggest that our new GA-PPI dendrimer are a promising candidate gene carrier for targeted liver cancer therapy. PMID:26902258

  9. One-step Conjugation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid to Cationic Polymers for High-performance Gene Delivery to Cultured Liver Cell.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Shi, Bingyang; Lu, Yiqing; Wen, Shihui; Chung, Roger; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapies represent a promising therapeutic route for liver cancers, but major challenges remain in the design of safe and efficient gene-targeting delivery systems. For example, cationic polymers show good transfection efficiency as gene carriers, but are hindered by cytotoxicity and non-specific targeting. Here we report a versatile method of one-step conjugation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the cultured liver cell -targeting capability of cationic polymers. We have explored a series of cationic polymer derivatives by coupling different ratios of GA to polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer. These new gene carriers (GA-PPI dendrimer) were systematically characterized by UV-vis,(1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that GA-PPI dendrimers can efficiently load and protect pDNA, via formation of nanostructured GA-PPI/pDNA polyplexes. With optimal GA substitution degree (6.31%), GA-PPI dendrimers deliver higher liver cell transfection efficiency (43.5% vs 22.3%) and lower cytotoxicity (94.3% vs 62.5%, cell viability) than the commercial bench-mark DNA carrier bPEI (25kDa) with cultured liver model cells (HepG2). There results suggest that our new GA-PPI dendrimer are a promising candidate gene carrier for targeted liver cancer therapy. PMID:26902258

  10. Optical tweezers reveal a dynamic mechanical response of cationic peptide-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy; Zheng, Tai; Sucayan, Sarah; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tricoli, Lucas; Hustedt, Jason; Kahn, Jason; Mixson, A. James; Seog, Joonil

    2013-03-01

    Nonviral carriers have been developed to deliver nucleic acids by forming nanoscale complexes; however, there has been limited success in achieving high transfection efficiency. Our hypothesis is that a factor affecting gene delivery efficiency is the mechanical response of the condensed complex. To begin to test this hypothesis, we directly measured the mechanical properties of DNA-carrier complexes using optical tweezers. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymer, Asparagine-lysine (NK) polymer and poly-L-lysine were used to form complexes with a single DNA molecule. As carriers were introduced, a sudden decrease in DNA extension occurrs at a force level which is defined as critical force (Fc). Fc is carrier and concentration dependent. Pulling revealed reduction in DNA extension length for HK-DNA complexes. The characteristics of force profiles vary by agent and can be dynamically manipulated by changes in environmental conditions such as ionic strength of the buffer as well as pH. Heparin can remove cationic reagents which are otherwise irreversibly bound to DNA. The implications for optimizing molecular interactions to enhance transfection efficiency will be discussed.

  11. [Adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution on bentonite modified by cationic polymers].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yue, Qin-Yan; Li, Qian; Lu, Guang-Jiang; Gao, Bao-Yu; Yuan, Ai-Juan

    2009-06-15

    Two cationic polymer-epicholorohydrin dimethylamine (EPI-DMA) and poly dimethyldlammonium (PDMDAAC) as the intercalary reagents were used to prepare a series of bentonites (EPI-DMA/Bt and PDMDAAC/Bt) modified by the cationic polymers, respectively. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on cationic polymer/bentonite and major influencing factors were studied. The results show that the sorption capacity of Cr (VI) is increased more than five times compared with the original one. The load of cationic polymers in bentonites, the dosing quantity of EPI-DMA/Bt and PDMDAAC/Bt, the solution pH, temperature (T), time of reaction (t) affect the adsorption. When T = 20 degrees C, pH = 4.0, t = 120 min, EPI-DMA/Bt (the load of cationic polymer is 99.6 mg/g) and PDMDAAC/Bt (the load of cationic polymer is 55.1 mg/g) adsorb 0.71 mg/g and 0.56 mg/g Cr(VI), respectively. The adsorption kinetics are fitted well by pseudo second-order equation. The adsorption isotherms of cationic polymer/bentonites to Cr( VI) are fitted well by the Langmuir equation. PMID:19662861

  12. Graphene oxide-cationic polymer conjugates: Synthesis and application as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Teimouri, Mohsen; Nia, Azadeh Hashem; Abnous, Khalil; Eshghi, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine as the interface between nanotechnology and medical sciences is a new area that has attracted the attention of vast groups of researchers. Carbon nanomaterials are common platform for synthesis of nanoparticles for biomedical applications due to their low cytotoxicity and feasible internalization into mammalian cell lines (Yang et al., 2007; Arora et al., 2014; Oh and Park, 2014). Synthesis of vectors based on various cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), polypropylenimine (PPI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and their derivatives were considered as a strategy for transferring plasmid DNA and treatment of genetic diseases. Considering the low cytotoxicity of graphene, chemical modification of its surface has led to fabrication of novel gene delivery systems based on graphene and graphene oxide. Herein we report the synthesis of three groups of vectors based on conjugation of graphene oxide (GO) with alkylated derivatives of three different cationic polymers (polyethylenimine (PEI), polypropylenimine (PPI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM)) through different linkers including surface carboxyl group, glycine and spermidine. Two main challenges in design of gene delivery vectors is decreasing cytotoxicity while improving the transfection efficiency. All synthesized vectors showed significantly lower cellular toxicity compared to bare polymer. A plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to evaluate the transfection efficiency of nanoparticles both qualitatively using live cell fluorescent imaging and quantitatively using flow cytometry and each vector was compared to its polymer base. Most successful conjugation strategy was observed in the case of PEI conjugates among which most efficient vector was PEI-GO conjugate bearing glycine linker. This vector was 9 fold more effective in terms of the percent of EGFP transfected cells. PMID:27072918

  13. Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Susana; Calado, Sofia; Bitoque, Diogo; Oliveira, Ana Vanessa; Øpstad, Christer L.; Zeeshan, Muhammad; Sliwka, Hans-Richard; Partali, Vassilia; Pungente, Michael D.; Silva, Gabriela A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent success in the treatment of congenital blindness demonstrates the potential of ocular gene therapy as a therapeutic approach. The eye is a good target due to its small size, minimal diffusion of therapeutic agent to the systemic circulation, and low immune and inflammatory responses. Currently, most approaches are based on viral vectors, but efforts continue towards the synthesis and evaluation of new nonviral carriers to improve nucleic acid delivery. Our objective is to evaluate the efficiency of novel cationic retinoic and carotenoic glycol phospholipids, designated C20-18, C20-20, and C30-20, to deliver DNA to human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells. Liposomes were produced by solvent evaporation of ethanolic mixtures of the polyene compounds and coformulated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol). Addition of DNA to the liposomes formed lipoplexes, which were characterized for binding, size, biocompatibility, and transgene efficiency. Lipoplex formulations of suitable size and biocompatibility were assayed for DNA delivery, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using RPE cells and a GFP-encoding plasmid. The retinoic lipoplex formulation with DOPE revealed a transfection efficiency comparable to the known lipid references 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC) and GeneJuice. The results demonstrate that cationic polyene phospholipids have potential as DNA carriers for ocular gene therapy. PMID:25147812

  14. Electrochemical uranyl cation biosensor with DNA oligonucleotides as receptor layer.

    PubMed

    Jarczewska, Marta; Ziółkowski, Robert; Górski, Łukasz; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims at the further development of the uranyl oligonucleotide-based voltammetric biosensor, which takes advantage of strong interaction between UO2(2+) and phosphate DNA backbone. Herein we report the optimization of working parameters of previously elaborated electrochemical DNA biosensor. It is shown that the sensor sensitivity is highly dependent on the oligonucleotide probe length and the incubation time of sensor in a sample solution. Consequently, the highest sensitivity was obtained for 10-nucleotide sequence and 60 min incubation time. The lower detection limit towards uranyl cation for developed biosensor was 30 nM. The influence of mixed monolayers and the possibility of developing a non-calibration device were also investigated. The selectivity of the proposed biosensor was significantly improved via elimination of adenine nucleobases from the DNA probe. Moreover, the regeneration procedure was elaborated and tested to prolong the use of the same biosensor for 4 subsequent determinations of UO2(2+). PMID:24334186

  15. Single Molecule Dynamics of Branched DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Sing, Charles; Schroeder, Charles

    This work focuses on extending the field of single polymer dynamics to topologically complex polymers. Here, we report the direct observation of DNA-based branched polymers. Recently, we recently demonstrated a two-step synthesis method to generate star, H-shaped, and comb polymers for single molecule visualization. Following synthesis, we use single-color or dual-color single molecule fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize branched polymer dynamics in flow, in particular tracking side branches and backbones independently. In this way, our imaging method allows for characterization of molecular properties, including quantification of polymer contour length and branch distributions. Moving beyond characterization, we use molecular rheology and single molecule techniques to study the dynamics of single branched polymers in flow. Here, we utilize precision microfluidics to directly observe branched DNA polymer conformations during transient stretching, steady-state extension, and relaxation from high stretch. We specifically measure backbone end-to-end distance as a function of time. Experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations show that branched polymer relaxation is a strong function of the number of branches and position of branch points along the main chain backbone.

  16. Blending of polyethylenimine with a cationic polyurethane greatly enhances both DNA delivery efficacy and reduces the overall cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cherng, J Y; Hung, W C; Kao, H C

    2011-05-01

    Three blending methods were introduced to combine a biodegradable cationic- polyurethane (PUg3) and polyethylenimine (PEI) together with DNA by different mixing sequences. Results of gel electrophoresis assays and particle size measurements show that complexes prepared by method 1 and 3 bear an ability to condense DNA into small nanoparticles. On the contrary, the use of method 2 in making complexes produces significantly large particles because of the weaker interaction with DNA and lack of DNA condensation. Moreover, cell proliferation assays show that no cytotoxicity of the DNA/blended-polymers complexes (exhibited by method 1) was found and due to a result of the outer coating of PUg3, reducing cytotoxic PEI exposure outside the complexes. With a new technique in pharmaceutics, the complexes prepared for DNA delivery by mixing of PEI and PUg3 with DNA in a sequence (method 1) could achieve an even better transfection efficiency (reaching 40% higher) than using PEI alone as well as reduce the cytotoxicity substantially. In conclusion, a new class of complexes (non-viral combo-system) made by a skillful blending sequence (method 1) has been designed and demonstrated to obtain the beneficial properties from two useful and individual polymers for gene delivery. This method can be used in greatly improving the transfection efficiency of polymer-based gene vectors. The blended polymers with DNA also have a better biocompatibility and no cytotoxicity, which are the requirements and critical points for great success in performing gene therapy in vivo. PMID:21446905

  17. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... comfort. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA... carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive shall have an approved PMA or...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comfort. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA... carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive shall have an approved PMA or...

  19. Disulphide cross linked pullulan based cationic polymer for improved gene delivery and efflux pump inhibition.

    PubMed

    S, Priya S; R, Rekha M

    2016-10-01

    Multidrug resistance is a hurdle to successful cancer chemotherapy. Over expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a prime contributing factor for drug resistance. In this study, a disulphide cross-linked pullulan-based cationic polymer (PPSS) was synthesized to act simultaneously as gene delivery vehicle and efflux pump inhibitor. The PPSS nanoplexes were of size <200nm with the zeta potential of +15 to +20mV. The cytotoxicity studies using C6 and L929 cells showed that PPSS polymers are non-toxic even at high polymer concentrations. The PPSS/pDNA nanoplex showed superior uptake in confocal microscopy with 97% uptake by flow cytometry. The efficacy of efflux pump inhibition by the PPSS nanoplex was established by the enhanced intracellular retention of DOX. The enhanced cell death by p53/PPSS/DOX nanoplexes was attributed to the synergistic effect of P-gp inhibition and p53 transfection efficiency. Therefore, this multifunctional polymeric system may have significant promise for therapeutic application against cancer drug resistance. PMID:27459414

  20. Polymer microspheres carrying fluorescent DNA probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Xu, Shichao; Wu, Chunrong; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    A polymer microspheres carried DNA probe, which was based on resonance energy transfer, was presented in this paper when CdTe quantum dots(QDs) were as energy donors, Au nanoparticles were as energy accepters and poly(4- vinylpyrindine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) microspheres were as carriers. Polymer microspheres with functional group on surfaces were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization when ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was as crosslinker in acetonitrile. CdTe QDs were prepared when 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA) was as the stabilizer in aqueous solution. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the carboxyl groups of MPA on QDs and the pyrindine groups on the microspheres, the QDs were self-assembled onto the surfaces of microspheres. Then, the other parts of DNA probe were finished according to the classic method. The DNA detection results indicated that this novel fluorescent DNA probe system could recognize the existence of complementary target DNA or not.

  1. Dynamics of Nucleic Acid/Cationic Polymer Complexation and Disassembly under Biologically Simulated Conditions Using In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Min Suk; Wang, Xi; Ragan, Regina; Kwon, Young Jik

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating dynamic morphological changes of gene-carrying vectors and their nucleic acid release under varying intracellular conditions has been a technical challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe nucleic acid/polymer polyplexes under endosomal and reducible cytosolic conditions. Both ketalized (acid-degradable) and unmodified (non-degradable) polyethylenimine (PEI) in linear and branched forms were used to prepare plasmid DNA- or siRNA-complexing polyplexes. Then, the polyplexes’ complexation and disassembly were observed by in situ AFM in various differentially changing buffers that represent intracellular conditions. Results demonstrated obvious morphological destruction of DNA/ketalized linear PEI (KL-PEI) polyplexes under mildly acidic endosomal conditions, while no morphological changes were observed by DNA/ketalized branched PEI (KB-PEI) under the same conditions. In addition, siRNA was more efficiently dissociated from KL-PEI than KB-PEI under the same conditions. Non-degradable PEI did not show any evidence that DNA or siRNA was released. Anionic biomacromolecules (e.g., heparan sulfate), which was hypothesized to dissociate nucleic acids from cationic polymers, did not successfully disassemble polyplexes but appeared to be adsorbed on cationic polymers. The in situ AFM results combined with in vitro cellular transfection and gene silencing indicated that efficient endosomal escape of plasmid DNA in a compact polyplex form is required for efficient gene expression. On the contrary, rapid dissociation of siRNA from its cationic carrier is crucial for efficient gene silencing. The findings of this study may provide new insightful information for designing stimuli-responsive nonviral gene vectors as well as expanding tools for investigating nonviral vectors in nano scales under biologically inspired conditions. PMID:20803694

  2. PEGylated Cationic Liposome – DNA Complexation in Brine is Pathway-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno F.B.; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Chan, Chia-Ling; Li, Youli; Olsson, Ulf; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes, are regarded as promising materials for safe and efficient delivery of genes for therapeutical applications. In order to be used in vivo, these complexes may be coated with a hydrophilic polymer (e.g. polyethylene-glycol, PEG) that provides steric stabilization towards adhesion of proteins and removal by the immune system. In this work we study the influence of the initial salt concentration (Cs) – which modulates the electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged vesicles and DNA – on the structure and stability of PEGylated CL-DNA particles. Previous small-angle X-ray scattering has shown that if non-PEGylated or PEGylated CL-DNA lamellar complexes are prepared in water, their structure is well defined with a high number of lipid membrane-DNA layers (larger than 20). Here we show that if these complexes are transferred to saline media (150 mM NaCl or DMEM, both near physiological conditions), this structure remains nearly unchanged. Conversely, if PEGylated complexes are prepared in saline media, their lamellar structure is much looser, with fewer number of layers. This pathway dependent behavior of PEGylated complex formation in brine is modulated by the liposome membrane charge density and the mole fraction of PEG 2000 in the membranes, with the average number of layers decreasing with increasing Cs and in going from 5 mol% to 10 mol% PEG-lipid. Each of these structures (high and low number of layers) is stable with time, suggesting that despite complex formation being thermodynamically favored, the complexation process in PEGylated membranes, which determines the number of layers per particle, is kinetically controlled. In the extreme case (when polymer repulsions from 10 mol% PEG-lipid are maximized and electrostatic attraction between PEGylated CLs and DNA are minimized at low membrane charge density) complex formation is suppressed at high Cs=150 mM. PMID:24060564

  3. Surface area of lipid membranes regulates the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caminiti, Ruggero; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied electrophoresis on agarose gels to investigate the DNA-binding capacity of cationic liposomes made of cationic DC-cholesterol and neutral dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine as a function of membrane charge density and cationic lipid/DNA charge ratio. While each cationic liposome formulation exhibits a distinctive DNA-protection ability, here we show that such a capacity is universally regulated by surface area of lipid membranes available for binding in an aspecific manner. The relevance of DNA protection for gene transfection is also discussed.

  4. Cationic micellar nanoparticles for DNA and doxorubicin co-delivery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Tao; Zou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Yue-Chun; Zhao, Yi; Zhu, Hui-Er; Wang, Guan-Hai; Zhang, Li-Ming; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2014-11-01

    Cationic micellar nanoparticles for chemotherapeutic drugs and therapeutic gene co-delivery were prepared based on a poly-(N-ε-carbobenzyloxy-l-lysine) (PZLL) and dendritic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) block copolymer (PZLL-D3). PZLL-D3 was synthesized by a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cyclization (click) reaction between α-alkyne-PZLL and azide focal point PAMAM dendrons. Its structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR, and its buffering capability was determined by acid-base titration. MTT, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry studies showed that PZLL-D3 revealed low in vitro cytotoxicity, strong pDNA condensation ability, protection of pDNA against deoxyribonuclease I degradation and high gene transfection efficiency in 293T and HeLa cells. In addition, the micellar nanoparticles delivered pDNA and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously and efficiently to tumor cells, and the DOX loaded nanoparticles showed sustained in vitro release at pH=7.4 and 5.8. PMID:25280725

  5. Polymers modified with double-tailed fluorous compounds for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Bingwei; Wang, Yitong; Shao, Naimin; Chang, Hong; Cheng, Yiyun

    2015-08-01

    Cationic polymers are widely used as gene carriers, however, these polymers are usually associated with low transfection efficacy and non-negligible toxicity. Fluorination on polymers significantly improves their performances in gene delivery, but a high density of fluorous chains must be conjugated on a single polymer. Here we present a new strategy to construct fluorinated polymers with minimal fluorous chains for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery. A double-tailed fluorous compound 2-chloro-4,6-bis[(perfluorohexyl)propyloxy]-1,3,5-triazine (CBT) was conjugated on dendrimers of different generations and low molecular weight polyethylenimine via a facile synthesis. The yielding products with average numbers of 1-2 conjugated CBT moieties showed much improved EGFP and luciferase transfection efficacy compared to unmodified polymers. In addition, these polymers show high siRNA delivery efficacy on different cell lines. Among the synthesized polymers, generation 1 (G1) dendrimer modified with an average number of 1.9 CBT moieties (G1-CBT1.9) shows the highest efficacy when delivering both DNA and siRNA and its efficacy approaches that of Lipofectamine 2000. G1-CBT1.9 also shows efficient gene silencing in vivo. All of the CBT-modified polymers exhibit minimal toxicity on the cells at their optimal transfection conditions. This study provides a new strategy to design efficient fluorous polymers for DNA and siRNA delivery. PMID:25937003

  6. Is DNA a Good Model Polymer?

    PubMed Central

    Tree, Douglas R.; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Doyle, Patrick S.; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The details surrounding the cross-over from wormlike-specific to universal polymeric behavior has been the subject of debate and confusion even for the simple case of a dilute, unconfined wormlike chain. We have directly computed the polymer size, form factor, free energy and Kirkwood diffusivity for unconfined wormlike chains as a function of molecular weight, focusing on persistence lengths and effective widths that represent single-stranded and double-stranded DNA in a high ionic strength buffer. To do so, we use a chain-growth Monte Carlo algorithm, the Pruned-Enriched Rosenbluth Method (PERM), which allows us to estimate equilibrium and near-equilibrium dynamic properties of wormlike chains over an extremely large range of contour lengths. From our calculations, we find that very large DNA chains (≈ 1,000,000 base pairs depending on the choice of size metric) are required to reach flexible, swollen non-draining coils. Furthermore, our results indicate that the commonly used model polymer λ-DNA (48,500 base pairs) does not exhibit “ideal” scaling, but exists in the middle of the transition to long-chain behavior. We subsequently conclude that typical DNA used in experiments are too short to serve as an accurate model of long-chain, universal polymer behavior. PMID:24347685

  7. Understanding the salinity effect on cationic polymers in inducing flocculation of the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans.

    PubMed

    't Lam, G P; Giraldo, J B; Vermuë, M H; Olivieri, G; Eppink, M H M; Wijffels, R H

    2016-05-10

    A mechanistic study was performed to evaluate the effect of salinity on cationic polymeric flocculants, that are used for the harvesting of microalgae. The polyacrylamide Synthofloc 5080H and the polysaccharide Chitosan were employed for the flocculation of Neochloris oleoabundans. In seawater conditions, a maximum biomass recovery of 66% was obtained with a dosage of 90mg/L Chitosan. This recovery was approximately 25% lower compared to Synthofloc 5080H reaching recoveries greater than 90% with dosages of 30mg/L. Although different recoveries were obtained with both flocculants, the polymers exhibit a similar apparent polymer length, as was evaluated from viscosity measurements. While both flocculants exhibit similar polymer lengths in increasing salinity, the zeta potential differs. This indicates that polymeric charge dominates flocculation. With increased salinity, the effectivity of cationic polymeric flocculants decreases due to a reduction in cationic charge. This mechanism was confirmed through a SEM analysis and additional experiments using flocculants with various charge densities. PMID:27002231

  8. Colorimetric detection of bisphenol A based on unmodified aptamer and cationic polymer aggregated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongwei; Yang, Jiayi; Ye, Jing; Xu, Lurong; Xu, Hanchu; Zhan, Shenshan; Xia, Bing; Wang, Lumei

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a colorimetric method was exploited to detect bisphenol A (BPA) based on BPA-specific aptamer and cationic polymer-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The principle of this assay is very classical. The aggregation of AuNPs was induced by the concentration of cationic polymer, which is controlled by specific recognition of aptamer with BPA and the reaction of aptamer and cationic polymer forming "duplex" structure. This method enables colorimetric detection of BPA with selectivity and a detection limit of 1.50 nM. In addition, this colorimetric method was successfully used to determine spiked BPA in tap water and river water samples. PMID:26820097

  9. DNA-sensors based on functionalized conducting polymers and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjällman, Tanja; Peng, Hui; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Soeller, Christian

    2007-12-01

    The availability of rapid and specific biosensors is of great importance for many areas of biomedical research and modern biotechnology. This includes a need for DNA sensors where the progress of molecular biology demands routine detection of minute concentrations of specific gene fragments. A promising alternative approach to traditional DNA essays utilizes novel smart materials, including conducting polymers and nanostructured materials such as quantum dots. We have constructed a number of DNA sensors based on smart materials that allow rapid one-step detection of unlabeled DNA fragments with high specificity. These sensors are based on functionalized conducting polymers derived from polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV). PPy based sensors provide intrinsic electrical readout via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of these sensors is compared to a novel self-assembled monolayer-PNA construct on a gold electrode. Characterization of the novel PNA based sensor shows that it has comparable performance to the PPy based sensors and can also be read out effectively using AC cyclic voltammetry. Complementary to such solid substrate sensors we have developed a novel optical DNA essay based on a new PPV derived cationic conducting polymer. DNA detection in this essay results from sample dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer changes between the cationic conducting polymer and Cy3 labeled probe oligonucleotides. As an alternative to such fluorochrome based sensors we discuss the use of inorganic nanocrystals ('quantum dots') and present data from water soluble CdTe quantum dots synthesized in an aqueous environment.

  10. Re-polarizing Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) with Cationic Polymers for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Liang, Pei; Guo, Guangxing; Huang, Zhen; Niu, Yiming; Dong, Lei; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Our evolving understandings of cell-material interactions provide insights for using polymers to modulate cell behaviour that may lead to therapeutic applications. It is known that in certain cancers, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play vital roles in promoting tumour progression, chiefly because of their 'alternatively activated' (or M2) phenotype that orchestrates immunosuppression. In this study, we demonstrated that two cationic polymers - cationic dextran (C-dextran) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) - could directly remodel these cells into an anti-tumour, 'classically activated' (or M1) phenotype, thereby stimulating these cells to express tumouricidal cytokines, reactivating the T cell functions, and prolonging the lifespan of the mice model. Our investigations with knock-out mice further indicate that the functions of these cationic polymers require the involvement of toll-like receptor 4-mediated signalling. Taken together, our study suggests that these cationic polymers can effectively and directly re-polarize MDSCs from an immunosuppressive characteristic to an anti-tumour phenotype, leading to successful restoration of immune surveillance in the tumour microenvironment and elimination of tumour cells. Our findings may have immediate impact on further development of polymer-based therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27074905

  11. Re-polarizing Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) with Cationic Polymers for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Liang, Pei; Guo, Guangxing; Huang, Zhen; Niu, Yiming; Dong, Lei; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Our evolving understandings of cell-material interactions provide insights for using polymers to modulate cell behaviour that may lead to therapeutic applications. It is known that in certain cancers, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play vital roles in promoting tumour progression, chiefly because of their ‘alternatively activated’ (or M2) phenotype that orchestrates immunosuppression. In this study, we demonstrated that two cationic polymerscationic dextran (C-dextran) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) – could directly remodel these cells into an anti-tumour, ‘classically activated’ (or M1) phenotype, thereby stimulating these cells to express tumouricidal cytokines, reactivating the T cell functions, and prolonging the lifespan of the mice model. Our investigations with knock-out mice further indicate that the functions of these cationic polymers require the involvement of toll-like receptor 4-mediated signalling. Taken together, our study suggests that these cationic polymers can effectively and directly re-polarize MDSCs from an immunosuppressive characteristic to an anti-tumour phenotype, leading to successful restoration of immune surveillance in the tumour microenvironment and elimination of tumour cells. Our findings may have immediate impact on further development of polymer-based therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27074905

  12. Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Peter C.; Min, Younjin; Huang, Bonnie; Kramer, Joshua A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Barouch, Dan H.; Hammond, Paula T.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2013-04-01

    DNA vaccines have many potential benefits but have failed to generate robust immune responses in humans. Recently, methods such as in vivo electroporation have demonstrated improved performance, but an optimal strategy for safe, reproducible, and pain-free DNA vaccination remains elusive. Here we report an approach for rapid implantation of vaccine-loaded polymer films carrying DNA, immune-stimulatory RNA, and biodegradable polycations into the immune-cell-rich epidermis, using microneedles coated with releasable polyelectrolyte multilayers. Films transferred into the skin following brief microneedle application promoted local transfection and controlled the persistence of DNA and adjuvants in the skin from days to weeks, with kinetics determined by the film composition. These ‘multilayer tattoo’ DNA vaccines induced immune responses against a model HIV antigen comparable to electroporation in mice, enhanced memory T-cell generation, and elicited 140-fold higher gene expression in non-human primate skin than intradermal DNA injection, indicating the potential of this strategy for enhancing DNA vaccination.

  13. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, H.S.

    1989-11-21

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]7] S cm[sup [minus]1] at room temperature.

  14. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Hung S.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-7 S cm.sup.-1 at room temperature.

  15. Intermolecular forces between low generation PAMAM dendrimer condensed DNA helices: role of cation architecture.

    PubMed

    An, Min; Parkin, Sean R; DeRouchey, Jason E

    2014-01-28

    In recent years, dendriplexes, complexes of cationic dendrimers with DNA, have become attractive DNA delivery vehicles due to their well-defined chemistries. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing dendriplexes, we studied low generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-DNA complexes and compared them to comparably charged linear arginine peptides. Using osmotic stress coupled with X-ray scattering, we have investigated the effect of molecular chain architecture on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance within these polycation condensed DNA arrays. In order to compact DNA, linear cations are believed to bind in DNA grooves and to interact with the phosphate backbone of apposing helices. We have previously shown a length dependent attraction resulting in higher packaging densities with increasing charge for linear cations. Hyperbranched polycations, such as polycationic dendrimers, presumably would not be able to bind to DNA and correlate their charges in the same manner as linear cations. We show that attractive and repulsive force amplitudes in PAMAM-DNA assemblies display significantly different trends than comparably charged linear arginines resulting in lower DNA packaging densities with increasing PAMAM generation. The salt and pH dependencies of packaging in PAMAM dendrimer-DNA and linear arginine-DNA complexes were also investigated. Significant differences in the force curve behaviour and salt and pH sensitivities suggest that different binding modes may be present in DNA condensed by dendrimers when compared to linear polycations. PMID:24651934

  16. Cationic-modified cyclodextrin nanosphere/anionic polymer as flocculation/sorption systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huining; Cezar, Norlito

    2005-03-15

    Simultaneous removal of dissolved and colloidal substances has been a challenging task. The cationic-modified beta-cyclodextrin nanospheres synthesized in this work, in conjunction with a water-soluble polyacrylamide-based anionic polymer, potentially provide a novel approach to address the problem. The cyclodextrin was rendered cationic using (2,3-epoxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride as a reagent. The cationicity of the modified cyclodextrin and the reaction between cyclodextrin and the reagent were characterized by electrophoresis measurement, polyelectrolyte titration, and NMR. As a dual-component flocculation system, the cationic cyclodextrin/anionic polymer significantly induced clay flocculation, lowering the relative turbidity of the clay suspension over a wide pH range. Meanwhile, as a nanospherical absorbent, the modified cyclodextrins exhibited strong affinity toward aromatic compounds via inclusion complex formation in the hydrophobic cavities, which was monitored by UV spectroscopy. These systems facilitated the simultaneous removal of dissolved and colloidal substances, which was unachievable previously. In addition, the interaction between anionic polymers and the clay particles pretreated with cationic cyclodextrin was investigated in order to reveal the flocculation mechanism. PMID:15721912

  17. Cationic β-cyclodextrin polymer applied to a dual cyclodextrin polyelectrolyte multilayer system.

    PubMed

    Junthip, Jatupol; Tabary, Nicolas; Leclercq, Laurent; Martel, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    A polyelectrolyte multilayer film (PEM) based on cationic and anionic β-cyclodextrin polyelectrolytes was coated onto a textile substrate for future drug delivery purposes. We firstly synthesized a novel cationic β-cyclodextrin polymer (polyEPG-CD) by crosslinking β-cyclodextrin (βCD) with epichlorohydrin (EP) under basic conditions, in the presence of glycidyltrimetrylammonium chloride (GTMAC) as cationizing group. The influence of preparation conditions has been investigated in order to preferably obtain a water soluble fraction whose charge density and molecular weights were optimal for the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition process. The different cationic cyclodextrin polymers obtained were characterized by FTIR, NMR, colloidal titration, conductimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and size exclusion chromatography. Besides, the counterpart polyelectrolyte was a β-cyclodextrin polymer crosslinked with citric acid, polyCTR-CD, whose synthesis and characterization have been previously reported. Finally we realized the Layer by Layer (LbL) build-up of the PEM coating onto the textile support, using the dip coating method, by alternatively soaking it in cationic polyEPG-CD and anionic polyCTR-CD solutions. This multilayer self-assembly was monitored by SEM, gravimetry and OWLS in function of both polyelectrolytes concentrations and ratios. Solutions parameters such as pH, ionic strenght were also discussed. PMID:25933534

  18. [Construction and evaluation of non-specific targeting cationic polymer lipid liposomes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Ru-tao; Wang, Zhao; Lu, Ting-li; Zhao, Wen

    2010-03-01

    A new class of dendrimer polylysine poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was designed and synthesized. The cationic polymer liposomes were prepared by the lipid film-extrusion and post-insertion two methods with these dendrimer polylysine poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid and other lipids. The structural properties of obtained cationic polymer liposomes were studied by laser light scattering and fluorescence spectrometer. It was demonstrated that the nano sized liposomes with different density of surface cationic charges can be prepared by either lipid film-extrusion or post-insertion methods, but post-insertion process did not affect drug loading, did not influence drug loading capacity and did not induce liposomal morphology and particle size. The density of positive charge does not affect the size and distribution of different liposomes size and distribution. It was the better choice for manufacture because post-insertion method did not cause early release of drug and size changes. Cell binding experiments show that cationic polymer liposomes, especially dendrimer polymer liposomes had higher local charge density, and therefore have dramatic non specific cell targeting ability. PMID:21351513

  19. A linear-dendritic cationic vector for efficient DNA grasp and delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Sun, Yun-xia; Yi, Wen-jie; Yang, Juan; Liu, Chen-wei; Cheng, Han; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-zheng; Zhuo, Ren-xi

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an attempt to design an efficient and biocompatible cationic gene vector via structural optimization that favors the efficient utilization of amine groups for DNA condensation. To this end, a linear-dendritic block copolymer of methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol)-dendritic polyglycerol-graft-tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (mPEG-DPG-g-TAEA) was prepared with specially designed multiple functions including strong DNA affinity, endosomal buffering and expected serum-tolerance. Based on the transfection in serum-free and serum-conditioned media, the influences of the polymer structures including the degree of polymerization of DPG and TAEA substitution degree were explored. As compared to polyethylenimine (M(w)=5 kDa) (PEI5k) with similar molecular weight and higher amine density, mPEG-DPG-g-TAEA displayed comparably high DNA affinity due to the special linear-dendritic architecture. Consequently, at very low N/P ratio, mPEG-DPG-g-TAEA vectors could mediate efficient in vitro luciferase expression at levels that are comparable with or even superior to the commercially available Lipofectamine™ 2000, while being apparently higher than PEI5k. The designed vectors exhibit considerably higher cell biocompatibility and better resistance against bovine serum albumin adsorption than PEI5k. The stability of the complexes on coincubation with heparin was found to be largely dependent on the polymer structure. As concluded from the comparative transfection study in the absence/presence of chloroquine, it is likely that the polycation itself could produce endosomal buffering. This linear-dendritic vector shows promising potential for the application of gene delivery. PMID:22370448

  20. Programmed Switching of Single Polymer Conformation on DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Madsen, Mikael; Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Gudnason, Daniel; Surareungchai, Werasak; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-02-23

    DNA nanotechnology offers precise geometrical control of the positioning of materials, and it is increasingly also being used in the development of nanomechanical devices. Here we describe the development of a nanomechanical device that allows switching of the position of a single-molecule conjugated polymer. The polymer is functionalized with short single-stranded (ss) DNA strands that extend from the backbone of the polymer and serve as handles. The DNA polymer conjugate can be aligned on DNA origami in three well-defined geometries (straight line, left-turned, and right-turned pattern) by DNA hybridization directed by single-stranded guiding strands and ssDNA tracks extending from the origami surface and polymer handle. We demonstrate switching of a conjugated organic polymer conformation between left- and right-turned conformations of the polymer on DNA origami based on toehold-mediated strand displacement. The switching is observed by atomic force microscopy and by Förster resonance energy transfer between the polymer and two different organic dyes positioned in close proximity to the respective patterns. Using this method, the polymer conformation can be switched six times successively. This controlled nanomechanical switching of conjugated organic polymer conformation demonstrates unique control of the shape of a single polymer molecule, and it may constitute a new component for the development of reconfigurable nanophotonic and nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26766635

  1. Discovery of Cationic Polymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Sutapa; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Taylor, David; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Montanez, Gabriela; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive treatment option for diseases of genetic origin, including several cancers and cardiovascular diseases. While viruses are effective vectors for delivering exogenous genes to cells, concerns related to insertional mutagenesis, immunogenicity, lack of tropism, decay and high production costs necessitate the discovery of non-viral methods. Significant efforts have been focused on cationic polymers as non-viral alternatives for gene delivery. Recent studies have employed combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening methods for enhancing the efficacy of gene delivery, biocompatibility of the delivery vehicle, and overcoming cellular level barriers as they relate to polymer-mediated transgene uptake, transport, transcription, and expression. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in combinatorial syntheses and parallel screening of cationic polymer libraries for the discovery of efficient and safe gene delivery systems. PMID:21843141

  2. The polymer physics of single DNA confined in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liang; Renner, C Benjamin; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, applications and experimental studies of DNA in nanochannels have stimulated the investigation of the polymer physics of DNA in confinement. Recent advances in the physics of confined polymers, using DNA as a model polymer, have moved beyond the classic Odijk theory for the strong confinement, and the classic blob theory for the weak confinement. In this review, we present the current understanding of the behaviors of confined polymers while briefly reviewing classic theories. Three aspects of confined DNA are presented: static, dynamic, and topological properties. The relevant simulation methods are also summarized. In addition, comparisons of confined DNA with DNA under tension and DNA in semidilute solution are made to emphasize universal behaviors. Finally, an outlook of the possible future research for confined DNA is given. PMID:26782150

  3. Do the cations in clay and the polymer matrix affect quantum dot fluorescent properties?

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenjun; Liu, Cui; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Xueqing; Zou, Linling; Cai, Shaojun; Shi, Hong; Cao, Yuan-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This paper studied the effects of cations and polymer matrix on the fluorescent properties of quantum dots (QDs). The results indicated that temperature has a greater impact on fluorescence intensity than clay cations (mainly K(+) and Na(+) ). Combined fluorescence lifetime and steady-state spectrometer tests showed that QD lifetimes all decreased when the cation concentration was increased, but the quantum yields were steady at various cation concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1 M. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and diepoxy resin were used to study the effects of polymers on QD lifetime and quantum yield. The results showed that the lifetime for QDs 550 nm in PEO and PVA was 17.33 and 17.12 ns, respectively; for the epoxy resin, the lifetime was 0.74 ns, a sharp decrease from 24.47 ns. The quantum yield for QDs 550 nm changed from 34.22% to 7.45% and 7.81% in PEO and PVA, respectively; for the epoxy resin the quantum yield was 2.25%. QDs 580 nm and 620 nm showed the same results as QDs 550 nm. This study provides useful information on the design, synthesis and application of QDs-polymer luminescent materials. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663530

  4. Multi-physical model of cation and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chang, Longfei; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kentaro; Aabloo, Alvo; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-03-01

    Ion-migration based electrical potential widely exists not only in natural systems but also in ionic polymer materials. We presented a multi-physical model and investigated the transport process of cation and water of ionic polymer-metal composites based on our thorough understanding on the ionic sensing mechanisms in this paper. The whole transport process was depicted by transport equations concerning convection flux under the total pressure gradient, electrical migration by the built-in electrical field, and the inter-coupling effect between cation and water. With numerical analysis, the influence of critical material parameters, the elastic modulus Ewet, the hydraulic permeability coefficient K, the diffusion coefficient of cation dII and water dWW, and the drag coefficient of water ndW, on the distribution of cation and water was investigated. It was obtained how these parameters correlate to the voltage characteristics (both magnitude and response speed) under a step bending. Additionally, it was found that the effective relative dielectric constant ɛr has little influence on the voltage but is positively correlated to the current. With a series of optimized parameters, the predicted voltage agreed with the experimental results well, which validated our model. Based on our physical model, it was suggested that an ionic polymer sensor can benefit from a higher modulus Ewet, a higher coefficient K and a lower coefficient dII, and a higher constant ɛr.

  5. Morphological study of cationic polymer-anionic surfactant complex precipitated in solution during the dilution process.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M; Kakizawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phase diagrams and the morphology of the complexes that were formed by cationic polymers, cationic cellulose (CC) and cationic dextran (CD), and by anionic surfactant-based sodium poly(oxyethylene) lauryl ether sulfate (LES). The anionic charge of the LES-based surfactants was changed by adding an amphoteric surfactant, lauryl amidopropyl betaine acetate (LPB), or a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (C18EO25). We discuss the relationship between the complex aggregation process and the morphology of the precipitated complexes. The morphologies of CC complex aggregates, which precipitated during the dilution process in a model shampoo solution, changed from membranous forms to mesh-like forms by decreasing the charges of both the CC and the surfactant. Their touch on hair in the rinsing process changed from sticky to smooth and velvety, corresponding to their rheological properties. In contrast, CD complex aggregates had a membranous form and a smooth touch independently of the charges on the polymer and surfactant. These results suggested that the control of the charges of both the polymer and surfactant and the choice of polymer structure are important for excellent conditioning effects upon rinsing with shampoo. PMID:20716437

  6. Dark States in Single DNA Bases and DNA Base Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Bern; Hare, Patrick M.; Middleton, Chris T.

    2009-06-01

    DNA is vulnerable to photochemical modification by UV light. The excited electronic states that initiate DNA damage have been difficult to characterize due to their ultrashort lifetimes, and most excitations in single DNA bases decay to the electronic ground state in hundreds of femtoseconds. Although many workers have now located conical intersections between various electronic states of the nucleobases, there is still confusion over the precise dynamics that lead to deactivation. This is especially true for the pyrimidine bases where the initial Franck-Condon population bifurcates with some molecules decaying to the ground state and others relaxing to a relatively long-lived ^1nπ* state. Results from UV/UV and UV/mid-IR transient absorption experiments will be presented that illustrate these dual decay pathways. Evidence suggests that the ^1nπ* state mediates intersystem crossing to the triplet state. Finally, current understanding of how these single-base decay pathways are modified by interactions in DNA polymers will be discussed.

  7. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and cationic polymer on biofouling mitigation in hybrid MBRs.

    PubMed

    Jamal Khan, S; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the influence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and cationic polymer (MPE50) was investigated on the fouling propensity in hybrid MBRs. Three laboratory scale MBRs were operated simultaneously including MBR(Control), MBR(PAC), and MBR(Polymer). Optimum dosages of PAC and polymer to the MBR(PAC) and MBR(Polymer), respectively were determined using jar tests. It was found that the MBR(PAC) exhibited low fouling tendency and prolonged filtration as compared to the other MBRs. Improved filtration in MBR(PAC) was attributed to the flocculation and adsorption phenomena. The effective stability of the biomass by PAC in the form of biological activated carbon (BAC) was verified by the increase in mean particle size. The BAC aided sludge layer exhibited porous cake structure resulting in the prolong filtration. However, both the membrane hybrid systems revealed effective adsorption of organic matter by 40% reduction in the soluble EPS concentration. PMID:22264429

  8. Detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity based on cationic conjugated polymer-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Lian, Sai; Liu, Chenghui; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghong; Li, Zhengping

    2015-04-15

    A simple but robust strategy for sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) activity is developed by means of a DNA phosphorylation-accelerated λ exonuclease cleavage reaction coupled with cationic conjugated polymer (CCP)-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Firstly, a label-free hairpin DNA with a 5'-hydroxyl end is designed as the substrate of T4 PNK. SYBR Green I (SGI), a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-specific fluorescent dye, can fluoresce only when intercalated to the stem region of the hairpin DNA. When mixed with CCP, the SGI-binding hairpin DNA will be brought in close proximity with the CCP due to strong electrostatic interaction, leading to efficient FRET from CCP to SGI. However, in the presence of T4 PNK, the hairpin DNA would be phosphorylated at its 5'-terminus and thus can be immediately recognized as the initial cleavage site of λ exonuclease. The phosphorylation-actuated λ exonuclease reaction will cleave the stem of the hairpin to yield a single-stranded DNA, which is unable to combine with SGI and as a result, the FRET signal would decrease gradually in correlation to the T4 PNK activity. Therefore, by recording the change of FRET ratio, T4 PNK activity can be facilely determined in a mix-and-read manner. Due to the light harvesting and fluorescence amplification properties of CCP, high sensitivity is achieved for this homogeneous assay. This new strategy provides a simple detection procedure, easy readout and cost-effective manner for T4 PNK analysis, which shows great potential in the study of polynucleotide kinase-related biological processes. PMID:25437369

  9. Propoxylation of cationic polymers provides a novel approach to controllable modulation of their cellular toxicity and interaction with nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Vesta D; Salakhieva, Diana V; Yergeshov, Abdulla A; Badeev, Yuriy V; Shtyrlin, Yurii G; Abdullin, Timur I

    2016-12-01

    An effective chemical approach to modulation of biological interactions of cationic polymers was proposed and tested using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a drug carrier. Branched 25kDa PEI was modified in the reaction with propylene oxide (PO) to produce a series of propoxylated PEIs with NH groups grafted by single or oligomer PO units. Clear relationships between the propoxylation degree and biological effects, such as interaction with plasmid DNA, hemolytic, cytotoxic, and pro-apoptotic activities were revealed for PEIs modified upon PO/NH molar ratio of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0. The partial modification of available cationic centers up to 100% is predominantly accompanied by a significant gradual reduction in polycation adverse effects, while ability of complex formation with plasmid DNA is being preserved. Grafted PEI with 0.75 PO/NH ratio provides better protection from nuclease degradation and transfection activity compared with other modified PEIs. Revealed relationships contribute to the development of safe polymeric systems with controllable physicochemical properties and biological interactions. PMID:27612689

  10. Emulsion polymerization synthesis of cationic polymer latex in an ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Melanie; Grieser, Franz

    2002-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(butyl acrylate) lattices have been synthesized under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of a cationic surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The polymerization of oil-in-water emulsions of monomeric species was carried out at 30 degrees C (+/-5 degrees C) in the absence of a chemical initiator. The lattices were formed as stable dispersions with particle diameters spanning the range of 40-150 nm and with polymer molecular weights greater than 10(6) g mol(-1). The results obtained strongly support a polymerization process involving a miniemulsion system, in which continuous nucleation of particles takes place throughout the monomer to polymer conversion reaction. PMID:16290704

  11. Polymer Multilayers that Promote the Rapid Release and Contact Transfer of DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Si, Yi; Bechler, Shane L; Liu, Bo; Lynn, David M

    2015-09-14

    We report a layer-by-layer approach to the fabrication of thin polymer-based multilayers that release DNA rapidly in physiologically relevant environments. This approach exploits the properties of a weak anionic polyelectrolyte [poly(acrylic acid); PAA] to disrupt ionic interactions and promote disassembly in coatings that otherwise erode slowly. We investigated this approach using multilayers fabricated from plasmid DNA and linear poly(ethylenimine) (LPEI), a model synthetic cationic polymer used widely for DNA delivery. LPEI/DNA multilayers erode and release DNA slowly over ∼4 days when incubated in PBS buffer. In contrast, substitution of every other layer of DNA with PAA lead to thin films that released DNA rapidly, with >60% being released in the first 5 min. These quick-release coatings release bioactive DNA and can be used to fabricate uniform coatings on a variety of objects, including the tips of inflatable balloon catheters. We demonstrate that these coatings can promote high levels of cell transfection in vitro and the robust contact transfer and expression of DNA in vascular tissue in vivo using a rat model of vascular injury. These materials provide useful alternatives to multilayers and other coatings that promote the prolonged release of DNA. More broadly, approaches that depart from the use of degradable polymers to promote film erosion create opportunities to design new gene delivery coatings using a broader range of polymer-based building blocks designed for other gene delivery applications. With further development, this approach could thus provide a new and useful platform for the rapid contact transfer of DNA to cells and tissues of interest in a range of fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:26285737

  12. Structure and Properties of a Semi-crystalline Cationic Polymer for Anion Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Savage, Alice; Ren, Xiaoming; Insane Membranes Collaboration

    Nafion has long been studied in order to understand its combination of good mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and excellent charge transport characteristics. In the past decade, uncertainty regarding the morphological behavior of Nafion has largely been resolved, allowing researchers to mimic and improve on the structure of this material. In this presentation, work to incorporate key characteristics of Nafion into a model cation-containing polymer will be described. In these new materials, semi-crystalline atactic poly(norbornene) is used to introduce good mechanical properties to anion-exchange membranes, analogous to the PTFE crystallites in Nafion. The ether linkages between the charged species and backbone are also utilized to place the cationic species (trimethylamine) in our materials into a mechanically soft environment. The resulting polymer shows some characteristics that are similar to those of Nafion. In this presentation, the synthesis, alkaline stability, mechanical properties, morphological behavior and charge transport properties will all be described.

  13. Use of cationic polymers to reduce pathogen levels during dairy manure separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Runge, Troy

    2016-01-15

    Various separation technologies are used to deal with the enormous amounts of animal waste that large livestock operations generate. When the recycled waste stream is land applied, it is essential to lower the pathogen load to safeguard the health of livestock and humans. We investigated whether cationic polymers, used as a flocculent in the solid/liquid separation process, could reduce the pathogen indicator load in the animal waste stream. The effects of low charge density cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and high charge density cationic polydicyandiamide (PDCD) were investigated. Results demonstrated that CPAM was more effective than PDCD for manure coagulation and flocculation, while PDCD was more effective than CPAM in reducing the pathogen indicator loads. However, their combined use, CPAM followed by PDCD, resulted in both improved solids separation and pathogen indicator reduction. PMID:26513324

  14. A self-assembled polymeric micellar immunomodulator for cancer treatment based on cationic amphiphilic polymers.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyeona; Park, Wooram; Kim, Dongin; Fahmy, Tarek M; Na, Kun

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report a self-assembled polymeric micellar immunomodulator (SPI) for enhanced cancer treatment based on cationic amphiphilic polymers. To obtain the cationic amphiphilic polymer, the hydrophobic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was conjugated with a hydrophilic low-molecular-weight PEI (LowPEI, Mn = 1.8 kDa). The ATRA-LowPEI conjugates could self-assemble in aqueous media, forming micelles with a strong positive charge (∼+40 mV) and particle sizes of ~70 nm. Compared to conventional therapeutic agents (e.g., cisplatin), the SPI exhibited enhanced anti-cancer activity regardless of drug resistance. After mechanistic in vitro cell death studies, we revealed that the mechanical disruptive force generated by the cationic charge of SPI primarily induced necrotic cell death. Furthermore, the organelle fragments induced by the necrotic cell death triggered antitumoral immune responses. Therefore, SPI induced synergistic effects of the cationic charge-induced necrosis and antitumoral immune responses could produce an effective cancer treatment. In addition, the SPI was shielded by hyaluronic acid (HA/SPI complex) to enhance its tumor selectivity in vivo. Finally, the HA/SPI complex accumulated selectively into tumor sites after systemic administration into tumor-bearing mice, exhibiting effective antitumoral effects without systemic toxicity. Therefore, this technology holds great potential for translation into a clinical cancer treatment. PMID:25239044

  15. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B.; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E.; Yan, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxide (OH−)-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)+ or Cp*2Co+] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)+ or Cp2Co+], Cp*2Co+ has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp*2Co+ cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp*2Co+-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices. PMID:26119573

  16. Permethyl Cobaltocenium (Cp*2Co+) as an Ultra-Stable Cation for Polymer Hydroxide-Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Kaspar, Robert B.; Fang, Qianrong; Zhang, Bingzi; Bryan Coughlin, E.; Yan, Yushan

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxide (OH-)-exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes enabling the use of affordable and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy-conversion devices such as HEM fuel cells, HEM electrolyzers, and HEM solar hydrogen generators. Many HEM cations exist, featuring desirable properties, but new cations are still needed to increase chemical stability at elevated temperatures. Here we introduce the permethyl cobaltocenium [(C5Me5)2Co(III)+ or Cp*2Co+] as an ultra-stable organic cation for polymer HEMs. Compared with the parent cobaltocenium [(C5H5)2Co(III)+ or Cp2Co+], Cp*2Co+ has substantially higher stability and basicity. With polysulfone as an example, we demonstrated the feasibility of covalently linking Cp*2Co+ cation to polymer backbone and prepared Cp*2Co+-functionalized membranes as well. The new cation may be useful in designing more durable HEM electrochemical devices.

  17. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  18. Synthesis and properties of polymeric cation conductors and amphiphilic star polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zho, Guangbin

    1992-12-31

    Polymeric alkali ion conductors consisting of a comblike polysiloxane with oligo-oxyethylene side chains and pendant sulfonate groups were synthesized by the quantitative hydrosilylation of an allyl methoxy-polyethylene glycol and allyl glycidyl ether with polyhydrogenmethyl-siloxane, followed by the sulfonation of the epoxy group. The addition of Si-H is chiefly to the B-vinyl carbon and the sulfonation reaction is quantitative. DSC and conductivity measurements show that these materials are essentially amorphous and their cation conducting behavior can be interpreted by a VTF type equation. Due to the tightness of the alkali sulfonate ion pairs the conductivity of these polymers is low compared to that of dual polymer electrolytes containing LiClO{sub 4} or LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt. However, conductivities of up to 10{sup {minus}5} S cm{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C can be achieved by adding cation chelating ligands such as tetraethylene glycol. The effect of cation, temperature, ion content, glass transition temperature, and additives on the conductivity of these materials is discussed. Well-defined multifunctional isocyantes are obtained in high purity and quantitative yield by hydrosilylation of m-isopropenyl-{alpha}, {alpha}-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI) with cyclic and acyclic hydrogen-methylsiloxanes. The products were exclusively result from {beta}-addition of Si-H to the double bond in m-TMI. The polyisocyanates were reacted with methoxypolyethylene glycols (MPEG) and with nonlphenoxypolyethylene glycols (NPPEG) to yield amphiphilic star polymers with a precise number of arms. Amphiphilic star homopolmers made from MPEG form micelles in water. Star polymers with NPPEG arms in aqueous solutions separate into two phases of constant composition, the condensed phase being an associative network resembling a hydrogel. Surface tension, viscosities, cloud points, salt binding and solubilities were determined and compared with linear or star polymers.

  19. Effective delivery of DNA into tumor cells and tissues by electroporation of polymer-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Toita, Riki; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2008-07-01

    Electroporation is a useful means for non-viral gene delivery. Here, we investigated the use of electroporation to deliver polymer-DNA complexes into living cells using a protein kinase C (PKC)alpha-responsive polymer. The polymer was complexed with a luciferase-encoding DNA and electroporated into B16 melanoma cells. Gene expression from polymer-DNA complexes was 3- to 5-fold higher than from naked DNA. Moreover, after introduction of the polymer-DNA complex into tissues, luciferase levels were >2-fold higher in B16 melanoma tumors than in normal skin tissue. These results suggest that the combination of our polymer and electroporation is useful for the effective delivery of DNA into tumors. PMID:18375054

  20. Binding of cationic surfactants to DNA, protein and DNA-protein mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gani, S A; Chattoraj, D K; Mukherjee, D C

    1999-06-01

    Extent of binding (gamma 2(1)) of cationic surfactants cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), myristyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) to calf-thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to their binary mixture respectively have been measured as function of bulk concentration of the surfactant by using equilibrium dialysis technique. Binding of CTAB has been studied at different pH, ionic strength (mu), temperature and biopolymer composition and with native and denatured states of the biopolymers. The chain-length of different long chain amines plays a significant role in the extent of binding under identical solution condition. The binding ratios for CTAB to collagen, gelatin, DNA-collagen and DNA-gelatin mixtures respectively have also been determined. The conformational structures of different biopolymers are observed to play significant role in macromolecular interactions between protein and DNA in the presence of CTAB. From the experimental values of the maximum binding ratio (gamma 2m) at the saturation level for each individual biopolymer, ideal values (gamma 2m)id have been theoretically calculated for binary mixtures of biopolymers using additivity rule. The protein-DNA-CTAB interaction in mixture has been explained in terms of the deviation (delta) of (gamma 2m) from (gamma 2m)id in the presence of a surfactant in bulk. The binding of surfactants to biopolymers and to their binary mixtures are compared more precisely in terms of the Gibbs' free energy decrease (-delta G degree) for the saturation of the binding sites in the biopolymers or biopolymer mixtures with the change of the bulk surfactant activity from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale. PMID:10650715

  1. Study on bending behavior of ionic polymer metal composites with various organic solvents and cationic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Byung K.; Yoo, Youngtai

    2005-05-01

    Ion exchange polymer metal composites (IPMC) are electro-active actuators that show large deformation in the presence of low applied voltage. Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane, Nafion, is one of the most widely studied materials for this purpose. Experimental studies were carried out on the bending behavior of Nafion-based IPMCs containing various solvents and cation species. Various counter cations of sulfonate groups in the membrane were obtained by soaking the composite membrane in aqueous salt solutions. The salts used in ion exchange process include LiOH, NaOH, Cu(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2. Ion-exchange capacity of the IPMC was measured by ICP. In the case of cationic effect the Li-form IPMC demonstrated an immediate and efficient deformation behavior at 1 DC V, while divalent cuprous cation containing IPMC exhibited the larger tip displacement at an elevated electric potential. A threshold electric driving force appears to be required for cations with large hydration and high volume. IPMCs were also prepared by soaking in various transport media. The solutions were prepared by adding 1 mole of NMP, DMF, DMSO, and PEG 200 in water. The feasibility of D2O was also investigated. Addition of organic polar solvents in water decreases the dielectric constant of medium, which subsequently reduces the dissociation of ion pairs. Among the various solutions the heavy water, D2O and DMSO/water (1 Mole/L) mixture demonstrated unusually stable tendency in terms of electrolysis.

  2. Novel polymer electrolytes based on cationic polyurethane with different alkyl chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libin; Wu, Xiwen; Li, Tianduo

    2014-03-01

    A series of comb-like cationic polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized by quaternizing different bromoalkane (C2H5Br, C8H17Br, and C14H29Br) with polyurethane. Solid polymer electrolytes were prepared by complexes cationic PUs with different content of LiClO4. All the solid polymer electrolytes had sufficient thermal stability as confirmed by TGA and exhibited a single-phase behavior evidenced by DSC results. For these electrolytes, FT-IR spectra indicated the formation of polymer-ion complexes. The ac impedance spectra show that the conductivity of the electrolytes follow the Arrhenius behavior, and ionic conductivity is associated with both the charge migration of ions between coordination sites and transmission between aggregates, as confirmed by FT-IR and SEM. Alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in the polymer backbone are recognized as inherent plasticizers, which make the electrolytes exhibit liquid-like behavior. The plasticizing effect of PU-C8 and PU-C14 electrolytes are more effective than that of PU-C2 electrolyte. Maximum ionic conductivity at room temperature for PU-C8 electrolytes containing 50 wt% LiClO4 reached 1.1 × 10-4 S cm-1. This work provides a new research clue that alkyl quaternary ammonium salts could be used as inherent plasticizers and hence make the system behave like a liquid with high ionic conductivity, while preserving the dimensional stability of the solids.

  3. Hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex as a function of surfactant structure.

    PubMed

    Devínsky, Ferdinand; Pisárcik, Martin; Lacko, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    The present study deals with the determination of hydrodynamic size of DNA/cationic gemini surfactant complex in sodium bromide solution using the dynamic light scattering method. Cationic gemini surfactants with polymethylene spacer of variable length were used for the interaction with DNA. The scattering experiments were performed at constant DNA and sodium bromide concentrations and variable surfactant concentration in the premicellar and micellar regions as a function of surfactant spacer length. It was found that the DNA conformation strongly depends on the polymethylene spacer length as well as on the surfactant concentration relative to the surfactant critical micelle concentration. Gemini surfactant molecules with 4 methylene groups in the spacer were found to be the least efficient DNA compacting agent in the region above the surfactant cmc. Gemini molecules with the shortest spacer length (2 methylene groups) and the longest spacer length (8 methylene groups) investigated showed the most efficient DNA compaction ability. PMID:19592712

  4. DNA strand exchange stimulated by spontaneous complex formation with cationic comb-type copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Jong; Akaike, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2002-10-30

    Cationic comb-type copolymers (CCCs) composed of a polycation backbone and water-soluble side chains accelerate by 4-5 orders the DNA strand exchange reaction (SER) between double helical DNA and its homologous single-strand DNA. The accelerating effect is considered due to alleviation of counterion association during transitional intermediate formation in sequential displacement pathway. CCCs stabilize not only matured hybrids but also the nucleation complex to accelerate hybridization. PMID:12392411

  5. Cationic Mucic Acid Polymer-Based siRNA Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dorothy W; Davis, Mark E

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticle (NP) delivery systems for small interfering RNA (siRNA) that have good systemic circulation and high nucleic acid content are highly desired for translation into clinical use. Here, a family of cationic mucic acid-containing polymers is synthesized and shown to assemble with siRNA to form NPs. A cationic mucic acid polymer (cMAP) containing alternating mucic acid and charged monomers is synthesized. When combined with siRNA, cMAP forms NPs that require steric stabilization by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that is attached to the NP surface via a 5-nitrophenylboronic acid linkage (5-nitrophenylboronic acid-PEGm (5-nPBA-PEGm)) to diols on mucic acid in the cMAP in order to inhibit aggregation in biological fluids. As an alternative, cMAP is covalently conjugated with PEG via two methods. First, a copolymer is prepared with alternating cMAP-PEG units that can form loops of PEG on the surface of the formulated siRNA-containing NPs. Second, an mPEG-cMAP-PEGm triblock polymer is synthesized that could lead to a PEG brush configuration on the surface of the formulated siRNA-containing NPs. The copolymer and triblock polymer are able to form stable siRNA-containing NPs without and with the addition of 5-nPBA-PEGm. Five formulations, (i) cMAP with 5-nPBA-PEGm, (ii) cMAP-PEG copolymer both (a) with and (b) without 5-nPBA-PEGm, and (iii) mPEG-cMAP-PEGm triblock polymer both (a) with and (b) without 5-nPBA-PEGm, are used to produce NPs in the 30-40 nm size range, and their circulation times are evaluated in mice using tail vein injections. The mPEG-cMAP-PEGm triblock polymer provides the siRNA-containing NP with the longest circulation time (5-10% of the formulation remains in circulation at 60 min postdosing), even when a portion of the excess cationic components used in the formulation is filtered away prior to injection. A NP formulation using the mPEG-cMAP-PEGm triblock polymer that is free of excess components could contain as much as ca. 30 wt % siRNA. PMID

  6. Formation of Stable Cationic Lipid/DNA Complexes for Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofland, Hans E. J.; Shephard, Lee; Sullivan, Sean M.

    1996-07-01

    Stable cationic lipid/DNA complexes were formed by solubilizing cationic liposomes with 1% octylglucoside and complexing a DNA plasmid with the lipid in the presence of detergent. Removal of the detergent by dialysis yielded a lipid/DNA suspension that was able to transfect tissue culture cells up to 90 days after formation with no loss in activity. Similar levels of gene transfer were obtained by mixing the cationic lipid in a liposome form with DNA just prior to cell addition. However, expression was completely lost 24 hr after mixing. The transfection efficiency of the stable complex in 15% fetal calf serum was 30% of that obtained in the absence of serum, whereas the transient complex was completely inactivated with 2% fetal calf serum. A 90-day stability study comparing various storage conditions showed that the stable complex could be stored frozen or as a suspension at 4 degrees C with no loss in transfection efficiency. Centrifugation of the stable complex produced a pellet that contained approximately 90% of the DNA and 10% of the lipid. Transfection of cells with the resuspended pellet and the supernatant showed that the majority of the transfection activity was in the pellet and all the toxicity was in the supernatant. Formation of a stable cationic lipid/DNA complex has produced a transfection vehicle that can be stored indefinitely, can be concentrated with no loss in transfection efficiency, and the toxicity levels can be greatly reduced when the active complex is isolated from the uncomplexed lipid.

  7. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding.

    PubMed

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-10-21

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications. PMID:25171730

  8. Why is less cationic lipid required to prepare lipoplexes from plasmid DNA than linear DNA in gene therapy?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Misra, Santosh K; Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Sierra, María B; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Junquera, Elena; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Aicart, Emilio

    2011-11-16

    The most important objective of the present study was to explain why cationic lipid (CL)-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) is better than that of linear DNA in gene therapy, a question that, until now, has remained unanswered. Herein for the first time we experimentally show that for different types of CLs, pDNA, in contrast to linear DNA, is compacted with a large amount of its counterions, yielding a lower effective negative charge. This feature has been confirmed through a number of physicochemical and biochemical investigations. This is significant for both in vitro and in vivo transfection studies. For an effective DNA transfection, the lower the amount of the CL, the lower is the cytotoxicity. The study also points out that it is absolutely necessary to consider both effective charge ratios between CL and pDNA and effective pDNA charges, which can be determined from physicochemical experiments. PMID:21985329

  9. Localization, depuration, bioaccumulation and impairment of ion regulation associated with cationic polymer exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Muir, M M; Kosteretz, K G; Lech, J J

    1997-10-01

    1. Static exposure of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to three commercial 14C-labelled cationic polymers (EDP, epichlorhydrin-dimethylamine; CYT, polyacrylamide ester; and STK, polyacrylamide amide) resulted in 14C being concentrated only in gill tissue. 2. Depuration studies examining the effect of humic acid (HA) on cationic polymer bound in gill tissue indicate that the binding is reversible with exposure to polymer-free water and polymer-free water with HA for each of the three polymers. 3. Analysis of blood pH, Na+, K+, total NH3 and Cl- after static water exposures to EDP (m.w. 50,000) at 7.5 mg EDP/l revealed a treatment related decrease in blood pH, from 7.1 to 6.6, accompanied by an increase in blood NH3 and evidence of severe impairment of ion regulation. 4. Repeated exposure to the cationic polymers did not result in increases in the 14C concentration in gill tissue suggesting that bioaccumulation of the polymers does not occur. 5. These data suggest that the gill is the site of toxicity for these cationic polymers and that their toxic effects involve gill function and ion regulation rather than systemic actions on internal organs. PMID:9364738

  10. Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites have exhibited superior strength and thermo- oxidative properties as compared to pure polymers for use in air and space craft; however, there has often been difficulty completely dispersing the clay within the matrices of the polymer. In order to improve this process, the cation exchange capacity of lithium clay is first lowered using twenty-four hour heat treatments of no heat, 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C to fixate the lithium ions within the clay layers so that they are unexchangeable. Generally, higher temperatures have generated lower cation exchange capacities. An ion exchange involving dodecylamine, octadecylamine, or dimethyl benzidine (DMBZ) is then employed to actually expand the clay galleries. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy can be used to determine whether the clay has been successfully exfoliated. Finally, resins of DMBZ with clay are then pressed into disks for characterization using dynamic mechanical analyzer and oven- aging techniques in order to evaluate their glass transition, modulus strength, and thermal-oxidative stability in comparison to neat DMBZ. In the future, they may also be tested as composites for flexural and laminar shear strength.

  11. A Novel Cationic Microbubble Coated with Stearic Acid-Modified Polyethylenimine to Enhance DNA Loading and Gene Delivery by Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Yan, Fei; Deng, Zhiting; Ni, Fei; Wu, Junru; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    A novel cationic microbubble (MB) for improvement of the DNA loading capacity and the ultrasound-mediated gene delivery efficiency has been developed; it has been prepared with commercial lipids and a stearic acid modified polyethylenimine 600 (Stearic-PEI600) polymer synthesized via acylation reaction of branched PEI600 and stearic acid mediated by N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). The MBs’ concentration, size distribution, stability and zeta potential (ζ-potential) were measured and the DNA loading capacity was examined as a function of the amount of Stearic-PEI600. The gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were also examined using breast cancer MCF-7 cells via the reporter plasmid pCMV-Luc, encoding the firefly luciferase gene. The results showed that the Stearic-PEI600 polymer caused a significant increase in magnitude of ζ-potential of MBs. The addition of DNA into cationic MBs can shift ζ-potentials from positive to negative values. The DNA loading capacity of the MBs grew linearly from (5±0.2) ×10−3 pg/µm2 to (20±1.8) ×10−3 pg/µm2 when Stearic-PEI600 was increased from 5 mol% to 30 mol%. Transfection of MCF-7 cells using 5% PEI600 MBs plus ultrasound exposure yielded 5.76±2.58×103 p/s/cm2/sr average radiance intensity, was 8.97- and 7.53-fold higher than those treated with plain MBs plus ultrasound (6.41±5.82) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01) and PEI600 MBs without ultrasound (7.65±6.18) ×102 p/s/cm2/sr, (P<0.01), respectively. However, the PEI600 MBs showed slightly higher cytotoxicity than plain MBs. The cells treated with PEI600-MBs and plain MBs plus ultrasound showed 59.5±6.1% and 71.4±7.1% cell viability, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the novel cationic MBs were able to increase DNA loading capacity and gene transfection efficiency and could be potentially applied in targeted gene delivery and therapy. PMID:24086748

  12. Cationic azacryptands as selective three-way DNA junction binding agents.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Jana; Laguerre, Aurelien; Granzhan, Anton; Pirrotta, Marc; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Monchaud, David

    2015-01-01

    DNA damaging agents are among the most powerful anticancer drugs currently in clinical use. As an alternative to irreversible nucleobase damage and DNA strand breaks, the non-covalent stabilization of unusual, non-B DNA structures is currently emerging as a promising way to cause DNA damage with a high level of specificity. One of such non-B DNA structures is the three-way DNA junction: this Y-shaped multi-stranded architecture may act as an impediment to many DNA transactions, being therefore regarded as an invaluable target to create genomic defects that are improperly dealt with by cancer cells only. Herein, we report on a series of cationic azacryptands that make excellent candidates for assessing and harnessing the actual therapeutic potential of three-way DNA junction interacting compounds. PMID:25369056

  13. Adsorption of anionic and cationic polymers on porous and non-porous calcium carbonate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorklund, Robert B.; Arwin, Hans; Järnström, Lars

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption of anionic and cationic polymers onto calcium carbonate surfaces was studied by ellipsometry. Sodium polyacrylate was observed to both adsorb on and promote dissolution of polished limestone surfaces in 5 mM CaSO 4 solution at pH 10.3. It was not possible to differentiate between the two processes when they occurred simultaneously. Cationic starch adsorbed on the limestone surfaces at low concentrations and caused mineral dissolution at higher concentrations. The adsorbed amount of starch was higher on surfaces which were first made porous by partial dissolution than on freshly polished surfaces. Surfaces created by cleavage of Iceland spar calcite were quite stable against dissolution and the amount of starch adsorbed determined by ellipsometry agreed well with the adsorbed mass determined from batch adsorption experiments on ground calcite.

  14. Complexes of DNA with cationic peptides: conditions of formation and factors effecting internalization by mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Dizhe, E B; Ignatovich, I A; Burov, S V; Pohvoscheva, A V; Akifiev, B N; Efremov, A M; Perevozchikov, A P; Orlov, S V

    2006-12-01

    This work was devoted to the study of conditions of the formation of DNA/K8 complex and analysis of factors effecting the entry of DNA/K8 complex into mammalian cells in comparison with DNA complexes with arginine-rich fragment (47-57) of human immunodeficiency virus (type 1) transcription factor Tat (Tat peptide). The stoichiometry of positively charged DNA/K8 complexes has been studied for the first time. Non-cooperative character of DNA-K8 interaction was revealed. It has been shown that along with the positive charge of such complexes, the presence of an excess of free K8 peptide in the culture medium is a necessary condition for maximal efficiency of cell transfection with DNA/K8 complexes. A stimulatory effect of free K8 peptide on the efficiency of mammalian cell transfection by DNA/K8 complexes is likely to be mediated by the interactions of cationic peptide K8 with negatively charged proteoglycans on the cell surface, which leads to protection of DNA/K8 complexes from disruption by cellular heparan sulfates. However, the protective role of free cationic peptides depends not only on their positive charge, but also on the primary structure of the peptide. In contrast with the results obtained for DNA complexes with molecular conjugates based on poly-L-lysine, the aggregation of DNA/K8 complexes leads to a significant increase in the expression of transferred gene. PMID:17223788

  15. Patterned Thread-like Micelles and DNA-Tethered Nanoparticles: A Structural Study of PEGylated Cationic Liposome–DNA Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Ewert, Kai K.; Jacovetty, Erica L.; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2015-01-01

    The self-assembly of oppositely charged biomacromolecules has been extensively studied due to its pertinence in the design of functional nanomaterials. Using cryo electronic microscopy (cryo-EM), optical light scattering and fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the structure and phase behavior of PEGylated (PEG: poly(ethylene-glycol)) cationic liposome–DNA nanoparticles (CL–DNA NPs) as a function of DNA length, topology (linear and circular) and ρchg (the molar charge ratio of cationic lipid to anionic DNA). Although all NPs studied showed a lamellar internal nanostructure, NPs formed with short (~ 2 kbps), linear, polydisperse DNA were defect-rich and contained smaller domains. Unexpectedly, we found distinctly different equilibrium structures away from the isoelectric point. At ρchg > 1, in the excess cationic lipid regime, thread-like micelles rich in PEG-lipid were found to coexist with NPs, cationic liposomes and spherical micelles. At high concentrations these PEGylated thread-like micelles formed a well-ordered, patterned morphology with highly uniform inter-micellar spacing. At ρchg < 1, in the excess DNA regime and with no added salt, individual NPs were tethered together via long, linear DNA (48 kbps λ-phage DNA) into a biopolymer-mediated floc. Our results provide insight on what equilibrium nanostructures can form when oppositely charged macromolecules self-assemble in aqueous media. Self-assembled, well-ordered thread-like micelles and tethered nanoparticles may have a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, including nanoscale lithograpy and the development of lipid-based multi-functional nanoparticle networks. PMID:26048043

  16. Patterned Threadlike Micelles and DNA-Tethered Nanoparticles: A Structural Study of PEGylated Cationic Liposome-DNA Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Ewert, Kai K; Jacovetty, Erica L; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2015-06-30

    The self-assembly of oppositely charged biomacromolecules has been extensively studied due to its pertinence in the design of functional nanomaterials. Using cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM), optical light scattering, and fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the structure and phase behavior of PEGylated (PEG: poly(ethylene glycol)) cationic liposome-DNA nanoparticles (CL-DNA NPs) as a function of DNA length, topology (linear and circular), and ρ(chg) (the molar charge ratio of cationic lipid to anionic DNA). Although all NPs studied exhibited lamellar internal nanostructure, NPs formed with short (∼2 kbps), linear, polydisperse DNA were defect-rich and contained smaller domains. Unexpectedly, we found distinctly different equilibrium structures away from the isoelectric point. At ρ(chg) > 1, in the excess cationic lipid regime, threadlike micelles rich in PEG-lipid were found to coexist with NPs, cationic liposomes, and spherical micelles. At high concentrations these PEGylated threadlike micelles formed a well-ordered, patterned morphology with highly uniform intermicellar spacing. At ρ(chg) < 1, in the excess DNA regime and with no added salt, individual NPs were tethered together via long, linear DNA (48 kbps λ-phage DNA) into a biopolymer-mediated floc. Our results provide insight into what equilibrium nanostructures can form when oppositely charged macromolecules self-assemble in aqueous media. Self-assembled, well-ordered threadlike micelles and tethered nanoparticles may have a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, including nanoscale lithograpy and the development of lipid-based multifunctional nanoparticle networks. PMID:26048043

  17. Decondensation behavior of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations: Molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yang-Wei; Ran, Shi-Yong; He, Lin-Li; Wang, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Lin-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we study the decondensation process of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations in the presence of short cationic chains in solutions. The typical simulation conformations of DNA chains with varying salt concentrations for multivalent cations imply that the concentration of salt cations and the valence of multivalent cations have a strong influence on the process of DNA decondensation. The DNA chains are condensed in the absence of salt or at low salt concentrations, and the compacted conformations of DNA chains become loose when a number of cations and anions are added into the solution. It is explicitly demonstrated that cations can overcompensate the bare charge of the DNA chains and weaken the attraction interactions between the DNA chains and short cationic chains at high salt concentrations. The condensation-decondensation transitions of DNA are also experimentally observed in mixing spermidine with λ-phage DNA at different concentrations of NaCl/MgCl2 solutions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31340026), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. Z13F20019 and LQ12E01003), and the Science and Technology Project of Zhejiang Science and Technology Department, China (Grant No. 2014C31147).

  18. Boron protected cobalt dicarbollide anions and their use in polymer supported cation exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlburt, P.K.; Miller, R.L.; Abney, K.D.

    1995-12-01

    The cobalt dicarbollide anion, [CO(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup -}, is unique in its ability to separate Cs{sup +} from other cations, an important property in the remediation of nuclear waste. Substitution of B10, in the carborane clusters imparts increased stability in harsh environments. Substitution also provides a handle. which may be useful in attaching this important anion to polymeric structures. Various routes to boron substitution will be discussed along with the possible uses of these boron substituted compounds in polymer synthesis.

  19. Novel phosphorus-containing cyclodextrin polymers and their affinity for calcium cations and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wintgens, Véronique; Dalmas, Florent; Sébille, Bernard; Amiel, Catherine

    2013-10-15

    Novel phosphorous-containing β-cyclodextrin (βCD) polymers (CDP) were synthesized easily under "green chemistry" conditions. A simple polycondensation between the hydroxyl groups of βCD and non-toxic sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) under basic conditions led to soluble, non-reticulated CDPs with molecular weights (Mw) higher than 10(4) g mol(-1), the actual value depending on the NaOH:βCD and STMP:βCD weight ratios. The presence of both βCD and phosphate groups in the polymer allows for strong interactions with amphiphilic probes, such as 1-adamantyl acetic acid, or with divalent cations, such as Ca(2+), whose strengths were characterized by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The obtained phosphated compounds also display high affinity towards hydroxyapatite (HA), leading to HA nanoparticles that could easily be recovered by CDPs, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative determination of the total amount of phosphated molecules fixed on HA. PMID:23987426

  20. Investigations on the liquid crystalline phases of cation-induced condensed DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, C. K. S.; Sundaresan, Neethu; Radhakrishnan Pillai, M.; Thomas, T.; Thomas, T. J.

    2005-10-01

    Viral and nonviral condensing agents are used in gene therapy to compact oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA into nanostructures for their efficient transport through the cell membranes. Whereas viral vectors are best by the toxic effects on the immune system, most of the nonviral delivery vehicles are not effective for use in clinical system. Recent investigations indicate that the supramolecular organization of DNA in the condensed state is liquid crystalline. The present level of understanding of the liquid crystalline phase of DNA is inadequate and a thorough investigation is required to understand the nature, stability, texture and the influence of various environmental conditions on the structure of the phase. The present study is mainly concerned with the physico-chemical investigations on the liquid crystalline transitions during compaction of DNA by cationic species such as polyamines and metallic cations. As a preliminary to the above investigation, studies were conducted on the evolution of mesophase transitions of DNA with various cationic counterion species using polarized light microscopy. These studies indicated significant variations in the phase behaviour of DNA in the presence of Li and other ions. Apart from the neutralization of the charges on the DNA molecule, these ions are found to influence selectively the hydration sphere of DNA that in turn influences the induction and stabilization of the LC phases. The higher stability observed with the liquid crystalline phases of Li--DNA system could be useful in the production of nanostructured DNA. In the case of the polyamine, a structural specificity effect depending on the nature, charge and structure of the polyamine used has been found to be favoured in the crystallization of DNA.

  1. Hydrophobically-associating cationic polymers as micro-bubble surface modifiers in dissolved air flotation for cyanobacteria cell separation.

    PubMed

    Yap, R K L; Whittaker, M; Diao, M; Stuetz, R M; Jefferson, B; Bulmus, V; Peirson, W L; Nguyen, A V; Henderson, R K

    2014-09-15

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF), an effective treatment method for clarifying algae/cyanobacteria-laden water, is highly dependent on coagulation-flocculation. Treatment of algae can be problematic due to unpredictable coagulant demand during blooms. To eliminate the need for coagulation-flocculation, the use of commercial polymers or surfactants to alter bubble charge in DAF has shown potential, termed the PosiDAF process. When using surfactants, poor removal was obtained but good bubble adherence was observed. Conversely, when using polymers, effective cell removal was obtained, attributed to polymer bridging, but polymers did not adhere well to the bubble surface, resulting in a cationic clarified effluent that was indicative of high polymer concentrations. In order to combine the attributes of both polymers (bridging ability) and surfactants (hydrophobicity), in this study, a commercially-available cationic polymer, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA), was functionalised with hydrophobic pendant groups of various carbon chain lengths to improve adherence of polymer to a bubble surface. Its performance in PosiDAF was contrasted against commercially-available poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC). All synthesised polymers used for bubble surface modification were found to produce positively charged bubbles. When applying these cationic micro-bubbles in PosiDAF, in the absence of coagulation-flocculation, cell removals in excess of 90% were obtained, reaching a maximum of 99% cell removal and thus demonstrating process viability. Of the synthesised polymers, the polymer containing the largest hydrophobic functionality resulted in highly anionic treated effluent, suggesting stronger adherence of polymers to bubble surfaces and reduced residual polymer concentrations. PMID:24934266

  2. Polymer Micelles with Cross-Linked Polyanion Core for Delivery of a Cationic Drug Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Oh; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores were prepared by using block ionomer complexes of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacrylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) copolymer and divalent metal cations as templates. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline anticancer drug, was successfully incorporated into the ionic cores of such micelles via electrostatic interactions. A substantial drug loading level (up to 50 w/w %) was achieved and it was strongly dependent on the structure of the cross-linked micelles and pH. The drug-loaded micelles were stable in aqueous dispersions exhibiting no aggregation or precipitation for a prolonged period of time. The DOX-loaded polymer micelles exhibited noticeable pH-sensitive behavior with accelerated release of DOX in acidic environment due to the protonation of carboxylic groups in the cores of the micelles. The attempt to protect the DOX-loaded core with the polycationic substances resulted in the decrease of loading efficacy and had a slight effect on the release characteristics of the micelles. The DOX-loaded polymer micelles exhibited a potent cytotoxicity against human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. These results point to a potential of novel polymer micelles with cross-linked ionic cores to be attractive carriers for the delivery of DOX. PMID:19386272

  3. Surface modification of luminescent lanthanide phosphate nanorods with cationic "Quat-primer" polymers.

    PubMed

    Komban, Rajesh; Beckmann, Ralph; Rode, Sebastian; Ichilmann, Sachar; Kühnle, Angelika; Beginn, Uwe; Haase, Markus

    2011-08-16

    "Quat-primer" polymers bearing cationic groups were investigated as a surface modifier for Tb-doped cerium phosphate green-emitting fluorescent nanorods (NRs). The NRs were synthesized by a microwave process without using any complex agents or ligands and were characterized with different analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Poly(ethyleneimine) partially quarternized with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was synthesized separately and characterized in detail. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the quaternary ammonium group was covalently attached to the polymer. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to examine the stability of the colloidal dispersions of the bare NRs as well as the modified NRs. ζ potential, thermogravimetric analysis, and atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to confirm that the positively charged Quat-primer polymer is adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of the NRs, which results in high dispersion stability. Emission spectra of the modified NRs indicated that there was no interference of the Quat-primer polymer with the fluorescence behavior. PMID:21721577

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Cationic PLA-PEG Nanoparticles for Delivery of Plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Weiwei; Liu, Chunxi; Chen, Zhijin; Zhang, Na

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to formulate and evaluate cationic poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene delivery nano-device. Cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The gene loaded nanoparticles were obtained by incubating the report gene pEGFP with cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties (e.g., morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding efficiency) and biological properties (e.g., integrity of the released DNA, protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in Hela cells) of the gene loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticles were evaluated, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles and gene loaded nanoparticles were both spherical in shape with average particle size of 89.7 and 128.9 nm, polydispersity index of 0.185 and 0.161, zeta potentials of +28.9 and +16.8 mV, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with high binding efficiency (>95%) could protect the loaded DNA from the degradation by nuclease and plasma. The nanoparticles displayed sustained-release properties in vitro and the released DNA maintained its structural and functional integrity. It also showed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 and could successfully transfect gene into Hela cells even in presence of serum. It could be concluded that the established gene loaded cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with excellent properties were promising non-viral nano-device, which had potential to make cancer gene therapy achievable.

  5. Effects of low-level hydrophobic substitution on conditioning properties of cationic cellulosic polymers in shampoo systems.

    PubMed

    Drovetskaya, T V; Kreeger, R L; Amos, J L; Davis, C B; Zhou, S

    2004-01-01

    A new class of cationic conditioning polymers (Polymer SL) has been prepared and evaluated in shampoo formulations. Polymer SL is a family of high viscosity quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymers with cationic substitution of trimethyl ammonium and dimethyldodecyl ammonium (Figure 1). SL compositions benefit from hydrophobic character to deliver superior conditioning performance in hair care applications. At the same time, low levels of hydrophobes have been chosen to assure good compatibility with surfactant systems without the complications of associative thickening. The polymers have been evaluated in clear shampoo formulations and two-in-one silicone containing shampoos using objective lab methods and subjective panel evaluation on hair tresses. Commercial conditioning polymers: Polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10) (UCARE Polymer LR-30M) and Guar Hydroxypro-pyltrimethylammonium Chloride (Jaguar C-13S) were used as performance benchmarks. The new hydrophobically-modified cationic polymers demonstrated superior performance in all major categories of conditioning and showed improved silicone deposition from two-in-one systems. Moreover, they retained other good qualities of their PQ-10 structural analogs such as enabling crystal clear formulations and showing no build-up or volume-down effects on hair. These new olymers were also found to be efficient conditioning agents in different surfactant systems with or without silicones. PMID:15645097

  6. Electrophoretic Migration of Branched DNA in Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Henry; Archer, Lynden

    2009-03-01

    The electrophoretic migration of large, star-branched DNA molecules has previously been studied in both neutral polymer solutions and gels, and the results have provided insight into the local interactions between the analytes and the sieving matrix during electrophoresis (Electrophoresis, 2006, 27, 3128). This talk focuses on using rigid-rod DNA molecules of complex shapes as model analytes in studying the effects of analyte architecture on mobility in polymer solutions. Electrophoresis of a series of Y-shaped DNA molecules that mimick the shapes of antibodies, was performed in polymer solutions above the overlap concentration and at electric fields up to 300V/cm. The location of the branch point as well as the arm sizes are varied in order to examine their influence on mobility. Our results point to novel, topology-based fractionation strategies for separating biological molecules using capillary electrophoresis with polymer sieving media.

  7. Engineering and Applications of DNA-Grafting Polymer Materials

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Han, Da; Chen, Yan; Fu, Ting; Ye, Mao; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of hybrid materials combining biomacromolecules and organic polymers has received broad attention based on their potential applications in chemical, biological and materials sciences. Among different coupling strategies, the grafting of oligonucleotides to organic polymers as side chains by covalent bonds provides a novel platform whereby the properties of both oligonucleotides and polymer backbone are integrated, manipulated and optimized for various applications. In this review, we give the perspective on this specific type of DNA polymer hybrid materials , using selected examples with emphasis on bioanalysis, biomedicine and stimuli-responsive materials. It is expected the success of DNA-grafting polymers will not only impact the frabication of novel bimolecule incorporated materials, but also will influence how the properties of synthetic materials are tailored using different functional groups. PMID:23682309

  8. Synthesis of linear and cyclic peptide-PEG-lipids for stabilization and targeting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Steffes, Victoria M; Wonder, Emily A; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-03-15

    Because nucleic acids (NAs) have immense potential value as therapeutics, the development of safe and effective synthetic NA vectors continues to attract much attention. In vivo applications of NA vectors require stabilized, nanometer-scale particles, but the commonly used approaches of steric stabilization with a polymer coat (e.g., PEGylation; PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) interfere with attachment to cells, uptake, and endosomal escape. Conjugation of peptides to PEG-lipids can improve cell attachment and uptake for cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. We present several synthetic approaches to peptide-PEG-lipids and discuss their merits and drawbacks. A lipid-PEG-amine building block served as the common key intermediate in all synthetic routes. Assembling the entire peptide-PEG-lipid by manual solid phase peptide synthesis (employing a lipid-PEG-carboxylic acid) allowed gram-scale synthesis but is mostly applicable to linear peptides connected via their N-terminus. Conjugation via thiol-maleimide or strain-promoted (copper-free) azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry is highly amenable to on-demand preparation of peptide-PEG-lipids, and the appropriate PEG-lipid precursors are available in a single chemical step from the lipid-PEG-amine building block. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is especially suitable for disulfide-bridged peptides such as iRGD (cyclic CRGDKGPDC). Added at 10 mol% of a cationic/neutral lipid mixture, the peptide-PEG-lipids stabilize the size of CL-DNA complexes. They also affect cell attachment and uptake of nanoparticles in a peptide-dependent manner, thereby providing a platform for preparing stabilized, affinity-targeted CL-DNA nanoparticles. PMID:26874401

  9. Cation-containing Polymers with Co-continuous Microphase-Separated Morphologies for Rapid Transport Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Savage, Alice; Ren, Xiaoming; Pomerantz, Natalie; Zukas, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Cation-containing polymer membranes are the subject of renewed research for their potential to enable the use of alkaline fuel cells, and are also of interest for their water vapor transport properties. Charge and water vapor transport are both heavily dependent on membrane morphology and the development of hydrophilic channels throughout the material. Reaction induced phase separation has been shown to create such morphologies when used with uncharged copolymers and crosslinking monomers. Here we have applied this same technique but used ion-containing block copolymers of 4-vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride and styrene to create a cation-containing polymer membrane having a microphase-separated, co-continuous morphology, as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). These materials show excellent charge transport behavior and water vapor transport properties, surpassing commercially available materials. These results and efforts to improve other important physical characteristics for membrane applications will be presented.

  10. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2014-09-01

    Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications.Surfaces capable of high-affinity binding of biomolecules are required in several biotechnological applications, such as purification, transfection, and sensing. Therein, the rod-shaped, colloidal cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are appealing due to their large surface area available for functionalization. In order to exploit electrostatic binding, their intrinsically anionic surfaces have to be cationized as biological supramolecules are predominantly anionic. Here we present a facile way to prepare cationic CNCs by surface

  11. Screening nylon-3 polymers, a new class of cationic amphiphiles, for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Liu, Runhui; Killinger, Bryan A; Movassaghian, Sara; Kim, Na Hyung; Moszczynska, Anna B; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H; Merkel, Olivia M

    2015-02-01

    Amphiphilic nucleic acid carriers have attracted strong interest. Three groups of nylon-3 copolymers (poly-β-peptides) possessing different cationic/hydrophobic content were evaluated as siRNA delivery agents in this study. Their ability to condense siRNA was determined in SYBR Gold assays. Their cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assays, their efficiency of delivering Alexa Fluor-488-labeled siRNA intracellularly in the presence and absence of uptake inhibitors was assessed by flow cytometry, and their transfection efficacies were studied by luciferase knockdown in a cell line stably expressing luciferase (H1299/Luc). Endosomal release was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and colocalization with lysotracker. All polymers efficiently condensed siRNA at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratios of 5 or lower, as reflected in hydrodynamic diameters smaller than that at N/P 1. Although several formulations had negative zeta potentials at N/P 1, G2C and G2D polyplexes yielded >80% uptake in H1299/Luc cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Luciferase knockdown (20-65%) was observed after transfection with polyplexes made of the high molecular weight polymers that were the most hydrophobic. The ability of nylon-3 polymers to deliver siRNA intracellularly even at negative zeta potential implies that they mediate transport across cell membranes based on their amphiphilicity. The cellular uptake route was determined to strongly depend on the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane. These polymers are, therefore, very promising for siRNA delivery at reduced surface charge and toxicity. Our study identified nylon-3 formulations at low N/P ratios for effective gene knockdown, indicating that nylon-3 polymers are a new, promising type of gene delivery agent. PMID:25437915

  12. Screening Nylon-3 Polymers, a New Class of Cationic Amphiphiles, for siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic nucleic acid carriers have attracted strong interest. Three groups of nylon-3 copolymers (poly-β-peptides) possessing different cationic/hydrophobic content were evaluated as siRNA delivery agents in this study. Their ability to condense siRNA was determined in SYBR Gold assays. Their cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assays, their efficiency of delivering Alexa Fluor-488-labeled siRNA intracellularly in the presence and absence of uptake inhibitors was assessed by flow cytometry, and their transfection efficacies were studied by luciferase knockdown in a cell line stably expressing luciferase (H1299/Luc). Endosomal release was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and colocalization with lysotracker. All polymers efficiently condensed siRNA at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratios of 5 or lower, as reflected in hydrodynamic diameters smaller than that at N/P 1. Although several formulations had negative zeta potentials at N/P 1, G2C and G2D polyplexes yielded >80% uptake in H1299/Luc cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Luciferase knockdown (20–65%) was observed after transfection with polyplexes made of the high molecular weight polymers that were the most hydrophobic. The ability of nylon-3 polymers to deliver siRNA intracellularly even at negative zeta potential implies that they mediate transport across cell membranes based on their amphiphilicity. The cellular uptake route was determined to strongly depend on the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane. These polymers are, therefore, very promising for siRNA delivery at reduced surface charge and toxicity. Our study identified nylon-3 formulations at low N/P ratios for effective gene knockdown, indicating that nylon-3 polymers are a new, promising type of gene delivery agent. PMID:25437915

  13. How Cations Can Assist DNase I in DNA Binding and Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Guéroult, Marc; Picot, Daniel; Abi-Ghanem, Joséphine; Hartmann, Brigitte; Baaden, Marc

    2010-01-01

    DNase I requires Ca2+ and Mg2+ for hydrolyzing double-stranded DNA. However, the number and the location of DNase I ion-binding sites remain unclear, as well as the role of these counter-ions. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that bovine pancreatic (bp) DNase I contains four ion-binding pockets. Two of them strongly bind Ca2+ while the other two sites coordinate Mg2+. These theoretical results are strongly supported by revisiting crystallographic structures that contain bpDNase I. One Ca2+ stabilizes the functional DNase I structure. The presence of Mg2+ in close vicinity to the catalytic pocket of bpDNase I reinforces the idea of a cation-assisted hydrolytic mechanism. Importantly, Poisson-Boltzmann-type electrostatic potential calculations demonstrate that the divalent cations collectively control the electrostatic fit between bpDNase I and DNA. These results improve our understanding of the essential role of cations in the biological function of bpDNase I. The high degree of conservation of the amino acids involved in the identified cation-binding sites across DNase I and DNase I-like proteins from various species suggests that our findings generally apply to all DNase I-DNA interactions. PMID:21124947

  14. Efficient Delivery of Plasmid DNA Using Cholesterol-Based Cationic Lipids Containing Polyamines and Ether Linkages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bieong-Kil; Seu, Young-Bae; Bae, Yun-Ui; Kwak, Tae-Won; Kang, Hyungu; Moon, Ik-Jae; Hwang, Guen-Bae; Park, So-Young; Doh, Kyung-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are broadly used as non-viral vectors to deliver genetic materials that can be used to treat various diseases including cancer. To circumvent problems associated with cationic liposome-mediated delivery systems such as low transfection efficiency and serum-induced inhibition, cholesterol-based cationic lipids have been synthesized that resist the effects of serum. The introduction of an ether-type linkage and extension of the aminopropyl head group on the cholesterol backbone increased the transfection efficiency and DNA binding affinity compared to a carbamoyl-type linkage and a mono aminopropyl head group, respectively. Under optimal conditions, each liposome formulation showed higher transfection efficiency in AGS and Huh-7 cells than commercially available cationic liposomes, particularly in the presence of serum. The following molecular structures were found to have a positive effect on transfection properties: (i) extended aminopropyl head groups for a strong binding affinity to plasmid DNA; (ii) an ether linkage that favors electrostatic binding to plasmid DNA; and (iii) a cholesterol backbone for serum resistance. PMID:24786091

  15. Determination of the cationic amphiphilic drug-DNA binding mode and DNA-assisted fluorescence resonance energy transfer amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Zahid; Banday, Abdul Rouf; Hussain, Mohammed Aamir; Tabish, Mohammad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of drug-DNA binding is crucial for predicting the potential genotoxicity of drugs. Agarose gel electrophoresis, absorption, steady state fluorescence, and circular dichroism have been used in exploring the interaction of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) such as amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMP), and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) with calf thymus or pUC19 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay, along with absorption and steady state fluorescence studies, reveal interaction between the CADs and DNA. A comparative study of the drugs with respect to the effect of urea, iodide induced quenching, and ethidium bromide (EB) exclusion assay reflects binding of CADs to the DNA primarily in an intercalative fashion. Circular dichroism data also support the intercalative mode of binding. Besides quenching, there is fluorescence exchange energy transfer (FRET) in between CADs and EB using DNA as a template.

  16. Bell Curve for Transfection by Lamellar Cationic Lipid--DNA Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Evans, Heather M.; Ewert, K.; George, C. X.; Samuel, C. E.; Safinya, C. R.

    2004-03-01

    Cationic liposomes (CL) present a viable alternative to viral delivery of therapeutic DNA to cells. We combine CL with DNA in order to form complexes that can deliver foreign DNA (genes) to cells. In trying to improve the transfection efficiency (TE) of lamellar CL-DNA complexes, we have identified universal trends depending on the headgroup size and charge of the cationic lipid. By using new multivalent lipids ranging from 2+ to 16+ (e.g. Ewert et al, J. Med. Chem. 2002; 45: 5023) we are able to access a wide range of membrane charge density values, or σ _M. TE plots vs. σ M for multivalent lipids merge onto a universal curve with a Gaussian shape. The optimal σ M depends on the overall CL/DNA charge. The universal TE curve shows three regimes related to cellular obstacles: at low σ _M, TE is limited by endosomal escape of CL-DNA, while at high σ M TE is limited by complex dissociation and DNA release into the cytoplasm. Funded by NIH GM-59288 and NSF DMR-0203755.

  17. Self-assembly and hybridization mechanisms of DNA with cationic polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer; Azene, Elias Gebremedhn; Knoops, Jérémie; Knippenberg, Stefan; Delcourt, Cécile; Thomas, Amandine; Richeter, Sébastien; Mehdi, Ahmad; Dubois, Philippe; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Beljonne, David; Clément, Sébastien; Surin, Mathieu

    2015-08-28

    The combination of DNA and π-conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) represents a promising approach to develop DNA hybridization biosensors, with potential applications for instance in the detection of DNA lesions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we exploit the remarkable optical properties of a cationic poly[3-(6'-(trimethylphosphonium)hexyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (CPT) to decipher the self-assembly of DNA and CPT. The ssDNA/CPT complexes have chiroptical signatures in the CPT absorption region that are strongly dependent on the DNA sequence, which we relate to differences in supramolecular interactions between the thiophene monomers and the various nucleobases. By studying DNA-DNA hybridization and melting processes on preformed ssDNA/CPT complexes, we observe sequence-dependent mechanisms that can yield DNA-condensed aggregates. Heating-cooling cycles show that non-equilibrium mixtures can form, noticeably depending on the working sequence of the hybridization experiment. These results are of high importance for the use of π-conjugated polyelectrolytes in DNA hybridization biosensors and in polyplexes. PMID:26179509

  18. Clay flocculation improved by cationic poly(vinyl alcohol)/anionic polymer dual-component system.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yizhou; Xiao, Huining

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of cationically modified poly(vinyl alcohol), CPVA, by copolymerization of vinyl acetate and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC), followed by alkaline hydrolysis was systematically studied. The application of the resulting polymer to the fine clay flocculation was also reported. The charge density and the structure of the resulting CPVA were characterized by polyelectrolyte titration and NMR. A photometric dispersion analyzer was used to conduct the dynamic flocculation experiments. Under fine clay experimental conditions, the CPVA alone contributed little to inducing clay flocculation. However, in conjunction with anionic polyacrylamide-based polymer with high molecular weight and low charge density, significant improvement in the flocculation of fine clay particles was achieved. The influence of factors such as pH and shear force on clay flocculation was also investigated to identify optimum application conditions for clay flocculation. The electrostatic interactions between the clay and CPVA, as well as those between the CPVA pre-treated clay and anionic polymer, were studied to explore the flocculation mechanism. PMID:18657822

  19. Cationic Thiolated Poly(aspartamide) Polymer as a Potential Excipient for Artificial Tear Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, András; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Soós, Judit; Facskó, Andrea; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a relatively common ocular problem, which causes eye discomfort and visual disorders leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of this study was to find a possible excipient for eye drop formulations, which is able to stabilize the tear film. A cationic thiolated polyaspartamide polymer, poly[(N-mercaptoethylaspartamide)-co-(N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethyl)aspartamide)] (ThioPASP-DME), was used as a potential vehicle. Besides satisfying the basic requirements, the chemical structure of ThioPASP-DME is similar to those of ocular mucins as it is a protein-like polymer bearing a considerable number of thiol groups. The solution of the polymer is therefore able to mimic the physiological properties of the mucins and it can interact with the mucus layer via disulphide bond formation. The resultant mucoadhesion provides a prolonged residence time and ensures protective effect for the corneal/conjunctival epithelium. ThioPASP-DME also has an antioxidant effect due to the presence of the thiol groups. The applicability of ThioPASP-DME as a potential excipient in eye drops was determined by means of ocular compatibility tests and through examinations of the interactions with the mucosal surface. The results indicate that ThioPASP-DME can serve as a potential eye drop excipient for the therapy of dry eye disease. PMID:27313866

  20. Effectiveness, against tuberculosis, of pseudo-ternary complexes: peptide-DNA-cationic liposome.

    PubMed

    Rosada, Rogério Silva; Silva, Célio Lopes; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade; Nakaie, Clóvis Ryuichi; de la Torre, Lucimara Gaziola

    2012-05-01

    We report the effects of a synthetic peptide designed to act as a nuclear localization signal on the treatment of tuberculosis. The peptide contains 21 amino acid residues with the following specific domains: nuclear localization signal from SV 40T, cationic shuttle sequence, and cysteamide group at the C-terminus. The peptide was complexed with the plasmid DNAhsp65 and incorporated into cationic liposomes, forming a pseudo-ternary complex. The same cationic liposomes, composed of egg chicken L-α-phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (2:1:1M), were previously evaluated as a gene carrier for tuberculosis immunization protocols with DNAhsp65. The pseudo-ternary complex presented a controlled size (250 nm), spherical-like shape, and various lamellae in liposomes as evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. An assay of fluorescence probe accessibility confirmed insertion of the peptide/DNA into the liposome structure. Peptide addition conferred no cytotoxicity in vitro, and similar therapeutic effects against tuberculosis were seen with four times less DNA compared with naked DNA treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that the pseudo-ternary complex is a promising gene vaccine for tuberculosis treatment. This work contributes to the development of multifunctional nanostructures in the search for strategies for in vivo DNA delivery. PMID:21999959

  1. Arginine-based cationic liposomes for efficient in vitro plasmid DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Satya Ranjan; Aoshima, Yumiko; Hokama, Ryosuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Sou, Keitaro; Takeoka, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently available gene delivery vehicles have many limitations such as low gene delivery efficiency and high cytotoxicity. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed and synthesized two cationic lipids comprised of n-tetradecyl alcohol as the hydrophobic moiety, 3-hydrocarbon chain as the spacer, and different counterions (eg, hydrogen chloride [HCl] salt or trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] salt) in the arginine head group. Methods Cationic lipids were hydrated in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer to prepare cationic liposomes and characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, phase transition temperature, and morphology. Lipoplexes were then prepared and characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential in the absence or presence of serum. The morphology of the lipoplexes was determined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The gene delivery efficiency was evaluated in neuronal cells and HeLa cells and compared with that of lysine-based cationic assemblies and Lipofectamine™ 2000. The cytotoxicity level of the cationic lipids was investigated and compared with that of Lipofectamine™ 2000. Results We synthesized arginine-based cationic lipids having different counterions (ie, HCl-salt or TFA-salt) that formed cationic liposomes of around 100 nm in size. In the absence of serum, lipoplexes prepared from the arginine-based cationic liposomes and plasmid (p) DNA formed large aggregates and attained a positive zeta potential. However, in the presence of serum, the lipoplexes were smaller in size and negative in zeta potential. The morphology of the lipoplexes was vesicular. Arginine-based cationic liposomes with HCl-salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in PC-12 cells. However, arginine-based cationic liposomes with TFA salt showed the highest transfection efficiency in HeLa cells, regardless of the presence of serum, with very low associated cytotoxicity. Conclusion The gene

  2. Arsenite and arsenate removal from wastewater using cationic polymer-modified waste tyre rubber.

    PubMed

    Imyim, Apichat; Sirithaweesit, Thitayati; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2016-01-15

    Waste tyre rubber (WTR) granulate was modified with a cationic polymer, poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)). The resulting WTR/p(APTMACl) was utilized for the adsorption of arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) from aqueous medium in both batch and column methods. The level of adsorption increased gradually with increasing monomer concentration and contact time. The adsorption behavior obeyed the Freundlich model, and the rate of adsorption could be predicted by employing the pseudo-second order model. In the column method, As(V) could be adsorbed onto the sorbent more effectively than As(III). Remarkable desorption of As(III) and As(V) (99 and 92%, respectively) from the adsorbent was achieved using 0.10 M HCl as eluent. An approach of evaluation of adsorption capacity uncertainty is proposed. PMID:26607568

  3. Dosage effect of cationic polymers on the flocculation efficiency of the marine microalga Neochloris oleoabundans.

    PubMed

    't Lam, G P; Zegeye, E K; Vermuë, M H; Kleinegris, D M M; Eppink, M H M; Wijffels, R H; Olivieri, G

    2015-12-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of cationic polymers for flocculating salt water cultivated microalgae. The model was validated on experiments carried out with Neochloris oleoabundans and three different commercial flocculants (Zetag 7557®, Synthofloc 5080H® and SNF H536®). For a wide range of biomass concentrations (0.49-1.37 g L(-1)) and flocculant dosages (0-150 mg L(-1)) the model simulations predicted well the optimal flocculant-to-biomass ratio between 43 and 109 mgflocculant/gbiomass. At optimum conditions biomass recoveries varied between 88% and 99%. The cost of the usage of commercial available flocculants is estimated to range between 0.15$/kgbiomass and 0.49$/kgbiomass. PMID:26454366

  4. Stimuli Response of Cationic Polymer Brush Prepared by ATRP: Application in Peptide Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Colleen; Mitrovic, Bojan; Eastwood, Stephanie; Kinsel, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Random cationic copolymer brushes composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) were synthesized using the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. The effects of varying the monomer feed ratios (30:70 and 70:30 DMAEMA:NIPAAm) and polymerization times on the film height, morphology and stimuli response to pH of the brush were evaluated. While the polymerization time was found to have little influence on the properties of the brushes, the monomer feed ratios had a great impact. The 70 % DMAEMA polymer brush had similar height as the 30 % DMAEMA brush after 45 min; however, it had a greater response to pH and morphological change compared to the 30 % DMAEMA. The 70 % DMAEMA brush was used to demonstrate an efficient approach to alleviate the ion suppression effect in MALDI analysis of complex mixtures by effectively fractionating a binary mixture of peptides prior to MALDI-MS analysis. PMID:25253913

  5. Stimuli Response of Cationic Polymer Brush Prepared by ATRP: Application in Peptide Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Colleen; Mitrovic, Bojan; Eastwood, Stephanie; Kinsel, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Random cationic copolymer brushes composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) were synthesized using the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. The effects of varying the monomer feed ratios (30:70 and 70:30 DMAEMA:NIPAAm) and polymerization times on the film height, morphology and stimuli response to pH of the brush were evaluated. While the polymerization time was found to have little influence on the properties of the brushes, the monomer feed ratios had a great impact. The 70 % DMAEMA polymer brush had similar height as the 30 % DMAEMA brush after 45 min; however, it had a greater response to pH and morphological change compared to the 30 % DMAEMA. The 70 % DMAEMA brush was used to demonstrate an efficient approach to alleviate the ion suppression effect in MALDI analysis of complex mixtures by effectively fractionating a binary mixture of peptides prior to MALDI-MS analysis. PMID:25253913

  6. Linearized oncolytic adenoviral plasmid DNA delivered by bioreducible polymers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaesung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Nam, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2011-01-01

    As an effort to overcome limits of adenovirus (Ad) as a systemic delivery vector for cancer therapy, we developed a novel system using oncolytic Ad plasmid DNA with two bioreducible polymers: arginine-grafted bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)polymer (ABP) and PEG5k-conjugated ABP (ABP5k) in expectation of oncolytic effect caused by progeny viral production followed by replication. The linearized Ad DNAs for active viral replication polyplexed with each polymer were able to replicate only in humancancer cells and produce progeny viruses. The non-immunogenic polymers delivering the DNAs markedly elicited to evade the innate and adaptive immune response. The biodistribution ratio of the polyplexes administered systemically was approximately 99% decreased in liver when compared with naked Ad. Moreover, tumor-to-liver ratio of the Ad DNA delivered by ABP or ABP5k was significantly elevated at 229- or 419-fold greater than that of naked Ad, respectively. The ABP5k improved the chance of the DNA to localize within tumor versus liver with 1.8-fold increased ratio. In conclusion, the innovative and simple system for delivering oncolytic Ad plasmid DNA with the bioreducible polymers, skipping time-consuming steps such as generation and characterization of oncolytic Ad vectors, can be utilized as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. PMID:22207073

  7. A novel cationic lipid with intrinsic antitumor activity to facilitate gene therapy of TRAIL DNA.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Miao, Lei; Zhao, Yi; Musetti, Sara; Wang, Yuhua; Shi, Kai; Huang, Leaf

    2016-09-01

    Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) has been found to be effective for the treatment of a wide range of cancer. Herein, a novel lipid (1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-biguanide-propane (DOBP)) was elaborately designed by utilizing biguanide as the cationic head group. This novel cationic lipid was intended to act as a gene carrier with intrinsic antitumor activity. When compared with 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), a commercially available cationic lipid with a similar structure, the blank liposomes consisting of DOBP showed much more potent antitumor effects than DOTAP in human lung tumor xenografts, following an antitumor mechanism similar to metformin. Given its cationic head group, biguanide, DOBP could encapsulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) plasmids into Lipid-Protamine-DNA (LPD) nanoparticles (NPs) for systemic gene delivery. DOBP-LPD-TRAIL NPs demonstrated distinct superiority in delaying tumor progression over DOTAP-LPD-TRAIL NPs, due to the intrinsic antitumor activity combined with TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumor. These results indicate that DOBP could be used as a versatile and promising cationic lipid for improving the therapeutic index of gene therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27344367

  8. Characterization of cationic lipid DNA transfection complexes differing in susceptability to serum inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Cationic lipid DNA complexes based on DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethyammonium) propane) and mixtures of DOTAP and cholesterol (DC) have been previously optimized for transfection efficiency in the absence of serum and used as a non-viral gene delivery system. To determine whether DOTAP and DC lipid DNA complexes could be obtained with increased transfection effciency in the presence of high serum concentrations, the composition of the complexes was varied systematically and a total of 162 different complexes were analyzed for transfection efficiency in the presence and absence of high serum concentrations. Results Increasing the ratio of DOTAP or DC to DNA led to a dose dependent enhancement of transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations up to a ratio of approximately 128 nmol lipid/μg DNA. Transfection efficiency could be further increased for all ratios of DOTAP and DC to DNA by addition of the DNA condensing agent protamine sulfate (PS). For DOTAP DNA complexes with ratios of ≤ 32 nmol/μg DNA, peak transfection efficiencies were obtained with 4 μg PS/μg DNA. In contrast, increasing the amount of PS of DC complexes above 0.5 μg PS /μg DNA did not lead to significant further increases in transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations. Four complexes, which had a similar high transfection efficiency in cell culture in the presence of low serum concentrations but which differed largely in the lipid to DNA ratio and the amount of PS were selected for further analysis. Intravenous injection of the selected complexes led to 22-fold differences in transduction efficiency, which correlated with transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations. The complex with the highest transfection efficiency in vivo consisted of 64 nmol DC/ 16 μg PS/ μg DNA. Physical analysis revealed a predicted size of 440 nm and the highest zeta potential of the complexes analyzed. Conclusions Optimization of

  9. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators obtained from radiation-grafted cation- and anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Han, Man Jae; Song, Dae Seock; Jho, Jae Young

    2014-12-24

    Two series of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), one cationic and one anionic, are designed and prepared from radiation-grafted ion-exchange membranes. Through examination of the properties of the membranes synthesized from the two grafting monomers and the two base polymers, acrylic acid-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and quarternized 4-vinylpyridine-grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) with the appropriate amount of ionic groups are employed for the fabrication of cation and anion IPMCs, respectively. The bending displacement of the cation IPMC is comparable to Nafion-based IPMC under direct- and alternating-current voltage, but back-relaxation is not observed. The actuation performance of the anion IPMC is highly improved over those reported earlier in the literature for the other anion IPMCs. PMID:25420910

  10. Plasmid DNA transfection using magnetite cationic liposomes for construction of multilayered gene-engineered cell sheet.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kosuke; Kawasumi, Tamayo; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-01

    Modification of cellular functions by overexpression of genes is being increasingly practiced for tissue engineering. In the present study, we investigated whether transfection efficiency could be enhanced by magnetofection that involves the use of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) complexes (pDNA/MCL) and magnetic force. The transfection efficiencies of the magnetofection technique by pDNA/MCL in fibroblasts and keratinocytes using reporter genes were 36- and 10-fold higher, respectively, than those of a lipofection technique by cationic liposomes. Moreover, in vitro construction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues is an important challenge. We recently proposed a novel technique termed "magnetic force-based tissue engineering" (Mag-TE) to produce 3D tissues. Since the fibroblasts after magnetofection incorporated both magnetite nanoparticles and pDNA, we investigated whether multilayered heterotypic cell sheets expressing transgene could be fabricated by Mag-TE. First, the fibroblasts were seeded onto an ultra-low attachment culture plate. When a magnet was placed under the plate, the cells accumulated at the bottom of the culture plate. After 24 h of culture, the transgene-expressing cells formed a multilayered cell sheet-like structure. These results indicated that MCLs are a potent biomanipulation tool for both gene transfer and 3D tissue construction, suggesting that these techniques are useful for tissue engineering. PMID:18078300

  11. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  12. Hypercrosslinked strong cation-exchange polymers for selective extraction of serum purine metabolites associated with gout.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yating; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Hongyang; Jiang, Min; Cao, Lingling; Zhang, Min; Sun, Wei; Ruan, Shengli; Hu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    In this study, hypercrosslinked strong cation-exchange polymer resins (HXLPP-SCX) were synthesized and employed as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of basic purine metabolites associated with gout. The HXLPP-SCX material was prepared based on hypercrosslinking reactions and sulfonated with concentrated H2SO4. This synthetic procedure is facile and efficient without using highly toxic reagent. The resulting resins were characterized in the form of monodisperse microspheres (mean diameters of 3‒5μm) with narrow pore size (2.1nm) and relatively high specific surface areas (801m(2)/g). The polymers also possess high ion-exchange capacity (IEC, 2.22mmol/g) and good adsorption and selectivity performances for basic compounds. The resins used as SPE sorbents permit the selective enrichment of three pivotal purine metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine and inosine) in human serum followed by HPLC analysis. Method validation including linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility were evaluated. This method was exemplarily applied in the analysis of serum purines in gout patients and healthy controls. The present results demonstrate a promising potential of this HXLPP-SCX material for the clinical sample pretreatment. PMID:26946024

  13. Efficient Turing-Universal Computation with DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lulu; Soloveichik, David; Winfree, Erik

    Bennett's proposed chemical Turing machine is one of the most important thought experiments in the study of the thermodynamics of computation. Yet the sophistication of molecular engineering required to physically construct Bennett's hypothetical polymer substrate and enzymes has deterred experimental implementations. Here we propose a chemical implementation of stack machines - a Turing-universal model of computation similar to Turing machines - using DNA strand displacement cascades as the underlying chemical primitive. More specifically, the mechanism described herein is the addition and removal of monomers from the end of a DNA polymer, controlled by strand displacement logic. We capture the motivating feature of Bennett's scheme: that physical reversibility corresponds to logically reversible computation, and arbitrarily little energy per computation step is required. Further, as a method of embedding logic control into chemical and biological systems, polymer-based chemical computation is significantly more efficient than geometry-free chemical reaction networks.

  14. Homogeneous fluorescent specific PCR for the authentication of medicinal snakes using cationic conjugated polymers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Libing; Hou, Jingyi; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    A label-free, homogenous and sensitive one-step method for the molecular authentication of medicinal snakes has been developed by combining a rapid PCR technique with water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CCPs). Three medicinal snake materials (Deinagkistrodon acutus, Zaocys dhumnades and Bungarus multicinctus; a total of 35 specimens) and 48 snake specimens with similar morphologies and textures were clearly distinguished by the naked eye by utilizing a CCP-based assay in a high-throughput manner. The identification of medicinal snakes in patented Chinese drugs was successfully performed using this detection system. In contrast to previous fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide detection and direct DNA stain hybridization assays, this method does not require designing dye-labeled primers, and unfavorable dimer fluorescence is avoided in this homogenous method. PMID:26537289

  15. Interaction of cationic liposomes and their DNA complexes with monocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Pires, P; Simões, S; Nir, S; Gaspar, R; Düzgünes, N; Pedroso de Lima, M C

    1999-04-14

    Cationic liposomes complexed with DNA have been used extensively as non-viral vectors for the intracellular delivery of reporter or therapeutic genes in culture and in vivo. We examined the relationship between the characteristics of the lipoplexes, their mode of interaction with monocytic THP-1 cells and their ability to transfect these cells. We determined the size and zeta potential of cationic liposomes (composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP) and its mixtures with neutral lipids), and lipoplexes at different (+/-) charge ratios. As the (+/-) charge ratio of the lipoplexes decreased to (1/1), a significant reduction in zeta potential and an increase in size was observed. The increase in size resulted from fusion between liposomes promoted by DNA, as demonstrated by a lipid mixing assay, and from aggregation of the complexes. Interaction of liposomes and lipoplexes with THP-1 cells was assessed by monitoring lipid mixing ('fusion') as well as binding and cell association. While no lipid mixing was observed with the 1/2 (+/-) lipid/DNA complexes, lipoplexes with higher (+/-) charge ratios underwent significant fusion in conjunction with extensive cell binding. Liposome binding to cells was dependent on the positive charge of the liposomes, and their fusion could be modulated by the co-lipid. DOTAP/phosphatidylethanolamine (1:1) liposomes fused with THP-1 cells, unlike DOTAP/phosphatidylcholine (1:1) liposomes, although both liposome types bound to the cells to a similar extent. The use of inhibitors of endocytosis indicated that fusion of the cationic liposomes with cells occurred mainly at the plasma membrane level. The presence of serum increased the size of the cationic liposomes, but not that of the lipoplexes. Low concentrations of serum (3%) completely inhibited the fusion of cationic liposomes with cells, while inhibiting binding by only 20%. Our results suggest that binding of cationic liposomes and lipoplexes to cells is governed

  16. Mechanism of formation of supramolecular DNA-templated polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Watson, Scott M D; Galindo, Miguel A; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Houlton, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Details of the mechanism of formation of supramolecular polymer nanowires by templating on DNA are revealed for the first time using AFM. Overall these data reveal that the smooth, regular, structures produced are rendered by highly dynamic supramolecular transformations occurring over the micrometre scale. In the initial stages of the process a low density of conducting polymer (CP) binds to the DNA as, essentially, spherical particles. Further reaction time produces DNA strands which are more densely packed with particles giving a beads-on-a-string appearance. The particles subsequently undergo dynamic reconfiguration so as to elongate along the template axis and merge to yield the highly regular, smooth morphology of the final nanowire. MD simulations illustrate the early stages of the process showing the binding of globular CP to duplex DNA, while the latter stages can be modeled effectively by a linear thermodynamic description based on the balance between the line energy, which accounts for adhesion of the material to the template, and its surface tension. This model accounts for the phenomena observed in the AFM studies: the relative success of DNA templating of polymers compared to metals; the slow approach to equilibrium; and the observed thinning and 'necking' phenomena as the structures transform from beads-on-a-string to smooth nanowire. PMID:24712548

  17. Self-assembled DNA-cationic-lipid complexes: Two-dimensional smectic ordering, correlations, and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salditt, T.; Koltover, I.; Rädler, J. O.; Safinya, C. R.

    1998-07-01

    We report a synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) study of the mutilayered, self-assembled structure (complex) that is formed by mixing DNA with cationic liposomes. In these complexes the DNA is confined between charged lipid bilayers and orders as a two-dimensional (2D) smectic liquid crystal. The power-law bilayer-bilayer correlations of the 3D multilayer smectic liquid crystal, which are coupled to the 2D lattice of DNA chains, are found to deviate significantly from those described by the standard Caillé model of smectic-A phases. To model the DNA ordering, the 2D smectic correlation function and the corresponding structure factor are derived from the smectic Hamiltonian in harmonic approximation. The resulting line shape is then fitted to the DNA correlation peak. It is found that for samples of higher d, short-range correlations between the DNA in adjacent sheets have to be assumed to explain the data. From the least-square fitting, the 2D DNA interchain compressibility modulus B is extracted as a function of d and discussed in view of different possible microscopic interactions responsible for the ordering.

  18. Subpicosecond Excited State Lifetimes in DNA Polymers Require Unstacked Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Harpe, Kimberly; Su, Charlene; Kohler, Bern

    2009-06-01

    The femtosecond lifetimes of excited states of monomeric DNA bases are the result of nuclear motions that lead to one or more conical intersections (CIs). Surprisingly, femtosecond pump-probe experiments reveal that excitations in DNA base polymers, including ones with genomic or 'natural' sequences of the four bases, decay at least an order of magnitude more slowly. Although the reasons for this dramatic change in photophysics are unclear, evidence strongly suggests that the long-lived states are exciplexes formed when an electron is partially transferred from one base to its π-stacked neighbor. Experiments also show that monomer-like subpicosecond decay to the ground state is frequently observed in many DNA oligomers and polymers in addition to exciplex formation. We will present results from high-temperature and other experiments suggesting that monomer-like, CI-mediated dynamics are only possible when unstacked bases are present.

  19. Competitive interaction of monovalent cations with DNA from 3D-RISM.

    PubMed

    Giambaşu, George M; Gebala, Magdalena K; Panteva, Maria T; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A; York, Darrin M

    2015-09-30

    The composition of the ion atmosphere surrounding nucleic acids affects their folding, condensation and binding to other molecules. It is thus of fundamental importance to gain predictive insight into the formation of the ion atmosphere and thermodynamic consequences when varying ionic conditions. An early step toward this goal is to benchmark computational models against quantitative experimental measurements. Herein, we test the ability of the three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) to reproduce preferential interaction parameters determined from ion counting (IC) experiments for mixed alkali chlorides and dsDNA. Calculations agree well with experiment with slight deviations for salt concentrations >200 mM and capture the observed trend where the extent of cation accumulation around the DNA varies inversely with its ionic size. Ion distributions indicate that the smaller, more competitive cations accumulate to a greater extent near the phosphoryl groups, penetrating deeper into the grooves. In accord with experiment, calculated IC profiles do not vary with sequence, although the predicted ion distributions in the grooves are sequence and ion size dependent. Calculations on other nucleic acid conformations predict that the variation in linear charge density has a minor effect on the extent of cation competition. PMID:26304542

  20. Competitive interaction of monovalent cations with DNA from 3D-RISM

    PubMed Central

    Giambaşu, George M.; Gebala, Magdalena K.; Panteva, Maria T.; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A.; York, Darrin M.

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the ion atmosphere surrounding nucleic acids affects their folding, condensation and binding to other molecules. It is thus of fundamental importance to gain predictive insight into the formation of the ion atmosphere and thermodynamic consequences when varying ionic conditions. An early step toward this goal is to benchmark computational models against quantitative experimental measurements. Herein, we test the ability of the three dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) to reproduce preferential interaction parameters determined from ion counting (IC) experiments for mixed alkali chlorides and dsDNA. Calculations agree well with experiment with slight deviations for salt concentrations >200 mM and capture the observed trend where the extent of cation accumulation around the DNA varies inversely with its ionic size. Ion distributions indicate that the smaller, more competitive cations accumulate to a greater extent near the phosphoryl groups, penetrating deeper into the grooves. In accord with experiment, calculated IC profiles do not vary with sequence, although the predicted ion distributions in the grooves are sequence and ion size dependent. Calculations on other nucleic acid conformations predict that the variation in linear charge density has a minor effect on the extent of cation competition. PMID:26304542

  1. Exploring the segregating and mineralization-inducing capacities of cationic hydrophilic polymers for preparation of robust, multifunctional mesoporous hybrid microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Wenyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Xiaoman; Zhang, Chunhong; Song, Xiaokai; Ai, Qinghong

    2013-06-12

    A facile approach to preparing mesoporous hybrid microcapsules is developed by exploring the segregating and mineralization-inducing capacities of cationic hydrophilic polymer. The preparation process contains four steps: segregation of cationic hydrophilic polymer during template formation, cross-linking of the segregated polymer, biomimetic mineralization within cross-linked polymer network, and removal of template to simultaneously generate capsule lumen and mesopores on the capsule wall. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) is chosen as the model polymer, its hydrophilicity renders the segregating capacity and spontaneous enrichment in the near-surface region of CaCO3 microspheres; its biopolyamine-mimic structure renders the mineralization-inducing capacity to produce titania from the water-soluble titanium(IV) precursor. Meanwhile, CaCO3 microspheres serve the dual templating functions in the formation of hollow lumen and mesoporous wall. The thickness of capsule wall can be controlled by changing the polymer segregating and cross-linking conditions, while the pore size on the capsule wall can be tuned by changing the template synthesizing conditions. The robust hybrid microcapsules exhibit desirable efficiency in enzymatic catalysis, wastewater treatment and drug delivery. This approach may open facile, generic, and efficient pathway to designing and preparing a variety of hybrid microcapsules with high and tunable permeability, good stability and multiple functionalities for a broad range of applications. PMID:23675684

  2. Vibrational local modes in DNA polymer.

    PubMed

    Van Zandt, L L; Saxena, V K

    1994-04-01

    Where the translational symmetry of a long polymer chain is interrupted, characteristic vibrations of the molecule are possible in which only those atoms at or relatively near the defect site partake of the motion. This contrasts with the more common vibrational states in which the motion propagates along the chain as a sound wave. Examples of readily producible local defects include broken bonds, missing atoms or groups, and extra links as are found, e.g., in thymine dimers. For each different defect, the spectrum of local mode frequencies is characteristic of its structure. Hence the local modes give direct information about the nature of the defect and can serve as a diagnostic signature of the polymer chain lesion. We have developed and are using algorithms and fortran code to predict the existence and nature of local modes based on their atomic structures. We have studied examples of different defects and found their eigen-frequencies and eigenvectors. For the simplest case of a broken hydrogen bond in a single A-T unit in a long homopolymer dA.dT chain, we display stereo views of the vibrating unit side-by-side with the undisturbed molecule for the three local modes occurring below 300 cm-1 in frequency. PMID:7946063

  3. Effect of Mg2+ cations on the dynamics and efficiency of hole transport in DNA.

    PubMed

    Thazhathveetil, Arun Kalliat; Trifonov, Anton; Wasielewski, Michael R; Lewis, Frederick D

    2014-11-13

    The effect of Mg(2+) cations on the electronic spectra and dynamics and efficiency of hole transport has been determined by means of femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy for DNA hairpins possessing stilbene electron acceptor and donor chromophores. The results are compared with those obtained previously for the same hairpins in the presence of Na(+) cations and for one hairpin with no added salt. Quantum yields and rate constants for charge separation are smaller in the presence of Mg(2+) than Na(+), the largest differences being observed for the hairpins with the largest number of base pairs. Slower charge separation is attributed to minor groove binding by Mg(2+), which results in a stiffer duplex structure rather than a change in ground state geometry. Reduction in the Na(+) concentration has little effect on either the dynamics or efficiency of hole transport. PMID:24912084

  4. Charge-mediated topical delivery of plasmid DNA with cationic lipid nanoparticles to the skin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Eon; Kim, Chong-Kook

    2014-04-01

    Cationic lipid nanoparticles (cLNs) were modified to develop a gene delivery system for topical use via a dermal route. The cLNs were formulated using high pressure homogenization method and were composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), Tween 20, and tricaprin as a solid core (1:1:1:1.67, w/w). The prepared cLNs were nanoscale-sized (<100 nm) and were highly positive (51 mV). The cLN/DNA complexes demonstrated enhanced transfection potential in the cells at the optimal ratio without cytotoxic effects. To evaluate its efficacy in topical application, in vitro skin transfer of the cLN/DNA complexes was monitored using the measurement of the surface zeta potential of hairless mouse skin and validated using confocal microscopy of the sectioned skin. The in vivo delivery of plasmid DNA with the cLN formulation was examined using the relative expression levels of mRNA after non-invasive application with the cLN/DNA complexes on hair-removed dorsal skin of mice. The cLNs successfully transferred plasmid DNA to the skin, which was facilitated by the charge-mediated interaction between the cLN/DNA complexes and the skin. These results suggest the promising potential of cLNs as a topical gene delivery system for gene vaccine delivery and cutaneous gene therapy in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:24631964

  5. Investigation of the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungno; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2004-05-25

    Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on a cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, Polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10), of low charge density were studied by potentiometric and pyrene fluorescence methods and compared with those of poly(diallyldimethylammomium chloride) (PDADMAC) of high charge density. The critical aggregation concentration (cac) was measured with the potentiometric method and further confirmed with the fluorescence method. The former was found to be more accurate. The value of the cac for the SDS/PQ-10 system was measured at 100, 200, and 400 ppm polymer and at 288.2,298.2, and 308.2 K. They showed almost the same cac value, 0.04 mmol dm-3. The I1/I3 value of the pyrene fluorescence spectrum in the SDS/PQ-10 system at higher SDS concentration was smaller than that in SDS/PDADMAC solution and much larger than that of water. From the binding isotherm by the potentiometric method, the free DS- concentration (Cf) and the bound DS- concentration (Cb) could be evaluated with ease over the SDS concentration range above the cac. The aggregation number of DS- aggregates for both the above polymers was evaluated from the fluorescence quenching method using the values of Cf and Cb from the potentiometric method. Because Cf in the SDS/PQ-10 system above the cac did not maintain a constant value contrary to that in the SDS/PDADMAC system but increased quite a lot, Cb should not be regarded as [SDS] - cac above the cac. The aggregation number in the SDS/PQ-10 system increased almost linearly with increasing total concentration of SDS, while that in the SDS/PDADMAC system reached a plateau. With increasing temperature, the aggregation number of the SDS/PDADMAC system decreased more rapidly than that of the SDS/PQ-10 system. PMID:15969141

  6. DNA-Redox Cation Interaction Improves the Sensitivity of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ge, Bixia; Ou, Lily M.-L.; Yao, Zhihui; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A simple DNA-redox cation interaction enhancement strategy has been developed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensors for protein detection. Instead of labeling with fluorophores or redox-active groups, the detection antibodies were tethered with DNA single strands. Based on the electrostatic interaction between redox cations ([Ru(NH3)6]3+) and negatively charged DNA backbone, enhanced electrochemical signals were obtained. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) detection has been performed as a trial analysis. A linear response range up to the concentration of 25 mIU/mL and a detection limit of 1.25 mIU/mL have been achieved, both are comparable with the ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The method also shows great selectivity towards hCG over other hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). By and large, our approach bears the merits of cost effectiveness and simplicity of instrumentation in comparison with conventional optical detection methods. PMID:26307986

  7. Dual-Colored DNA Comb Polymers for Single Molecule Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Marciel, Amanda; Schroeder, Charles

    2014-03-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of branched biopolymers for single molecule rheology. In our work, we utilize a hybrid enzymatic-synthetic approach to graft ``short'' DNA branches to ``long'' DNA backbones, thereby producing macromolecular DNA comb polymers. The branches and backbones are synthesized via polymerase chain reaction with chemically modified deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs): ``short'' branches consist of Cy5-labeled dNTPs and a terminal azide group, and ``long'' backbones contain dibenzylcyclooctyne-modified (DBCO) dNTPs. In this way, we utilize strain-promoted, copper-free cycloaddition ``click'' reactions for facile grafting of azide-terminated branches at DBCO sites along backbones. Copper-free click reactions are bio-orthogonal and nearly quantitative when carried out under mild conditions. Moreover, comb polymers can be labeled with an intercalating dye (e.g., YOYO) for dual-color fluorescence imaging. We characterized these materials using gel electrophoresis, HPLC, and optical microscopy, with atomic force microscopy in progress. Overall, DNA combs are suitable for single molecule dynamics, and in this way, our work holds the potential to improve our understanding of topologically complex polymer melts and solutions.

  8. Modulation of cellular immune response against hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 by cationic liposome encapsulated DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xuanmao; Wang, Richard Y-H; Feng, Zhiming; Alter, Harvey J; Shih, James Wai-Kuo

    2003-02-01

    A vaccine strategy directed to increase Th1 cellular immune responses, particularly to hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), has considerable potential to overcome the infection with HCV. DNA vaccination can induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, but it became apparent that the cellular uptake of naked DNA injected into muscle was not very efficient, as much of the DNA is degraded by interstitial nucleases before it reaches the nucleus for transcription. In this paper, cationic liposomes composed of different cationic lipids, such as dimethyl-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-ethylphosphocholine (DOEPC), were used to improve DNA immunization in mice, and their efficiencies were compared. It was found that cationic liposome-mediated DNA immunization induced stronger HCV NS3-specific immune responses than immunization with naked DNA alone. Cationic liposomes composed of DDAB and equimolar of a neutral lipid, egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC), induced the strongest antigen-specific Th1 type immune responses among the cationic liposome investigated, whereas the liposomes composed of 2 cationic lipids, DDAB and DOEPC, induced an antigen-specific Th2 type immune response. All cationic liposomes used in this study triggered high-level, nonspecific IL-12 production in mice, a feature important for the development of maximum Th1 immune responses. In conclusion, the cationic liposome-mediated gene delivery is a viable HCV vaccine strategy that should be further tested in the chimpanzee model. PMID:12540796

  9. The characteristics and transfection efficiency of cationic poly (ester-co-urethane) - short chain PEI conjugates self-assembled with DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Yi; Ho, Wen-Yueh; Hung, Wei Jing; Shau, Min-Da

    2009-12-01

    To improve the transfection efficiency of polycations with DNA, we synthesized poly(ester-co-urethane)(PEU-g-PEI800) with short chain PEI800 in the side chain, and poly(ester-co-urethane)(PEU) without short chain PEI800. Both PEU-g-PEI800 and PEU, readily self-assembled with plasmid DNA (pCMV-betagal) in a HEPES buffer, were characterized by dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential. The results reveal that PEU-g-PEI800 and PEU were able to self-assemble particles with DNA and yield nano-sized complexes (<200nm) with positive charge at N/P ratios of 20/1 and 120/1, respectively. The degradation studies indicate that the half-life of PEU-g-PEI800 and PEU in the HEPES buffer were 14 and 35h at pH 7.4, respectively. Titration studies were performed to determine the buffering capacities of the polymers. The COS-7 cell viabilities in the presence of PEU-g-PEI800/DNA, PEU/DNA, and PEI25k/DNA were studied. In addition, The PEU-g-PEI800/DNA complexes were able to transfect COS-7 cells in vitro with a high efficiency comparable to a well-known gene carrier PEI25k. The results indicate that PEU-g-PEI800 is an attractive cationic poly (ester-co-urethane) for gene delivery and an interesting candidate for further study. PMID:19775745

  10. Cooperativity or phase transition? Unfolding transition of DNA cationic surfactant complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, Sergey M.; Sergeyev, Vladimir G.; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hatta, Ichiro

    1997-11-01

    We recently reported that single duplex DNA, with the size above the order of several tens kilobase pairs, undergoes a large discrete transition from an elongated coil into a collapsed globule with the addition of a cationic surfactant. In the present article, we describe the manner of the unfolding transition of compact long DNA, or globule DNA, complexed with cationic surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and distearyldimethylammonium bromide (D18DAB), as is induced by the addition of sodium bromide. The conformational dynamics of individual single duplex T4DNA molecules was directly observed with the use of fluorescence microscopy. We found that on the level of individual DNAs, the salt-induced unfolding transition of the globules is largely discrete, or first-order phase transition for the both complexes with CTAB and D18DAB. On the other hand, for the ensemble average of the DNAs, the transition is discrete with CTAB but is continuous (sigmoidal) with D18DAB. The discreteness for the coil-globule transition in the ensemble of DNAs complexed with CTAB is attributed to the existence of the phase transition in whole over the bulk solution: the sphere-rod transition in surfactant micelles. On the other hand, for D18DAB such phase transition on the micelle structure in the bulk solution seems to be absent. In correspondence to such a large difference on the manner of the transition, x-ray diffraction analysis indicates marked difference on the structure of DNA complexes with CTAB and with D18DAB.

  11. DNA and its cationic lipid complexes induce CpG motif-dependent activation of murine dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Takaharu; Yasuda, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, but not in vertebrate DNA, are known to trigger an inflammatory response of antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this study, we investigated the cytokine release from murine dendritic cells (DC) by the addition of various types of DNA in the free or complexed form with cationic lipids. Naked plasmid DNA and Escherichia coli DNA with immunostimulatory unmethylated CpG motifs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-cultured bone marrow-derived DC and the DC cell-line, DC2.4 cells, though vertebrate calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) with less CpG motifs did not. These characteristics differed from mouse peritoneal resident macrophages that do not respond to any naked DNA. The amount of cytokines released from the DC was significantly increased by complex formation with cationic lipids when CpG-motif positive DNAs were used. Unlike murine macrophages or Flt-3 L cultured DC, GM-CSF DC did not release inflammatory cytokines in response to the addition of CT DNA/cationic lipid complex, suggesting that the activation is completely dependent on CpG motifs. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that murine DC produce pro-inflammatory cytokines upon stimulation with CpG-containing DNAs and the responses are enhanced by cationic lipids. These results also suggest that DC are the major cells that respond to naked CpG DNA in vivo, although both DC and macrophages will release inflammatory cytokines after the administration of a DNA/cationic lipid complex. PMID:17199803

  12. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L; Ilies, Marc A

    2014-02-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact on the plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes, and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, and the internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that the blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. The transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to the transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of colipids, their nature, and amount present in lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically to obtain efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  13. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Ilies, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact towards plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process, and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity and internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of co-lipids, their nature and amount present into lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically for obtaining efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  14. Nanodosimetry of Low Energy (0.1 - 100 eV) Cation Damage to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, L.; Martin, F.; Hunting, D.; Lacombe, S.; Huels, M. A.

    2004-03-01

    The importance of heavy ions in radiobiology is twofold: (1) they represent the most efficient and volume selective mode of radiotherapy of deep-seated and non-operable tumors, (2) in space environments, or at supersonic altitudes, the most lethal radiation consists of cosmic rays which have a high efficiency to induce clustered DNA lesions, mutations, and cancer. Thus, the study of their effects on DNA is essential for radiation risk assessment, dosimetry, and efficient use of hadrontherapy. Here, we investigate damage to DNA and its components, induced by heavy ion impact, via a novel ion-plasma method, which allows us to probe ion energy depositions in the 0.1-100 eV/nm range in nanoscopic biomolecular films. Cations are generated by electron impact in ultra pure gases (Ar, N2, CO, etc.), and are uniformly accelerated by grids towards the inside surface of a cylinder where an organic film was deposited. After ion irradiation at a specific energy and ion dose, the film is recovered and analyzed. For DNA, gel electrophoresis is used to quantify yields of single, double, and multiple strand breaks. For DNA components (mononucleotides), fragmentation and new products are measured by HPLC and MS.

  15. Contribution of hydrophobicity, DNA and proteins to the cytotoxicity of cationic PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Halets, Inessa; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Klajnert, Barbara; Bryszewska, Maria

    2013-09-15

    In most articles, cytotoxicity of cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers toward red blood cells has been exclusively explained by their surface charge. We have focused on dendrimer hydrophobicity as a second possible factor that determines this cytotoxicity. Using PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers from the 3rd to the 6th generations and PAMAM-NH2-C12(25%) dendrimer of the 4th generation bearing 25% acyl groups, these induced hemolysis that increased with their surface charge and hydrophobicity. Interaction of PAMAM-NH2-C12(25%) G4 dendrimer with blood proteins (γ-globulin, α-thrombin, human serum albumin) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) significantly reduced their cytotoxicity toward red blood cells. PMID:23831196

  16. The formation of DNA sugar radicals from photoexcitation of guanine cation radicals.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Lata I; Pazdro, Robert; Huang, James; DeVreugd, Christopher; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    In this investigation of radical formation and reaction in gamma- irradiated DNA and model compounds, we report the conversion of the guanine cation radical (one-electron oxidized guanine, G(.+)) to the C1' sugar radical and another sugar radical at the C3' or C4' position (designated C3'(.)/C4'(.)) by visible and UV photolysis. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic investigations were performed on salmon testes DNA as well as 5'-dGMP, 3'-dGMP, 2'-deoxyguanosine and other nucleosides/nucleotides as model systems. DNA samples (25- 150 mg/ml D(2)O) were prepared with Tl(3+) or Fe(CN)(3-)(6) as electron scavengers. Upon gamma irradiation of such samples at 77 K, the electron-gain path in the DNA is strongly suppressed and predominantly G(.+) is found; after UV or visible photolysis, the fraction of the C1' sugar radical increases with a concomitant reduction in the fraction of G(.+). In model systems, 3'- dGMP(+.) and 5'-dGMP(+.) were produced by attack of Cl(.-)(2) on the parent nucleotide in 7 M LiCl glass. Subsequent visible photolysis of the 3'-dGMP(+.) (77 K) results predominantly in formation of C1'(.) whereas photolysis of 5'-dGMP(+.) results predominantly in formation of C3'(.)/C4'(.). We propose that sugar radical formation is a result of delocalization of the hole in the electronically excited base cation radical into the sugar ring, followed by deprotonation at specific sites on the sugar. PMID:15161365

  17. Interaction of linear cationic peptides with phospholipid membranes and polymers of sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A S; Dubovskii, P V; Vorontsova, O V; Feofanov, A V; Efremov, R G

    2014-05-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a natural anionic polymer typically occurring on the outer surface of cell membranes. PSA is involved in cell signaling and intermolecular interactions with proteins and peptides. The antimicrobial potential of peptides is usually evaluated in model membranes consisting of lipid bilayers but devoid of either PSA or its analogs. The goal of this work was to investigate the possible effect of PSA on the structure of melittin (Mlt) and latarcins Ltc1K, Ltc2a, and the activity of these peptides with respect to model membranes. These peptides are linear cationic ones derived from the venom of bee (Mlt) and spider (both latarcins). The length of each of the peptides is 26 amino acid residues, and they all have antimicrobial activity. However, they differ with respect to conformational mobility, hydrophobic characteristics, and overall charge. In this work, using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that the peptides adopt an α-helical conformation upon interaction with either PSA or phospholipid liposomes formed of either zwitterionic or anionic phospholipids or their mixtures. The extent of helicity depends on the amino acid sequence and properties of the medium. Based on small angle X-ray scattering data and the analysis of the fluorescence spectrum of the Trp residue in Mlt, we conclude that the peptide forms an oligomeric complex consisting of α-helical Mlt and several PSA molecules. Both latarcins, unlike Mlt, the most hydrophobic of the peptides, interact weakly with zwitterionic liposomes. However, they bind anionic liposomes or those composed of anionic/zwitterionic lipid mixtures. Latarcin Ltc1K forms associates on liposomes composed of zwitterionic/anionic lipid mixture. The structure of the peptide associates is either disordered or of β-sheet conformation. In all other cases the studied peptides adopt predominately α-helical conformation. In addition, we demonstrate that PSA inhibits membranolytic activity of Mlt and latarcin

  18. Interaction between a cationic bolaamphiphile and DNA: The route towards nanovectors for oligonucleotide antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Mamusa, Marianna; Resta, Claudio; Barbero, Francesco; Carta, Davide; Codoni, Doroty; Hatzixanthis, Kostas; McArthur, Michael; Berti, Debora

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is a global threat that requires development of innovative therapeutics that circumvent its onset. The use of Transcription Factor Decoys (TFDs), DNA fragments that act by blocking essential transcription factors in microbes, represents a very promising approach. TFDs require appropriate carriers to protect them from degradation in biological fluids and transfect them through the bacterial cell wall into the cytoplasm, their site of action. Here we report on a bolaform cationic surfactant, [12-bis-THA]Cl2, with proven transfection activity in vivo. By studying the physical-chemical properties of its aqueous solutions with light scattering, cryo-TEM, ζ-potential, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, we prove that the bolaamphiphiles associate into transient vesicles which convert into one-dimensional elongated structures over time. These surfactant assemblies complex TFDs with extremely high efficiency, if compared to common cationic amphiphiles. At Z+/-=11, the nanoplexes are stable and have a size of 120nm, and they form independently of the original morphology of the [12-bis-THA]Cl2 aggregate. DNA is compacted in the nanoplexes, as shown through CD spectroscopy and fluorescence, but is readily released in its native form if sodium taurocholate is added. PMID:26998876

  19. Role of the central cations in the mechanical unfolding of DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Bergues-Pupo, Ana Elisa; Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo; Morón, María Carmen; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Falo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Cations are known to mediate diverse interactions in nucleic acids duplexes but they are critical in the arrangement of four-stranded structures. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent to analyse the mechanical unfolding of representative intramolecular G-quadruplex structures: a parallel, a hybrid and an antiparallel DNA and a parallel RNA, in the presence of stabilising cations. We confirm the stability of these conformations in the presence of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\rm {K}^+$\\end{document} central ions and observe distortions from the tetrad topology in their absence. Force-induced unfolding dynamics is then investigated. We show that the unfolding events in the force-extension curves are concomitant to the loss of coordination between the central ions and the guanines of the G-quadruplex. We found lower ruptures forces for the parallel configuration with respect to the antiparallel one, while the behaviour of the force pattern of the parallel RNA appears similar to the parallel DNA. We anticipate that our results will be essential to interpret the fine structure rupture profiles in stretching assays at high resolution and will shed light on the mechanochemical activity of G-quadruplex-binding machinery. PMID:26170233

  20. Role of the central cations in the mechanical unfolding of DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Bergues-Pupo, Ana Elisa; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo; Morón, María Carmen; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Falo, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Cations are known to mediate diverse interactions in nucleic acids duplexes but they are critical in the arrangement of four-stranded structures. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent to analyse the mechanical unfolding of representative intramolecular G-quadruplex structures: a parallel, a hybrid and an antiparallel DNA and a parallel RNA, in the presence of stabilising cations. We confirm the stability of these conformations in the presence of [Formula: see text] central ions and observe distortions from the tetrad topology in their absence. Force-induced unfolding dynamics is then investigated. We show that the unfolding events in the force-extension curves are concomitant to the loss of coordination between the central ions and the guanines of the G-quadruplex. We found lower ruptures forces for the parallel configuration with respect to the antiparallel one, while the behaviour of the force pattern of the parallel RNA appears similar to the parallel DNA. We anticipate that our results will be essential to interpret the fine structure rupture profiles in stretching assays at high resolution and will shed light on the mechanochemical activity of G-quadruplex-binding machinery. PMID:26170233

  1. Single DNA molecules on freestanding and supported cationic lipid bilayers: diverse conformational dynamics controlled by the local bilayer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christoph; Schwille, Petra; Petrov, Eugene P.

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental results on the interaction of DNA macromolecules with cationic lipid membranes with different properties, including freestanding membranes in the fluid and gel state, and supported lipid membranes in the fluid state and under conditions of fluid-gel phase coexistence. We observe diverse conformational dynamics of membrane-bound DNA molecules controlled by the local properties of the lipid bilayer. In case of fluid-state freestanding lipid membranes, the behaviour of DNA on the membrane is controlled by the membrane charge density: whereas DNA bound to weakly charged membranes predominantly behaves as a 2D random coil, an increase in the membrane charge density leads to membrane-driven irreversible DNA collapse and formation of subresolution-sized DNA globules. On the other hand, electrostatic binding of DNA macromolecules to gel-state freestanding membranes leads to completely arrested diffusion and conformational dynamics of membrane-adsorbed DNA. A drastically different picture is observed in case of DNA interaction with supported cationic lipid bilayers: When the supported bilayer is in the fluid state, membrane-bound DNA molecules undergo 2D translational Brownian motion and conformational fluctuations, irrespectively of the charge density of the supported bilayer. At the same time, when the supported cationic membrane shows fluid-gel phase coexistence, membrane-bound DNA molecules are strongly attracted to micrometre-sized gel-phase domains enriched with the cationic lipid, which results in 2D compaction of the membrane-bound macromolecules. This DNA compaction, however, is fully reversible, and disappears as soon as the membrane is heated above the fluid-gel coexistence. We also discuss possible biological implications of our experimental findings.

  2. Effect of plasticizer on surface of free films prepared from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers with different plasticizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdik, János; Fehér, Máté; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2007-06-01

    Acquisition of a more detailed understanding of all technological processes is currently a relevant tendency in pharmaceutical technology and hence in industry. A knowledge of film formation from dispersion of polymers is very important during the coating of solid dosage forms. This process and the structure of the film can be influenced by different additives. In the present study, taste-masking films were prepared from aqueous citric acid solutions of a cationic polymer (Eudragit ® E PO) with various hydrophilic plasticizers (glycerol, propylene glycol and different poly(ethylene glycols)). The mechanical properties, film thickness, wetting properties and surface free energy of the free films were studied. The aim was to evaluate the properties of surface of free films to predict the arrangement of macromolecules in films formed from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers. A high molecular weight of the plasticizer decreased the work of deformation. The surface free energy and the polarity were highest for the film without plasticizer; the hydrophilic additives decreased these parameters. The direction of the change in polarity (a hydrophilic component caused a decrease in the polarity) was unexpected. It can be explained by the change in orientation of the macromolecules, a hydrophobic surface being formed. Examination of the mechanical properties and film thickness can furnish additional results towards a knowledge of film formation by this not frequently applied type of polymer from aqueous solution.

  3. Phosphate removal and recovery from water using nanocomposite of immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on cationic polymer.

    PubMed

    Abo Markeb, Ahmad; Alonso, Amanda; Dorado, Antonio David; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    A novel nanocomposite (NC) based on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) immobilized on the surface of a cationic exchange polymer, C100, using a modification of the co-precipitation method was developed to obtain magnetic NCs for phosphate removal and recovery from water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy , X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to characterize the NCs. Continuous adsorption process by the so-called breakthrough curves was used to determine the adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4-based NC. The adsorption capacity conditions were studied under different conditions (pH, phosphate concentration, and concentration of nanoparticles). The optimum concentration of iron in the NC for phosphate removal was 23.59 mgFe/gNC. The sorption isotherms of this material were performed at pH 5 and 7. Taking into account the real application of this novel material in real water, the experiments were performed at pH 7, achieving an adsorption capacity higher than 4.9 mgPO4-P/gNC. Moreover, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a combination of them fit the experimental data and were used for interpreting the influence of pH on the sorption and the adsorption mechanism for this novel material. Furthermore, regeneration and reusability of the NC were tested, obtaining 97.5% recovery of phosphate for the first cycle, and at least seven cycles of adsorption-desorption were carried out with more than 40% of recovery. Thus, this work described a novel magnetic nanoadsorbent with properties for phosphate recovery in wastewater. PMID:26849360

  4. Hg(2+) -induced in situ generated radical cation of (S)-BINOL-based polymer for highly enantioselective recognition of phenylalaninol.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiemin; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shuwei; Quan, Yiwu; Zheng, Wenhua; Cheng, Yixiang; Zhu, Chengjian

    2014-08-01

    Phenylalaninol enantiomers are one of the most important chiral compounds due to its presence in biologically active molecules and pharmaceutical products. In this paper, a novel chiral fluorescence polymer sensor incorporating (S)-BINOL and oligomeric aniline via a nucleophilic addition-elimination reaction is designed and synthesized. Polymer sensor exhibits "turn-off" fluorescence quenching response upon the addition of Hg(2+) , and "turn-on" moderate fluorescence enhancement behavior towards phenylalaninol enantiomers. Meanwhile, this kind of (S)-BINOL-based polymer sensor can exhibit highly selective enantioselective recognition response towards (L)-phenylalaninol upon the addition of Hg(2+) and the value of ef can reach as high as 5.4, which can be attributed to the formation of in situ generated radical cation arisen from oligomeric aniline moiety by Hg(2+) induction. PMID:25048009

  5. Thermal treatment effects imposed on solid DNA cationic lipid complex with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, observed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nizioł, Jacek

    2014-12-21

    DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day)

  6. Effect of cationic side-chains on intracellular delivery and cytotoxicity of pH sensitive polymer-doxorubicin nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Kievit, Forrest M.; Cho, Yong-Chan; Mok, Hyejung; Press, Oliver W.; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-10-01

    Fine-tuning the design of polymer-doxorubicin conjugates permits optimization of an efficient nanocarrier to greatly increase intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Here, we report synthesis of a family of self-assembled polymer-doxorubicin nanoparticles and an evaluation of the effects of various types of side-chains on intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the nanocarriers for lymphoma cells. Monomers with three different cationic side-chains (CA) and pKa's, i.e., a guanidinium group (Ag), an imidazole group (Im), and a tertiary amine group (Dm), were comparatively investigated. The cationic monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and doxorubicin (Dox) were reacted with 1,4-(butanediol) diacrylate (BUDA) to prepare a poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer via Michael addition. All three polymer-Dox conjugates spontaneously formed nanoparticles (NP) through hydrophobic interactions between doxorubicin in aqueous solution, resulting in NP-Im/Dox, NP-Ag/Dox, and NP-Dm/Dox, with hydrodynamic sizes below 80 nm. Doxorubicin was linked to all 3 types of NPs with a hydrazone bond to assure selective release of doxorubicin only at acidic pH, as it occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Both NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox exhibited much higher intracellular uptake by Ramos cells (Burkitt's lymphoma) than NP-Dm/Dox, suggesting that the type of side chain in the NPs determines the extent of intracellular uptake. As a result, NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox showed cytotoxicity that was comparable to free Dox in vitro. Our findings suggest that the nature of surface cationic group on nanocarriers may profoundly influence their intracellular trafficking and resulting therapeutic efficacy. Thus, it is a crucial factor to be considered in the design of novel carriers for intracellular drug delivery.

  7. Synthesis, G-quadruplexes DNA binding, and photocytotoxicity of novel cationic expanded porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu-fang; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Lian-cai; Zheng, Min; Lu, Jia-zheng; Zhao, Peng-liang; Su, Qiu-lan; Chen, Hui-xian; Tang, Ding-tong; Chen, Jiong; Lin, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Intensive reports allowed the conclusion that molecules with extended aromatic surfaces always do good jobs in the DNA interactions. Inspired by the previous successful researches, herein, we designed a series of cationic porphyrins with expanded planar substituents, and evaluated their binding behaviors to G-quadruplex DNA using the combination of surface-enhanced raman, circular dichroism, absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting assays. Asymmetrical tetracationic porphyrin with one phenyl-4-N-methyl-4-pyridyl group and three N-methyl-4-pyridyl groups exhibit the best G4-DNA binding affinities among all the designed compounds, suggesting that the bulk of the substituents should be matched to the width of the grooves they putatively lie in. Theoretical calculations applying the density functional theory have been carried out and explain the binding properties of these porphyrins reasonably. Meanwhile, these porphyrins were proved to be potential photochemotherapeutic agents since they have photocytotoxic activities against both myeloma cell (Ag8.653) and gliomas cell (U251) lines. PMID:25989424

  8. Co-polymer tracts in eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and organellar DNA.

    PubMed

    Behe, M J; Beasty, A M

    1991-01-01

    Large variations in DNA base composition and noticeable strand asymmetries are known to occur between different organisms and within different regions of the genomes of single organisms. Apparently such composition and sequence biases occur to fulfill structural rather than informational requirements. Here we report the wide occurrence of a more subtle biasing of DNA sequence that can have structural consequences: an increase or a suppression of the number of long tracts of two-base co-polymers. Strong biases were observed when the DNA sequences of the longest eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and organellar entries in the GenBank data base (totaling 773 kilobases) were analyzed for the number of occurrences of tracts of the two-base co-polymers (A,T)n, (G,C)n, and (A,C)n as a function of tract length. (The expression (A,T)n is used here to denote an uninterrupted tract, n nucleotides in length, of A and T bases in any proportion or order, terminated at each end by a G or C residue.) Characteristic differences are also observed in tract biases of eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic organisms. PMID:1799681

  9. Polymer- and salt-induced toroids of hexagonal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, J; Odijk, T

    1995-01-01

    A model is proposed for polymer- and salt-induced toroidal condensates of DNA, based on a recent theory of the undulation enhancement of the electrostatic interaction in the bulk hexagonal phase of semiflexible polyions. In a continuum approximation, the thermodynamic potential of a monomolecular toroid may be split up in bulk, surface, and curvature contributions. With the help of an approximate analytical minimization procedure, the optimal torus dimensions are calculated as a function of the concentrations of inert polymer and added salt. The stability of the torus is analyzed in terms of its surface tension and a bulk melting criterion. The theory should be applicable to psi-toroids that are not too thick. PMID:7711268

  10. Chromomycin dimer-DNA oligomer complexes. Sequence selectivity and divalent cation specificity.

    PubMed

    Gao, X L; Patel, D J

    1990-12-11

    This paper reports on a solution NMR characterization of the sequence selectivity and metal ion specificity in chromomycin-DNA oligomer complexes in the presence of divalent cations. The sequence selectivity studies have focused on chromomycin complexes with the self-complementary d(A1-A2-G3-G4-C5-C6-T7-T8) duplex containing a pair of adjacent (G3-G4).(C5-C6) steps and the self-complementary d(A1-G2-G3-A4-T5-C6-C7-T8) duplex containing a pair of separated (G2-G3).(C6-C7) steps in aqueous solution. The antitumor agent (chromomycin) and nucleic acid protons have been assigned following analysis of distance connectivities in NOESY spectra and coupling connectivities in DQF-COSY spectra for both complexes in H2O and D2O solution. The observed intermolecular NOEs establish that chromomycin binds as a Mg(II)-coordinated dimer [1 Mg(II) per complex] and contacts the minor-groove edge with retention of 2-fold symmetry centered about the (G3-G4-C5-C6).(G3-G4-C5-C6) segment of the d(A2G2C2T2) duplex. By contrast, complex formation is centered about the (G2-G3-A4-T5).(A4-T5-C6-C7) segment and results in removal of the two fold symmetry of the d(AG2ATC2T) duplex. Thus, the binding of one subunit of the chromomycin dimer at its preferred (G-G).(C-C) site assists in the binding of the second subunit to the less preferred adjacent (A-T).(A-T) site. These observations suggest a hierarchy of chromomycin binding sites, with a strong site detected at the (G-G) step due to the hydrogen-bonding potential of acceptor N3 and donor NH2 groups of guanosine that line the minor groove. The divalent cation specificity has been investigated by studies on the symmetric chromomycin-d(A2G2C2T2) complex in the presence of diamagnetic Mg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) cations and paramagnetic Ni(II) and Co(II) cations. A comparative NOESY study of the Mg(II) and Ni(II) symmetric complexes suggests that a single tightly bound divalent cation aligns the two chromomycins in the dimer through coordination to

  11. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  12. The role of monovalent cations in the ATPase reaction of DNA gyrase.

    PubMed

    Hearnshaw, Stephen James; Chung, Terence Tsz-Hong; Stevenson, Clare Elizabeth Mary; Maxwell, Anthony; Lawson, David Mark

    2015-04-01

    Four new crystal structures of the ATPase domain of the GyrB subunit of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase have been determined. One of these, solved in the presence of K(+), is the highest resolution structure reported so far for this domain and, in conjunction with the three other structures, reveals new insights into the function of this domain. Evidence is provided for the existence of two monovalent cation-binding sites: site 1, which preferentially binds a K(+) ion that interacts directly with the α-phosphate of ATP, and site 2, which preferentially binds an Na(+) ion and the functional significance of which is not clear. The crystallographic data are corroborated by ATPase data, and the structures are compared with those of homologues to investigate the broader conservation of these sites. PMID:25849408

  13. Role of cholesterol on the transfection barriers of cationic lipid/DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Cardarelli, Francesco; Salomone, Fabrizio; Marchini, Cristina; Amenitsch, Heinz; Barbera, Giorgia La; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2014-08-01

    Most lipid formulations need cholesterol for efficient transfection, but the precise motivation remains unclear. Here, we have investigated the effect of cholesterol on the transfection efficiency (TE) of cationic liposomes made of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and dioleoylphosphocholine in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The transfection mechanisms of cholesterol-containing lipoplexes have been investigated by TE, synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering, and laser scanning confocal microscopy experiments. We prove that cholesterol-containing lipoplexes enter the cells using different endocytosis pathways. Formulations with high cholesterol content efficiently escape from endosomes and exhibit a lamellar-nonlamellar phase transition in mixture with biomembrane mimicking lipid formulations. This might explain both the DNA release ability and the high transfection efficiency. These studies highlight the enrichment in cholesterol as a decisive factor for transfection and will contribute to the rational design of lipid nanocarriers with superior TE.

  14. Cell performance of ultra-thin polymer-cathode cell systems. Part 2. Cation intercalating composite polymer cathode. Technical report, 1 January 1989-1 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Naoi, K.; Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.

    1990-03-15

    Theoretical specific energy and power densities for thin film Li/LE or SPE/CP cell systems were calculated by modeling a bipolar-design polymer cathode rechargeable cell with hardware where LE, SPE and CP represent the liquid electrolyte (2M LiClO4(PC)), solid polymer electrolyte (PEO(8)LiX) and the conductive polymer(polypyrrole). The cell performance is obtained for a cation-intercalating PPy-PVS composite film which is composed of polypyrrole(PPy) into which has been incorporated the polymer anion, polyvinylsolfonate(PVS) during deposition. The energy and power densities are estimated as a function of cathode thickness (1 to 100,000 micron), active cell area (1 to 10,000 sq cm) and the number of bipolar units(1 to 100). Compared to the anion-consuming polymer cathode system, significant enhancement of specific energy was achieved. The theoretical specific energy amounts to ca. 290 Wh/kg (bare cell) and ca. 209 Wh/kg for a bipolar Li/LE or SPE/PPy-PVS cell system (with hardware).

  15. An effective approach for alleviating cation-induced backbone degradation in aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juanjuan; Liu, Qiong; Li, Xueqi; Pan, Jing; Wei, Ling; Wu, Ying; Peng, Hanqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Guangwei; Chen, Chen; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) are one of the most popular types of APEs being used in fuel cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that upon being grafted by proximal cations some polar groups in the backbone of such APEs can be attacked by OH(-), leading to backbone degradation in an alkaline environment. To resolve this issue, we performed a systematic study on six APEs. We first replaced the polysulfone (PS) backbone with polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) and polyphenylether (PPO), whose molecular structures contain fewer polar groups. Although improved stability was seen after this change, cation-induced degradation was still obvious. Thus, our second move was to replace the ordinary quaternary ammonia (QA) cation, which had been closely attached to the polymer backbone, with a pendant-type QA (pQA), which was linked to the backbone through a long side chain. After a stability test in a 1 mol/L KOH solution at 80 °C for 30 days, all pQA-type APEs (pQAPS, pQAPPSU, and pQAPPO) exhibited as low as 8 wt % weight loss, which is close to the level of the bare backbone (5 wt %) and remarkably lower than those of the QA-type APEs (QAPS, QAPPSU, and QAPPO), whose weight losses under the same conditions were >30%. The pQA-type APEs also possessed clear microphase segregation morphology, which led to ionic conductivities that were higher, and water uptakes and degrees of membrane swelling that were lower, than those of the QA-type APEs. These observations unambiguously indicate that designing pendant-type cations is an effective approach to increasing the chemical stability of aromatic ether-based APEs. PMID:25594224

  16. New high-charge density hydrophobically modified cationic HEC polymers for improved co-deposition of benefit agents and serious conditioning for problem hair.

    PubMed

    Drovetskaya, T V; Diantonio, E F; Kreeger, R L; Amos, J L; Frank, D P

    2007-01-01

    A series of new high charge density Polyquaternium-67(1) (PQ-67) polymers have been prepared and evaluated in shampoo formulations. These new compositions represent an addition to the family of high-viscosity quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymers with cationic substitution of trimethyl ammonium and dimethyldodecyl ammonium(2) (Figure 1A) described in (1) and (2). The evaluation protocol included objective lab methods and subjective panel studies on different hair types. Commercial conditioning polymers: PQ-67 (Polymers SoftCAT(3)) and cationic guar(4) (Jaguar C-13S(R)(5)) were used as performance benchmarks. It was found that increasing the cationic charge density of the PQ-67 polymers above 1.45 meq/g (equivalent of 2 weight-percent (wt.%) nitrogen) resulted in a several-fold boost of their co-deposition ability. These experimental, high charge density PQ-67 polymers were shown to deliver silicones and other performance ingredients from shampoo formulations more efficiently than any other polymer currently available on the market for rinse-off hair cleansing/conditioning applications. The polymers also provided improved wet and/or dry conditioning, volume control, and could be instrumental in achieving sleek looking hair and improved control/manageability of unruly or frizzy hair. The high charge density PQ-67 polymers are also ideally suited for highly-fragranced surfactant-based formulas that are used in aromatherapy and spa products due to their superior ability to deliver fragrance. PMID:17728943

  17. Molecular engineering of side-chain liquid crystalline polymers by living cationic polymerization using Webster`s initiating system

    SciTech Connect

    Percec, V.

    1993-12-31

    Webster`s cationic initiating system (HO{sub 3}SCF{sub 3}/SMe{sub 2}) (Macromolecules, 23, 1918 (1990)) was shown by us (for a review see Adv. Mater., 4, 548 (1992)) to polymerize, via a living mechanism, mesogenic vinyl ethers which contain a large variety of functional groups. This is mostly because SMe{sub 2} is a softer nucleophile than any of the functional groups available in these monomers. The molecular engineering of side-chain liquid crystalline polymers with conventional and complex architectures via this polymerization technique will be discussed.

  18. Column studies for the adsorption of cationic surfactant onto an organic polymer resin and a granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Vergili, Ilda; Kaya, Yasemin; Gönder, Zeren Beril; Barlas, Hulusi

    2010-03-01

    Adsorption beds containing granular activated carbon and organic polymer resin are used widely to remove organic pollutants from wastewaters and water streams. Adsorption polymers are becoming alternatives to activated carbon for removal of surfactants by adsorption techniques. This study investigated the adsorption characteristics of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant for selected concentrations below and above critical micelle concentration (CMC). A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough curves by using two different adsorbents: (1) Hydraffin CC 8 x 30 as a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) and (2) Lewatit VPOC 1064 MD PH as a commercial organic polymer resin. In the experiments, the volumetric flow rate was maintained at 10.5 mL/min (approximately 2 m3/ m2 x h). Loading of adsorbents was continued until breakthrough was 10% of the feed concentration. The breakthrough took place at 488 bed volume (BV) below CMC (C0 = 40 mg/L) and 39 BV above CMC (C0 = 400 mg/ L) onto GAC. The organic polymer resin, however, showed a higher adsorption capacity than GAC (1412 BV below CMC and 287 BV above CMC). From the Logit method, the value of adsorption rate coefficient (K) and adsorption capacity coefficient (N) were obtained. PMID:20369564

  19. Structural fluctuation observed in Z-DNA d(CGCGCG)2 in the absence of divalent metal cations and polyamines

    PubMed Central

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Z-DNA d(CGCGCG)2 was crystallized from a DNA solution in the absence of divalent metal cations and polyamines, and its X-ray structure was determined at 0.98 Å resolution. Comparison of this structure and previously reported Z-DNA structures, containing Mg2+ cations and/or polyamines, demonstrated that Z-DNA can have structural fluctuations with respect to phosphate groups and hydration in the minor groove. At the GpC steps, a two-state structural equilibrium between the ZI and ZII conformations was frequently observed. In contrast, at the CpG steps, the phosphate groups exhibited rotational fluctuation, which could induce distortion of sugar puckering. In addition, alternative positions of water molecules were found in the middle of the minor groove of the Z-DNA. These structural fluctuations were likely observable because of the absence of Mg2+ cations and polyamines. The results related to these phenomena were supported by those of other experimental methods, suggesting the possibility of these fluctuations occurring in biological conditions. PMID:24121329

  20. Kinetic study of the binding of triplex-forming oligonucleotides containing partial cationic modifications to double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Hari, Yoshiyuki; Ijitsu, Shin; Akabane-Nakata, Masaaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Obika, Satoshi

    2014-07-15

    Several triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) partially modified with 2'-O-(2-aminoethyl)- or 2'-O-(2-guanidinoethyl)-nucleotides were synthesized and their association rate constants (kon) with double-stranded DNA were estimated by UV spectrophotometry. Introduction of cationic modifications in the 5'-region of the TFOs significantly increased the kon values compared to that of natural TFO, while no enhancement in the rate of triplex DNA formation was observed when the modifications were in the middle and at the 3'-region. The kon value of a TFO with three adjacent cationic modifications at the 5'-region was found to be 3.4 times larger than that of a natural one. These results provide useful information for overcoming the inherent sluggishness of triplex DNA formation. PMID:24865415

  1. CNT loading into cationic cholesterol suspensions show improved DNA binding and serum stability and ability to internalize into cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Bhupender S.; Misra, Santosh K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2012-02-01

    Methods which disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water as ‘debundled’, while maintaining their unique physical properties are highly useful. We present here a family of cationic cholesterol compounds (Chol+) {Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (Chol-PB+), Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium bromide (Chol-MPB+), Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl N-methyl morpholinium bromide (Chol-MMB+) and Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl diazabicyclo octanium bromide (Chol-DOB+)}. Each of these could be easily dispersed in water. The resulting cationic cholesterol (Chol+) suspensions solubilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by the non-specific physical adsorption of Chol+ to form stable, transparent, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. Electron microscopy reveals the existence of highly segregated CNTs in these samples. Zeta potential measurements showed an increase in potential of cationic cholesterol aggregates on addition of CNTs. The CNT-Chol+ suspensions were capable of forming stable complexes with genes (DNA) efficiently. The release of double-helical DNA from such CNT-Chol+ complexes could be induced upon the addition of anionic micellar solution of SDS. Furthermore, the CNT-based DNA complexes containing cationic cholesterol aggregates showed higher stability in fetal bovine serum media at physiological conditions. Confocal studies confirm that CNT-Chol+ formulations adhere to HeLa cell surfaces and get internalized more efficiently than the cationic cholesterol suspensions alone (devoid of any CNTs). These cationic cholesterol-CNT suspensions therefore appear to be a promising system for further use in biological applications.

  2. Characterization of activated sludge exocellular polymers using several cation-associated extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Novak, John T

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of prior research and preliminary investigations in our laboratory led to the development of an extraction strategy that can be used to target different cations in activated sludge floc and extract their associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The methods we used were the cation exchange resin (CER) procedure, base extraction, and sulfide addition to extract EPS linked with divalent cations, Al, and Fe, respectively. A comparison of sludge cations before and after CER extraction revealed that most of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were removed while Fe and Al remained intact, suggesting that this method is highly selective for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)-bound EPS. The correlation between sludge Fe and sulfide-extracted EPS was indicative of selectivity of this method for Fe-bound EPS. The base extraction was less specific than the other methods but it was the method releasing the largest amount of Al into the extract, indicating that the method extracted Al-bound EPS. Concomitantly, the composition of extracted EPS and the amino acid composition differed for the three methods, indicating that EPS associated with different metals were not the same. The change in EPS following anaerobic and aerobic digestion was also characterized by the three extraction methods. CER-extracted EPS were reduced after aerobic digestion while they changed little by anaerobic digestion. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion was associated with the decrease in sulfide-extracted EPS. These results suggest that different types of cation-EPS binding mechanisms exist in activated sludge and that each cation-associated EPS fraction imparts unique digestion characteristics to activated sludge. PMID:17346764

  3. Cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte/molecular beacon complex for sensitive, sequence-specific, real-time DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xuli; Duan, Xinrui; Liu, Libin; An, Lingling; Feng, Fude; Wang, Shu

    2008-11-01

    A new fluorescence method has been developed for DNA detection at room temperature in a sensitive, selective, economical, and real-time manner that interfaces the superiority of a molecular beacon in mismatch discrimination with the light-harvesting property of water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolytes. The probe solution contains a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (PFP-NMe3+), a molecular beacon with a five base pairs double-stranded stem labeled at the 5'-terminus with fluorescein (DNA P-Fl), and ethidium bromide (EB, a specific intercalator of dsDNA). The electrostatic interactions between DNA P-Fl and PFP-NMe3+ keep them in close proximity, facilitating the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PFP-NMe3+ to fluorescein. Upon adding a complementary strand to the probe solution, the conformation of DNA P-Fl transits into dsDNA followed by the intercalation of EB into the grooves. Two-step FRET, from PFP-NMe3+ to DNA P-Fl (FRET-1), followed by FRET from DNA P-Fl to EB (FRET-2) takes place. In view of the observed fluorescein or EB emission changes, DNA can be detected in aqueous solution. Because the base mismatch in target DNA inhibits the transition of DNA P-Fl from the stem-loop to duplex structure, single nucleotide mismatch can be clearly detected. PMID:18834161

  4. DFT studies of all fluorothiophenes and their cations as candidate monomers for conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Shirani, Hossein; Jameh-Bozorghi, Saeed; Yousefi, Ali

    2015-01-22

    In this paper, electronic, structural, and properties of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrafluorothiophenes and their radical cations are studied using the density functional theory and B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set. Also, the effects of the number and position of the substituent of fluorine atoms on the properties of the thiophene ring have been studied using optimized structures obtained for these molecules and their radical cations; vibrational frequencies, spin-density distribution, size and direction of the dipole moment vector, ionization potential, electric Polarizabilities, HOMO–LUMO gaps and NICS values of these compounds have been calculated and analyzed.

  5. Enhanced non-inflammasome mediated immune responses by mannosylated zwitterionic-based cationic liposomes for HIV DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chenmeng; Liu, Jiandong; Yang, Jun; Li, Yan; Weng, Jie; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA vaccine can induce cellular and humoral immunity. A safe and effective HIV DNA vaccine is urgent need to prevent the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major drawback of DNA vaccines is the low immunogenicity, which is caused by the poor delivery to antigen presenting cells and insufficient antigen expression. Sparked by the capability of endosomal/lysosomal escape of the zwitterionic lipid distearoyl phosphoethanol-amine-polycarboxybetaine (DSPE-PCB), we attempted to develop a zwitterionic-based cationic liposome with enhanced immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The mannosylated zwitterionic-based cationic liposome (man-ZCL) was constructed as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for HIV vaccination. Man-ZCL could complex with DNA antigens to form a tight structure and protect them from nuclei enzyme degradation. Benefited from the capability of the specific mannose receptor mediated antigen processing cells targeting and enhanced endosomal/lysosomal escape, the man-ZCL lipoplexes were supposed to promote antigen presentation and the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In vitro and in vivo results revealed that man-ZCL lipoplexes showed enhanced anti-HIV immune responses and lower toxicity compared with CpG/DNA and Lipo2k/DNA, and triggered a Th1/Th2 mixed immunity. An antigen-depot effect was observed in the administration site, and this resulted in enhanced retention of DNA antigens in draining lymph nodes. Most importantly, the man-ZCL could assist to activate T cells through a non-inflammasome pathway. These findings suggested that the man-ZCL could be potentially applied as a safe and efficient DNA adjuvant for HIV vaccines. PMID:26851653

  6. Polymer damage mitigation---predictive lifetime models of polymer insulation degradation and biorenewable thermosets through cationic polymerization for self-healing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondred, Peter Raymond

    repairing damage before the damage causes a failure in the polymer's function. In this work, the healing agent (adhesive) is developed using bio-renewable oils instead of solely relying on petroleum based feedstocks. Several bio-renewable thermosetting polymers were successfully prepared from tung oil through cationic polymerization for the use as the healing agent in self-healing microencapsulated applications. Modifications to both the monomers in the resin and the catalyst for polymerization were made and the subsequent changes to mechanical, thermal, and structural properties were identified. Furthermore, compressive lap shear testing was used to confirm that the adhesive properties would be beneficial for self-healing applications. Finally, scanning electron microscopy of the crack plane was used to study the fracture mechanism of the crack.

  7. Thermoresponsive polymers as gene delivery vectors: cell viability, DNA transport and transfection studies.

    PubMed

    Twaites, Beverley R; de Las Heras Alarcón, Carolina; Lavigne, Matthieu; Saulnier, Annabelle; Pennadam, Sivanand S; Cunliffe, David; Górecki, Dariusz C; Alexander, Cameron

    2005-11-28

    A range of gene delivery vectors containing the thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was evaluated for effects on cell viability, intracellular trafficking and transgene expression in C2C12 mouse muscle cells. Polymers were complexed with plasmid DNA at pH 7.4 and the ability of the resulting particles to transfect cells was assessed via confocal microscopy and protein expression studies in tissue culture. Cell viability assays indicated that these polymers were toxic at high concentrations when not complexed to DNA or at certain polymer:DNA ratios. Poly(ethyleneimine) co-polymers with side-chain grafted PNIPAm were shown to be less toxic than poly(ethyleneimine) alone or PNIPAm-co-(N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) linear co-polymers and the effects were concentration dependent. Confocal micrographs of labeled polymers and DNA indicated rapid cellular entry for all the complexes but expression of Green Fluorescent Protein was achieved only when the branched PEI-PNIPAm co-polymers were used as vectors. The results indicate that design of appropriate co-polymer components and overall polymer architecture can be used to mediate, and perhaps ultimately control, DNA transport and transgene expression. PMID:16214254

  8. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... denture retention and comfort. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and... (modified cationic) denture adhesive shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... denture retention and comfort. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and... (modified cationic) denture adhesive shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect...

  10. Influence of phospholipid composition on cationic emulsions/DNA complexes: physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and transfection on Hep G2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Michelle; Bruxel, Fernanda; Lagranha, Valeska Lizzi; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Matte, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background Cationic nanoemulsions have been recently considered as potential delivery systems for nucleic acids. This study reports the influence of phospholipids on the properties of cationic nanoemulsions/DNA plasmid complexes. Methods Nanoemulsions composed of medium-chain triglycerides, stearylamine, egg lecithin or isolated phospholipids, ie, DSPC, DOPC, DSPE, or DOPE, glycerol, and water were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. Gene transfer to Hep G2 cells was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The procedure resulted in monodispersed nanoemulsions with a droplet size and zeta potential of approximately 250 nm and +50 mV, respectively. The complexation of cationic nanoemulsions with DNA plasmid, analyzed by agarose gel retardation assay, was complete when the complex was obtained at a charge ratio of ≥1.0. In these conditions, the complexes were protected from enzymatic degradation by DNase I. The cytotoxicity of the complexes in Hep G2 cells, evaluated by MTT assay, showed that an increasing number of complexes led to progressive toxicity. Higher amounts of reporter DNA were detected for the formulation obtained with the DSPC phospholipid. Complexes containing DSPC and DSPE phospholipids, which have high phase transition temperatures, were less toxic in comparison with the formulations obtained with lecithin, DOPC, and DOPE. Conclusion The results show the effect of the DNA/nanoemulsion complexes composition on the toxicity and transfection results. PMID:22114484

  11. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in psoriatic skin cooperate to break innate tolerance to self-DNA.

    PubMed

    Lande, Roberto; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Demaria, Olivier; Frasca, Loredana; Durr, Sophie; Conrad, Curdin; Schröder, Jens; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a T-cell-mediated skin autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant activation of dermal dendritic cells (DCs) and the sustained epidermal expression of antimicrobial peptides. We have previously identified a link between these two events by showing that the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37 has the ability to trigger self-nucleic acid mediated activation of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in psoriatic skin. Whether other cationic antimicrobial peptides exert similar activities is unknown. By analyzing heparin-binding HPLC fractions of psoriatic scales, we found that human beta-defensin (hBD)2, hBD3, and lysozyme are additional triggers of pDC activation in psoriatic skin lesions. Like LL37, hBD2, hBD3, and lysozyme are able to condense self-DNA into particles that are endocytosed by pDCs, leading to activation of TLR9. In contrast, other antimicrobial peptides expressed in psoriatic skin including elafin, hBD1, and psoriasin (S100A7) did not show similar activities. hBD2, hBD3, and lysozyme were detected in psoriatic skin lesions in the vicinity of pDCs and found to cooperate with LL37 to induce high levels of IFN production by pDCs, suggesting their concerted role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:25332209

  12. Spin-spin coupling constants in [corrected] artificial DNA intercalated with silver cations: theoretical prediction.

    PubMed

    Kauch, Małgorzata; Pecul, Magdalena

    2012-04-10

    The indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of Ag(+) cation intercalated between imidazole rings in DNA chains are calculated by means of DFT with relativistic effects taken into account by the use of the zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian (DFT-ZORA). The calculations model how the (1)J((15)N,(109)Ag) coupling constant is affected by different types of geometry deformations and by the presence of water, which is simulated by means of the polarizable continuum model and explicitly present water molecules. Calculations for systems containing two and three imidazole pairs are also carried out to model the influence of stacking interactions. The computed (1)J((15)N,(109)Ag) spin-spin coupling constant is in the range of 85-105 Hz (depending on the computational model) and is in good agreement with the experimental value (ca. 92 Hz). This coupling constant is very little affected by the presence of solvent, stacking interactions, and geometry deformations. Such behavior is explained by visualization of the coupling path by means of coupling energy density (CED). Bigger models allow the coupling constant between two adjacent silver ions to be computed, and give a value of approximately 1 Hz, which is probably too small to be of practical interest. The (2)J((15)N,(15)N) value is calculated to be about 2.5 Hz, and is therefore of measurable magnitude. PMID:22389050

  13. Characterization of complexation of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) thermoresponsive cationic nanogels with salmon sperm DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moselhy, Jim; Vira, Tasnim; Liu, Fei-Fei; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2009-01-01

    Thermoresponsive cationic nanogel (TCNG) networks based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and quaternary alkyl ammonium halide salts of DMAEMA (DMAEMAQ) were synthesized by dispersion polymerization technique. The thermoresponsive properties of TCNGs and TCNG-salmon sperm DNA (sasDNA) polyplexes were characterized in aqueous media of various pH and ionic strength. P[NIPAM] and P[NIPAM/DMAEMA] TCNGs exhibited sharp volume phase transition (VPT) in water at critical temperatures (Tc) of 32 °C and 36 °C, respectively. Quaternized P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ] TCNGs did not undergo sharp VPT up to 50 °C. The VPT of uncomplexed TCNGs were sensitive to the ionic composition and ionic strength of salts in solution, but were insensitive to pH in the range 5.0 to 7.4. The VPT of P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ]/sasDNA diminished in magnitude with increasing Wp/Wd suggesting greater compaction of the polyplexes. The distinct phase-transition properties of P[NIPAM/DMAEMA]/sasDNA and P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ]/sasDNA polyplexes were attributed to the condensing capability of polycations and to differences in the spatial distribution of structural charges in quaternized and nonquaternized networks. The findings demonstrate that stable TCNGs can be prepared with controllable responsive properties determined by the nature of the cationic charge incorporated and may have potential as vehicles for DNA delivery. PMID:19774114

  14. Diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence using a microfluidic device featuring tethered cationic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jem-Kun; Bai, Bing-Jun; Chang, Feng-Chih

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we grafted pH-responsive poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) onto a Si substrate as the medium in a microfluidic device to detect breast cancer recurrence DNA (bcrDNA584) and a control human genomic DNA (hgDNA528) at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.15 ng/μl). The quantities of these two DNAs obtained through the capture and release from tethered PDMAEMA brushes under pH tuning conditions were sufficient for them to be amplified recognizably, suggesting that this approach could be used in miniaturized lab-on-a-chip cartridges for rapid disease diagnosis.

  15. Controlling DNA compaction with cationic amphiphiles for efficient delivery systems A step forward towards non-viral Gene Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarala, Sushma

    The synthesis of pyridinium cationic lipids, their counter-ion exchange, and the transfection of lipoplexes consisting of these lipids with firefly luciferase plasmid DNA (6.7 KDa), into lung, prostate and breast cancer cell lines was investigated. The transfection ability of these newly synthesized compounds was found to be twice as high as DOTAP/cholesterol and Lipofectamine TM (two commercially available successful transfection agents). The compaction of the DNA onto silica (SiO2) nanoparticles was also investigated. For this purpose, it was necessary to study the stability and fusion studies of colloidal systems composed of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), a zwitterionic lipid, and mixtures of DMPC with cationic DMTAP (1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane).

  16. Co-delivery of drug and DNA from cationic dual-responsive micelles derived from poly(DMAEMA-co-PPGMA).

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; Ong, Shi Jie; Tung, Yin Ting; Choo, Hoi Teng

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and gene transfection efficiency of a series of amphiphilic copolymers with poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), and poly(propylene glycol methacrylate) (PPGMA) segments is reported. The hydrophobic PPGMA interior allows a cell-sensitizing drug such as paclitaxel to be incorporated while the cationic and hydrophilic PDMAEMA corona allows the complexation of anionic DNA to form a nano-sized polyplex. These drug-encapsulated copolymers display excellent gene transfection efficiency as compared to PEI or PDMAEMA homopolymers. PMID:24094158

  17. Molar mass profiling of synthetic polymers by free-solution capillary electrophoresis of DNA-polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Vreeland, W N; Desruisseaux, C; Karger, A E; Drouin, G; Slater, G W; Barron, A E

    2001-04-15

    The molar mass distribution of a polymer sample is a critical determinant of its material properties and is generally analyzed by gel permeation chromatography or more recently, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We describe here a novel method for the determination of the degree of polymerization of polydisperse, uncharged, water-soluble polymers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)), based upon single-monomer resolution of DNA-polymer conjugates by free-solution capillary electrophoresis. This is accomplished by end-on covalent conjugation of a polydisperse, uncharged polymer sample (PEG) to a monodisperse, fluorescently labeled DNA oligomer, followed by electrophoretic analysis. The monodisperse, charged DNA "engine" confers to each conjugate an equal amount of electromotive force, while the varying contour lengths of the uncharged, polydisperse polymers engender different amounts of hydrodynamic drag. The balance of electromotive and hydrodynamic forces enables rapid, high-resolution separation of the DNA-polymer conjugates as a function of the size of the uncharged PEG tail. This provides a profile of the molar mass distribution of the original polymer sample that can be detected by laser-induced fluorescence through excitation of the dye-labeled DNA. We call this method free solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE). Theory-based analysis of the resulting electrophoresis data allows precise calculation of the degree of polymerization of the PEG portion of each conjugate molecule. Knowledge of the molecular mass of the uncharged polymer's repeat unit allows for direct calculation of the molar mass averages as well as sample polydispersity index. The results of these analyses are strikingly reminiscent of MALDI-TOF spectra taken of the same PEG samples. PEG samples of 3.4-, 5-, and 20-kDa nominal average molar mass were analyzed by FSCE and MALDI-TOF; the values of the molar mass averages, Mw and Mn, typically agree to within 5%. Measurements and molar mass

  18. From ribbons to networks: hierarchical organization of DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Vyborna, Yuliia; Vybornyi, Mykhailo; Häner, Robert

    2015-11-11

    DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers (SPs) allow the programmed organization of DNA in a highly regular, one-dimensional array. Oligonucleotides are arranged along the edges of pyrene-based helical polymers. Addition of complementary oligonucleotides triggers the assembly of individual nanoribbons resulting in the development of extended supramolecular networks. Network formation is enabled by cooperative coaxial stacking interactions of terminal GC base pairs. The process is accompanied by structural changes in the pyrene polymer core that can be followed spectroscopically. Network formation is reversible, and disassembly into individual ribbons is realized either via thermal denaturation or by addition of a DNA separator strand. PMID:26491956

  19. Redox polymer and probe DNA tethered to gold electrodes for enzyme-amplified amperometric detection of DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2006-04-15

    The detection of nucleic acids based upon recognition surfaces formed by co-immobilization of a redox polymer mediator and DNA probe sequences on gold electrodes is described. The recognition surface consists of a redox polymer, [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(polyvinylimidazole)(10)Cl](+/2+), and a model single DNA strand cross-linked and tethered to a gold electrode via an anchoring self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of cysteamine. Hybridization between the immobilized probe DNA of the recognition surface and a biotin-conjugated target DNA sequence (designed from the ssrA gene of Listeria monocytogenes), followed by addition of an enzyme (glucose oxidase)-avidin conjugate, results in electrical contact between the enzyme and the mediating redox polymer. In the presence of glucose, the current generated due to the catalytic oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone is measured, and a response is obtained that is binding-dependent. The tethering of the probe DNA and redox polymer to the SAM improves the stability of the surface to assay conditions of rigorous washing and high salt concentration (1 M). These conditions eliminate nonspecific interaction of both the target DNA and the enzyme-avidin conjugate with the recognition surfaces. The sensor response increases linearly with increasing concentration of target DNA in the range of 1 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-6) M. The detection limit is approximately 1.4 fmol, (corresponding to 0.2 nM of target DNA). Regeneration of the recognition surface is possible by treatment with 0.25 M NaOH solution. After rehybridization of the regenerated surface with the target DNA sequence, >95% of the current is recovered, indicating that the redox polymer and probe DNA are strongly bound to the surface. These results demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach. PMID:16615783

  20. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Yihan; Zhu, Liangkui; Rigutto, Marcello; van der Made, Alexander; Yang, Chengguang; Pan, Shuxiang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Longfeng; Jin, Yinying; Sun, Qi; Wu, Qinming; Meng, Xiangju; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Li, Jixue; Chu, Yueying; Zheng, Anmin; Qiu, Shilun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. PMID:24450997

  1. Novel combination of anionic and cationic polymethacrylate polymers for sustained release tablet preparation.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Abu Znait, Ala'a H; Sallam, Al-Sayed A

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare and evaluate a novel sustained release tablet formulation using a binary mixture of polymethacrylate polymers: Eudragit E-100 (EE) and Eudragit L-100 (EL) in their salt forms. Tablets prepared using EE-citrate and EL-Na showed the highest degree of swelling among other combinations of EE and EL. The drug release rates were independent of the pH of the dissolution medium as the release profiles exhibited a continuous release pattern with no burst effect when changing the pH of the medium. These results, along with other test results, indicated the presence of an ionic interaction between both polymers when combined in the salt forms. PMID:18568916

  2. Design and Synthesis of Heterocyclic Cations for Specific DNA Recognition: From AT-Rich to Mixed-Base-Pair DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The compounds synthesized in this research were designed with the goal of establishing a new paradigm for mixed-base-pair DNA sequence-specific recognition. The design scheme starts with a cell-permeable heterocyclic cation that binds to AT base pair sites in the DNA minor groove. Modifications were introduced in the original compound to include an H-bond accepting group to specifically recognize the G-NH that projects into the minor groove. Therefore, a series of heterocyclic cations substituted with an azabenzimidazole ring has been designed and synthesized for mixed-base-pair DNA recognition. The most successful compound, 12a, had an azabenzimidazole to recognize G and additional modifications for general minor groove interactions. It binds to the DNA site −AAAGTTT– more strongly than the −AAATTT– site without GC and indicates the design success. Structural modifications of 12a generally weakened binding. The interactions of the new compound with a variety of DNA sequences with and without GC base pairs were evaluated by thermal melting analysis, circular dichroism, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular modeling. PMID:24422528

  3. Quaternary ammonium groups exposed at the surface of silica nanoparticles suitable for DNA complexation in the presence of cationic lipids.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Nora; Adumeau, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Ravaine, Serge; Mornet, Stéphane

    2015-05-28

    The production of silica nanoparticles (NPs) exposing quaternary ammonium groups (NPQ(+)) has been achieved using an optimized chemical surface functionalization protocol. The procedures of surface modification and quaternization of amino groups were validated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Compared to nonquaternized aminated NP, the colloidal stability of NPQ(+) was improved for various pH and salt conditions as assessed by ζ potential and light scattering measurements. In the context of their use for nucleic acid delivery, DNA efficiently bound to NPQ(+) analyzed by cosedimentation assays for a large pH range and various NaCl concentrations and exhibited a better efficacy at basic pH than nonquaternized NP. The study of NPQ(+)/DNA/cationic lipids ternary complexes was carried out with 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and analyzed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Cryo-EM images showed ternary assemblies where condensed DNA strands are sandwiched between the NPQ(+) surface and the cationic lipid bilayer. Because of an unusual electrostatic colloidal stability of NPQ(+) and a high propensity to bind DNA molecules particularly at high salt concentrations, a novel type of ternary assembly has been formed that might impact the delivery properties of these complexes including their stability in biological environment. PMID:25950202

  4. Unbiased charge oscillations in B-DNA: monomer polymers and dimer polymers.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, K; Chatzieleftheriou, M; Morphis, A; Kaklamanis, K; Theodorakou, M; Simserides, C

    2015-09-01

    We call monomer a B-DNA base pair and examine, analytically and numerically, electron or hole oscillations in monomer and dimer polymers, i.e., periodic sequences with repetition unit made of one or two monomers. We employ a tight-binding (TB) approach at the base-pair level to readily determine the spatiotemporal evolution of a single extra carrier along a N base-pair B-DNA segment. We study highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital eigenspectra as well as the mean over time probabilities to find the carrier at a particular monomer. We use the pure mean transfer rate k to evaluate the easiness of charge transfer. The inverse decay length β for exponential fits k(d), where d is the charge transfer distance, and the exponent η for power-law fits k(N) are computed; generally power-law fits are better. We illustrate that increasing the number of different parameters involved in the TB description, the fall of k(d) or k(N) becomes steeper and show the range covered by β and η. Finally, for both the time-independent and the time-dependent problems, we analyze the palindromicity and the degree of eigenspectrum dependence of the probabilities to find the carrier at a particular monomer. PMID:26465516

  5. Unbiased charge oscillations in B-DNA: Monomer polymers and dimer polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambropoulos, K.; Chatzieleftheriou, M.; Morphis, A.; Kaklamanis, K.; Theodorakou, M.; Simserides, C.

    2015-09-01

    We call monomer a B-DNA base pair and examine, analytically and numerically, electron or hole oscillations in monomer and dimer polymers, i.e., periodic sequences with repetition unit made of one or two monomers. We employ a tight-binding (TB) approach at the base-pair level to readily determine the spatiotemporal evolution of a single extra carrier along a N base-pair B-DNA segment. We study highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital eigenspectra as well as the mean over time probabilities to find the carrier at a particular monomer. We use the pure mean transfer rate k to evaluate the easiness of charge transfer. The inverse decay length β for exponential fits k (d ) , where d is the charge transfer distance, and the exponent η for power-law fits k (N ) are computed; generally power-law fits are better. We illustrate that increasing the number of different parameters involved in the TB description, the fall of k (d ) or k (N ) becomes steeper and show the range covered by β and η . Finally, for both the time-independent and the time-dependent problems, we analyze the palindromicity and the degree of eigenspectrum dependence of the probabilities to find the carrier at a particular monomer.

  6. Capillary electrophoretic separation of DNA restriction fragments using dilute polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, B.; Blanch, W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    Because the mechanism of DNA separation in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood, selection of polymers is a {open_quotes}trial-and-error{close_quotes} procedure. We investigated dilute-solution DNA separations by capillary electrophoresis using solutions of four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp and star-(polyethylene oxide), like linear poly (ethylene oxide), provides separation of fragments up to 1353 bp.

  7. Chelation of Membrane-Bound Cations by Extracellular DNA Activates the Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Tang, Le; Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Parkins, Michael D; Lewenza, Shawn; Dong, Tao G

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a highly effective and tightly regulated weapon to deliver toxic molecules to target cells. T6SS-secreted proteins of P. aeruginosa can be detected in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who typically present a chronic and polymicrobial lung infection. However, the mechanism of T6SS activation in the CF lung is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that extracellular DNA (eDNA), abundant within the CF airways, stimulates the dynamics of the H1-T6SS cluster apparatus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Addition of Mg(2+) or DNase with eDNA abolished such activation, while treatment with EDTA mimicked the eDNA effect, suggesting that the eDNA-mediated effect is due to chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. DNA-activated H1-T6SS enables P. aeruginosa to nonselectively attack neighboring species regardless of whether or not it was provoked. Because of the importance of the T6SS in interspecies interactions and the prevalence of eDNA in the environments that P. aeruginosa inhabits, our report reveals an important adaptation strategy that likely contributes to the competitive fitness of P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial communities. PMID:27271742

  8. UVA-visible photo-excitation of guanine radical cations produces sugar radicals in DNA and model structures

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Malkhasian, Aramice Y. S.; Collins, Sean; Koppen, Jessica; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents evidence that photo-excitation of guanine radical cations results in high yields of deoxyribose sugar radicals in DNA, guanine deoxyribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleotides. In dsDNA at low temperatures, formation of C1′• is observed from photo-excitation of G•+ in the 310–480 nm range with no C1′• formation observed ≥520 nm. Illumination of guanine radical cations in 2′dG, 3′-dGMP and 5′-dGMP in aqueous LiCl glasses at 143 K is found to result in remarkably high yields (∼85–95%) of sugar radicals, namely C1′•, C3′• and C5′•. The amount of each of the sugar radicals formed varies dramatically with compound structure and temperature of illumination. Radical assignments were confirmed using selective deuteration at C5′ or C3′ in 2′-dG and at C8 in all the guanine nucleosides/tides. Studies of the effect of temperature, pH, and wavelength of excitation provide important information about the mechanism of formation of these sugar radicals. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations verify that specific excited states in G•+ show considerable hole delocalization into the sugar structure, in accord with our proposed mechanism of action, namely deprotonation from the sugar moiety of the excited molecular radical cation. PMID:16204456

  9. Precision polymers and 3D DNA nanostructures: emergent assemblies from new parameter space.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Christopher J; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Chidchob, Pongphak; Carneiro, Karina M M; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2014-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly and DNA nanotechnology have both proved to be powerful nanoscale techniques. To date, most attempts to merge the fields have been limited to placing linear DNA segments within a polydisperse block copolymer. Here we show that, by using hydrophobic polymers of a precisely predetermined length conjugated to DNA strands, and addressable 3D DNA prisms, we are able to effect the formation of unprecedented monodisperse quantized superstructures. The structure and properties of larger micelles-of-prisms were probed in depth, revealing their ability to participate in controlled release of their constituent nanostructures, and template light-harvesting energy transfer cascades, mediated through both the addressability of DNA and the controlled aggregation of the polymers. PMID:25325677

  10. DNA-Grafted Supramolecular Polymers: Helical Ribbon Structures Formed by Self-Assembly of Pyrene-DNA Chimeric Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vyborna, Yuliia; Vybornyi, Mykhailo; Rudnev, Alexander V; Häner, Robert

    2015-06-26

    The controlled arraying of DNA strands on adaptive polymeric platforms remains a challenge. Here, the noncovalent synthesis of DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers from short chimeric oligomers is presented. The oligomers are composed of an oligopyrenotide strand attached to the 5'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. The supramolecular polymerization of these oligomers in an aqueous medium leads to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) helical ribbon structures. Atomic force and transmission electron microscopy show rod-like polymers of several hundred nanometers in length. DNA-grafted polymers of the type described herein will serve as models for the development of structurally and functionally diverse supramolecular platforms with applications in materials science and diagnostics. PMID:25960306

  11. Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan beads with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-05-15

    Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange beads for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) beads were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 beads was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of beads by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) beads. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS gel electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules. PMID:25864009

  12. Membrane filtration of the liquid fraction from a solid-liquid separator for swine manure using a cationic polymer as flocculating agent.

    PubMed

    Masse, L; Mondor, M; Dubreuil, J

    2013-01-01

    The liquid fraction from a solid-liquid separator for swine manure, which used a cationic polymer to promote particle flocculation, was processed by one nanofiltration and two reverse osmosis spiral-wound membranes. Eight different liquid fraction batches (750 to 1750 L) were concentrated at volumetric concentration ratios (VCRs, initial to final volumes) ranging from 2.3 to 4.2. Membrane fouling intensity was highly variable, as water flux recovery after concentration cycles ranged from 13% to 88%. The most severe fouling was caused by a liquid fraction that had relatively low suspended solids (SS) (774 mg/L) and was concentrated at a low VCR of 2.6. Raw manure collected the same day also contained low SS, suggesting that fewer sites were available for polymer adsorption and thus more polymer remained in the liquid. However, because of the high opacity of the samples, residual polymer could not be detected in any feed or concentrate samples. Fouling was not totally irreversible as over 97% of membrane flux could be recovered by cleaning with acidic and alkaline solutions. Further tests with spiked liquid fractions indicated that fouling due to residual polymer in solution started to occur at a polymer concentration of 3 and 11 mg/L in initial and concentrated effluents, respectively. If a cationic polymer is used to pretreat manure, the amount of added polymer would have to be closely related to SS content as opposed to manure volume, in order to leave very little residual polymer in solution. PMID:23837317

  13. Cationic Glycopolymers for the Delivery of pDNA to Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kizjakina, Karina; Bryson, Joshua M.; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Progenitor and pluripotent cell types offer promise as regenerative therapies but transfecting these sensitive cells has proven difficult. Herein, a series of linear trehalose-oligoethyleneamine “click” copolymers were synthesized and examined for their ability to deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) to two progenitor cell types, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) and rat mesenchymal stem cells (RMSC). Seven polymer vehicle analogs were synthesized in which three parameters were systematically varied: the number of secondary amines (4–6) within the polymer repeat unit (Tr433, Tr530, and Tr632), the end group functionalities [PEG (Tr4128PEG-a, Tr4118PEG-b), triphenyl (Tr4107-c), or azido (Tr499-d)], and the molecular weight (degree of polymerization of about 30 or about 100) and the biological efficacy of these vehicles was compared to three controls: Lipofectamine 2000, JetPEI, and Glycofect. The trehalose polymers were all able to bind and compact pDNA polyplexs, and promote pDNA uptake and gene expression [luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)] with these primary cell types and the results varied significantly depending on the polymer structure. Interestingly, in both cell types, Tr433 and Tr530 yielded the highest luciferase gene expression. However, when comparing the number of cells transfected with a reporter plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein, Tr433 and Tr4107-c yielded the highest number of HDFn cells positive for EGFP. Interestingly, with RMSC, all of the higher molecular weight analogs (Tr4128PEG-a, Tr4118PEG-b, Tr4107-c, Tr499-d) yielded high percentages of cells positive for EGFP (30–40%). PMID:22138032

  14. Adsorption of Cationic Laser Dye onto Polymer/Surfactant Complex Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Pabitra Kumar; Arshad Hussain, Syed; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Pal, Mrinal

    2011-06-01

    Fabrication of complex molecular films of organic materials is one of the most important issues in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. Soft materials with flexible properties have been given much attention and can be obtained through bottom up processing from functional molecules, where self-assembly based on supramolecular chemistry and designed assembly have become crucial processes and technologies. In this work, we report the successful incorporation of cationic laser dye rhodamine 6G abbreviated as R6G into the pre-assembled polyelectrolyte/surfactant complex film onto quartz substrate by electrostatic adsorption technique. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) was used as polycation and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as anionic surfactant. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic characterization reveals the formation of only H-type aggregates of R6G in their aqueous solution and both H- and J-type aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex layer-by-layber films as well as the adsorption kinetics of R6G onto the complex films. The ratio of the absorbance intensity of two aggregated bands in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films is merely independent of the concentration range of the SDS solution used to fabricate PAH/SDS complex self-assembled films. Atomic force microscopy reveals the formation of R6G aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films.

  15. Cationic conjugated polymer/fluoresceinamine-hyaluronan complex for sensitive fluorescence detection of CD44 and tumor-targeted cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqin; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Rui; Ouyang, Lang; Jiang, Rongcui; Liu, Xingfen; Song, Caixia; Zhang, Guangwei; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of CD44 is of paramount importance since it plays pivotal roles in tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. Herein, we describe a novel method for sensitive, visual and facile fluorescence detection of CD44 and CD44-mediated cancer cell imaging, using a probe based on cationic conjugated polymer (CCP)-PFEP and fluoresceinamine-hyaluronan (FA-HA). HA is an anionic natural glycosaminoglycan that can specifically bind to the overexpressed CD44 on various kinds of cancer cells. PFEP and FA-HA formed a complex through electronic interactions, resulting in a highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PFEP to FA-HA; moreover, the efficiencies of FRET correlated with the concentrations of CD44 because the specific binding of HA-CD44 would separate FA-HA away from PFEP. This method did not require laborious and expensive dual-labeling or protein-labeling needed in previously reported detection methods of CD44. Just mix the sample and test solution containing the PFEP/FA-HA complex, and the results allowed naked-eye detection by observing fluorescent color of solutions with the assistance of a UV lamp. Most importantly, the use of a conjugated polymer with excellent amplification property as well as the specific binding of HA-CD44 endowed this method with high sensitivity and specificity, making it applicable for reliable quantitative detection of CD44. Furthermore, the PFEP/FA-HA complex formed nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and the nanoparticles can be selectively taken up by MCF-7 cells (cancer cell) through the HA-CD44 interaction, thereby giving rise to a dual-color tumor-targeted imaging probe with good photostability. The development of this fluorescent probe showed promising potential to make a reliable and routine method available for early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25278260

  16. Synthetic Polymer Hybridization with DNA and RNA Directs Nanoparticle Loading, Silencing Delivery, and Aptamer Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhun; Xia, Xin; Bong, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    We report herein discrete triplex hybridization of DNA and RNA with polyacrylates. Length-monodisperse triazine-derivatized polymers were prepared on gram-scale by reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Despite stereoregio backbone heterogeneity, the triazine polymers bind T/U-rich DNA or RNA with nanomolar affinity upon mixing in a 1:1 ratio, as judged by thermal melts, circular dichroism, gel-shift assays, and fluorescence quenching. We call these polyacrylates “bifacial polymer nucleic acids” (bPoNAs). Nucleic acid hybridization with bPoNA enables DNA loading onto polymer nanoparticles, siRNA silencing delivery, and can further serve as an allosteric trigger of RNA aptamer function. Thus, bPoNAs can serve as tools for both non-covalent bioconjugation and structure–function nucleation. It is anticipated that bPoNAs will have utility in both bio- and nanotechnology. PMID:26138550

  17. Synthetic Polymer Hybridization with DNA and RNA Directs Nanoparticle Loading, Silencing Delivery, and Aptamer Function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhun; Xia, Xin; Bong, Dennis

    2015-07-22

    We report herein discrete triplex hybridization of DNA and RNA with polyacrylates. Length-monodisperse triazine-derivatized polymers were prepared on gram-scale by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Despite stereoregio backbone heterogeneity, the triazine polymers bind T/U-rich DNA or RNA with nanomolar affinity upon mixing in a 1:1 ratio, as judged by thermal melts, circular dichroism, gel-shift assays, and fluorescence quenching. We call these polyacrylates "bifacial polymer nucleic acids" (bPoNAs). Nucleic acid hybridization with bPoNA enables DNA loading onto polymer nanoparticles, siRNA silencing delivery, and can further serve as an allosteric trigger of RNA aptamer function. Thus, bPoNAs can serve as tools for both non-covalent bioconjugation and structure-function nucleation. It is anticipated that bPoNAs will have utility in both bio- and nanotechnology. PMID:26138550

  18. A cooperative polymer-DNA microarray approach to biomaterial investigation.

    PubMed

    Pernagallo, Salvatore; Diaz-Mochon, Juan Jose; Bradley, Mark

    2009-02-01

    In this study, polymer microarrays were used for the rapid identification of polymer substrates upon which a suspension cell line would both adhere and proliferate giving a detailed and rapid understanding of cell-biomaterial interactions. Analysis demonstrated that suspension K562 human erythroleukemic cells, which normally grow in suspension, adhered and proliferated on several different polymers. Phenotypic and transcriptomic analysis techniques allowed examination of the interaction between cells and polymers permitting the elucidation of putative links between phenotypic responses to cell-biomaterial interactions and global gene expression. PMID:19156288

  19. Controlled Sequestration of DNA Intercalated Drug by Polymer-Surfactant Supramolecular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Mora, Aruna K; Singh, Prabhat K; Nath, Sukhendu

    2016-05-01

    Triblock copolymer and surfactant based supramolecular assemblies have been used for the controlled sequestration of the DNA intercalator. The triblock copolymer micelles do not affect the molecules that are intercalated in the DNA. However, on addition of charged surfactant to the triblock copolymer micellar solution, sequestration of the intercalated molecules from DNA to the polymer-surfactant supramolecular assemblies takes place. Such sequestration of the intercalated molecules in the polymer-surfactant supramolecular assemblies has been explained on the basis of the charged surface formed in the polymer micelles due to the addition of surfactants. Sequestration of the intercalated molecules from the DNA to the polymer-surfactant supramolecular assemblies has been monitored through the ground state absorption, steady state, and time-resolved emission measurements. It is shown that the extent of sequestration of the intercalated molecules can be finely tuned by tuning the concentration of the surfactant in the triblock copolymer solution. Quantitative sequestration of the intercalated molecules by the supramolecular assemblies has been achieved. Such controlled sequestration of the DNA intercalated molecules by polymer-surfactant supramolecular assemblies can be used to study the binding of drug with DNA and may be useful in applications like detoxification in the case of drug overdose. PMID:27077791

  20. High-sensitivity DNA biosensor based on optical fiber taper interferometer coated with conjugated polymer tentacle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunyun; Tian, Zhuang; Sun, Li-Peng; Sun, Dandan; Li, Jie; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2015-10-19

    A sensitive bio-probe to in situ detect unlabeled single-stranded DNA targets based on optical microfiber taper interferometer coated by a high ordered pore arrays conjugated polymer has been presented. The polymer coating serves as tentacles to catch single-stranded DNA molecules by π-π conjugated interaction and varies the surface refractive index of the optical microfiber. The microfiber taper interferometer translates the refractive index information into wavelength shift of the interference fringe. The sensor exhibits DNA concentration sensitivity of 2.393 nm/log M and the lowest detection ability of 10(-10) M or even lower. PMID:26480357

  1. Cationic Methacrylate Polymers as Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of primary ammonium ethyl methacrylate homopolymers (AEMPs) was investigated. AEMPs with different degrees of polymerization (DP = 7.7–12) were prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The AEMPs showed higher inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), than Gram-negative bacteria. The AEMPs also showed potent anti-S. aureus activity in the presence of fetal bovine serum, whereas the activity of the antibiotic mupirocin was reduced under the same conditions. The AEMPs showed very little or no hemolytic activity. The cytotoxicity of AEMPs against mammalian cells HEp-2 and COS-7 was concentration-dependent, and the cell viability significantly decreased at higher polymer concentrations. The AEMPs significantly reduced the number of viable S. aureus cells in the nasal environment of cotton rats when compared to that of the control. This study demonstrates that AEMPs have potential for use in treating topical S. aureus infections. PMID:25010735

  2. Cationic methacrylate polymers as topical antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Laura M; Boles, Blaise R; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2014-08-11

    The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of primary ammonium ethyl methacrylate homopolymers (AEMPs) was investigated. AEMPs with different degrees of polymerization (DP = 7.7-12) were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The AEMPs showed higher inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), than Gram-negative bacteria. The AEMPs also showed potent anti-S. aureus activity in the presence of fetal bovine serum, whereas the activity of the antibiotic mupirocin was reduced under the same conditions. The AEMPs showed very little or no hemolytic activity. The cytotoxicity of AEMPs against mammalian cells HEp-2 and COS-7 was concentration-dependent, and the cell viability significantly decreased at higher polymer concentrations. The AEMPs significantly reduced the number of viable S. aureus cells in the nasal environment of cotton rats when compared to that of the control. This study demonstrates that AEMPs have potential for use in treating topical S. aureus infections. PMID:25010735

  3. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopic Study for Cellular Uptake of Cationic Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yuping; Panday, Namuna; Myoung, Yong; Twomey, Megan; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Celik, Emrah; Moy, Vincent; Wang, Hongda; Moon, Joong Ho; He, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Positively charged conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) are emerging biomaterials exhibiting high levels of cellular entry. High rate of cellular entry efficiency is believed that the amphiphilic CPNs interact efficiently with the negatively charged hydrophobic cellular membranes. For the first time, the cell surface morphological changes of human cervical cancer cells treated with CPNs using a scanning probe microscopy technique, scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) are imaged. After 1 h of CPN incubation, distinct changes are observed in cell surface morphology such as interconnected protrusions and pits with sub-micrometer sizes, which are not observed from cells treated with positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) under the same treatment conditions. The change on cell surface morphology is quantified by surface roughness ratio, which is increased as CPN concentration increases, while the ratio first increases and then decreases as the incubation time increases. These results suggest that cells respond actively toward CPN with both positive charges on the side chain and the hydrophobicity from rigid aromatic backbone, which leads to subsequent endocytosis. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that SICM is a suitable imaging technique to reveal the dynamic alternations on the cell surface morphology at the early stage of nanoparticles endocytosis with high resolution. PMID:26757346

  4. Mono/bimetallic water-stable lanthanide coordination polymers as luminescent probes for detecting cations, anions and organic solvent molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huarui; Qin, Jianhua; Huang, Chao; Han, Yanbing; Xu, Wenjuan; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    Eleven water-stable isostructural mono/bimetallic lanthanide coordination polymers (Ln-CPs) {[EuxTb1-x (HL)(H2O)3]·H2O}n (x = 1.0 (1), 0.9 (3), 0.8 (4), 0.7 (5), 0.6 (6), 0.4 (7), 0.3 (8), 0.2 (9), 0.1 (10), 0.05 (11), 0 (2), H4L = 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid) with uncoordinated Lewis basic triazole sites within the pores were prepared. The Ln-CPs represented by 1 showed a rapid and drastic emission quenching induced by external Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) cations and CrO4(2-) and CO3(2-) anions in aqueous solution. In addition, because of the comparable emission intensities of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions, bimetallic CP 8 can be used as a ratiometric luminescent sensor for organic solvent molecules. Moreover, the luminescent color of the 8 sensor in pyridine and in other guest solvents undergoes obvious changes that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. PMID:27443408

  5. A Single Methylene Group in Oligoalkylamine-Based Cationic Polymers and Lipids Promotes Enhanced mRNA Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jarzębińska, Anita; Pasewald, Tamara; Lambrecht, Jana; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Kümmerling, Linda; Beck, Philipp; Hasenpusch, Günther; Rudolph, Carsten; Plank, Christian; Dohmen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The development of chemically modified mRNA holds great promise as a new class of biologic therapeutics. However, the intracellular delivery and endosomal escape of mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles has not been systematically investigated. Here, we synthesized a diverse set of cationic polymers and lipids from a series of oligoalkylamines and subsequently characterized their mRNA delivery capability. Notably, a structure with an alternating alkyl chain length between amines showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was linked to a high buffering capacity in a narrow range of pH 6.2 to 6.5. Variation in only one methylene group resulted in enhanced mRNA delivery to both the murine liver as well as porcine lungs after systemic or aerosol administration, respectively. These findings reveal a novel fundamental structure-activity relationship for the delivery of mRNA that is independent of the class of mRNA carrier and define a promising new path of exploration in the field of mRNA therapeutics. PMID:27376704

  6. Fabrication of DNA Polymer Brush Arrays by Destructive Micropatterning and Rolling-Circle Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Barbee, Kristopher D.; Chandrangsu, Matt; Huang, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    A method for fabricating DNA polymer brush arrays using photolithography and plasma etching followed by solid-phase enzymatic DNA amplification is reported. After attaching oligonucleotide primers to the surface of a glass coverslip, a thin layer of photoresist is spin-coated on the glass and patterned via photolithography to generate an array of posts in the resist. An oxygen-based plasma is then used to destroy the exposed oligonucleotide primers. The glass coverslip with the primer array is assembled into a microfluidic chip and DNA polymer brushes are synthesized on the oligonucleotide array by rolling-circle DNA amplification. We have demonstrated that the linear polymers can be rapidly synthesized in situ with a high degree of control over their density and length. PMID:21305694

  7. A self-cleaving DNA enzyme modified with amines, guanidines and imidazoles operates independently of divalent metal cations (M2+)

    PubMed Central

    Hollenstein, Marcel; Hipolito, Christopher J.; Lam, Curtis H.; Perrin, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of modified DNAzymes represents an important endeavor in expanding the chemical and catalytic properties of catalytic nucleic acids. Few examples of such exist and to date, there is no example where three different modified bases have been simultaneously incorporated for catalytic activity. Herein, dCTP, dATP and dUTP bearing, respectively, a cationic amine, an imidazole and a cationic guanidine, were enzymatically polymerized on a DNA template for the selection of a highly functionalized DNAzyme, called DNAzyme 9-86, that catalyzed (M2+)-independent self-cleavage under physiological conditions at a single ribo(cytosine)phosphodiester linkage with a rate constant of (0.134 ± 0.026) min−1. A pH rate profile analysis revealed pKa's of 7.4 and 8.1, consistent with both general acid and base catalysis. The presence of guanidinium cations permits cleavage at significantly higher temperatures than previously observed for DNAzymes with only amines and imidazoles. Qualitatively, DNAzyme 9-86 presents an unprecedented ensemble of synthetic functionalities while quantitatively it expresses one of the highest reported values for any self-cleaving nucleic acid when investigated under M2+-free conditions at 37°C. PMID:19153138

  8. Electrostatic self-assembly between biological polymers & macroions: Interactions of F-actin & DNA with lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Lori K.; Matthews, Brian W.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2005-03-01

    The pathological self-assembly of polyelectrolytes such as DNA and F-actin with cationic antimicrobial proteins such as lysozyme may have significant clinical consequences in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung infections. Wild-type lysozyme is a compact, cationic, globular protein which carries a net charge of +9e at neutral pH. Our Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments on F-actin-lysozyme complexes indicate that the wild-type lysozyme close packs into 1-D columns between hexagonally organized F-actin filaments. We will present SAXS results of the interactions of F-actin and DNA with genetically engineered lysozyme mutants that carry a reduced charge of +5e. We have also used fluorescence microscopy to investigate the morphologies and sizes of such bundles induced with divalent cations, wild-type lysozyme, and mutant lysozymes.

  9. Cationized bovine serum albumin as gene carrier: Influence of specific secondary structure on DNA complexibility and gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianwei; Li, Bangbang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Youxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this research, BSA, one of the natural rigid globular proteins with ca. 51% of α-helix secondary structure, was utilized to prepare cationized BSA (cBSA) as gene carrier. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or polyethylenimine (PEI1800) was grafted to BSA with different grafting levels. Based on the circular dichoism (CD) spectra, all cBSA remained α-helical structure to some degree. This was exciting to endow cBSA with quite different DNA complexibility and cellular biology behavior from the random coiled and flexible polycations such as PEI and poly-l-lysine (PLL). Strangely, the DNA condensability decreased with the increment of TEPA or PEI1800 grafting level. Also, the cBSA could condense DNA effectively to form irregular nanoparticles around 50-200nm above N/P ratio of 10. On account of the excellent hydration of BSA, the cBSA/DNA complexes revealed good colloidal stability under physiological salt condition. Cell culture experiments indicated this BSA-based gene carrier possessed good cellular compatibility. Surprisingly, cBSA/DNA complexes could be uptaken excellently by up to 90% cells. This might be owing to the agitation effect of α-helical structure and the positive potential of these complexes. BSA-PEI1800/DNA complexes with quick endosome escape even had transfection efficiency as high as PEI25k/DNA complexes. Overall, this paper provided us the potential of cBSA as gene carrier and might have some instructions in the design of protein-based gene delivery system. PMID:26998865

  10. Ammonium-crown ether supramolecular cation-templated assembly of an unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer with enhanced NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Jia, Ding; Humphrey, Mark G; Meng, Suci; Zaworotko, Michael J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    An ammonium-crown ether host-guest supramolecular cation-templated synthetic methodology has been developed to construct a structurally unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer (HCM-CP 1) based on tetranuclear clusters [WS4Cu3](+) with different connection environments, pentanuclear clusters [WS4Cu4](2+), and Cu(+) building metal ions. HCM-CP 1 exhibits enhanced NLO properties, which may be ascribed to the incorporation of diverse building cluster components. PMID:26864604

  11. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations on the interaction of cationic porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids with DNA G-quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Arba, Muhammad; Kartasasmita, Rahmana E; Tjahjono, Daryono H

    2016-01-01

    A series of cationic porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids bearing either pyridine, imidazole, or pyrazole rings at the meso-positions have been investigated for their interaction with DNA G-quadruplexes by employing molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Three types of DNA G-quadruplexes were utilized, which comprise parallel, antiparallel, and mixed hybrid topologies. The porphyrin hybrids have a preference to bind with parallel and mixed hybrid structures compared to the antiparallel structure. This preference arises from the end stacking of porphyrin moiety following G-stem and loop binding of anthraquinone tail, which is not found in the antiparallel due to the presence of diagonal and lateral loops that crowd the G-quartet. The binding to the antiparallel, instead, occurred with poorer affinity through both the loop and wide groove. All sites of porphyrin binding were confirmed by 6 ns molecular dynamics simulation, as well as by the negative value of the total binding free energies that were calculated using the MMPBSA method. Free energy analysis shows that the favorable contribution came from the electrostatic term, which supposedly originated from the interaction of either cationic pyridinium, pyrazole, or imidazole groups and the anionic phosphate backbone, and also from the van der Waals energy, which primarily contributed through end stacking interaction. PMID:25808513

  12. Selenium Incorporated Cationic Organochalcogen: Live Cell Compatible and Highly Photostable Molecular Stain for Imaging and Localization of Intracellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Pankaj; Kumar, Ajay; Dey, Gourab; Kumar, Rajendra; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    Successful integration of selenium unit into a newly designed cationic chemical architecture led to the development of a highly photostable molecular maker PA5 to be used in fluorescence microscopy as cellular nucleus staining agent for longer duration imaging under continuous laser illumination. Adaptation of a targeted single-atom modification strategy led to the development of a series of proficient DNA light-up probes (PA1-PA5). Further, their comparative photophysical studies in the presence of DNA revealed the potential of electron rich heteroatoms of chalcogen family in improving binding efficiency and specificity of molecular probes toward DNA. The findings of cell studies confirmed the outstanding cell compatibility of probe PA5 in terms of cell permeability, biostability, and extremely low cytotoxicity. Moreover, the photostability experiment employing continuous laser illumination in solution phase as well as in cell assay (both fixed and live cells) revealed the admirable photobleaching resistance of PA5. Finally, while investigating the phototoxicity of PA5, the probe was found not to exhibit light-induced toxicity even when irradiated for longer duration. All these experimental results demonstrated the promising standing of PA5 as a futuristic cell compatible potential stain for bioimaging and temporal profiling of DNA. PMID:27066840

  13. Electrophoresis of DNA-protein complexes in polymer solutions: from free-flow to gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Gary W.; Desruisseaux, Claude; Drouin, Guy

    2000-03-01

    We previously showed that labeling one of the ends of single-stranded DNA molecules with a neutral label like the protein streptavidin increases the interband separation of these hybrid molecules when they are electrophoresed in gels because of strong steric trapping effects. In 1999, we also demonstrated that these labeled DNA molecules can be sequenced in free-solution, a novel separation process that we called ELFSE. Here, we examine the fascinating intermediate regime where the streptavidin-DNA molecules are electrophoresed in polymer solutions of increasing concentrations, from ultra-dilute to fully entangled conditions. Our capillary electrophoresis results clarify the respective roles of friction, polymer capture,reptation and steric trapping. In some cases, two separation regimes coexist and the mobility becomes a non-monotonic function of the DNA size. A universal relationship is found to relate the mobility of labeled and unlabeled DNA molecules for all systems.

  14. Preparation of DNA films for studies under vacuum conditions. The influence of cations in buffer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiałek, M. A.; Balog, R.; Jones, N. C.; Field, D.; Mason, N. J.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions required for the preparation of uniform films of supercoiled plasmid DNA to be used in irradiation experiments under high vacuum conditions. Investigations reveal that significant damage to the DNA molecules occurs due to the evacuation process when films were formed from DNA samples in ultra high purity water only. A variety of bases were tested for their possible protective capabilities and sodium hydroxide solution was found to be the most effective in maintaining the supercoiled structure of plasmid DNA during the preparation process. Using a transmission electron microscope we also examined the structure of the DNA films which are formed upon evacuation and how the proposed adducts influence the preparation process. It was found that the addition of bases cause the DNA to aggregate, noting that a base is required for the stability of the DNA molecules. The experimental results presented in this paper show that it may not be possible to perform experiments on so-called pure DNA under vacuum with no stabilizers being added to the sample before the evacuation process.

  15. Deformation of DNA and Polymer Labels during End-Labelled Free-Solution Electrophoresis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Gary W.; McCormick, Laurette C.

    2006-03-01

    Recent advancements to DNA sequencing by End Labelled Free Solution Electrophoresis (ELFSE) show the promise of this novel technique which overcomes the need for a gel by using a label (or drag-tag) to render the free solution mobility of the DNA size-dependent. It is the attachment of an uncharged drag-tag molecule of a set size to all the various lengths of DNA in the sample that selectively slows down smaller DNA chains which have less force to pull the drag-tag than larger DNA. Taking advantage of the modified hydrodynamic properties of tagged DNA, ELFSE has been used to successfully sequence up to about 100 bases of DNA in the absence of a gel or other sieving. So far, only globally random coil conformations have been associated with ELFSE, i.e. the DNA and the label together form a single, undeformed hydrodynamic unit. However, next generation labels combined with high field strengths may allow for deformation of the DNA and/or a polymer label. We present here the necessary conditions for stretching, and some of the subsequent effects on separation, highlighting possible improvements to ELFSE performance via stretching of DNA and/or the polymer label.

  16. A cationic dye triplet as a unique "glue" that can connect fully matched termini of DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Kashida, Hiromu; Hayashi, Takamitsu; Fujii, Taiga; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-25

    In this study, we propose that three consecutive cationic p-methylstilbazoles tethered on D-threoninols (Z residues) at 5' termini act as a unique "glue" connecting DNA duplexes by their interstrand cluster formation. Interstrand clustering of p-methylstilbazoles (ZZZ triplets) induces narrowing and hypsochromic shift of bands at 350 nm, which can be assigned to the absorption of p-methylstilbazole. However, single-stranded DNA conjugates involving a ZZZ triplet at the 5' terminus of 8-mer native nucleotides is found not to induce such large spectral changes, which implies that the intrinsic self-assembling property of ZZZ triplets is weak. Interestingly, when this conjugate is hybridized with a complementary 8-mer native oligonucleotide, a remarkable spectral change is observed, indicating the dimerization of a duplex through the interstrand clustering of ZZZ triplets. Dimerization of the duplex is also evidenced by cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry. This interstrand clustering is observed only when a ZZZ triplet is tethered to a 5' rather than 3' terminus. Furthermore, the stability of the interstrand cluster increases by increasing the number of nucleobases of the DNA portion, and when mismatched base pairs are incorporated or when a base next to the Z residue is deleted, the stability substantially drops. When we apply the ZZZ triplet to the formation of a nanowire using two complementary DNA conjugates, each of which has a ZZZ triplet at the 5' termini as overhang, we demonstrate the successful formation of a nanowire by native PAGE analysis. Since native sticky ends that have three nucleotides do not serve as "glue", ZZZ triplets with their unique glue-like properties are prime candidates for constructing DNA-based nanoarchitectures. PMID:21305625

  17. Pel is a cationic exopolysaccharide that cross-links extracellular DNA in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Laura K.; Storek, Kelly M.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Coulon, Charlène; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Sadovskaya, Irina; Secor, Patrick R.; Tseng, Boo Shan; Scian, Michele; Filloux, Alain; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a complex, ordered process. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psl and Pel exopolysaccharides and extracellular DNA (eDNA) serve as structural components of the biofilm matrix. Despite intensive study, Pel’s chemical structure and spatial localization within mature biofilms remain unknown. Using specialized carbohydrate chemical analyses, we unexpectedly found that Pel is a positively charged exopolysaccharide composed of partially acetylated 1→4 glycosidic linkages of N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Guided by the knowledge of Pel’s sugar composition, we developed a tool for the direct visualization of Pel in biofilms by combining Pel-specific Wisteria floribunda lectin staining with confocal microscopy. The results indicate that Pel cross-links eDNA in the biofilm stalk via ionic interactions. Our data demonstrate that the cationic charge of Pel is distinct from that of other known P. aeruginosa exopolysaccharides and is instrumental in its ability to interact with other key biofilm matrix components. PMID:26311845

  18. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  19. Structural basis for stabilization of Z-DNA by cobalt hexaammine and magnesium cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessner, R. V.; Quigley, G. J.; Wang, A. H.; van der Marel, G. A.; van Boom, J. H.; Rich, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the equilibrium between B-DNA and Z-DNA in poly(dC-dG), the [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion stabilizes the Z form 4 orders of magnitude more effectively than the Mg2+ ion. The structural basis of this difference is revealed in Z-DNA crystal structures of d(CpGpCpGpCpG) stabilized by either Na+/Mg2+ or Na+/Mg2+ plus [Co(NH3)6]3+. The crystals diffract X-rays to high resolution, and the structures were refined at 1.25 A. The [Co(NH3)6]3+ ion forms five hydrogen bonds onto the surface of Z-DNA, bonding to a guanine O6 and N7 as well as to a phosphate group in the ZII conformation. The Mg2+ ion binds through its hydration shell with up to three hydrogen bonds to guanine N7 and O6. Higher charge, specific fitting of more hydrogen bonds, and a more stable complex all contribute to the great effectiveness of [Co(NH3)6]3+ in stabilizing Z-DNA.

  20. Equilibrium properties of DNA and other semiflexible polymers confined in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, Abhiram

    Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have opened the door for low-cost, high-throughput sequencing of genomes. However, these developments have also exposed the inability of NGS to track large scale genomic information, which are extremely important to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Genome mapping offers a reliable way to obtain information about large-scale structural variations in a given genome. A promising variant of genome mapping involves confining single DNA molecules in nanochannels whose cross-sectional dimensions are approximately 50 nm. Despite the development and commercialization of nanochannel-based genome mapping technology, the polymer physics of DNA in confinement is only beginning to be understood. Apart from its biological relevance, DNA is also used as a model polymer in experiments by polymer physicists. Indeed, the seminal experiments by Reisner et al. (2005) of DNA confined in nanochannels of different widths revealed discrepancies with the classical theories of Odijk and de Gennes for polymer confinement. Picking up from the conclusions of the dissertation of Tree (2014), this dissertation addresses a number of key outstanding problems in the area of nanoconfined DNA. Adopting a Monte Carlo chain growth technique known as the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method, we examine the equilibrium and near-equilibrium properties of DNA and other semiflexible polymers in nanochannel confinement. We begin by analyzing the dependence of molecular weight on various thermodynamic properties of confined semiflexible polymers. This allows us to point out the finite size effects that can occur when using low molecular weight DNA in experiments. We then analyze the statistics of backfolding and hairpin formation in the context of existing theories and discuss how our results can be used to engineer better conditions for genome mapping. Finally, we elucidate the diffusion behavior of confined

  1. DNA as a phosphate storage polymer and the alternative advantages of polyploidy for growth or survival.

    PubMed

    Zerulla, Karolin; Chimileski, Scott; Näther, Daniela; Gophna, Uri; Papke, R Thane; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Haloferax volcanii uses extracellular DNA as a source for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. However, it can also grow to a limited extend in the absence of added phosphorous, indicating that it contains an intracellular phosphate storage molecule. As Hfx. volcanii is polyploid, it was investigated whether DNA might be used as storage polymer, in addition to its role as genetic material. It could be verified that during phosphate starvation cells multiply by distributing as well as by degrading their chromosomes. In contrast, the number of ribosomes stayed constant, revealing that ribosomes are distributed to descendant cells, but not degraded. These results suggest that the phosphate of phosphate-containing biomolecules (other than DNA and RNA) originates from that stored in DNA, not in rRNA. Adding phosphate to chromosome depleted cells rapidly restores polyploidy. Quantification of desiccation survival of cells with different ploidy levels showed that under phosphate starvation Hfx. volcanii diminishes genetic advantages of polyploidy in favor of cell multiplication. The consequences of the usage of genomic DNA as phosphate storage polymer are discussed as well as the hypothesis that DNA might have initially evolved in evolution as a storage polymer, and the various genetic benefits evolved later. PMID:24733558

  2. DNA as a Phosphate Storage Polymer and the Alternative Advantages of Polyploidy for Growth or Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zerulla, Karolin; Chimileski, Scott; Näther, Daniela; Gophna, Uri; Papke, R. Thane; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Haloferax volcanii uses extracellular DNA as a source for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. However, it can also grow to a limited extend in the absence of added phosphorous, indicating that it contains an intracellular phosphate storage molecule. As Hfx. volcanii is polyploid, it was investigated whether DNA might be used as storage polymer, in addition to its role as genetic material. It could be verified that during phosphate starvation cells multiply by distributing as well as by degrading their chromosomes. In contrast, the number of ribosomes stayed constant, revealing that ribosomes are distributed to descendant cells, but not degraded. These results suggest that the phosphate of phosphate-containing biomolecules (other than DNA and RNA) originates from that stored in DNA, not in rRNA. Adding phosphate to chromosome depleted cells rapidly restores polyploidy. Quantification of desiccation survival of cells with different ploidy levels showed that under phosphate starvation Hfx. volcanii diminishes genetic advantages of polyploidy in favor of cell multiplication. The consequences of the usage of genomic DNA as phosphate storage polymer are discussed as well as the hypothesis that DNA might have initially evolved in evolution as a storage polymer, and the various genetic benefits evolved later. PMID:24733558

  3. Mixtures of Cationic Lipid O-Ethylphosphatidylcholine with Membrane Lipids and DNA: Phase Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylphosphatidylcholines are positively charged membrane lipid derivatives, which effectively transfect DNA into cells and are metabolized by the cells. For this reason, they are promising nonviral transfection agents. With the aim of revealing the kinds of lipid phases that may arise when lipoplexes interact with cellular lipids during DNA transfection, temperature-composition phase diagrams of mixtures of the O-ethyldipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine with representatives of the major lipid classes (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, cholesterol) were constructed. Phase boundaries were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The effects of ionic strength and of DNA presence were examined. A large variety of polymorphic and mesomorphic structures were observed. Surprisingly, marked enhancement of the affinity for nonlamellar phases was observed in mixtures with phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol as well as with phosphatidylglycerol (previously reported). Because of the potential relevance to transfection, it is noteworthy that such phases form at close to physiological conditions, and in the presence of DNA. All four mixtures exhibit a tendency to molecular clustering in the gel phase, presumably due to the specific interdigitated molecular arrangement of the O-ethyldipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine gel bilayers. It is evident that a remarkably broad array of lipid phases could arise in transfected cells and that these could have significant effects on transfection efficiency. The data may be particularly useful for selecting possible “helper” lipids in the lipoplex formulations, and in searches for correlations between lipoplex structure and transfection activity. PMID:14507708

  4. The intracellular plasmid DNA localization of cationic reducible cholesterol-disulfide lipids.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ruilong; Luo, Ting; Zhu, Yingdan; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Chen, Shengdian; Sun, Wenyan; Cao, Amin

    2011-05-01

    Stimuli-responsive biomaterials derived from natural products toward efficient drug/gene delivery have been attracting increasing attention in the past decade. In this work, we first designed and prepared a new series of cholesterol-disulfide lipids, namely CHOSS-N, CHOSS-N+, CHOSS-Lys and CHOSS-4N bearing cholesterol and a variety of headgroups via disulfide and carbonate bond linkages, and their molecular structures were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS. Furthermore, plasmid DNA binding affinity for these new CHOSS lipids was separately examined by ethidium bromide displacement and agarose-gel retardant assay. Average diameter sizes and surface potentials of the CHOSS/pDNA lipoplex particles prepared under various N/P charge ratios were analyzed by dynamic laser light scattering (DLS). Under 10 mm dithiothreitol (DTT), stability and disassembly of the CHOSS/pDNA lipoplex nanoparticles were investigated by agarose-gel retardant assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Employing a COS-7 cell line, cell viability was examined for the prepared CHOSS lipids and their pDNA lipoplexes with branched PEI-25k as the reference. Finally, COS-7 cell gene transfection efficacies with these CHOSS lipids as potential delivery vectors were investigated by luciferase and EGFP transfection assay in the absence and presence of serum, and intracellular uptake capability, trafficking and cellular localization of Cy3-labeled pEGFP-N1 DNA were studied with a flow cytometer and fluorescent microscopy with Lipofectamine™ 2000 as the control. The results demonstrated low cytotoxicity, strong pDNA binding affinity and high transgenetic efficacy for new prepared CHOSS lipids, and particularly high intracellular uptake capability and specific cellular localization of pDNA at the periphery of cell nuclei were for the first time interestingly observed for the CHOSS lipid delivery carriers. In general, these may pave a new way to utilize cholesterol, amino acids and other functional natural

  5. Improvement in physicochemical parameters of DPPC liposomes and increase in skin permeation of aciclovir and minoxidil by the addition of cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Hasanovic, Amra; Hollick, Caroline; Fischinger, Kerstin; Valenta, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes were prepared by high-pressure homogeniser and coated with two cationic polymers, chitosan (CS) and for the first time Eudragit EPO (EU), respectively. Compared to the control liposomes, the polymeric liposomes showed greater physicochemical stability in terms of mean particle size and zeta potential at room temperature. In the present study, aciclovir and minoxidil have been used as hydrophilic and hydrophobic candidates. In the presence of the drugs, the polymeric liposomes still showed constant particle size and zeta potential. Influences of polymers and model drugs on thermotropic phase transition of DPPC liposomes were studied by micro-differential scanning calorimetry (microDSC). The influences on configuration of DPPC liposomes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to DSC results, cationic polymers had a stabilising effect, whereas aciclovir and minoxidil changed the physical properties of the DPPC bilayers by influencing the main phase transition temperature and erasing the pre-transition. The investigation of CO stretching bands of DPPC at 1736 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra showed that aciclovir has strong hydrogen bonding with CO groups of DPPC, whereas carbonyl groups were free in minoxidil presence. Moreover, the coating of liposomes with CS or EU led to higher skin diffusion for both drugs. This could be explained as an effect of positively charged liposomes to interact stronger with skin negatively charged surface and their possible interactions with structures below the stratum corneum. PMID:20332029

  6. DNA/RNA binding and anticancer/antimicrobial activities of polymer-copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmipraba, Jagadeesan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Vignesh, Sivanandham; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2013-05-01

    Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens.

  7. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Can Be Significantly Enhanced by the Cationic Polymer Polybrene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Wu, Ningning; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Yin, Liangjun; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Wu, Di; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhou, Guolin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Si, Weike; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors, which can undergo self-renewal and give rise to multi-lineages. A great deal of attentions have been paid to their potential use in regenerative medicine as potential therapeutic genes can be introduced into MSCs. Genetic manipulations in MSCs requires effective gene deliveries. Recombinant adenoviruses are widely used gene transfer vectors. We have found that although MSCs can be infected in vitro by adenoviruses, high virus titers are needed to achieve high efficiency. Here, we investigate if the commonly-used cationic polymer Polybrene can potentiate adenovirus-mediated transgene delivery into MSCs, such as C2C12 cells and iMEFs. Using the AdRFP adenovirus, we find that AdRFP transduction efficiency is significantly increased by Polybrene in a dose-dependent fashion peaking at 8 μg/ml in C2C12 and iMEFs cells. Quantitative luciferase assay reveals that Polybrene significantly enhances AdFLuc-mediated luciferase activity in C2C12 and iMEFs at as low as 4 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml, respectively. FACS analysis indicates that Polybrene (at 4 μg/ml) increases the percentage of RFP-positive cells by approximately 430 folds in AdRFP-transduced iMEFs, suggesting Polybrene may increase adenovirus infection efficiency. Furthermore, Polybrene can enhance AdBMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs as early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase activity can be increased more than 73 folds by Polybrene (4 μg/ml) in AdBMP9-transduced iMEFs. No cytotoxicity was observed in C2C12 and iMEFs at Polybrene up to 40 μg/ml, which is about 10-fold higher than the effective concentration required to enhance adenovirus transduction in MSCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Polybrene should be routinely used as a safe, effective and inexpensive augmenting agent for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in MSCs, as well as other types of mammalian cells. PMID:24658746

  8. Development of acid-resistant alginate/trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles containing cationic β-cyclodextrin polymers for insulin oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Mansourpour, Maryam; Mahjub, Reza; Amini, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Shamsa, Elnaz Sadat; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the use of trimethylchitosan (TMC), by higher solubility in comparison with chitosan, in alginate/chitosan nanoparticles containing cationic β-cyclodextrin polymers (CPβCDs) has been studied, with the aim of increasing insulin uptake by nanoparticles. Firstly, TMCs were synthesized by iodomethane, and CPβCDs were synthesized within a one-step polycondensation reaction using choline chloride (CC) and epichlorohydrine (EP). Insulin-CβCDPs complex was prepared by mixing 1:1 portion of insulin and CPβCDs solutions. Then, nanoparticles prepared in a three-step procedure based on the iono-tropic pregelation method. Nanoparticles screened using experimental design and Placket Burman methodology to obtain minimum size and polydispercity index (pdI) and the highest entrapment efficiency (EE). CPβCDs and TMC solution concentration and pH and alginate and calcium chloride solution concentrations are found as the significant parameters on size, PdI, and EE. The nanoparticles with proper physicochemical properties were obtained; the size, PdI, and EE% of optimized nanoparticles were reported as 150.82 ± 21 nm, 0.362 ± 0.036, and 93.2% ± 4.1, respectively. The cumulative insulin release in intestinal condition achieved was 50.2% during 6 h. By SEM imaging, separate, spherical, and nonaggregated nanoparticles were found. In the cytotoxicity studies on Caco-2 cell culture, no significant cytotoxicity was observed in 5 h of incubation, but after 24 h of incubation, viability was decreased to 50% in 0.5 mμ of TMC concentration. Permeability studies across Caco-2 cells had been carried out, and permeability achieved in 240 min was 8.41 ± 0.39%, which shows noticeable increase in comparison with chitosan nanoparticles. Thus, according to the results, the optimized nanoparticles can be used as a new insulin oral delivery system. PMID:25604700

  9. Ordered DNA-Surfactant Hybrid Nanospheres Triggered by Magnetic Cationic Surfactants for Photon- and Magneto-Manipulated Drug Delivery and Release.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Yitong; Wei, Guangcheng; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-12-14

    Here we construct for the first time ordered surfactant-DNA hybrid nanospheres of double-strand (ds) DNA and cationic surfactants with magnetic counterion, [FeCl3Br](-). The specificity of the magnetic cationic surfactants that can compact DNA at high concentrations makes it possible for building ordered nanospheres through aggregation, fusion, and coagulation. Cationic surfactants with conventional Br(-) cannot produce spheres under the same condition because they lose the DNA compaction ability. When a light-responsive magnetic cationic surfactant is used to produce nanospheres, a dual-controllable drug-delivery platform can be built simply by the applications of external magnetic force and alternative UV and visible light. These nanospheres obtain high drug absorption efficiency, slow release property, and good biocompatibility. There is potential for effective magnetic-field-based targeted drug delivery, followed by photocontrollable drug release. We deduce that our results might be of great interest for making new functional nucleic-acid-based nanomachines and be envisioned to find applications in nanotechnology and biochemistry. PMID:26571346

  10. Characterizing radiation-induced oxidation of DNA by way of the monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical cation.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Heather M; Schaefer, Henry F

    2009-06-11

    The interaction of one water molecule with the guanine-cytosine radical cation has been studied with ab initio and density functional methods in order to help elucidate the nature of oxidized aqueous DNA. The theoretical spin density of [GC]*(+) reveals that the radical center is localized on guanine. The adiabatic ionization potential lowers from 7.63 to 6.71 eV in concurrence with the formation of the Watson-Crick base pair and hydration by one water molecule. A natural bond orbital analysis of partial charges shows that approximately 80% of the positive charge persists on guanine upon hydration and formation of the Watson-Crick base pair with cytosine. Hydration energies were computed with second-order Z-averaged perturbation theory (ZAPT2) using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set at 11 stationary points on the B3LYP/DZP++ potential energy surface. The hydration energy at the global minimum is 14.2 kcal mol(-1). The lowest energy structures correspond to hydration near the glycosidic bond sites. Structural changes in the Watson-Crick base pair are predominantly seen for monohydration in the groove regions of double-helix DNA. PMID:19445496

  11. The Relation between the Physical Properties of Self-Assembling Cationic Lipid:DNA Complexes and Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Slack, N. L.; Evans, Heather M.; Lin, Alison; Martin, A.; Safinya, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    The use of cationic lipids (CL) as carriers of genes (DNA sequences) for delivery in cells is a promising alternative to viral-carriers. Previous work on CL:DNA complexes has focused on binary mixtures of lipids and has shown that the optimal gene delivery vehicle may be mediated by physical properties of the lipid self-assembly(1). Using x-ray diffraction and biological assays, we show that membrane charge density and geometric shape may be universal parameters for successful gene delivery by binary CL mixtures in vitro. Preliminary results from complexes containing novel ternary CL mixtures further elucidate key parameters for gene delivery. Funded by NIH R01-GM59288-01 and R37-AI12520-24, UCBiotechnology Research and Education Program (97-02), NSF-DMR-9972246. 1. J. Raedler et al, Science 275, 810 (1997), Koltover et al Science 281, 78-81 (1998), Koltover et al, Biophysical Journal 77, 95 (1999), A. J. Lin, N. L. Slack, A. Ahmad, I. Koltover, C. X. George, C. E. Samuel, C. R. Safinya, Journal of Drug Targeting (to appear)

  12. Intercalative and nonintercalative binding of large cationic porphyrin ligands to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Carvlin, M J; Fiel, R J

    1983-01-01

    The large meso-substituted porphine, meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine has been identified as a DNA-interactive ligand with a capacity for intercalation (1,2). Subsequently, the 2-N-methyl, 3-N-methyl and N-trimethylanilinium analogues of this porphyrin intercalator have been obtained for physico-chemical analyses (absorption spectroscopy, viscometry, circular dichroism, unwinding of supercoiled DNA). In this paper we discuss the factors affecting the character of porphyrin binding (intercalative, as is the case for the 4-N-methyl and 3-N-methyl porphines, versus non-intercalative, as is the case for the 2-N-methyl and N-trimethylanilinium porphines) and the impact that porphyrins' binding has upon the structure of DNA. The molecular conformation of the porphyrin ligand varies slightly within this series so that the ability of a given porphyrin to intercalate may be correlated with the arrangement of charged groups, the planarity of the porphine ring and the effective width of the individual molecules. The results from these studies indicate that sequence selective binding occurs within a small aperture of solution conditions. Images PMID:6889138

  13. Polymer Conformation and Topological Defects in Systems of Hairy and DNA hybridized Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorowski, Chris; Travesset, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Systems of hairy and DNA hybridized Nanoparticles are able to self-assemble into an array of superlattices. Understanding the role the polymer plays is critical to predicting the superlattice structure. In this talk, we use Molecular Dynamics to study hairy nanoparticles where the grafted polymer is modeled explicitly. We study self-assembly starting from a liquid and following the nucleation and growth of large nanoparticle superlattices (2000NP). We explore the role of polymer stretching as well as the geometric frustration of the polymer for both spherical and cubic nanoparticles. We also provide a characterization of the dynamics, including topological defects. Further, we will discuss the difficulties and methods for simulating large lattices in molecular dynamics.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Novel PBAE/PLGA Polymer Blend Microparticles for DNA Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Balashanmugam, Meenashi Vanathi; Nagarethinam, Sivagurunathan; Jagani, Hitesh; Josyula, Venkata Rao; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2014-01-01

    Context. Poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) with its pH sensitiveness and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with huge DNA cargo capacity in combination prove to be highly efficient as DNA delivery system. Objective. To study the effectiveness of novel synthesized PBAE polymer with PLGA blend at different ratios in DNA vaccine delivery. Methods. In the present study, multifunctional polymer blend microparticles using a combination of PLGA and novel PBAE polymers A1 (bis(3-(propionyloxy)propyl)3,3′-(propane-1,3-diyl-bis(methylazanediyl))dipropanoate) and A2 (bis(4-(propionyloxy)butyl)3,3′-(ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(isopropylazanediyl))dipropanoate) at different ratios (85 : 15, 75 : 25, and 50 : 50) were prepared by double emulsion solvent removal method. The microparticles were characterized for cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and DNA encapsulation efficiency. Result. It was evident from results that among the microparticles prepared with PLGA/PBAE blend the PLGA : PBAE at 85 : 15 ratio was found to be more effective combination than the microparticles prepared with PLGA alone in terms of transfection efficiency and better DNA integrity. Microparticles made of PLGA and PBAE A1 at 85 : 15 ratio, respectively, were found to be less toxic when compared with microparticles prepared with A2 polymer. Conclusion. The results encourage the use of the synthesized PBAE polymer in combination with PLGA as an effective gene delivery system. PMID:25401137

  15. Coulomb Forces on DNA Polymers in Charged Fluidic Nanoslits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongqiang; Stein, Derek

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the repulsive electrostatic interactions between a DNA polyelectrolyte and the charged walls of a fluidic nanoslit. The scaling of the DNA coil size with the physical slit height revealed electrostatic depletion regions that reduced the effective slit height. These regions exceeded the Debye screening length of the buffer, λDbuffer, and saturated at ≈50nm when λDbuffer reached 10 nm. We explain these results by modeling a semiflexible charged rod near a charged wall and the electrostatic screening by the polyelectrolyte. These results demonstrate the surprisingly long range over which a nanofluidic device can exert field-effect control over confined molecules.

  16. Efficient in vivo gene delivery by the negatively charged complexes of cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Son, K K; Tkach, D; Hall, K J

    2000-09-29

    We examined changes in zeta potential (the surface charge density, zeta) of the complexes of liposome (nmol)/DNA (microg) (L/D) formed in water at three different ratios (L/D=1, 10 and 20) by changing the ionic strength or pH to find an optimum formulation for in vivo gene delivery. At high DNA concentrations, zeta of the complexes formed in water at L/D=10 was significantly lowered by adding NaCl (zeta=+8.44+/-3.1 to -27.6+/-3.5 mV) or increasing pH from 5 (zeta=+15.3+/-1.0) to 9 (zeta=-22.5+/-2.5 mV). However, the positively charged complexes formed at L/D=20 (zeta=+6.2+/-3.5 mV) became negative as NaCl was added at alkaline pH as observed in medium (zeta=-19.7+/-9.9 mV). Thus, the complexes formed in water under the optimum condition were stable and largely negatively charged at L/D=1 (zeta=-58.1+/-3.9 mV), unstable and slightly positively charged at L/D=10 (zeta=+8.44+/-3.7 mV), and unstable and largely positively charged at L/D=20 (zeta=+24.3+/-3.6 mV). The negatively charged complexes efficiently delivered DNA into both solid and ascitic tumor cells. However, the positively charged complexes were very poor in delivering DNA into solid tumors, yet were efficient in delivering DNA into ascitic tumors grown in the peritoneum regardless of complex size. This slightly lower gene transfer efficiency of the negatively charged complexes can be as efficient as the positively charged ones when an injection is repeated (at least two injections), which is the most common case for therapy regimes. The results indicate that optimum in vivo lipofection may depend on the site of tumor growth. PMID:11018645

  17. Multiple primer extension by DNA polymerase on a novel plastic DNA array coated with a biocompatible polymer.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kenji; Fujimoto, Kentaro; Yakabe, Toru; Saito, Shin; Hamaguchi, Yuzo; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Nonaka, Ken; Murata, Shigenori; Masuda, Daisuke; Takada, Wataru; Funaoka, Sohei; Arai, Susumu; Nakanishi, Hisao; Yokoyama, Kanehisa; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    DNA microarrays are routinely used to monitor gene expression profiling and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, for practically useful high performance, the detection sensitivity is still not adequate, leaving low expression genes undetected. To resolve this issue, we have developed a new plastic S-BIO PrimeSurface with a biocompatible polymer; its surface chemistry offers an extraordinarily stable thermal property for a lack of pre-activated glass slide surface. The oligonucleotides immobilized on this substrate are robust in boiling water and show no significant loss of hybridization activity during dissociation treatment. This allowed us to hybridize the templates, extend the 3' end of the immobilized DNA primers on the S-Bio by DNA polymerase using deoxynucleotidyl triphosphates (dNTP) as extender units, release the templates by denaturalization and use the same templates for a second round of reactions similar to that of the PCR method. By repeating this cycle, the picomolar concentration range of the template oligonucleotide can be detected as stable signals via the incorporation of labeled dUTP into primers. This method of Multiple Primer EXtension (MPEX) could be further extended as an alternative route for producing DNA microarrays for SNP analyses via simple template preparation such as reverse transcript cDNA or restriction enzyme treatment of genome DNA. PMID:17135189

  18. DNA pre-condensation with an amino acid-based cationic amphiphile. A viable approach for liposome-based gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Penacho, Nuno; Simöes, Sérgio; Lima, Maria C P; Lindman, Björn; Miguel, Maria G

    2008-01-01

    A study related to the development and characterization of a new gene delivery system was performed. The approach consists in both the pre-condensation of plasmid DNA with an arginine-based cationic surfactant, arginine-N-lauroyl amide dihydrochloride (ALA), which was found not to be toxic, and the incorporation of the blood protein transferrin (Tf) into the formulations. Two cationic liposome formulations were used, one composed of a mixture of dioleoyl trimethylammoniopropane and cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) and the other a pH sensitive formulation constituted of DOTAP, Chol, Dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS). Particles with different ALA/DNA and cationic lipid/DNA charge ratios were produced and a physicochemical characterization of the systems developed was performed. DNA conformational changes in the presence of ALA were studied by Circular Dichroism (CD) and the ALA binding to DNA was followed by surface tension measurements. Insight into the structure and morphology of the various ALA-complexes (complexes composed of ALA, DNA, Tf and liposomes) was obtained by cryogenic-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and the sizes of the ALA-complexes were determined through Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). We found that the transfection capacity of these systems is directly related with the presence of ALA and the lipidic composition. Complexes based on the pH sensitive liposome formulation present better transfection profiles. The correlation between the inner structure, density and size of the ALA-complexes and their biological activity is discussed. Overall, we demonstrate that the presence of ALA improves the transfection efficiency when conjugated with cationic liposome systems. PMID:18097953

  19. Using temperature-sensitive smart polymers to regulate DNA-mediated nanoassembly and encoded nanocarrier drug release.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Kristen L; Alexander, Colleen M; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Reishofer, David; Provenza, Christina; Maye, Mathew M

    2013-08-27

    In this paper we describe the use of a temperature-responsive polymer to regulate DNA interactions in both a DNA-mediated assembly system and a DNA-encoded drug delivery system. A thermoresponsive pNIPAAm-co-pAAm polymer, with a transition temperature (TC) of 51 °C, was synthesized with thiol modification and grafted onto gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) also containing single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssDNA). The thermoresponsive behavior of the polymer regulated the accessibility of the sequence-specific hybridization between complementary DNA-functionalized Au NPs. At T < TC, the polymer was hydrophilic and extended, blocking interaction between the complementary sequences at the periphery of the hydrodynamic diameter. In contrast, at T > TC, the polymer shell undergoes a hydrophilic to -phobic phase transition and collapses, shrinking below the outer ssDNA, allowing for the sequence-specific hybridization to occur. The potential application of this dynamic interface for drug delivery is shown, in which the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is bound to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-functionalized Au NPs whose sequences are known to be high-affinity intercalation points for it. The presence of the polymer capping is shown to decrease drug release kinetics and equilibrium at T < TC, but increase release at T > TC, thus improving the cytotoxicity of the encoded nanocarrier design. PMID:23899347

  20. Brownian dynamic simulations of electrophoresis and electro-stretching of DNA molecules in polymer gels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Ronald; Graham, Richard

    2006-03-01

    We derive a model for the motion of long DNA chains entangled in a concentrated gel matrix in the presence of a strong electric field. The model is adapted from a tube-based slip-link approach, which was originally intended to model the rheology of entangled polymer fluids, and is suitable for solution by Brownian dynamic simulation. We account for the constraining effect of the surrounding matrix, motion due to the electric field and finite extensibility of the DNA chain. We are able investigate the effect of molecular weight and field strength on the DNA drift velocity in a constant electric field, along with molecular stretching in an oscillating field. Both examples have applications in DNA separation and sequencing. Our approach includes a detailed treatment of the chain end motion through the matrix, which our simulations demonstrate has a significant role in the DNA dynamics, particularly in oscillating fields. The model provides a convenient formalism for further refinements. For example, large fields may tend to cause hernia-like chain loops to protrude from the main tube. Furthermore, to model matrices comprised of linear polymers we can include the effect of constraint release, in which the confinement experienced by the DNA is diminished by the motion of the matrix chains.

  1. Long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology: DNA nanotube-template synthesis and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guofang; Mao, Chengde

    2016-05-01

    Complex and functional nanostructures are always desired. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology by the DNA nanotube-template approach and in situ oxidative polymerization of the 3-methylthiophene monomer with FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst. The length of the nanonecklaces is up to 60 μm, and the polymer beads of around 20-25 nm in diameter are closely packed along the axis of the DNA nanotube template with a density of ca. 45 particles per μm. The formation of porous DNA nanotubes impregnated with FeCl3 was also demonstrated as intermediate nanostructures. The mechanisms for the formation of both the porous DNA nanotubes and the conducting polymer nanonecklaces are discussed in detail. The as-synthesized polymer/DNA nanonecklaces exhibit good electrical properties.Complex and functional nanostructures are always desired. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel long conducting polymer nanonecklaces with a `beads-on-a-string' morphology by the DNA nanotube-template approach and in situ oxidative polymerization of the 3-methylthiophene monomer with FeCl3 as the oxidant/catalyst. The length of the nanonecklaces is up to 60 μm, and the polymer beads of around 20-25 nm in diameter are closely packed along the axis of the DNA nanotube template with a density of ca. 45 particles per μm. The formation of porous DNA nanotubes impregnated with FeCl3 was also demonstrated as intermediate nanostructures. The mechanisms for the formation of both the porous DNA nanotubes and the conducting polymer nanonecklaces are discussed in detail. The as-synthesized polymer/DNA nanonecklaces exhibit good electrical properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01603k

  2. Confocal Microscopy Studies of Cationic Lipid/dna Complexes Reveal Distinct Pathways of Gene Delivery in Cells as a Function of Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alison J.; Slack, Nelle L.; Ahmad, Ayesha; Evans, Heather M.; George, Cyril X.; Samuel, Charles E.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2000-03-01

    We have identified multiple pathways of gene delivery in mouse L cells using cationic lipids as carriers of DNA. Transfection, the process of delivering foreign DNA into cells, using cationic lipid/DNA (CL-DNA) complexes was monitored by laser confocal microscopy. By following the progress of fluorescently labelled lipid and DNA, we have determined distinct pathways of entry of complexes into cells and the subsequent DNA release from the complexes. We have correlated the microscopy results with the x-ray diffraction data on complex structures and the corresponding transfection efficiencies. X-ray diffraction results elucidated the structures of CL-DNA complexes as a function of the membrane charge density of the system. Luciferase protein assays disclosed novel trends of transfection efficiencies along the structural phase diagram. Similar results were obtained with GFP plasmids. Funded by NIH R01-GM59288-01, R37-AI12520-24, NSF-DMR 9972246, UC-Biotechnology Research and Education Program (97-02).

  3. Mucosal application of cationic poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles as carriers of DNA vaccine and adjuvants to protect chickens against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Negash, Tamiru; Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-08-12

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens. The virus protein (VP) 2 induces neutralizing antibodies, which protect chickens against the disease. The aim of this study was to develop a cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) based IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccine (MP-IBDV-DNA) for chickens to be delivered orally and by eye drop route. The tested IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccines were immunogenic for specific-pathogen-free chickens and induced an antibody response after intramuscular application. Co-inoculation with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) or CpG-ODN did not significantly improve protection against IBDV challenge. However, the application of a MP-IBDV-DNA vaccine alone or in combination with a delayed oral and eye drop application of cationic MP loaded with CpG-ODN or chIL-2 improved protection against challenge. The MP-IBDV-DNA-vaccinated chickens showed less pathological and histopathological bursal lesions, a reduced IBDV antigen load as well as T-cell influx into the bursa of Fabricius (BF) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of chIL-2 loaded MP improved challenge virus clearance from the BF as demonstrated by lower neutralizing antibody titers and reduced IL-4 and IFN-α mRNA expression in the bursa at 7 days postchallenge compared to the other challenged groups. Overall, the efficacy of the IBDV-DNA vaccine was improved by adsorption of the DNA vaccine onto cationic PLGA-MP, which also allowed mucosal application of the DNA vaccine. PMID:23777953

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of DNA fragment hydration in the presence of alkaline cations using novel atom-atom potential functions.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, A V; Malenkov, G G; Poltev, V I

    1998-10-01

    The set of atom-atom potential functions specially adjusted to simulation of nucleic acid fragment hydration (Poltev, Grokhlina & Malenkov, J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 2, 413, 1984) is extended by including alkaline cation interactions. The choice of new potential functions was realized using experimental data on crystal hydrates of nucleotides and related compounds as well as thermodynamic data on ion solutions. The extended set of potential functions allows to reproduce many features of interactions between alkaline cations and nucleic acid fragments in water solutions. The sites of preferential cation localization near bases and phosphate groups were obtained and examined. The potential functions reproduce the dissociation tendency of cation-phosphate group and cation-base complexes in aqueous medium. Pathways of cation dissociations from nucleic acid components have been studied, and metastable water-bridged positions of cations near bases and phosphate group have been revealed. PMID:9833668

  5. Controlling self-assembly of DNA-polymer conjugates for applications in imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Amberlyn M; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic supramolecular structures such as micelles and vesicles can be formed through phase-driven self-assembly of monomer units having discrete hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks. These structures show great promise for use in medical and biological applications, and incorporating DNA as the hydrophilic block of the amphiphilic monomers enables the creation of assemblies that also take advantage of the unique information storage and molecular recognition capabilities of DNA. Recently, significant advances have been made in the synthesis of DNA-polymer conjugates (DPCs), controlling the morphology of DPC assemblies by altering monomer structure, and probing the effect of assembly on DNA stability and hybridization. Together, these investigations have laid the framework for using DPCs in drug delivery, cellular imaging, and other applications in materials science and chemistry. PMID:25327363

  6. Nucleoside transporters and human organic cation transporter 1 determine the cellular handling of DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Arimany-Nardi, C; Errasti-Murugarren, E; Minuesa, G; Martinez-Picado, J; Gorboulev, V; Koepsell, H; Pastor-Anglada, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), such as azacytidine, decitabine and zebularine, are used for the epigenetic treatment of cancer. Their action may depend upon their translocation across the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to identify transporter proteins contributing to DNMT inhibitor action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drug interactions with selected hCNT and hENT proteins were studied in transiently transfected HeLa and MDCK cells. Interaction with human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) was assessed in transiently transfected HeLa cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS Zebularine uptake was mediated by hCNT1, hCNT3 and hENT2. Decitabine interacted with but was not translocated by any nucleoside transporter (NT) type. hCNT expression at the apical domain of MDCK cells promoted net vectorial flux of zebularine. Neither hOCT1 nor hOCT2 transported decitabine, but both were involved in the efflux of zebularine, suggesting these proteins act as efflux transporters. hOCT1 polymorphic variants, known to alter function, decreased zebularine efflux. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study highlights the influence of human NTs and hOCTs on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of selected DNMT inhibitors. As hOCTs may also behave as efflux transporters, they could contribute either to chemoresistance or to chemosensitivity, depending upon the nature of the drug or combination of drugs being used in cancer therapy. PMID:24780098

  7. Degradable Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles for Co-Delivery of DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Corey J.; Tzeng, Stephany Y.; Green, Jordan J.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have utility for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo imaging applications as well as for serving as a scaffold for therapeutic delivery and theranostic applications. Starting with gold nanoparticles as a core, layer-by-layer degradable polymer coatings enable co-delivery of both DNA and short interfering RNA simultaneously. To engineer release kinetics, polymers which degrade through two different mechanisms can be utilized to construct hybrid inorganic/polymeric particles. During fabrication of the nanoparticles, the zeta potential reverses upon the addition of each oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer and the final nanoparticle size reaches approximately 200 nm in diameter. When the hybrid gold/polymer/nucleic acid nanoparticles are added to human primary brain cancer cells in vitro, they are internalizable by cells and reach the cytoplasm and nucleus as visualized by transmission electron microscopy and observed through exogenous gene expression. This nanoparticle delivery leads to both exogenous DNA expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown, with the knockdown efficacy superior to that of Lipofectamine® 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent. These gold/polymer/nucleic acid hybrid nanoparticles are an enabling theranostic platform technology capable of delivering combinations of genetic therapies to human cells. PMID:25246314

  8. Degradable polymer-coated gold nanoparticles for co-delivery of DNA and siRNA.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Corey J; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Green, Jordan J

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have utility for in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo imaging applications as well as for serving as a scaffold for therapeutic delivery and theranostic applications. Starting with gold nanoparticles as a core, layer-by-layer degradable polymer coatings enable the simultaneous co-delivery of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA). To engineer release kinetics, polymers which degrade through two different mechanisms can be utilized to construct hybrid inorganic/polymeric particles. During fabrication of the nanoparticles, the zeta potential reverses upon the addition of each oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer and the final nanoparticle size reaches approximately 200nm in diameter. When the hybrid gold/polymer/nucleic acid nanoparticles are added to human primary brain cancer cells in vitro, they are internalizable by cells and reach the cytoplasm and nucleus as visualized by transmission electron microscopy and observed through exogenous gene expression. This nanoparticle delivery leads to both exogenous DNA expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown, with the knockdown efficacy superior to that of Lipofectamine® 2000, a commercially available transfection reagent. These gold/polymer/nucleic acid hybrid nanoparticles are an enabling theranostic platform technology capable of delivering combinations of genetic therapies to human cells. PMID:25246314

  9. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Kang, Wenpei; Sun, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; Wei, Xilian

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C14mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PSS) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PSM) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  10. Gene transfer by cationic surfactants is essentially limited by the trapping of the surfactant/DNA complexes onto the cell membrane: a fluorescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Clamme, J P; Bernacchi, S; Vuilleumier, C; Duportail, G; Mély, Y

    2000-08-25

    The interaction between complexes of plasmid DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and L929 fibroblasts was first examined using confocal microscopy. The complexes labeled with the DNA intercalator, YOYO-1, were found to be trapped onto the external face of the plasma membrane; a feature that may constitute a major limiting step in transfection. Moreover, since no cytotoxic effect appeared in these conditions, we further inferred that the CTAB molecules remained bound to the DNA. The interaction of the complexes with the membranes was best modeled with neutral vesicles. From anisotropy thermotropic curves of DPHpPC-labeled vesicles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements between these vesicles and YOYO-labeled complexes, we evidenced that the binding of the complexes to the vesicle surface opened the micelle-like domains and unwound DNA. However, DNA was not released but remained stably bound via electrostatic interactions to the CTAB molecules incorporated in the external liposome leaflet. Consequently, the large diameter of the unwound plasmid DNA is likely the major factor that precludes its internalization into the cells by endocytosis. In contrast, anionic vesicles that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the plasma membrane rapidly released DNA from the complex. This may explain the previously reported high transfection efficiency of DNA complexed with liposomes composed of neutral lipids and cationic surfactants, since the latter may destabilize the endosomal membrane and induce the release of DNA in the cytoplasm. PMID:11030593

  11. One-step polymer surface modification for minimizing drug, protein, and DNA adsorption in microanalytical systems.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-02-21

    The non-specific adsorption of dissolved analytes strongly reduces the sensitivity and reliability in polymer microanalytical systems. Here, a one-step aqueous phase procedure modifies polymer material surfaces to strongly reduce their non-specific adsorption of a broad range of organic analytes including hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs (0.23 < ClogP < 8.95), small and large proteins (insulin, albumin, IgG), and DNA. The coating is shown to limit the adsorption of even highly hydrophobic drugs (ClogP > 8) in their pharmaceutically relevant concentration range ≤100 nM. The low adsorption is mediated by photochemical conjugation, where polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers in aqueous solution are covalently bound to the surface by UV illumination of dissolved benzophenone and a functionalized PEG. The method can coat the interior of polymer systems made from a range of materials commonly used in microanalytical systems, including polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and polyimide (PI). PMID:23254780

  12. Phosphorylation of the synthetic octapeptide pyroGlu-ASP-ASP-SER-ASP-GLU-GLU-ASN and binding to DNA in presence of divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Cardellini, E; Ponti, D; Gianfranceschi, G L

    1999-12-01

    Small acidic peptides involved in gene expression have been isolated from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Synthetic peptides, designed on the basis of native peptides characteristics, show a biological activity similar to that of native peptides in in vitro reconstituted systems. These synthetic peptides are able to bind to DNA in presence of divalent cations (Cu2+, Fe2+, Mg2+) and salt/ethanol. PMID:10634508

  13. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  14. Synthesis of a new conjugated polymer for DNA alkylation and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chenyao; Zhu, Chunlei; Feng, Liheng; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2013-06-12

    A new polyfluorene derivative containing pendent alkylating chlorambucil (PFP-Cbl) was synthesized and characterized. Under direct incubation with DNA in vitro, PFP-Cbl could undergo an efficient DNA alkylating reaction and induce DNA cross-linking. In vitro transcription and translation experiment exhibited that the PFP-Cbl significantly down-regulated the gene expression of luciferase reporter plasmid. The down-regulation of gene expression was also verified through the transfection experiment of p-EGFP plasmid, which showed decreased green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells. Meanwhile, the self-luminous property of PFP-Cbl could make it able to trace the internalized PFP-Cbl and plasmid complexes resulted from cross-linking in cells by fluorescent microscopy. Combining the features of alkylating function, multivalent binding sites, and fluorescent characteristics, PFP-Cbl provides a new insight in the area of gene regulation and extends the new applications of conjugated polymers (CPs). PMID:23548104

  15. Electrophoretic concentration of DNA at nanoporous polymer membranes for separations and diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2010-11-01

    We report on the use of thin ({approx}30 micron) photopatterned polymer membranes for on-line preconcentration of single- or double-stranded DNA samples prior to electrophoretic analysis. Shaped UV laser light is used to quickly ({approx}10 seconds) polymerize a highly crosslinked polyacrylamide plug. By applying an electric field across the membrane, DNA from a dilute sample can be concentrated into a narrow zone (<100 micron wide) at the outside edge of the membrane. The field at the membrane can then be reversed, allowing the narrow plug to be cleanly injected into a separation channel filled with a sieving polymer for analysis. Concentration factors >100 are possible, increasing the sensitivity of analysis for dilute samples. We have fabricated both neutral membranes (purely size-based exclusion) as well as anionic membranes (size and charge exclusion), and characterized the rate of preconcentration as well as the efficiency of injection from both types of membrane, for DNA, ranging from a 20 base ssDNA oligonucleotide to >14 kbp dsDNA. We have also investigated the effects of concentration polarization on device performance for the charged membrane. Advantages of the membrane preconcentration approach include the simplicity of device fabrication and operation, and the generic (non-sequence specific) nature of DNA capture, which is useful for complex or poorly characterized samples where a specific capture sequence is not present. The membrane preconcentration approach is well suited to simple single-level etch glass chips, with no need for patterned electrodes, integrated heaters, valves, or other elements requiring more complex chip fabrication. Additionally, the ability to concentrate multiple charged analytes into a narrow zone enables a variety of assay functionalities, including enzyme-based and hybridization-based analyses.

  16. Contribution of hydrophobic/hydrophilic modification on cationic chains of poly(ε-caprolactone)-graft-poly(dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) amphiphilic co-polymer in gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Han, Shangcong; Wan, Haiying; Lin, Daoshu; Guo, Shutao; Dong, Hongxu; Zhang, Jianhua; Deng, Liandong; Liu, Ruming; Tang, Hua; Dong, Anjie

    2014-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) assembled from amphiphilic polycations have been certified as potential carriers for gene delivery. Structural modification of polycation moieties may be an efficient route to further enhance gene delivery efficiency. In this study two electroneutral monomers with different hydrophobicities, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), were incorporated into the cationic poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) side-chains of amphiphilic poly(ε-caprolactone)-graft-poly(dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PCD) by random co-polymerization, to obtain poly(ε-caprolactone)-graft-poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PCD-HEMA) and poly(ε-caprolactone)-graft-poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PCD-HEA). Minimal HEA or HEMA moieties in PDMAEMA do not lead to statistically significant changes in particle size, zeta potential, DNA condensation properties and buffering capacity of the naked NPs. However, the incorporation of HEMA and HEA lead to reductions and increases, respectively, in the surface hydrophilicity of the naked NPs and NPs/DNA complexes, which was confirmed by water contact angle assay. These simple modifications of PDMAEMA with HEA and HEMA moieties significantly affect the gene transfection efficiency on HeLa cells in vitro: PCD-HEMA NP/DNA complexes show a much higher transfection efficiency than PCD NPs/DNA complexes, while PCD-HEA NPs/DNA complexes show a lower transfection efficiency than PCD NP/DNA complexes. Fluorescence activated cell sorter and confocal laser scanning microscope results indicate that the incorporation of hydrophobic HEMA moieties facilitates an enhancement in both cellular uptake and endosomal/lysosomal escape, leading to a higher transfection efficiency. Moreover, the process of endosomal/lysosomal escape confirmed in our research that PCD and its derivatives do not just rely on the proton sponge mechanism, but also

  17. Vinyl polymer agglomerate based transition metal cation chelating ion-exchange resin containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline functional group

    SciTech Connect

    Landing, W.M.; Haraldsson, C.; Paxeus, N.

    1986-12-01

    A simple synthetic route has been developed for the immobilization of 8-hydroxyquinoline onto Fractogel TSK, a highly porous, mechanically and chemically stable, hydrophilic organic resin gel. The product exhibits an exchange capacity comparable to the highest values reported for silica-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline but is more stable at high pH. The resin's selectivity and efficiency of collection of cationic metal species from freshwater and seawater were investigated. The resin was used in a column sequence to obtain concentration and speciation data for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Cd in an organic-rich freshwater sample.

  18. Potent catenation of supercoiled and gapped DNA circles by topoisomerase I in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer.

    PubMed

    Low, R L; Kaguni, J M; Kornberg, A

    1984-04-10

    An exceptionally potent DNA catenation activity, identified in an extract from Escherichia coli, has been purified and partially characterized. Catenation results from the sequential action of the following two polypeptides: beta, 34 kDa and identical to exonuclease III; and alpha, 101 kDa and identical to DNA topoisomerase I (omega protein). An additional requirement is that a small proportion of the circles be nicked in order to provide the substrate for exonuclease III to generate gaps, estimated to be about 100 nucleotides long. Following exonuclease III digestion, one molecule of topoisomerase I can interlock per minute at 30 degrees C about 20 supercoiled and gapped DNA circles into a massively catenated network. The reaction requires Mg2+ and a hydrophilic polymer (polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylene glycol) at about 7%, but neither ATP nor spermidine. The hydrophilic polymer appears to drive catenation by condensing the DNA; decatenation by topoisomerase I proceeds upon removal of the polymer. PMID:6323479

  19. Bottom-Up Fabrication of Nanopatterned Polymers on DNA Origami by In Situ Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Yu; Jiang, Yanyan; Welle, Alexander; Stenzel, Martina H; Krzemien, Katarzyna M; Michaelis, Jens; Berger, Rüdiger; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2016-05-01

    Bottom-up strategies to fabricate patterned polymers at the nanoscale represent an emerging field in the development of advanced nanodevices, such as biosensors, nanofluidics, and nanophotonics. DNA origami techniques provide access to distinct architectures of various sizes and shapes and present manifold opportunities for functionalization at the nanoscale with the highest precision. Herein, we conduct in situ atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) on DNA origami, yielding differently nanopatterned polymers of various heights. After cross-linking, the grafted polymeric nanostructures can even stably exist in solution without the DNA origami template. This straightforward approach allows for the fabrication of patterned polymers with low nanometer resolution, which provides access to unique DNA-based functional hybrid materials. PMID:27058968

  20. Linear DNA-linked colloidal chains: a model to visualize polymer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Sibani; Byrom, Julie; Du, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We present the development of synthetic materials consisting of chains of DNA-linked paramagnetic colloids that have rigidity and length specificity. These chains have demonstrated capability for folding and self-assembly. This is classic bead-spring-bead model can be a model system to visualize polymer dynamics. Here, I will describe the formation mechanism and stability of these DNA-linked magnetic particle chains. I will also describe a model that describes the total energy landscape that describes the inter-particle interactions and provides a workable theory toward the optimization of experimental parameters in synthesizing more stable and reliable colloidal assemblies. In addition to stability, we will also present the use of a colloidal worm-like chain (WLC) model system to describe chain dynamics. We measure bending rigidity by monitoring the thermal fluctuations of the chains. We show that the persistence length of the chains can be tuned from 1 to 50 mm (L/LP = 0.002 - 0.1), by changing the length of the DNA used to link adjacent particles from 75 to 15 bases. We also will show that the bending relaxation dynamics of these chains, which match well with theoretical predictions, further supporting the validity of using these colloidal chains as models for semiflexible polymer systems in both equilibrium and dynamic studies.

  1. Poly-Cross-Linked PEI Through Aromatically Conjugated Imine Linkages as a New Class of pH-Responsive Nucleic Acids Packing Cationic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shun; Jin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI 1.8K), the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP) showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogs (named PPTP and PPIP). Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone. PMID:26869931

  2. Modulation of Gene Expression by Polymer Nanocapsule Delivery of DNA Cassettes Encoding Small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Wen, Jing; Liang, Min; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs, including siRNAs, gRNAs and miRNAs, modulate gene expression and serve as potential therapies for human diseases. Delivery to target cells remains the fundamental limitation for use of these RNAs in humans. To address this challenge, we have developed a nanocapsule delivery technology that encapsulates small DNA molecules encoding RNAs into a small (30 nm) polymer nanocapsule. For proof of concept, we transduced DNA expression cassettes for three small RNAs. In one application, the DNA cassette encodes an shRNA transcriptional unit that downregulates CCR5 and protects from HIV-1 infection. The DNA cassette nanocapsules were further engineered for timed release of the DNA cargo for prolonged knockdown of CCR5. Secondly, the nanocapsules provide an efficient means for delivery of gRNAs in the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate integrated HIV-1. Finally, delivery of microRNA-125b to mobilized human CD34+ cells enhances survival and expansion of the CD34+ cells in culture. PMID:26035832

  3. Persistent draining crossover in DNA and other semi-flexible polymers: Evidence from hydrodynamic models and extensive measurements on DNA solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Marc L.; Tsortos, Achilleas; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-09-01

    Although the scaling theory of polymer solutions has had many successes, this type of argument is deficient when applied to hydrodynamic solution properties. Since the foundation of polymer science, it has been appreciated that measurements of polymer size from diffusivity, sedimentation, and solution viscosity reflect a convolution of effects relating to polymer geometry and the strength of the hydrodynamic interactions within the polymer coil, i.e., "draining." Specifically, when polymers are expanded either by self-excluded volume interactions or inherent chain stiffness, the hydrodynamic interactions within the coil become weaker. This means there is no general relationship between static and hydrodynamic size measurements, e.g., the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius. We study this problem by examining the hydrodynamic properties of duplex DNA in solution over a wide range of molecular masses both by hydrodynamic modeling using a numerical path-integration method and by comparing with extensive experimental observations. We also considered how excluded volume interactions influence the solution properties of DNA and confirm that excluded volume interactions are rather weak in duplex DNA in solution so that the simple worm-like chain model without excluded volume gives a good leading-order description of DNA for molar masses up to 107 or 108 g/mol or contour lengths between 5 μm and 50 μm. Since draining must also depend on the detailed chain monomer structure, future work aiming to characterize polymers in solution through hydrodynamic measurements will have to more carefully consider the relation between chain molecular structure and hydrodynamic solution properties. In particular, scaling theory is inadequate for quantitative polymer characterization.

  4. Persistent draining crossover in DNA and other semi-flexible polymers: Evidence from hydrodynamic models and extensive measurements on DNA solutions.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Marc L; Tsortos, Achilleas; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-09-28

    Although the scaling theory of polymer solutions has had many successes, this type of argument is deficient when applied to hydrodynamic solution properties. Since the foundation of polymer science, it has been appreciated that measurements of polymer size from diffusivity, sedimentation, and solution viscosity reflect a convolution of effects relating to polymer geometry and the strength of the hydrodynamic interactions within the polymer coil, i.e., "draining." Specifically, when polymers are expanded either by self-excluded volume interactions or inherent chain stiffness, the hydrodynamic interactions within the coil become weaker. This means there is no general relationship between static and hydrodynamic size measurements, e.g., the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius. We study this problem by examining the hydrodynamic properties of duplex DNA in solution over a wide range of molecular masses both by hydrodynamic modeling using a numerical path-integration method and by comparing with extensive experimental observations. We also considered how excluded volume interactions influence the solution properties of DNA and confirm that excluded volume interactions are rather weak in duplex DNA in solution so that the simple worm-like chain model without excluded volume gives a good leading-order description of DNA for molar masses up to 10(7) or 10(8) g/mol or contour lengths between 5 μm and 50 μm. Since draining must also depend on the detailed chain monomer structure, future work aiming to characterize polymers in solution through hydrodynamic measurements will have to more carefully consider the relation between chain molecular structure and hydrodynamic solution properties. In particular, scaling theory is inadequate for quantitative polymer characterization. PMID:26429037

  5. A cationic poly(2-oxazoline) with high in vitro transfection efficiency identified by a library approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkenauer, Alexandra C; Tauhardt, Lutz; Wendler, Felix; Kempe, Kristian; Gottschaldt, Michael; Traeger, Anja; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2015-03-01

    To date, cationic polymers with high transfection efficiencies (TE) often have a high cytotoxicity. By screening an 18-membered library of cationic 2-oxazoline-based polymers, a polymer with similar TE as linear poly(ethylene imine) but no detectable cytotoxicity at the investigated concentrations could be identified. The influence of the polymer side chain hydrophobicity and the type and content of amino groups on the pDNA condensation, the TE, the cytotoxicity, the cellular membrane interaction as well as the size, charge, and stability of the polyplexes was studied. Primary amines and an amine content of at least 40% were required for an efficient TE. While polymers with short side chains were non-toxic up to an amine content of 40%, long hydrophobic side chains induced a high cytotoxicity. PMID:25403084

  6. Polymer beacons for luminescence and magnetic resonance imaging of DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Joshua M; Fichter, Katye M; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Li, Jing; Madsen, Louis A; McLendon, Patrick M; Reineke, Theresa M

    2009-10-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids with polycations offers tremendous potential for developing highly specific treatments for various therapeutic targets. Although materials have been developed and studied for polynucleotide transfer, the biological mechanisms and fate of the synthetic vehicle has remained elusive due to the limitations with current labeling technologies. Here, we have developed polymer beacons that allow the delivery of nucleic acids to be visualized at different biological scales. The polycations have been designed to contain repeated oligoethyleneamines, for binding and compacting nucleic acids into nanoparticles, and lanthanide (Ln) chelates [either luminescent europium (Eu(3+)) or paramagnetic gadolinium (Gd(3+))]. The chelated Lns allow the visualization of the delivery vehicle both on the nm/microm scale via microscopy and on the sub-mm scale via MRI. We demonstrate that these delivery beacons effectively bind and compact plasmid (p)DNA into nanoparticles and protect nucleic acids from nuclease damage. These delivery beacons efficiently deliver pDNA into cultured cells and do not exhibit toxicity. Micrographs of cultured cells exposed to the nanoparticle complexes formed with fluorescein-labeled pDNA and the europium-chelated polymers reveal effective intracellular imaging of the delivery process. MRI of bulk cells exposed to the complexes formulated with pDNA and the gadolinium-chelated structures show bright image contrast, allowing visualization of effective intracellular delivery on the tissue-scale. Because of their versatility, these delivery beacons posses remarkable potential for tracking and understanding nucleic acid transfer in vitro, and have promise as in vivo theranostic agents. PMID:19805101

  7. Novel cationic polyene glycol phospholipids as DNA transfer reagents--lack of a structure-activity relationship due to uncontrolled self-assembling processes.

    PubMed

    Øpstad, Christer L; Zeeshan, Muhammad; Zaidi, Asma; Sliwka, Hans-Richard; Partali, Vassilia; Nicholson, David G; Surve, Chinmay; Izower, Mitchell A; Bilchuk, Natalia; Lou, Howard H; Leopold, Philip L; Larsen, Helge; Liberska, Alexandra; Khalique, Nada Abdul; Raju, Liji; Flinterman, Marcella; Jubeli, Emile; Pungente, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    Cationic glycol phospholipids were synthesized introducing chromophoric, rigid polyenoic C20:5 and C30:9 chains next to saturated flexible alkyl chains of variable lengths C6-20:0. Surface properties and liposome formation of the amphiphilic compounds were determined, the properties of liposome/DNA complexes (lipoplexes) were established using three formulations (no co-lipid, DOPE as a co-lipid, or cholesterol as a co-lipid), and the microstructure of the best transfecting compounds inspected using small angle X-ray diffraction to explore details of the partially ordered structures of the systems that constitute the series. Transfection and cytotoxicity of the lipoplexes were evaluated by DNA delivery to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using the cationic glycerol phospholipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC) as a reference compound. The uncontrollable self-association of the molecules in water resulted in aggregates and liposomes of quite different sizes without a structure-property relationship. Likewise, adding DNA to the liposomes gave rise to unpredictable sized lipoplexes, which, again, transfected without a structure-activity relationship. Nevertheless, one compound among the novel lipids (C30:9 chain paired with a C20:0 chain) exhibited comparable transfection efficiency and toxicity to the control cationic lipid EPC. Thus, the presence of a rigid polyene chain in this best performing achiral glycol lipid did not have an influence on transfection compared with the chiral glycerolipid reference ethyl phosphocholine EPC with two flexible saturated C14 chains. PMID:24814958

  8. Electrophoretic mobility of linear and star-branched DNA in semidilute polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sourav; Heuer, Daniel M; Archer, Lynden A

    2006-08-01

    Electrophoresis of large linear T2 (162 kbp) and 3-arm star-branched (N(Arm) = 48.5 kbp) DNA in linear polyacrylamide (LPA) solutions above the overlap concentration c* has been investigated using a fluorescence visualization technique that allows both the conformation and mobility mu of the DNA to be determined. LPA solutions of moderate polydispersity index (PI approximately 1.7-2.1) and variable polymer molecular weight Mw (0.59-2.05 MDa) are used as the sieving media. In unentangled semidilute solutions (c* < c < c(e)), we find that the conformational dynamics of linear and star-branched DNA in electric fields are strikingly different; the former migrating in predominantly U- or I-shaped conformations, depending on electric field strength E, and the latter migrating in a squid-like profile with the star-arms outstretched in the direction opposite to E and dragging the branch point through the sieving medium. Despite these visual differences, mu for linear and star-branched DNA of comparable size are found to be nearly identical in semidilute, unentangled LPA solutions. For LPA concentrations above the entanglement threshold (c > c(e)), the conformation of migrating linear and star-shaped DNA manifest only subtle changes from their unentangled solution features, but mu for the stars decreases strongly with increasing LPA concentration and molecular weight, while mu for linear DNA becomes nearly independent of c and Mw. These findings are discussed in the context of current theories for electrophoresis of large polyelectrolytes. PMID:16850503

  9. Four homochiral coordination polymers contain N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and different N-donor ligand: Influence of metal cations, ancillary ligands and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Meng-Li; Song, Hui-Hua

    2013-10-15

    Using the chiral ligand N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Hacty) and maintaining identical reaction conditions, Zn(II), Co(II), and Cd(II) salts provided four novel homochiral coordination polymers ([Zn(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}1, ([Co(acty)(bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O){sub n}2, ([Cd(acty){sub 2}(bipy)H{sub 2}O]·H{sub 2}O){sub n}3, and ([Cd(acty)(bpe){sub 2}(Ac)]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n}4 (bipy=4,4′-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane) in the presence of ancillary ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural 1D chain structures. The neighboring chains are further linked into a 3D supramolecular structure via π⋯π stacking and hydrogen bond interactions. Compound 3 shows a 2D network and 4 generates 1D infinite chains along the c-axis. Compounds 3 and 4 are further connected into 3D supramolecular network by hydrogen bond interactions. More importantly, coordination in acyl oxygen atoms and ancillary ligands (bpe) as monodentate decorating ligands in 4 are rarely reported. Ancillary ligands and metal cations significantly influence the structure of the complexes. The photoluminescence properties of 1, 3, and 4 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism (CD) of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four new homochiral coordination polymers were prepared and structurally characterized, which investigate the influence of the ancillary ligands and metal ions on the design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that the chiral coordination polymers prepared with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The alkalescent acetyl oxygen atom is difficult to participate in coordination but it is happened in the N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ligands. • The ancillary ligands (4,4′-bipy and bpe) are present in an unusual coordination modes, monodentate decorating ligands in 1, 2 and 4. • Structure comparative analyses results indicate that the

  10. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO{sub 2}{sup +}) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO{sub 2}{sup +}; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO{sub 2}{sup +} cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO{sub 2}{sup +} species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO{sub 2}{sup +} cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+} at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 {plus_minus} 0.2, 1.8 {plus_minus} 0.9, 2.2 {plus_minus} 1.5, and {approx}0.8 M{sup {minus}1}.

  11. The effect of ambient humidity on the electrical response of ion-migration-based polymer sensor with various cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Kruusamäe, Karl; Chang, Longfei; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-05-01

    A water-based ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) sensor, induced by ion migration, is a promising alternative to natural sensing systems. Focusing on water effects, this paper investigated the voltage responses of Au-Nafion IPMC at multiple fixed levels of ambient humidity under a small step bending deformation. The voltage includes two processes: a fast rising and a subsequent slow decay. As the relative ambient humidity decreases, the peak voltage first increases and then decreases because the mass storage capacity of IPMC, related to the compressed state of a polymer network, reaches the optimum at a moderate water content (30 ∼ 90%RH), whereas the proportion of decay related to hydration effect decreases as the level of relative humidity is decreased. The detailed physics has been revealed qualitatively based on transport theory, and a fitting equation has been proposed to approximate the general electrical response.

  12. Real-time single-molecule electronic DNA sequencing by synthesis using polymer-tagged nucleotides on a nanopore array

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Carl W.; Kumar, Shiv; Porel, Mintu; Chien, Minchen; Bibillo, Arek; Stranges, P. Benjamin; Dorwart, Michael; Tao, Chuanjuan; Li, Zengmin; Guo, Wenjing; Shi, Shundi; Korenblum, Daniel; Trans, Andrew; Aguirre, Anne; Liu, Edward; Harada, Eric T.; Pollard, James; Bhat, Ashwini; Cech, Cynthia; Yang, Alexander; Arnold, Cleoma; Palla, Mirkó; Hovis, Jennifer; Chen, Roger; Morozova, Irina; Kalachikov, Sergey; Russo, James J.; Kasianowicz, John J.; Davis, Randy; Roever, Stefan; Church, George M.; Ju, Jingyue

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS) offers a robust platform to decipher nucleic acid sequences. Recently, we reported a single-molecule nanopore-based SBS strategy that accurately distinguishes four bases by electronically detecting and differentiating four different polymer tags attached to the 5′-phosphate of the nucleotides during their incorporation into a growing DNA strand catalyzed by DNA polymerase. Further developing this approach, we report here the use of nucleotides tagged at the terminal phosphate with oligonucleotide-based polymers to perform nanopore SBS on an α-hemolysin nanopore array platform. We designed and synthesized several polymer-tagged nucleotides using tags that produce different electrical current blockade levels and verified they are active substrates for DNA polymerase. A highly processive DNA polymerase was conjugated to the nanopore, and the conjugates were complexed with primer/template DNA and inserted into lipid bilayers over individually addressable electrodes of the nanopore chip. When an incoming complementary-tagged nucleotide forms a tight ternary complex with the primer/template and polymerase, the tag enters the pore, and the current blockade level is measured. The levels displayed by the four nucleotides tagged with four different polymers captured in the nanopore in such ternary complexes were clearly distinguishable and sequence-specific, enabling continuous sequence determination during the polymerase reaction. Thus, real-time single-molecule electronic DNA sequencing data with single-base resolution were obtained. The use of these polymer-tagged nucleotides, combined with polymerase tethering to nanopores and multiplexed nanopore sensors, should lead to new high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:27091962

  13. Real-time single-molecule electronic DNA sequencing by synthesis using polymer-tagged nucleotides on a nanopore array.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Carl W; Kumar, Shiv; Porel, Mintu; Chien, Minchen; Bibillo, Arek; Stranges, P Benjamin; Dorwart, Michael; Tao, Chuanjuan; Li, Zengmin; Guo, Wenjing; Shi, Shundi; Korenblum, Daniel; Trans, Andrew; Aguirre, Anne; Liu, Edward; Harada, Eric T; Pollard, James; Bhat, Ashwini; Cech, Cynthia; Yang, Alexander; Arnold, Cleoma; Palla, Mirkó; Hovis, Jennifer; Chen, Roger; Morozova, Irina; Kalachikov, Sergey; Russo, James J; Kasianowicz, John J; Davis, Randy; Roever, Stefan; Church, George M; Ju, Jingyue

    2016-05-10

    DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS) offers a robust platform to decipher nucleic acid sequences. Recently, we reported a single-molecule nanopore-based SBS strategy that accurately distinguishes four bases by electronically detecting and differentiating four different polymer tags attached to the 5'-phosphate of the nucleotides during their incorporation into a growing DNA strand catalyzed by DNA polymerase. Further developing this approach, we report here the use of nucleotides tagged at the terminal phosphate with oligonucleotide-based polymers to perform nanopore SBS on an α-hemolysin nanopore array platform. We designed and synthesized several polymer-tagged nucleotides using tags that produce different electrical current blockade levels and verified they are active substrates for DNA polymerase. A highly processive DNA polymerase was conjugated to the nanopore, and the conjugates were complexed with primer/template DNA and inserted into lipid bilayers over individually addressable electrodes of the nanopore chip. When an incoming complementary-tagged nucleotide forms a tight ternary complex with the primer/template and polymerase, the tag enters the pore, and the current blockade level is measured. The levels displayed by the four nucleotides tagged with four different polymers captured in the nanopore in such ternary complexes were clearly distinguishable and sequence-specific, enabling continuous sequence determination during the polymerase reaction. Thus, real-time single-molecule electronic DNA sequencing data with single-base resolution were obtained. The use of these polymer-tagged nucleotides, combined with polymerase tethering to nanopores and multiplexed nanopore sensors, should lead to new high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:27091962

  14. Internal charge transfer based ratiometric interaction of anionic surfactant with calf thymus DNA bound cationic surfactant: Study I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chaudhuri, Tandrima; Moulik, Satya Priya; Banerjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) binds calf thymus (ct-) DNA like anionic biopolymers electrostatically and established equilibrium both in the ground as well as in excited state in aqueous medium at pH 7. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) does not show even hydrophobic interaction with ct-DNA at low concentration. On contrary, SDS can establish well defined equilibrium with DNA bound CTAB in ground state where the same CTAB-DNA isosbestic point reappears. First report of internal charge transfer (ICT) based binding of CTAB with ct-DNA as well as ICT based interaction of anionic SDS with DNA bound CTAB that shows dynamic quenching contribution also. The reappearance of anodic peak and slight increase in cathodic peak current with increasing concentration (at lower range) of anionic SDS, possibly reflect the release of CTAB from DNA bound CTAB by SDS.

  15. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  16. Thermo- and solvent-responsive polymer complex created from supramolecular complexation between a helix-forming polysaccharide and a cationic polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Dawn, Arnab; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Shinkai, Seiji

    2010-10-01

    The helical structure is one of key structural components for both biological systems and artificial chiral systems. So far, we have succeeded in fabricating "tight" insulated molecular wires consisting of a triple-stranded cohelical structure formed through supramolecular wrapping of synthetic polymers by a helix-forming polysaccharide (schizophyllan). Herein, we have designed a new modified polysaccharide (Cur-oeg) to form a "loose" macromolecular complex with a conjugated polymer (CP) that allows structural changes in response to external stimuli. Cur-oeg forms a helical complex with an achiral cationic polythiophene (PT1), and the effective conjugation length is changed by temperature, showing a large absorption peak shift from 403 to 482 nm between 85 and 5 °C. According to the change in the conjugation system, the fluorescence and the induced circular dichroism show the continuous spectral shifts under temperature control. The color changes in the absorption and the fluorescence are detectable with observation by the naked eye and are reversibly controlled under thermal cycles, indicating that this system has the function of a "molecular thermometer". It is shown that the induced thermoresponsiveness is associated with structural rearrangement of the helical conformation of PT1 in the complex. Moreover, another unique responsiveness is discovered for the film state: that is, the film color is varied when it is exposed to the vapor of water or methanol (vaporchromism), resulting from the structural change of PT1 occurring even in the film state. These flexible molecular motions in both the solution state and the film state can be applicable to the design of CP-based smart sensors, polarized materials, switching devices, etc. PMID:20836560

  17. Self-assembly of DNA origami particles in suspension of non-absorbing depleting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavashpouri, Mahsa; Zakhary, Mark; Wachauf, Christian; Dietz, Hendrik; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-03-01

    The connection between the macroscopic properties of a liquid crystalline material and the microscopic features of the constituent molecules is the essential theme that permeates the field of liquid crystals. Previous studies have shown that monodisperse rod-like colloids such as filamentous bacteriophage self-assemble into 1D twisted ribbons in presence of attractive interactions mediated by non-absorbing polymers. The microscopic properties of the colloidal particles play an important role in determining the physical properties of these mesoscopic assemblages. Using structural DNA nanotechnology, we present the design and structure of DNA origami six-helix bundles with tunable microscopic properties, which can be used as a new building block for the self-assembly of rod-like colloidal particles. We demonstrate that formation of higher order structures from the assembly of colloidal rods is universal. By tuning the chirality, aspect ratio and flexibility of the DNA origami particles we can control the physical properties of the entire self-assembled structures.

  18. Bright Fluorescent Nanotags from Bottlebrush Polymers with DNA-Tipped Bristles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bright signal outputs are needed for fluorescence detection of biomolecules at their native expression levels. Increasing the number of labels on a probe often results in crowding-induced self-quenching of chromophores, and maintaining the function of the targeting moiety (e.g., an antibody) is a concern. Here we demonstrate a simple method to accommodate thousands of fluorescent dye molecules on a single antibody probe while avoiding the negative effects of self-quenching. We use a bottlebrush polymer from which extend hundreds of duplex DNA strands that can accommodate hundreds of covalently attached and/or thousands of noncovalently intercalated fluorescent dyes. This polymer–DNA assembly sequesters the intercalated fluorophores against dissociation and can be tethered through DNA hybridization to an IgG antibody. The resulting fluorescent nanotag can detect protein targets in flow cytometry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and dot blots with an exceptionally bright signal that compares favorably to commercially available antibodies labeled with organic dyes or quantum dots. PMID:27163005

  19. Comparison of coagulation behavior and floc structure characteristic of different polyferric-cationic polymer dual-coagulants in humic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jincheng; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Xiaobiao

    2009-02-01

    Three polyferric-cationic polymer dual-coagulants were comparatively evaluated in terms of coagulation behavior and floc structure characteristic in the coagulation of humic acid (HA) solution. The first dual-coagulant, PFC-PDADMAC, was prepared by premixing of polyferric chloride (PFC) and polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDADMAC) before dosing. The other two were achieved by dosing PFC and PDADMAC in different order. For the given neutral condition, all three dual-coagulants gave similar HA removal before reaching optimal dosage. The strongest charge neutralization and narrowest effective coagulation dosage range were obtained when PFC was dosed firstly. While the weakest charge neutralization and the broadest effective coagulation dosage were obtained when PDADMAC was used as the primary coagulant. The HA removal of all three dual-coagulants was slightly pH dependent for optimum coagulant doses. Fe(III) hydrolysis species distributions of the dual-coagulants in coagulation process were measured by ferron method. PFC-PDADMAC gave the highest content of active Fe(III) coagulating species which is responsible for the coagulation performance of ferric coagulant. The evolution of floc size and floc fractal dimension (Df) in coagulation process was measured under optimum dose and neutral condition by laser diffraction instrument and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS), respectively. All three dual-coagulants gave similar final floc size but different floc growth rate and floc structure. Both the growth rate and Df were in the same order: PFC dosed firstly>PDADMAC dosed firstly>PFC-PDADMAC. PMID:19046756

  20. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang

    2016-04-15

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane. PMID:26775103

  1. Four homochiral coordination polymers contain N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and different N-donor ligand: Influence of metal cations, ancillary ligands and coordination modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng-Li; Song, Hui-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Using the chiral ligand N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Hacty) and maintaining identical reaction conditions, Zn(II), Co(II), and Cd(II) salts provided four novel homochiral coordination polymers {[Zn(acty)(bipy)2(H2O)2]·NO3·2H2O}n1, {[Co(acty)(bipy)2(H2O)2]·NO3·2H2O}n2, {[Cd(acty)2(bipy)H2O]·H2O}n3, and {[Cd(acty)(bpe)2(Ac)]·6H2O}n4 (bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane) in the presence of ancillary ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural 1D chain structures. The neighboring chains are further linked into a 3D supramolecular structure via π⋯π stacking and hydrogen bond interactions. Compound 3 shows a 2D network and 4 generates 1D infinite chains along the c-axis. Compounds 3 and 4 are further connected into 3D supramolecular network by hydrogen bond interactions. More importantly, coordination in acyl oxygen atoms and ancillary ligands (bpe) as monodentate decorating ligands in 4 are rarely reported. Ancillary ligands and metal cations significantly influence the structure of the complexes. The photoluminescence properties of 1, 3, and 4 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism (CD) of the complexes have been investigated.

  2. Fractionation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA in centrifugal precipitation chromatography using cationic surfactant CTAB containing inorganic salts NaCl and NH(4)Cl.

    PubMed

    Tomanee, Panarat; Hsu, James T; Ito, Yoichiro

    2004-10-01

    Centrifugal precipitation chromatography (CPC) is a separation system that mainly employs a moving concentration gradient of precipitating agent along a channel and solutes of interest undergo repetitive precipitation-dissolution, fractionate at different locations, and elute out from the channel according to their solubility in the precipitating agent solution. We report here for the first time the use of a CPC system for fractionation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA in clarified lysate produced from bacterial culture. The cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was initially used as a precipitating agent; however, all biomolecules showed no differential solubility in the moving concentration gradient of this surfactant and, as a result, no separation of protein, RNA, and plasmid DNA occurred. To overcome this problem, inorganic salts such as NaCl and NH(4)Cl were introduced into solution of CTAB. The protein and RNA were found to have higher solubility with the addition of these salts and separated from the plasmid DNA. Decreasing surface charge density of CTAB upon addition of NaCl and NH(4)Cl was believed to lead to lower surfactant complexation, and therefore caused differential solubility and fractionation of these biomolecules. Addition of CaCl(2) did not improve solubility and separation of RNA from plasmid DNA. PMID:15384057

  3. Thermodynamic stoichiometries of participation of water, cations and anions in specific and non-specific binding of lac repressor to DNA. Possible thermodynamic origins of the "glutamate effect" on protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Ha, J H; Capp, M W; Hohenwalter, M D; Baskerville, M; Record, M T

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the contributions of cations, anions and water to stability and specificity of the interaction of lac repressor (lac R) protein with the strong-binding symmetric lac operator (Osym) DNA site. To this end, binding constants Kobs and their power dependences on univalent salt (MX) concentration (SKobs = d log Kobs/d log[MX]) have been determined for the interactions of lac R with Osym operator and with non-operator DNA using filter binding and DNA cellulose chromatography, respectively. For both specific and non-specific binding of lac R, Kobs at fixed salt concentration [KX] increases when chloride (Cl-) is replaced by the physiological anion glutamate (Glu-). At 0.25 M-KX, the increase in Kobs for Osym is observed to be approximately 40-fold, whereas for non-operator DNA the increase in Kobs is estimated by extrapolation to be approximately 300-fold. For non-operator DNA, SKobsRD is independent of salt concentration within experimental uncertainty, and is similar in KCl (SKobs,RDKCl = -9.8(+/- 1.0) between 0.13 M and 0.18 M-KCl) and KGlu (SKobs,RDKGlu = -9.3(+/- 0.7) between 0.23 M and 0.36 M-KGlu). For Osym DNA, SKobsRO varies significantly with the nature of the anion, and, at least in KGlu appears to decrease in magnitude with increasing [KGlu]. Average magnitudes of SKobsRO are less than SKobsRD, and, for specific binding decrease in the order [SKobsRO,KCl[>[SKobsRO,KAc[>[SKobsRO,KGlu[ . Neither KobsRO nor SKobsRO is affected by the choice of univalent cation M+ (Na+, K+, NH4+, or mixtures thereof, all as the chloride salt), and SKobsRO is independent of [MCl] in the range examined (0.125 to 0.3 M). This behavior of SKobsRO is consistent with that expected for a binding process with a large contribution from the polyelectrolyte effect. However, the lack of an effect of the nature of the cation on the magnitude of KobsRO at a fixed [MX] is somewhat unexpected, in view of the order of preference of cations for the

  4. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  5. A dimeric DNA interface stabilized by stacked A.(G.G.G.G).A hexads and coordinated monovalent cations.

    PubMed

    Kettani, A; Gorin, A; Majumdar, A; Hermann, T; Skripkin, E; Zhao, H; Jones, R; Patel, D J

    2000-03-31

    We report on the identification of an A.(G.G.G.G).A hexad pairing alignment which involves recognition of the exposed minor groove of opposing guanines within a G.G.G.G tetrad through sheared G.A mismatch formation. This unexpected hexad pairing alignment was identified for the d(G-G-A-G-G-A-G) sequence in 150 mM Na(+) (or K(+)) cation solution where four symmetry-related strands align into a novel dimeric motif. Each symmetric half of the dimeric "hexad" motif is composed of two strands and contains a stacked array of an A.(G.G.G.G).A hexad, a G.G.G.G tetrad, and an A.A mismatch. Each strand in the hexad motif contains two successive turns, that together define an S-shaped double chain reversal fold, which connects the two G-G steps aligned parallel to each other along adjacent edges of the quadruplex. Our studies also establish a novel structural transition for the d(G-G-A-G-G-A-N) sequence, N=T and G, from an "arrowhead" motif stabilized through cross-strand stacking and mismatch formation in 10 mM Na(+) solution (reported previously), to a dimeric hexad motif stabilized by extensive inter-subunit stacking of symmetry-related A.(G.G.G.G).A hexads in 150 mM Na(+) solution. Potential monovalent cation binding sites within the arrowhead and hexad motifs have been probed by a combination of Brownian dynamics and unconstrained molecular dynamics calculations. We could not identify stable monovalent cation-binding sites in the low salt arrowhead motif. By contrast, five electronegative pockets were identified in the moderate salt dimeric hexad motif. Three of these are involved in cation binding sites sandwiched between G.G.G. G tetrad planes and two others, are involved in water-mediated cation binding sites spanning the unoccupied grooves associated with the adjacent stacked A.(G.G.G.G).A hexads. Our demonstration of A.(G. G.G.G).A hexad formation opens opportunities for the design of adenine-rich G-quadruplex-interacting oligomers that could potentially target base

  6. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena involving confined polymers: Applications to DNA separation and electroosmotic flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Frederic

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic technology is revolutionizing experimental practices in analytical chemistry, molecular biology and medicine. Indeed, the development of systems of small dimensions for the processing of fluids heralds the miniaturization of traditional, cumbersome laboratory equipment onto robust, portable and efficient microchip devices (similar to the electronic microchips found in computers). Moreover, the conjunction of scale between the smallest man-made device and the largest macromolecules evolved by Nature is fertile ground for the blooming of our knowledge about the key processes of life. In fact, the conjunction is threefold, because modern computational resources also allow us to contemplate a rather explicit modelling of physical systems between the nanoscale and the microscale. In the five articles comprising this thesis, we present the results of computer simulations that address specific questions concerning the operation of two different model systems relevant to the development of small-scale fluidic devices for the manipulation and analysis of biomolecules. First, we use a Bond-Fluctuation Monte Carlo approach to study the electrophoretic drift of macromolecules across an entropic trap array built for the length separation of long, double-stranded DNA molecules. We show that the motion of the molecules is consistent with a simple balance between electric and entropic forces, in terms of a single characteristic parameter. We also extract detailed information on polymer deformation during migration, predict the separation of topoisomers, and investigate innovative ratchet driving regimes. Secondly, we present theoretical derivations, numerical calculations and Molecular Dynamics simulation results for an electrolyte confined in a capillary of nanoscopic dimensions. In particular, we study the effectiveness of neutral grafted polymer chains in reducing the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (fluid flow induced by an external electric field

  7. Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy of DNA-Based Reversible Polymer Bridges: Surface Robustness and Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Michael J.; Whitehead, Jason R.; Rivera, Monica; Clark, Robert L.; Craig, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy, as implemented in an atomic force microscope, provides a rarely-used method by which to monitor dynamic processes that occur near surfaces. Here, a methodology is presented and characterized that facilitates the study of polymer bridging across nanometer-sized gaps. The model system employed is that of DNA-based reversible polymers, and an automated procedure is introduced that allows the AFM tip-surface contact point to be automatically determined, and the distance d between opposing surfaces to be actively controlled. Using this methodology, the importance of several experimental parameters was systematically studied, e.g. the frequency of repeated tip/surface contacts, the area of the substrate surface sampled by the AFM, and the use of multiple AFM tips and substrates. Experiments revealed the surfaces to be robust throughout pulling experiments, so that multiple touches and pulls could be carried out on a single spot with no measurable affect on the results. Differences in observed bridging probabilities were observed, both on different spots on the same surface and, more dramatically, from one day to another. Data normalization via a reference measurement allows data from multiple days to be directly compared. PMID:21966095

  8. DNA-conducting polymer complexes: a computational study of the hydrogen bond between building blocks.

    PubMed

    Zanuy, David; Aleman, Carlos

    2008-03-13

    Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations at the MP2 level were used for an extensive study concerning the stability of hydrogen-bonded complexes formed by pyrrole and thiophene, which are the most common building blocks of conducting polymers, and DNA bases. Results indicated that very stable complexes were formed with pyrrole, which shows a clear tendency to form specific hydrogen-bonding interactions with nucleic acid bases. Furthermore, the strength of such interactions depends significantly on the base, growing in the following order: thymine < adenine approximately equal to cytosine < guanine. On the contrary, thiophene formed complexes stabilized by nonspecific interactions between the pi-cloud of the ring and the N-H groups of the nucleic acid bases rather than specific hydrogen bonds. Overall, these results are fully consistent with experimental observations: polypyrrole is able not only to stabilize adducts with DNA but also to interact specifically, while the interactions of the latter with polythiophene and their derivatives are weaker and nonspecific. PMID:18278905

  9. Combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vaccines with the cationic lipid SAINT-18: studies on formulation, biodistribution and vector clearance.

    PubMed

    Endmann, Anne; Oswald, Detlef; Riede, Oliver; Talman, Eduard G; Vos, Roelien E; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that the combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vectors with the cationic lipid SAINT-18 increases the immune response to the encoded antigen in mice. Here, we report on experiments to further optimize and characterize this approach. We evaluated different formulations of MIDGE-Th1 vectors with SAINT-18 by assessing their influence on the transfection efficiency in cell culture and on the immune response in mice. We found that high amounts of SAINT-18 in formulations with a w/w ratio MIDGE Th1/SAINT-18 of 1:4.8 are beneficial for cell transfection in vitro. In contrast, the formulation of HBsAg-encoding MIDGE-Th1 DNA vectors with the lowest amount of SAINT-18 (w/w ratio MIDGE Th1/SAINT-18 of 1:0.5) resulted in the highest serum IgG1 and IgG2a levels after intradermal immunization of mice. Consequently, latter formulation was selected for a comparative biodistribution study in rats. Following intradermal administration of both naked and formulated MIDGE-Th1 DNA, the vectors localized primarily at the site of injection. Vector DNA levels decreased substantially over the two months duration of the study. When administered in combination with SAINT-18, the vectors were found in significantly higher amounts in draining lymph nodes in comparison to administration of naked MIDGE-Th1 DNA. We propose that the high immune responses induced by MIDGE-Th1/SAINT-18 lipoplexes are mediated by enhanced transfection of cells in vivo, resulting in stronger antigen expression and presentation. Importantly, the combination of MIDGE-Th1 vectors with SAINT-18 was well tolerated in mice and rats and is expected to be safe in human clinical applications. PMID:24681271

  10. Cationic Conjugated Polymer/Hyaluronan-Doxorubicin Complex for Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of Hyaluronidase and Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqin; Song, Caixia; Li, Huichang; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Rongcui; Liu, Xingfen; Zhang, Guangwei; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2015-09-30

    Hyaluronidase (HAase) is becoming a new type of tumor marker since it has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in various kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we described a novel fluorescence method for sensitive, rapid, and convenient HAase detection and tumor-targeting drug delivery and imaging, using a probe prepared by electrostatic assembly of a cationic conjugated polymer (CCP) and anionic hyaluronan (HA) conjugated with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). The CCP we used was poly{[9,9-bis(6'-(N,N,N-diethylmethylammonium)hexyl)-2,7-fluorenylene ethynylene]-alt-co-[2,5-bis(3'-(N,N,N-diethylmethylammonium)-1'-oxapropyl)-1,4-phenylene]} tetraiodide (PFEP). HA is a natural mucopolysaccharide that can be hydrolyzed by HAase into fragments with low molecular weights. In the PFEP/HA-Dox complex, the fluorescence of PFEP was efficiently quenched due to electron transfer from PFEP to Dox. After the PFEP/HA-Dox complex was exposed to HAase or was taken up by cancer cells through the specific binding between HA and CD44 receptor, HA was degraded by HAase to release the Dox, leading to the recovery of PFEP fluorescence to the "turn-on" state. Moreover, the degree of fluorescence recovery was quantitatively correlated with the concentrations of HAase. Compared with many previously reported methods, our work did not require laborious multiple modifications of HA that may affect the activity of HAase. This point, combined with the excellent optoelectronic property of conjugated polymer, endowed this method with high sensitivity (detection limit: 0.075 U/mL), high specificity, and rapid response, making it applicable for reliable and routine detection of HAase. This fluorescent probe was successfully utilized to detect HAase levels in human urine samples; furthermore, it can also be employed as a multifunctional system by realizing tumor-targeting drug delivery and cell imaging simultaneously. The development of this fluorescence method showed promising potential for

  11. How does the spacer length of cationic gemini lipids influence the lipoplex formation with plasmid DNA? Physicochemical and biochemical characterizations and their relevance in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Misra, Santosh K; Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Datta, Sougata; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Kondaiah, Paturu; Junquera, Elena; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Aicart, Emilio

    2012-12-10

    Lipoplexes formed by the pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA (pDNA) and lipid mixtures containing cationic gemini surfactant of the 1,2-bis(hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium) alkanes family referred to as C16CnC16, where n=2, 3, 5, or 12, and the zwitterionic helper lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) have been studied from a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological standpoints. The study has been carried out using several experimental methods, such as zeta potential, gel electrophoresis, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), cryo-TEM, gene transfection, cell viability/cytotoxicity, and confocal fluorescence microscopy. As reported recently in a communication (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 18014), the detailed physicochemical and biological studies confirm that, in the presence of the studied series lipid mixtures, plasmid DNA is compacted with a large number of its associated Na+ counterions. This in turn yields a much lower effective negative charge, qpDNA−, a value that has been experimentally obtained for each mixed lipid mixture. Consequently, the cationic lipid (CL) complexes prepared with pDNA and CL/DOPE mixtures to be used in gene transfection require significantly less amount of CL than the one estimated assuming a value of qDNA−=−2. This drives to a considerably lower cytotoxicity of the gene vector. Depending on the CL molar composition, α, of the lipid mixture, and the effective charge ratio of the lipoplex, ρeff, the reported SAXS data indicate the presence of two or three structures in the same lipoplex, one in the DOPE-rich region, other in the CL-rich region, and another one present at any CL composition. Cryo-TEMand SAXS studies with C16CnC16/DOPE-pDNA lipoplexes indicate that pDNA is localized between the mixed lipid bilayers of lamellar structures within a monolayer of ∼2 nm. This is consistent with a highly compacted supercoiled pDNA conformation compared with that of linear DNA. Transfection studies were carried out

  12. Increasing polymer diffusivity by increasing the contour length: The surprising effect of YOYO-1 on DNA dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seunghwan; Dorfman, Kevin; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) labeled with cyanine dyes such as YOYO-1 has been extensively used as a model to study equilibrium and dynamic properties of semiflexible polyelectrolytes. The ability to directly visualize the polymer dynamics is an attractive feature of these experiments, but positively charged cyanine dyes affect the physical properties of dsDNA, distorting the double helix and counterbalancing the intrinsic negative charge of the backbone. A variety of studies have been conducted to reveal the effect of the dye on the contour length and the persistence length of dsDNA. However, fewer efforts have been made to directly quantify the effect of dye on the diffusion behavior of dsDNA. In order to resolve this issue, we measured the in-plane diffusion coefficient of unconfined dsDNA using confocal microscopy. Although there is widespread consensus that intercalation increases the contour length of dsDNA, we find that increasing the dye:base pair ratio for YOYO-1 actually enhances the diffusion of dsDNA. This enhancement is more significant at lower ionic strengths, which implies that the increase in the diffusion coefficient by dye-DNA intercalation is mainly due to a reduction of excluded volume effect resulting from charge neutralization on the backbone.

  13. DNA Self-Assembling Nanostructures Induced by Trivalent Ions and Polycations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasyanenko, Nina; Afanasieva, Daria

    The purpose of this work is to compare DNA condensation induced by small multivalent ions and polycations. DNA complexes with trivalent ions Fe3+, La3+, [Co(NH3)6]3+, spermidine and cationic polymers in a solution were investigated. The influence of cations on the volume, persistent length, and secondary structure of DNA was studied. A comparison of DNA packaging induced by trivalent ions and polycations was made. DNA complexes with trivalent metal ions and polycations were characterized by means of low gradient viscometry, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, UV spectrometry, flow birefringence, and atomic force microscopy.

  14. Evidence for plasmid DNA exchange after polyplex mixing.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, L; Gonçalves, C; Pichon, C; Midoux, P

    2016-08-17

    The self-assembly of a plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic polymers or cationic liposomes forms nanosized supramolecular structures called lipoplexes, polyplexes and lipopolyplexes. Here, we report that when two polyplex preparations made using the same polymer and the same pDNA but labelled with two different fluorophores are mixed together, pDNA molecules are exchanged. Indeed, when Flu-pDNA complexed with histidinylated lPEI (Flu-pDNA/His-lPEI) polyplexes are mixed with Cy5-pDNA complexed with histidinylated lPEI (Cy5-pDNA/His-lPEI) polyplexes, a high quantity of polyplexes emitting dual fluorescence is observed and FRET indicates that one single polyplex contains two kinds of fluorescent pDNA molecules. This phenomenon depends on the polymer-type and the strength of the pDNA/polymer interaction. No exchange is observed with polylysine polyplexes, caged His-lPEI polyplexes, lipoplexes, lipopolyplexes or when His-lPEI polyplexes are mixed with lipoplexes. Our results suggest that aggregation or collapse of polyplexes occurs after their interaction leading to their unpackaging followed by the formation of new polyplexes with the exchange of pDNA. PMID:27459887

  15. Effects of a delocalizable cation on the headgroup of gemini lipids on the lipoplex-type nanoaggregates directly formed from plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Muñoz-Úbeda, Mónica; Datta, Sougata; Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Kondaiah, Paturu; Junquera, Elena; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Aicart, Emilio

    2013-11-11

    Lipoplex-type nanoaggregates prepared from pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA (pDNA) and mixed liposomes, with a gemini cationic lipid (CL) [1,2-bis(hexadecyl imidazolium) alkanes], referred as (C16Im)2Cn (where Cn is the alkane spacer length, n = 2, 3, 5, or 12, between the imidazolium heads) and DOPE zwitterionic lipid, have been analyzed by zeta potential, gel electrophoresis, SAXS, cryo-TEM, fluorescence anisotropy, transfection efficiency, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and cell viability/cytotoxicity experiments to establish a structure-biological activity relationship. The study, carried out at several mixed liposome compositions, α, and effective charge ratios, ρeff, of the lipoplex, demonstrates that the transfection of pDNA using CLs initially requires the determination of the effective charge of both. The electrochemical study confirms that CLs with a delocalizable positive charge in their headgroups yield an effective positive charge that is 90% of their expected nominal one, while pDNA is compacted yielding an effective negative charge which is only 10-25% than that of the linear DNA. SAXS diffractograms show that lipoplexes formed by CLs with shorter spacer (n = 2, 3, or 5) present three lamellar structures, two of them in coexistence, while those formed by CL with longest spacer (n = 12) present two additional inverted hexagonal structures. Cryo-TEM micrographs show nanoaggregates with two multilamellar structures, a cluster-type (at low α value) and a fingerprint-type, that coexist with the cluster-type at moderate α composition. The optimized transfection efficiency (TE) of pDNA, in HEK293T, HeLa, and H1299 cells was higher using lipoplexes containing gemini CLs with shorter spacers at low α value. Each lipid formulation did not show any significant levels of toxicity, the reported lipoplexes being adequate DNA vectors for gene therapy and considerably better than both Lipofectamine 2000 and CLs of the 1,2-bis(hexadecyl ammnoniun) alkane series, recently

  16. Ultrafast, efficient separations of large-sized dsDNA in a blended polymer matrix by microfluidic chip electrophoresis: a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyun; Lin, Jennifer S; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-11-01

    Double-stranded (ds) DNA fragments over a wide size range were successfully separated in blended polymer matrices by microfluidic chip electrophoresis. Novel blended polymer matrices composed of two types of polymers with three different molar masses were developed to provide improved separations of large dsDNA without negatively impacting the separation of small dsDNA. Hydroxyethyl celluloses with average molar masses of ∼27  kDa and ∼1  MDa were blended with a second class of polymer, high-molar mass (∼7  MDa) linear polyacrylamide. Fast and highly efficient separations of commercially available DNA ladders were achieved on a borosilicate glass microchip. A distinct separation of a 1-kb DNA extension ladder (200-40,000  bp) was completed in 2  min. An orthogonal design of experiments was used to optimize experimental parameters for DNA separations over a wide size range. We find that the two dominant factors are the applied electric field strength and the inclusion of a high concentration of low-molar mass polymer in the matrix solution. These two factors exerted different effects on the separations of small dsDNA fragments below 1  kbp, medium dsDNA fragments between 1 and 10  kbp, and large dsDNA fragments above 10  kbp. PMID:22009451

  17. DNA-programmed modular assembly of cyclic and linear nanoarrays for the synthesis of two-dimensional conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Schuster, Gary B

    2012-01-18

    Nanometer-scale arrays of conducting polymers were prepared on scaffolds of self-assembling DNA modules. A series of DNA oligomers was prepared, each containing six 2,5-bis(2-thienyl)pyrrole (SNS) monomer units linked covalently to N4 atoms of alternating cytosines placed between leading and trailing 12-nucleobase recognition sequences. These DNA modules were encoded so the recognition sequences would uniquely associate through Watson-Crick assembly to form closed-cycle or linear arrays of aligned SNS monomers. The melting behavior and electrophoretic migration of these assemblies showed cooperative formation of multicomponent arrays containing two to five DNA modules (i.e., 12-30 SNS monomers). The treatment of these arrays with horseradish peroxidase and H(2)O(2) resulted in oxidative polymerization of the SNS monomers with concomitant ligation of the DNA modules. The resulting cyclic and linear arrays exhibited chemical and optical properties typical of conducting thiophene-like polymers, with a red-end absorption beyond 1250 nm. AFM images of the cyclic array containing 18 SNS units revealed highly regular 10 nm diameter objects. PMID:22242713

  18. DNA binding of Pd(TC3), a conformable cationic porphyrin with a long-lived triplet state.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Srijana; Bork, Matthew A; Zhang, Hanyu; Fanwick, Phillip E; Zeller, Matthias; Choi, Jong Hyun; McMillin, David R

    2016-09-28

    The goal of this work has been to synthesize and investigate Pd(TC3), an intercalating porphyrin that has conformable substituents capable of groove binding to B-form DNA. (TC3 denotes the doubly deprotonated form of 5,10,15,20-tetra[3-(3'-methylimidazolium-1'-yl)prop-1-yl]porphyrin.) Palladium(ii) is an apt choice for the central metal ion because it remains strictly four-coordinate and provides for a luminescent triplet excited state with a long lifetime. The DNA hosts are hairpin-forming sequences programmed to differ in base composition. Luminescence, absorbance, and circular dichroism results are consistent with the idea that congruent structural reorganization takes place at the host and ligand during uptake. Photoexcitation of DNA-bound Pd(TC3) generates a comparatively modest steady state concentration of singlet oxygen, due to a relatively slow reaction with molecular oxygen in solution. The sheer size of the substituent groups disfavors quenching, but groove-binding interactions compound the problem by inhibiting mobility. The results show how ligand design affects adduct structure as well as function. PMID:27534907

  19. Rab11 and Lysotracker Markers Reveal Correlation between Endosomal Pathways and Transfection Efficiency of Surface-Functionalized Cationic Liposome-DNA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Wonder, Emily; Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Teesalu, Tambet; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-07-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are widely studied as carriers of DNA and short-interfering RNA for gene delivery and silencing, and related clinical trials are ongoing. Optimization of transfection efficiency (TE) requires understanding of CL-nucleic acid nanoparticle (NP) interactions with cells, NP endosomal pathways, endosomal escape, and events leading to release of active nucleic acid from the lipid carrier. Here, we studied endosomal pathways and TE of surface-functionalized CL-DNA NPs in PC-3 prostate cancer cells displaying overexpressed integrin and neuropilin-1 receptors. The NPs contained RGD-PEG-lipid or RPARPAR-PEG-lipid, targeting integrin, and neuropilin-1 receptors, respectively, or control PEG-lipid. Fluorescence colocalization using Rab11-GFP and Lysotracker enabled simultaneous colocalization of NPs with recycling endosome (Rab11) and late endosome/lysosome (Rab7/Lysotracker) pathways at increasing mole fractions of pentavalent MVL5 (+5 e) at low (10 mol %), high (50 mol %), and very high (70 mol %) membrane charge density (σM). For these cationic NPs (lipid/DNA molar charge ratio, ρchg = 5), the influence of membrane charge density on pathway selection and transfection efficiency is similar for both peptide-PEG NPs, although, quantitatively, the effect is larger for RGD-PEG compared to RPARPAR-PEG NPs. At low σM, peptide-PEG NPs show preference for the recycling endosome over the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Increases in σM, from low to high, lead to decreases in colocalization with recycling endosomes and simultaneous increases in colocalization with the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Combining colocalization and functional TE data at low and high σM shows that higher TE correlates with a larger fraction of NPs colocalized with the late endosome/lysosome pathway while lower TE correlates with a larger fraction of NPs colocalized with the Rab11 recycling pathway. The findings lead to a hypothesis that increases in σM, leading to enhanced

  20. Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Luo, Heng-Cong; Yang, Chuan; Deng, Jun-Jie; Ren, Meng; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Diao-Zhu; Yan, Li; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is deleterious to the cutaneous wound-healing process in the context of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a cationic star-shaped polymer consisting of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) core and poly(amidoamine) dendron arms (β-CD-[D3]7) could be used as the gene carrier of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce MMP-9 expression for enhanced diabetic wound healing. Methods The cytotoxicity of β-CD-(D3)7 was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MMT) method in the rat CRL1213 skin fibroblast cell line. The transfection efficiency of β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9-small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexes was determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Quantitative real time (RT) polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the gene expression of MMP-9 after the transfection by β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9-siRNA complexes. The β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were injected on the wounds of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound closure was measured on days 4 and 7 post-wounding. Results β-CD-(D3)7 exhibited low cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, and easily formed the complexes with MMP-9-siRNA. The β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were readily taken up by fibroblast cells, resulting in the downregulation of MMP-9 gene expression (P<0.01). Animal experiments revealed that the treatment by β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9-siRNA complexes enhanced wound closure in diabetic rats on day 7 post-wounding (P<0.05). Conclusion β-CD-(D3)7 may be used as an efficient carrier for the delivery of MMP-9-siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promote wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:25075185

  1. Interaction of cationic porphyrins with DNA: Importance of the number and position of the charges and minimum structural requirements for intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, M.A.; Battioni, J.P.; Dupre, D.; Mansuy, D. ); Le Pecq, J.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Thirty-three porphyrins or metalloporphyrins corresponding to the general formula (meso-(N-methyl-4(or 3 or 2)-pyridiniumyl){sub n}(aryl){sub 4-n}porphyrin)M (M = H{sub 2}, Cu{sup II}, or ClFe{sup III}), with n = 2-4, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These porphyrins differ not only in the number (2-4) and position of their cationic charges but also in the steric requirements to reach even temporarily a completely planar geometry. Interaction of these porphyrins or metalloporphyrins with calf thymus DNA has been studied and their apparent affinity binding constants have been determined by use of a competition method with ethidium bromide which was applicable not only for all the free base porphyrins but also for their copper (II) or iron (III) complexes. Whatever their mode of binding may be, their apparent affinity binding constants were relatively high and a linear decrease of log K{sub app} with the number of porphyrin charges was observed. Studies of porphyrin-DNA interactions by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosimetry, and fluorescence energy transfer experiments showed that not only the tetracationic meso-tetrakis(N-methyl-4(or 3)-pyridiniumyl)porphyrins, which both involved four freely rotating meso-aryl groups, but also the corresponding tri- and dicationic porphyrins were able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA. These results show that only half of the porphyrin ring is necessary for intercalation to occur.

  2. Optical mapping of single-molecule human DNA in disposable, mass-produced all-polymer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østergaard, Peter Friis; Lopacinska-Jørgensen, Joanna; Nyvold Pedersen, Jonas; Tommerup, Niels; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Marie, Rodolphe; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate all-polymer injection molded devices for optical mapping of denaturation-renaturation (DR) patterns on long, single DNA-molecules from the human genome. The devices have channels with ultra-low aspect ratio, only 110 nm deep while 20 μm wide, and are superior to the silica devices used previously in the field. With these polymer devices, we demonstrate on-chip recording of DR images of DNA-molecules stretched to more than 95% of their contour length. The stretching is done by opposing flows Marie et al (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 4893-8). The performance is validated by mapping 20 out of 24 Mbp-long DNA fragments to the human reference genome. We optimized fabrication of the devices to a yield exceeding 95%. This permits a substantial economies-of-scale driven cost-reduction, leading to device costs as low as 3 USD per device, about a factor 70 lower than the cost of silica devices. This lowers the barrier to a wide use of DR mapping of native, megabase-size DNA molecules, which has a huge potential as a complementary method to next-generation sequencing.

  3. Effect of the alkaline cation size on the conductivity in gel polymer electrolytes and their influence on photo electrochemical solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bandara, T M W J; Fernando, H D N S; Furlani, M; Albinsson, I; Dissanayake, M A K L; Ratnasekera, J L; Mellander, B-E

    2016-04-20

    The nature and concentration of cationic species in the electrolyte exert a profound influence on the efficiency of nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A series of DSSCs based on gel electrolytes containing five alkali iodide salts (LiI, NaI, KI, RbI and CsI) and polyacrylonitrile with plasticizers were fabricated and studied, in order to investigate the dependence of solar cell performance on the cation size. The ionic conductivity of electrolytes with relatively large cations, K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+), was higher and essentially constant, while for the electrolytes containing the two smaller cations, Na(+) and Li(+), the conductivity values were lower. The temperature dependence of conductivity in this series appears to follow the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The sample containing the smallest cation shows the lowest conductivity and the highest activation energy of ∼36.5 meV, while K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) containing samples show an activation energy of ∼30.5 meV. DSSCs based on the gel electrolyte and a TiO2 double layer with the N719 dye exhibited an enhancement in the open circuit voltage with increasing cation size. This can be attributed to the decrease in the recombination rate of electrons and to the conduction band shift resulting from cation adsorption by TiO2. The maximum efficiency value, 3.48%, was obtained for the CsI containing cell. The efficiencies shown in this study are lower compared to values reported in the literature, and this can be attributed to the use of a single salt and the absence of other additives, since the focus of the present study was to analyze the cation effect. The highest short circuit current density of 9.43 mA cm(-2) was shown by the RbI containing cell. The enhancement of the solar cell performance with increasing size of the cation is discussed in terms of the effect of the cations on the TiO2 anode and ion transport in the electrolyte. In liquid electrolyte based DSSCs, the short circuit current density

  4. Single-Molecule Kinetics Reveal Cation-Promoted DNA Duplex Formation Through Ordering of Single-Stranded Helices

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Holmstrom, Erik D.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the kinetics of short, fully complementary oligonucleotides are investigated at the single-molecule level. Constructs 6–9 bp in length exhibit single exponential kinetics over 2 orders of magnitude time for both forward (kon, association) and reverse (koff, dissociation) processes. Bimolecular rate constants for association are weakly sensitive to the number of basepairs in the duplex, with a 2.5-fold increase between 9 bp (k′on = 2.1(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) and 6 bp (k′on = 5.0(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) sequences. In sharp contrast, however, dissociation rate constants prove to be exponentially sensitive to sequence length, varying by nearly 600-fold over the same 9 bp (koff = 0.024 s−1) to 6 bp (koff = 14 s−1) range. The 8 bp sequence is explored in more detail, and the NaCl dependence of kon and koff is measured. Interestingly, konincreases by >40-fold (kon = 0.10(1) s−1 to 4.0(4) s−1 between [NaCl] = 25 mM and 1 M), whereas in contrast, koffdecreases by fourfold (0.72(3) s−1 to 0.17(7) s−1) over the same range of conditions. Thus, the equilibrium constant (Keq) increases by ≈160, largely due to changes in the association rate, kon. Finally, temperature-dependent measurements reveal that increased [NaCl] reduces the overall exothermicity (ΔΔH° > 0) of duplex formation, albeit by an amount smaller than the reduction in entropic penalty (−TΔΔS° < 0). This reduced entropic cost is attributed to a cation-facilitated preordering of the two single-stranded species, which lowers the association free-energy barrier and in turn accelerates the rate of duplex formation. PMID:23931323

  5. Interaction of cationic porphyrins with DNA: importance of the number and position of the charges and minimum structural requirements for intercalation.

    PubMed

    Sari, M A; Battioni, J P; Dupré, D; Mansuy, D; Le Pecq, J B

    1990-05-01

    Thirty-three porphyrins or metalloporphyrins corresponding to the general formula [meso-[N-methyl-4(or 3 or 2)-pyridiniumyl]n(aryl)4-nporphyrin]M (M = H2, CuII, or ClFeIII), with n = 2-4, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These porphyrins differ not only in the number (2-4) and position of their cationic charges but also in the steric requirements to reach even temporarily a completely planar geometry. In particular, they contain 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 meso-aryl substituents not able to rotate. Interaction of these porphyrins or metalloporphyrins with calf thymus DNA has been studied and their apparent affinity binding constants have been determined by use of a competition method with ethidium bromide which was applicable not only for all the free base porphyrins but also for their copper(II) or iron(III) complexes. Whatever their mode of binding may be, their apparent affinity binding constants were relatively high (Kapp between 1.2 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(4) M-1 under our conditions), and a linear decrease of log Kapp with the number of porphyrin charges was observed. Studies of porphyrin-DNA interactions by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosimetry, and fluorescence energy transfer experiments showed that not only the tetracationic meso-tetrakis[N-methyl-4(or 3)-pyridiniumyl]porphyrins, which both involved four freely rotating meso-aryl groups, but also the corresponding tri- and dicationic porphyrins were able to intercalate into calf thymus DNA. Moreover, the cis dicationic meso-bis(N-methyl-2-pyridiniumyl)diphenylporphyrin, which involved only two freely rotating meso-aryl groups in a cis position, was also able to intercalate. The other meso-(N-methyl-2-pyridiniumyl)n(phenyl)4-nporphyrins, which involved either zero, one, or two trans freely rotating meso-aryl groups, could not intercalate into DNA. These results show that only half of the porphyrin ring is necessary for intercalation to occur

  6. DNA methylation is associated with downregulation of the organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic cation transporters (OCTs) determine not only physiological processes but are also involved in the cellular uptake of anticancer agents. Based on microarray analyses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), SLC22A1/OCT1 mRNA seems to be downregulated, but systematic protein expression data are currently missing. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for altered SLC22A1 expression in HCC are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of the family members SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2 and SLC22A3/OCT3 in HCC. Methods Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry of SLC22A1 protein expression was performed in paired HCC and histological normal adjacent liver tissues (n = 71) using tissue microarray analyses, and the results were correlated with clinicopathological features. DNA methylation, quantified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and gene expression of SLC22A1, SLC22A2 and SLC22A3 were investigated using fresh-frozen HCC (n = 22) and non-tumor adjacent liver tissues as well as histologically normal liver samples (n = 120) from a large-scale liverbank. Results Based on tissue microarray analyses, we observed a significant downregulation of SLC22A1 protein expression in HCC compared to normal adjacent tissue (P < 0.0001). SLC22A1 expression was significantly inverse correlated with expression of the proliferation marker MIB1/Ki-67 (rs = -0.464, P < 0.0001). DNA methylation of SLC22A1 was significantly higher in HCC compared with non-tumor adjacent liver tissue and was lowest in histologically normal liver tissue. Methylation levels for SLC22A1 in combination with RASSF1A resulted in a specificity of > 90% and a sensitivity of 82% for discriminating HCC and tumor-free liver tissue. Conclusions DNA methylation of SLC22A1 is associated with downregulation of SLC22A1 in HCC and might be a new biomarker for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, targeting SLC22A1 methylation by

  7. Localization of a hole on an adenine-thymine radical cation in B-form DNA in water.

    PubMed

    Kravec, S M; Kinz-Thompson, C D; Conwell, E M

    2011-05-19

    A quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been carried out using CP2K for a hole introduced into a B-form DNA molecule consisting of 10 adenine-thymine (A/T) pairs in water. At the beginning of the simulation, the hole wave function is extended over several adenines. Within 20-25 fs, the hole wave function contracts so that it is localized on a single A. At 300 K, it stays on this A for the length of the simulation, several hundred fs, with the wave function little changed. In a range of temperatures below 300 K, proton transfer from A to T is seen to take place within the A/T occupied by the hole; it is completed by ∼40 fs after the contraction. We show that the contraction is due to polarization of the water by the hole. This polarization also plays a role in the proton transfer. Implications for transport are considered. PMID:21491917

  8. Reactions of 5-methylcytosine cation radicals in DNA and model systems: thermal deprotonation from the 5-methyl group vs. excited state deprotonation from sugar

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Palmer, Brian J.; Todd, Andrew D.; Heizer, Alicia N.; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the formation and subsequent reactions of the 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine cation radical (5-Me-2′-dC•+) in nucleosides and DNA-oligomers and compare to one electron oxidized thymidine. Materials and methods Employing electron spin resonance (ESR), cation radical formation and its reactions were investigated in 5-Me-2′-dC, thymidine (Thd) and their derivatives, in fully double stranded (ds) d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 and in the 5-Me-C/A mismatched, d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG], where C* = 5-Me-C. Results We report 5-Me-2′-dC•+ production by one-electron oxidation of 5-Me-2′-dC by Cl2•− via annealing in the dark at 155 K. Progressive annealing of 5-Me-2′-dC•+ at 155 K produces the allylic radical (C-CH2•). However, photoexcitation of 5-Me-2′-dC•+ by 405 nm laser or by photoflood lamp leads to only C3′• formation. Photoexcitation of N3-deprotonated thyminyl radical in Thd and its 5′-nucleotides leads to C3′• formation but not in 3′-TMP which resulted in the allylic radical (U-CH2•) and C5′• production. For excited 5-Me-2′,3′-ddC•+, absence of the 3′-OH group does not prevent C3′• formation. For d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 and d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG], intra-base paired proton transferred form of G cation radical (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) is found with no observable 5-Me-2′-dC•+ formation. Photoexcitation of (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) in d[GC*GC*GC*GC*]2 produced only C1′• and not the expected photoproducts from 5-Me-2′-dC•+. However, photoexcitation of (G(N1-H)•:C(+H+)) in d[GGAC*AAGC:CCTAATCG] led to C5′• and C1′• formation. Conclusions C-CH2• formation from 5-Me-2′-dC•+ occurs via ground state deprotonation from C5-methyl group on the base. In the excited 5-Me-2′-dC•+ and 5-Me-2′,3′-ddC•+, spin and charge localization at C3′ followed by deprotonation leads to C3′• formation. Thus, deprotonation from C3′ in the excited cation radical is kinetically controlled and sugar C-H bond energies are

  9. Physicochemical properties of polymers: An important system to overcome the cell barriers in gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Ali; Bolhassani, Azam; Khairkhah, Niloofardokht; Motevalli, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of the macromolecules including DNA, miRNA, and antisense oligonucleotides is typically mediated by carriers due to the large size and negative charge. Different physical (e.g., gene gun or electroporation), and chemical (e.g., cationic polymer or lipid) vectors have been already used to improve the efficiency of gene transfer. Polymer-based DNA delivery systems have attracted special interest, in particular via intravenous injection with many intra- and extracellular barriers. The recent progress has shown that stimuli-responsive polymers entitled as multifunctional nucleic acid vehicles can act to target specific cells. These nonviral carriers are classified by the type of stimulus including reduction potential, pH, and temperature. Generally, the physicochemical characterization of DNA-polymer complexes is critical to enhance the transfection potency via protection of DNA from nuclease digestion, endosomal escape, and nuclear localization. The successful clinical applications will depend on an exact insight of barriers in gene delivery and development of carriers overcoming these barriers. Consequently, improvement of novel cationic polymers with low toxicity and effective for biomedical use has attracted a great attention in gene therapy. This article summarizes the main physicochemical and biological properties of polyplexes describing their gene transfection behavior, in vitro and in vivo. In this line, the relative efficiencies of various cationic polymers are compared. PMID:25761628

  10. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy Drew, Kirstin R.; Sanders, Lori K.; Culumber, Zachary W.; Zribi, Olena; Wong, Gerard C.L.

    2009-06-17

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers.

  11. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, K.R.Purdy; Sanders, L.K.; Culumber, Z.W.; Zribi, O.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-05-21

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers.

  12. Quantitative study of effects of free cationic chains on gene transfection in different intracellular stages.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinge; Yue, Yanan; Wang, Yanjing; Jin, Zhenyu; Jin, Fan; Wu, Chi

    2016-09-28

    Previously, we revealed that in the application of using cationic polymer chains, polyethylenimine (PEI), to condense anionic plasmid DNA chains (pDNA) to form the DNA/polymer polyplexes, after all the pDNAs are complexed with PEI, further added PEIs exist individual chains and free in the solution mixture. It is those uncomplexed polycation chains that dramatically promote the gene transfection. In the current study, we studied how those free cationic chains with different lengths and topologies affect the intracellular trafficking of the polyplexes, the translocation of pDNA through the nuclear membrane, the transcription of pDNA to mRNA and the translocation of mRNA from nucleus to cytosol in HepG2 cells by using a combination of the three-dimensional confocal microscope and TaqMan real-time PCR. We found that free branched PEI chains with a molar mass of 25,000g/mol and a total concentration of 1.8×10(-6)g/mL promote the overall gene transfection efficiency by a factor of ~500 times. Our results quantitatively reveal that free chains help little in the cellular uptake, but clearly reduce the lysosomal entrapment of those internalized polyplexes (2-3 folds); assist the translocation of pDNA through nuclear membrane after it is released from the polyplexes in the cytosol (~5 folds); enhance the pDNA-to-mRNA transcription efficiency (~4 folds); and facilitate the nucleus-to-cytosol translocation of mRNA (7-8 folds). The total enhancement of those steps agrees well with the overall efficiency, demonstrating, for the first time, how free cationic polymer chains quantitatively promote the gene transfection in each step in the intracellular space. PMID:27448443

  13. Effect of introduction of chondroitin sulfate into polymer-peptide conjugate responding to intracellular signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Toita, Riki; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Koga, Haruka; Shiosaki, Shujiro; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2011-09-01

    We recently developed a novel tumor-targeted gene delivery system responding to hyperactivated intracellular signals. Polymeric carrier for gene delivery consists of hydrophilic neutral polymer as main chains and cationic peptide substrate for target enzyme as side chains, and was named polymer-peptide conjugate (PPC). Introduction of chondroitin sulfate (CS), which induces receptor-medicated endocytosis, into polymers mainly with a high cationic charge density such as polyethylenimine can increase tumor-targeted gene delivery. In the present study, we examined whether introduction of CS into PPC containing five cationic amino acids can increase gene expression in tumor cells. Size and zeta potential of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/PPC/CS complex were <200 nm and between -10 and -15 mV, respectively. In tumor cell experiments, pDNA/PPC/CS complex showed lower stability and gene regulation, compared with that of pDNA/PPC. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was identified between positive and negative polymer. These results were caused by fast disintegration of pDNA/PPC/CS complexes in the presence of serum. Thus, we suggest that introduction of negatively charged CS into polymers with a low charge density may lead to low stability and gene regulation of complexes.

  14. Dispersing Zwitterions into Comb Polymers for Nonviral Transfection: Experiments and Molecular Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Letteri, Rachel; Parelkar, Sangram S; Zhao, Yue; Chan-Seng, Delphine; Emrick, Todd; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2016-02-01

    Polymer-based gene delivery vehicles benefit from the presence of hydrophilic groups that mitigate the inherent toxicity of polycations and that provide tunable polymer-DNA binding strength and stable complexes (polyplexes). However, hydrophilic groups screen charge, and as such can reduce cell uptake and transfection efficiency. We report the effect of embedding zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB) groups in cationic comb polymers, using a combination of experiments and molecular simulations. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) produced comb polymers with tetralysine (K4) and SB pendent groups. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, and fluorescence-based experiments, together with coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, described the effect of SB groups on the size, shape, surface charge, composition, and DNA binding strength of polyplexes formed using these comb polymers. Experiments and simulations showed that increasing SB composition in the comb polymers decreased polymer-DNA binding strength, while simulations indicated that the SB groups distributed throughout the polyplex. This allows polyplexes to maintain a positive surface charge and provide high levels of gene expression in live cells. Notably, comb polymers with nearly 50 mol % SB form polyplexes that exhibit positive surface charge similarly as polyplexes formed from purely cationic comb polymers, indicating the ability to introduce an appreciable amount of SB functionality without screening surface charge. This integrated simulation-experimental study demonstrates the effectiveness of incorporating zwitterions in polyplexes, while guiding the design of new and effective gene delivery vectors. PMID:26741292

  15. A sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous determination of HIV and tuberculosis DNA targets based on signal amplification by quantum dots-PowerVision™ polymer coding nanotracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao

    2015-09-15

    A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes. PMID:25911447

  16. Rational designed bipolar, conjugated polymer-DNA composite beacon for the sensitive detection of proteins and ions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongmei; Zuo, Xiaolei; Lou, Xiaoding; Miao, Mao; Cheng, Yong; Min, Xuehong; Li, Xinchun; Xia, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Nature owns remarkable capabilities in sensing target molecules, while the artificial biosensor lags far behind nature. Inspired by nature, we devise a new sensing platform that can specifically bind the molecules and synchronously initiate a specific signal response. We rationally designed a type of bipolar probe that is comprised of a hydrophilic DNA part and a hydrophobic conjugated polymer (CP) unit. In aqueous solution, they can form micelles with a hydrophobic CP core and a hydrophilic DNA shell. The aggregation-caused quenching suppresses the fluorescence of CP. Adding telomerase, the hydropathical profile of the bipolar probes is drastically regulated that results in the collapse of micelles and liberates fluorescence simultaneously. The probe has been used in both mimic systems and real urine samples (38 samples). We achieve sensitive and specific detection of telomerase and obtain clearly classification for normal people and cancer patients. It can also be used in a signal off sensor that is used to detect mercury ions. PMID:25694029

  17. Towards modelling of stochastic kinetics for process related to photochromic dye semi-intercalation in DNA-based polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitus, Antoni C.; Pawlik, Grzegorz; Kordas, Wojciech; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Kajzar, Francois; Rau, Ileana; Grote, James G.

    2011-09-01

    The semi-intercalation of an azo-dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) molecule into a biopolymeric material made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) complexed with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTMA) formulated recently1-3 has successfully explained the main experimental results4 of laser dynamic inscription of diffraction gratings: short response time, low diffraction efficiency, single-exponential kinetics and flat wavelength dependence.5 In this paper we generalize the analytic model of Ref.2 to account for a more realistic dynamics of DNA-CTMA matrix. To this end we extend the model of paper5 by including into it probabilistic features of local free volume in DNA matrix which characterize, in a simple way, the spatial distribution of local voids which, in turn play the central role for the kinetics of photoinduced trans-cis-trans cycles of DR1 dye under the polarized laser light illumination. We discuss a stochastic master equation which generalizes the simple model of Ref.2 and address briefly the topic of non-exponential grating inscription in modelling and in recent experiments.

  18. Electrophoretic mobility of semi-flexible double-stranded DNA in defect-controlled polymer networks: Mechanism investigation and role of structural parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairulina, Kateryna; Li, Xiang; Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Ung-il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-06-01

    Our previous studies have reported an empirical model, which explains the electrophoretic mobility (μ) of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as a combination of a basic migration term (Rouse-like or reptation) and entropy loss term in polymer gels with ideal network structure. However, this case is of exception, considering a large amount of heterogeneity in the conventional polymer gels. In this study, we systematically tune the heterogeneity in the polymer gels and study the migration of dsDNA in these gels. Our experimental data well agree with the model found for ideal networks. The basic migration mechanism (Rouse-like or reptation) persists perfectly in the conventional heterogeneous polymer gel system, while the entropy loss term continuously changes with increase in the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we found that in the limit where dsDNA is shorter than dsDNA persistence length, the entropy loss term may be related to the collisional motions between DNA fragments and the cross-links.

  19. Efficient Capture and Isolation of Tumor-Related Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Cancer Patients Using Electroactive Conducting Polymer Nanowire Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, SeungHyun; Lee, HyungJae; Bae, Kieun; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Lee, Eun Sook; Cho, Youngnam

    2016-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is currently recognized as a key non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and progression and therapeutic efficacy monitoring. Because cfDNA has been detected in patients with diverse types of cancers, the use of efficient strategies to isolate cfDNA not only provides valuable insights into tumour biology, but also offers the potential for developing new cancer-specific targets. However, the challenges associated with conventional cfDNA extraction methods prevent their further clinical applications. Here, we developed a nanostructured conductive polymer platform for the efficient capture and release of circulating cfDNA and demonstrated its potential clinical utility using unprocessed plasma samples from patients with breast and lung cancers. Our results confirmed that the platform's enhanced efficiency allows tumor-specific circulating cfDNA to be recovered at high yield and purity. PMID:27162553

  20. MD and NMR analyses of choline and TMA binding to duplex DNA: on the origins of aberrant sequence-dependent stability by alkyl cations in aqueous and water-free solvents.

    PubMed

    Portella, Guillem; Germann, Markus W; Hud, Nicholas V; Orozco, Modesto

    2014-02-26

    It has been known for decades that alkylammonium ions, such as tetramethyl ammonium (TMA), alter the usual correlation between DNA GC-content and duplex stability. In some cases it is even possible for an AT-rich duplex to be more stable than a GC-rich duplex of the same length. There has been much speculation regarding the origin of this aberration in sequence-dependent DNA duplex stability, but no clear resolution. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy we demonstrate that choline (2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium) and TMA are preferentially localized in the minor groove of DNA duplexes at A·T base pairs and these same ions show less pronounced localization in the major groove compared to what has been demonstrated for alkali and alkali earth metal ions. Furthermore, free energy calculations show that single-stranded GC-rich sequences exhibit more favorable solvation by choline than single-stranded AT-rich sequences. The sequence-specific nature of choline and TMA binding provides a rationale for the enhanced stability of AT-rich sequences when alkyl-ammonium ions are used as the counterions of DNA. Our combined theoretical and experimental study provides one of the most detailed pictures to date of cations localized along DNA in the solution state, and provides insights that go beyond understanding alkyl-ammonium ion binding to DNA. In particular, because choline and TMA bind to DNA in a manner that is found to be distinct from that previously reported for Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), our results reveal the important but underappreciated role that most other cations play in sequence-specific duplex stability. PMID:24490755

  1. Carbon nanotube/polymer composite electrodes for flexible, attachable electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Lee, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-15

    All-solution-processed, easily-made, flexible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based electrodes were fabricated and used for electrochemical DNA sensors. These electrodes could serve as a recognition layer for DNA, without any surface modification, through π-π interactions between the MWCNTs and DNA, greatly simplifying the fabrication process for DNA sensors. The electrodes were directly connected to an electrochemical analyzer in the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, where methylene blue was used as a redox indicator. Since neither functional groups nor probe DNA were immobilized on the surfaces of the electrodes, the sensor can be easily regenerated by washing these electrodes with water. The limit of detection was found to be 1.3 × 10(2)pM (S/N=3), with good DNA sequence differentiation ability. Fast fabrication of a DNA sensor was also achieved by cutting and attaching the MWCNT-PDMS composite electrodes at an analyte solution-containable region. Our results pave the way for developing user-fabricated easily attached DNA sensors at low costs. PMID:25950937

  2. Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-05-01

    The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

  3. Solvent-modified ultrafast decay dynamics in conjugated polymer/dye labeled single stranded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inhong; Kang, Mijeong; Woo, Han Young; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kyhm, Kwangseuk

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated that organic solvent (DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide) modifies energy transfer efficiency between conjugated polymers (donors) and fluorescein-labeled single stranded DNAs (acceptors). In a mixture of buffer and organic solvent, fluorescence of the acceptors is significantly enhanced compared to that of pure water solution. This result can be attributed to change of the donor-acceptor environment such as decreased hydrophobicity of polymers, screening effect of organic solvent molecules, resulting in an enhanced energy transfer efficiency. Time-resolved fluorescence decay of the donors and the acceptors was modelled by considering the competition between the energy harvesting Foerster resonance energy transfer and the energy-wasting quenching. This enables to quantity that the Foerster distance (R0 = 43.3 Å) and resonance energy transfer efficiency (EFRET = 58.7 %) of pure buffer solution become R0 = 38.6 Å and EFRET = 48.0 % when 80% DMSO/buffer mixture is added.

  4. Polymers & People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda; Robinson, Thomas; Martin, Elizabeth; Miller, Mary; Ashburn, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Each Tuesday during the fall of 2002, teams of high school students from three South Carolina counties conducted a four-hour polymer institute for their peers. In less than two months, over 300 students visited the Charleston County Public Library in Charleston, South Carolina, to explore DNA, nylon, rubber, gluep, and other polymers. Teams of…

  5. DNA-Polymer Conjugates for Immune Stimulation through Toll-like Receptor 9 Mediated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Eric A.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2014-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs are agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 and are currently being investigated for use as vaccine adjuvants through promotion of type I immunity. Several classes of ODN have been developed which differ in their propensity to aggregate, which in turn, alter cytokine profiles and cellular subsets activated. Although aggregation state is correlated with the change in cytokine response, it is unknown if this results from a change in the number of ODN available for binding and/or the possible engagement of multiple TLR9 molecules. Here, we examined the role of ligand valency on the activation of TLR9 through the synthesis of ODN-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) conjugates. The compositions and size of the conjugates were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and dynamic light scattering. ELISA-based assays of cytokine secretion by murine-like macrophages indicate that these ODN-PAA polymer conjugates show enhanced immunostimulation at 100-fold lower concentrations than those required for ODN alone, for both TNF-α and IL-6 release, and are more potent than any other previously reported multivalent ODN constructs. Increasing valency was shown to significantly enhance cytokine expression, particularly for IL-6. Knockdown by siRNA demonstrates that these polymer conjugates are specific to TLR9. Our results define valency as a critical design parameter and polymer conjugation as an advantageous strategy for producing ODN immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24316364

  6. DNA-polymer conjugates for immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 9 mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Eric A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2014-03-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide motifs are agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 and are currently being investigated for use as vaccine adjuvants through the promotion of type I immunity. Several classes of ODN have been developed which differ in their propensity to aggregate, which in turn alters cytokine profiles and cellular subsets activated. Although aggregation state is correlated with the change in cytokine response, it is unknown if this results from a change in the number of ODNs available for binding and/or the possible engagement of multiple TLR9 molecules. Here, we examined the role of ligand valency on the activation of TLR9 through the synthesis of ODN-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) conjugates. The compositions and size of the conjugates were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography and dynamic light scattering. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of cytokine secretion by murine-like macrophages indicate that these ODN-PAA polymer conjugates show enhanced immunostimulation at 100-fold lower concentrations than those required for ODN alone, for both TNF-α and IL-6 release, and are more potent than any other previously reported multivalent ODN constructs. Increasing valency was shown to significantly enhance cytokine expression, particularly for IL-6. Knockdown by siRNA demonstrates that these polymer conjugates are specific to TLR9. Our results define valency as a critical design parameter and polymer conjugation as an advantageous strategy for producing ODN immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24316364

  7. Shape Transformation Following Reduction-Sensitive PEG Cleavage of Polymer/DNA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Williford, John-Michael; Ren, Yong; Huang, Kevin; Pan, Deng; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2014-01-01

    PEGylated polycation/DNA micellar nanoparticles have been developed that can undergo shape transformation upon cleavage of the PEG grafts in response to an environmental cue. As a proof-of-principle, DNA nanoparticles with higher PEG grafting density adopting long, worm- and rod-like morphologies, transition to more condensed nanoparticles with spherical and short-rod morphologies upon cleavage of a fraction of the PEG grafts from the copolymer. This shape transformation leads to increased surface charges, correlating with improved transfection efficiency. PMID:25530853

  8. Cationic lipid-mediated nucleic acid delivery: beyond being cationic.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Madhusudhana

    2010-03-01

    Realization of the potential of nucleic acids as drugs is intricately linked to their in vivo delivery. Cationic lipids demonstrated tremendous potential as safe, efficient and scalable in vitro carriers of nucleic acids. For in vivo delivery of nucleic acids, the extant two component liposomal preparations consisting of cationic lipids and nucleic acids have been largely found to be insufficient. Being a soft matter, liposomes readily respond to many physiological variables leading to complex component and morphological changes, thus confounding the efforts in a priori identification of a "competent" formulation. In the recent past many chemical moieties that provide advantage in facing the challenges of barriers in vivo, were incorporated into cationic lipids to improve the transfection efficiency. The cationic lipids, essential for DNA condensation and protection, definitely require additional components to be efficient in vivo. In addition, formulations of cationic lipid carriers with non-lipidic components, mainly peptides, have demonstrated success in in vivo transfection. The present review describes some recent successes of in vivo nucleic acid delivery by cationic lipids. PMID:20060819

  9. Electrophoretic detection and separation of mutant DNA using replaceable polymer matrices

    DOEpatents

    Karger, B.L.; Thilly, W.G.; Foret, F.; Khrapko, K.; Koehavong, P.; Cohen, A.S.; Giese, R.W.

    1997-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a method for resolving double-stranded DNA species differing by at least one base pair. Each of the species is characterized by an iso-melting domain with a unique melting temperature contiguous with a melting domain of higher thermal stability. 18 figs.

  10. Electrophoretic detection and separation of mutant DNA using replaceable polymer matrices

    DOEpatents

    Karger, Barry L.; Thilly, William G.; Foret, Frantisek; Khrapko, Konstaintin; Koehavong, Phouthone; Cohen, Aharon S.; Giese, Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method for resolving double-stranded DNA species differing by at least one base pair. Each of the species is characterized by an iso-melting domain with a unique melting temperature contiguous with a melting domain of higher thermal stability.

  11. N,N,N-trimethylchitosan modified with well defined multifunctional polymer modules used as pDNA delivery vector.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongqi; Liu, Shuai; Yang, Jixiang; Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Jiatong; Guo, Tianying

    2016-02-10

    A novel non-viral gene carrier based on N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMC) has been fabricated. First, well-defined copolymer P(PEGMA-co-DMAEMA) was synthesized through reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and N,N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylamide (DMAEMA). Then allyl group grafting N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (Allyl-TMC) was synthesized via the reaction between allyl bromide and hydroxyl of TMC. Finally, P(PEGMA-co-DMAEMA) and folate were ordinally grafted onto Allyl-TMC to obtain TMC-g-P(PEGMA-co-DMAEMA)-FA. In comparison with pristine chitosan, TMC-g-P(PEGMA-co-DMAEMA)-FA has achieved both better water solubility and stronger pDNA packaging ability, which can contribute to improving gene transfection. Gene delivery efficiency of a series of TMC based functional polymers with different chitosan molecular weights has been tested. The results show that 20k-TMC-g-P(PEGMA-co-DMAEMA)-FA/pDNA complex at the weight ratio of 20 achieve the highest transfection efficiency in 293 T cells. This work presents a new strategy to modify chitosan efficiently as gene carrier material. PMID:26686124

  12. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to < 0.01 Mbp, is modeled using computer simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  13. Using Temperature-Sensitive Smart Polymers to Regulate DNA-mediated Nanoassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Kristen L.

    Nanoparticle (NP) self-assembly has been proven as an effective route to organize nanoscale building blocks into ordered structures for potential technological applications. In order to successfully exploit the self-assembly processes a high level of direction and control is required. In my dissertation research, I synthesized a temperature responsive copolymer (p) to modify gold nanoparticles (AuNP) for controlling self-assembly. The copolymers' ability to regulate DNA-mediated NP self-assembly is a particular focus. In Chapter 2, the results show that by the addition of the p to create thermally responsive NP interfaces allows for controlled aggregation behavior and interparticle distances defined by the transition temperature (TC) of the p, to aid in NP assembly and help to regulate DNA-mediated interactions between NP. The work in Chapter 3 revealed that the reconfigurable conformation of the p sterically regulates the assembly: at T < TC, the chains extended beyond the hydrodynamic reach of the single stranded DNA and prohibited recognition, while at T > TC, assembly was observed, due the hydrophobic collapse of the p and the subsequent exposure of the complementary DNA bases. In Chapter 4, to gain insight into the mechanism, the rate of assembly was monitored, with DNA lengths that had hydrodynamic diameters more comparable to that of the p, and found the p was capable of slowing the kinetics. I further investigated to find that the addition of p extended the interparticle distances while disrupting the long range ordering. Finally, how the temperature responsive behavior of the p acted on the interparticle distances was probed, and it was found that without p, the interparticle distances expanded, while the addition of p compressed the interparticle distances.

  14. Reducible, Dibromomaleimide-linked Polymers for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, James-Kevin Y.; Choi, Jennifer L.; Wei, Hua; Schellinger, Joan G.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2014-01-01

    Polycations have been successfully used as gene transfer vehicles both in vitro and in vivo; however, their cytotoxicity has been associated with increasing molecular weight. Polymers that can be rapidly degraded after internalization are typically better tolerated by mammalian cells compared to their non-degradable counterparts. Here, we report the use of a dibromomaleimide-alkyne (DBM-alkyne) linking agent to reversibly bridge cationic polymer segments for gene delivery and to provide site-specific functionalization by azidealkyne cycloaddition chemistry. A panel of reducible and non-reducible, statistical copolymers of (2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) were synthesized and evaluated. When complexed with plasmid DNA, the reducible and non-reducible polymers had comparable DNA condensation properties, sizes, and transfection efficiencies. When comparing cytotoxicity, the DBM-linked, reducible polymers were significantly less toxic than the non-reducible polymers. To demonstrate polymer functionalization by click chemistry, the DBM-linked polymers were tagged with an azidefluorophore and were used to monitor cellular uptake. Overall, this polymer system introduces the use of a reversible linker, DBM-alkyne, to the area of gene delivery and allows for facile, orthogonal, and site-specific functionalization of gene delivery vehicles. PMID:25485106

  15. Cation-pi interactions as a mechanism in technical lignin adsorption to cationic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Karthik V; Renneckar, Scott

    2009-04-13

    The assembly of dissolved technical lignins in aqueous and organic medium has been studied at the solid-liquid interface. Adsorption of alkali lignin onto gold coated crystals treated with a cationic polymer was determined using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Complete coverage of the cationic surface with alkali lignin occurred at low solution concentration, revealing a high affinity coefficient under both alkali and neutral conditions. With additional adsorption studies from organosolv lignin in organic solvent and spectroscopic analysis of mixtures of cationic polymer and alkali lignin, a noncovalent interaction between lignin's aromatic rings and the cation of the quaternary ammonium group was shown to exist. The work underscores how polyphenolic biopolymers can strongly interact with cations through noncovalent interactions to control molecular architecture. PMID:19226174

  16. Synthesis and Structure of a New Copper(II) Coordination Polymer Alternately Bridged by Oxamido and Carboxylate Groups: Evaluation of DNA/BSA Binding and Cytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Ting; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-08-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) copper(II) coordination polymer {[Cu2 (dmaepox)(dabt)](NO3) · 0.5 H2 O}n , where H3 dmaepox and dabt denote N-benzoato-N'-(3-methylaminopropyl)oxamide and 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole, respectively, was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and other methods. The crystal structure analysis revealed that the two copper(II) ions are bridged alternately by cis-oxamido and carboxylato groups to form a 1-D coordination polymer with the corresponding Cu · · · Cu separations of 5.1946(19) and 5.038(2) Å. There is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure constructed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions in the crystal. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that the copper(II) polymer can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The in vitro cytotoxicity suggested that the copper(II) polymer exhibits cytotoxic effects against the selected tumor cell lines. PMID:25940657

  17. The influence of the cations of salts on the electrochemical stability of a solid polymer electrolyte based on segmented poly(ether urethane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Nam-Ju; Kim, Min-Kyung; Kang, Sung-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on segmented poly(ether urethane) (SPEU) and lithium perchlorate or magnesium perchlorate (LiClO4 or Mg(ClO4)2) were prepared. By analyzing the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the SPE, it was confirmed that the interaction of the magnesium ion with the oxygen of the polyether chain was stronger than that of the lithium ion. The highest ionic conductivities of 1.5×10-5 and 4.5×10-6 S cm-1 were obtained at room temperature for the SPEs containing LiClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2, respectively. The results of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) show that an SPE consisting of SPEU and magnesium salt has good electrochemical stability up to the working voltage of 1.9 V at [O]/[Mg2+]=50.

  18. A zwitterionic 1D/2D polymer co-crystal and its polymorphic sub-components: a highly selective sensing platform for HIV ds-DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Qing; Yang, Shui-Ping; Ding, Ni-Ni; Qin, Liang; Qiu, Gui-Hua; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hor, T S Andy

    2016-03-15

    Polymorphic compounds {[Cu(dcbb)2(H2O)2]·10H2O}n (, 1D chain), [Cu(dcbb)2]n (, 2D layer) and their co-crystal {[Cu(dcbb)2(H2O)][Cu(dcbb)2]2}n () have been prepared from the coordination reaction of a 2D polymer [Na(dcbb)(H2O)]n (, H2dcbbBr = 1-(3,5-dicarboxybenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium bromide) with Cu(NO3)2·3H2O at different temperatures in water. Compounds have an identical metal-to-ligand stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, but absolutely differ in structure. Compound features a 2D layer structure with aromatic rings, positively charged pyridinium and free carboxylates on its surface, promoting electrostatic, π-stacking and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions with the carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled probe single-stranded DNA (probe ss-DNA, delineates as P-DNA). The resultant P-DNA@ system facilitated fluorescence quenching of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer process. The P-DNA@ system functions as an efficient fluorescent sensor selective for HIV double-stranded DNA (HIV ds-DNA) due to the formation of a rigid triplex structure with the recovery of FAM fluorescence. The system reported herein also distinguishes complementary HIV ds-DNA from mismatched target DNA sequences with the detection limit of 1.42 nM. PMID:26883749

  19. Cationic polymethacrylates with covalently linked membrane destabilizing peptides as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Funhoff, Arjen M; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Lok, Martin C; Kruijtzer, John A W; Crommelin, Daan J A; Hennink, Wim E

    2005-01-01

    A membrane-disrupting peptide derived from the influenza virus was covalently linked to different polymethacrylates (pDMAEMA, pDAMA and the degradable pHPMA-DMAE, monomers depicted in Fig. 1) using N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP) as coupling agent to increase the transfection efficiency of polyplexes based on these polymers. It was shown by circular dichroism (CD) measurements that the polymer-conjugated peptide was, as the free peptide, able to undergo a conformational change of a random coil to an alpha helix upon lowering the pH to 5.0. This indicates that the property of the peptide to destabilize the endosomal membrane was preserved after its conjugation to the cationic polymers. In line herewith, a liposome leakage assay revealed that the polymer-bound peptide has comparable activity as the free peptide. The DNA condensing properties of the synthesized polymer-peptide conjugates were studied with dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential measurements, and it was shown that small (100 to 250 nm), positively charged (+15 to +20 mV) particles were formed. In vitro transfection and toxicity was tested in COS-7 cells, and these experiments showed that the polyplexes with grafted peptide had a substantially higher transfection activity than the control polyplexes, while the toxicity remained unchanged. Cellular uptake of the polyplexes was visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and no differences in cellular uptake could be determined between the peptide containing systems and the control formulation. This shows that the increased transfection activity is indeed due to a better endosomal escape of the peptide grafted polyplexes. This study demonstrates that it is possible to covalently conjugate an endosome disruptive peptide to cationic gene delivery polymers with preservation of its membrane destabilization activity, making these conjugates suitable for in vivo DNA delivery. PMID:15588908

  20. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on cationic iridium(III) complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit as the auxiliary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huaijun; Wei, Liying; Meng, Guoyun; Li, Yanhu; Wang, Guanze; Yang, Furui; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A 1,10-phenanthroline derivative (co-phen) containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit was synthesized and used as the auxiliary ligand in cationic iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine) and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (npy: 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)pyridine). Two complexes have high thermal stability with the glass-transition temperatures (Tg) of 207 °C and 241 °C, and the same 5% weight-reduction temperatures (ΔT5%) of 402 °C. Both of them were used as phosphorescent dopants in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs): ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: PBD: complex (mass ratios 100: 40: x, x = 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0)/CsF/Al. The maximum luminances of the PLEDs using [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 were 12567 cd m-2 and 11032 cd m-2, the maximum luminance efficiencies were 17.3 cd A-1 and 20.4 cd A-1, the maximum power efficiencies were 9.8 lm W-1 and 10.3 lm W-1, and the maximum external quantum efficiencies were 9.3% and 11.4% respectively. The CIE color coordinates were around (0.37, 0.57) and (0.44, 0.54) respectively, corresponding to the yellow green region.

  1. A novel strategy for highly efficient isolation and analysis of circulating tumor-specific cell-free DNA from lung cancer patients using a reusable conducting polymer nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Lee, HyungJae; Jeon, SeungHyun; Seo, Jin-Suck; Goh, Sung-Ho; Han, Ji-Youn; Cho, Youngnam

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a reusable nanostructured polypyrrole nanochip and demonstrated its use in the electric field-mediated recovery of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of lung cancer patients. Although cfDNA has been recognized and widely studied as a versatile and promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers, the lack of efficient strategies to directly isolate cfDNA from the plasma has become a great hindrance to its potential clinical use. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated a technique for the rapid and efficient isolation of cfDNA with high yield and purity. In particular, the synergistic effects of the electro-activity and the nanostructured features of the polypyrrole polymer enabled repeated retrieval of cfDNA using a single platform. Moreover, polypyrrole nanochip facilitated the amplification of tumor-specific DNA fragments from the plasma samples of patients with lung cancer characterized by mutations in exons 21 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR). Overall, the proposed polypyrrole nanochip has enormous potential for industrial and clinical applications with significantly enhanced efficiency in the recovery of tumor-associated circulating cfDNA. This may ultimately contribute to more robust and reliable evaluation of gene mutations in peripheral blood. PMID:27294542

  2. Oligonucleotide and polymer functionalized nanoparticles for amplification-free detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David A C; Tee, Ernest H L; Tran, Nguyen T D; Monteiro, Michael J; Cooper, Matthew A

    2012-06-11

    Sensitive and quantitative nucleic acid testing from complex biological samples is now an important component of clinical diagnostics. Whereas nucleic acid amplification represents the gold standard, its utility in resource-limited and point-of-care settings can be problematic due to assay interferants, assay time, engineering constraints, and costs associated with both wetware and hardware. In contrast, amplification-free nucleic acid testing can circumvent these limitations by enabling direct target hybridization within complex sample matrices. In this work, we grew random copolymer brushes from the surface of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles using azide-modified and hydroxyl oligo ethylene glycol methacrylate (OEGMA) monomers. The azide-functionalized polymer brush was first conjugated, via copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific oligonucleotides and then with alkyne-substituted polyethylene glycol to eliminate all residual azide groups. Our methodology enabled control over brush thickness and probe density and enabled multiple consecutive coupling reactions on the particle grafted brush. Brush- and probe-modified particles were then combined in a 20 min hybridization with fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles modified with HSV-specific reporter probes. Following magnetic capture and washing, the particles were analyzed with an aggregate fluorescence measurement, which yielded a limit of detection of 6 pM in buffer and 60 pM in 50% fetal bovine serum. Adoption of brush- and probe-modified particles into a particle counting assay will result in the development of diagnostic assays with significant improvements in sensitivity. PMID:22612382

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies on the DNA-binding of cationic yttrium(III) complex containing 2,2‧-bipyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Akbari, Alireza; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of DNA with [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3, where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine has been studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis as well as EB quenching experiments are used to study DNA binding of the complex. The results reveal that DNA have the strong ability to bind with Y(III) complex. The binding constant, Kb and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV are determined. For characterization of the binding mode between the Y(III) complex and DNA various procedures such as: iodide quenching assay, salt effect and thermodynamical investigation are used. The results suggest that minor groove binding should be the interaction mode of complex to DNA. A gel electrophoresis assay demonstrates the ability of the complex to cleave the DNA via oxidative pathway. Electronic structure of [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3 was also carried out applying the density functional theory (DFT) method and applied to explain some obtained experimental observations.

  4. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  5. Chemical vectors for gene delivery: a current review on polymers, peptides and lipids containing histidine or imidazole as nucleic acids carriers

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Yaouanc, Jean-Jacques; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2009-01-01

    DNA/cationic lipid (lipoplexes), DNA/cationic polymer (polyplexes) and DNA/cationic polymer/cationic lipid (lipopolyplexes) electrostatic complexes are proposed as non-viral nucleic acids delivery systems. These DNA-nanoparticles are taken up by the cells through endocytosis processes, but the low capacity of DNA to escape from endosomes is regarded as the major limitations of their transfection efficiency. Here, we present a current report on a particular class of carriers including the polymers, peptides and lipids, which is based on the exploitation of the imidazole ring as an endosome destabilization device to favour the nucleic acids delivery in the cytosol. The imidazole ring of histidine is a weak base that has the ability to acquire a cationic charge when the pH of the environment drops bellow 6. As it has been demonstrated for poly(histidine), this phenomena can induce membrane fusion and/or membrane permeation in an acidic medium. Moreover, the accumulation of histidine residues inside acidic vesicles can induce a proton sponge effect, which increases their osmolarity and their swelling. The proof of concept has been shown with polylysine partially substituted with histidine residues that has caused a dramatic increase by 3–4.5 orders of magnitude of the transfection efficiency of DNA/polylysine polyplexes. Then, several histidine-rich polymers and peptides as well as lipids with imidazole, imidazolinium or imidazolium polar head have been reported to be efficient carriers to deliver nucleic acids including genes, mRNA or SiRNA in vitro and in vivo. More remarkable, histidylated carriers are often weakly cytotoxic, making them promising chemical vectors for nucleic acids delivery. This article is part of a themed section on Vector Design and Drug Delivery. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 PMID:19459843

  6. Ionic current inversion in pressure-driven polymer translocation through nanopores.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Blossey, Ralf; Ala-Nissila, T

    2015-02-27

    We predict streaming current inversion with multivalent counterions in hydrodynamically driven polymer translocation events from a correlation-corrected charge transport theory including charge fluctuations around mean-field electrostatics. In the presence of multivalent counterions, electrostatic many-body effects result in the reversal of the DNA charge. The attraction of anions to the charge-inverted DNA molecule reverses the sign of the ionic current through the pore. Our theory allows for a comprehensive understanding of the complex features of the resulting streaming currents. The underlying mechanism is an efficient way to detect DNA charge reversal in pressure-driven translocation experiments with multivalent cations. PMID:25768784

  7. Ionic Current Inversion in Pressure-Driven Polymer Translocation through Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Blossey, Ralf; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2015-02-01

    We predict streaming current inversion with multivalent counterions in hydrodynamically driven polymer translocation events from a correlation-corrected charge transport theory including charge fluctuations around mean-field electrostatics. In the presence of multivalent counterions, electrostatic many-body effects result in the reversal of the DNA charge. The attraction of anions to the charge-inverted DNA molecule reverses the sign of the ionic current through the pore. Our theory allows for a comprehensive understanding of the complex features of the resulting streaming currents. The underlying mechanism is an efficient way to detect DNA charge reversal in pressure-driven translocation experiments with multivalent cations.

  8. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  9. Effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose on glucose tolerance and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholestyramine is a cationic polymer prescribed to lower cholesterol in humans. We investigated the effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) on weight loss and metabolic disorders associated with obesity using both hamster and diet-induced obese mouse models. Golden Syrian hamsters and ob...

  10. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Five water-soluble zwitterionic copper(II)-carboxylate polymers: role of dipyridyl coligands in enhancing the DNA-binding, cleaving and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Shui-Ping; Li, Huan-Huan; Zhao, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Five water-soluble zwitterionic copper-carboxylate polymers were prepared from the reaction of N-carboxymethyl-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide (H3CmdcpBr) with Cu(NO3)2 in the presence of NaOH by modulating the temperature, solvent and ancillary dipyridyl ligands. These complexes include a 1D ladder-shaped polymer {[Cu3(Cmdcp)2(OH)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n () formed in H2O at room temperature, and a 2D network polymer {[Cu(Cmdcp) (H2O)2]·2H2O}n () isolated in H2O at 135 °C. At 100 °C in H2O/DMF, the same reaction in the presence of an additional 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) gave a 2D zwitterionic complex {[Cu(Cmdcp)(bipy)]·3H2O}n () together with a 1D double-stranded polymer {[Cu(Cmdcp)(H2O)2]·H2O}n () as a minor product. The replacement of bipy with phenanthroline (phen) afforded a 1D zigzag polymer chain {[Cu(Cmdcp)(phen)(H2O)]2·9H2O}5 (). All these complexes were characterized by IR, elemental analyses and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Agarose gel electrophoresis (GE) and ethidium bromide (EB) displacement experiments indicated that complex exhibited the highest pBR322 DNA cleaving ability with the catalytic efficiency (kmax/KM) of 14.80 h(-1) mM(-1) and the highest binding affinity toward calf-thymus DNA. The MTT assay indicated that complex showed significant inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of several tumor cells. Its IC50 value was at micromolar level and lower than those of cisplatin and complexes , especially toward resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell A549. PMID:26131732

  12. Generation of a Focused Poly(amino ether) Library: Polymer-mediated Transgene Delivery and Gold-Nanorod based Theranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lucas; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    A focused library of twenty-one cationic poly(amino ethers) was synthesized following ring-opening polymerization of two diglycidyl ethers by different oligoamines. The polymers were screened in parallel for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery, and transgene expression efficacies of individual polymers were compared to those of 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Seven lead polymers that demonstrated higher transgene expression than PEI in pancreatic and prostate cancer cells lines were identified from the screen. All seven lead polymers showed highest transgene expression at a polymer:pDNA weight ratio of 5:1 in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. Among the conditions studied, transgene expression efficacy correlated with minimal polymer cytotoxicity but not polyplex sizes. In addition, this study indicated that methylene spacing between amine centers in the monomers, amine content, and molecular weight of the polymers are all significant factors and should be considered when designing polymers for transgene delivery. A lead effective polymer was employed for coating gold nanorods, leading to theranostic nanoassemblies that possess combined transgene delivery and optical imaging capabilities, leading to potential theranostic systems. PMID:23382773

  13. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies on the Multilamellae Formed by Mixing Lamella-Forming Cationic Diblock Copolymers with Lipids and Their Interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Po-Wei; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Liu, I-Ting; Hu, Yuan; Jeng, U-Ser; Gilbert, Elliot Paul

    2016-02-23

    We demonstrate that the lamella-forming polystyrene-block-poly(N-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium iodine) (PS-b-P4VPQ), with similar sizes of the PS and P4VPQ blocks, can be dispersed in the aqueous solutions by forming lipid/PS-b-P4VPQ multilamellae. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (d62-DPPC) in D2O, a broad correlation peak is found in the scattering profile that signifies the formation of the loosely ordered d62-DPPC/PS-b-P4VPQ multilamellae. The thicknesses of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers of the d62-DPPC/PS-b-P4VPQ multilamellae are close to the PS layer and the condensed brush layer thicknesses as determined from previous neutron reflectometry studies on the PS-b-P4VPQ monolayer at the air-water interface. Such well-dispersed d62-DPPC/PS-b-P4VPQ multilamellae are capable of forming multilamellae with DNA in aqueous solution. It is found that the encapsulation of DNA in the hydrophilic layer of the d62-DPPC/PS-b-P4VPQ multilamellae slightly increases the thickness of the hydrophilic layer. Adding CaCl2 can enhance the DNA adsorption in the hydrophilic brush layer, and it is similar to that observed in the neutron reflectometry study of the DNA adsorption by the PS-b-P4VPQ monolayer. PMID:26818185

  14. Cationic Lipid-Formulated DNA Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus: Immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 Vectors Encoding Small and Large Surface Antigen in Comparison to a Licensed Protein Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Endmann, Anne; Klünder, Katharina; Kapp, Kerstin; Riede, Oliver; Oswald, Detlef; Talman, Eduard G.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L) protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals. PMID:24992038

  15. Cationized gelatin hydrogels mixed with plasmid DNA induce stronger and more sustained gene expression than atelocollagen at calvarial bone defects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Shibata, T; Shimada, A; Ideno, H; Nakashima, K; Tabata, Y; Nifuji, A

    2016-01-01

    Gene transduction of exogenous factors at local sites in vivo is a promising approach to promote regeneration of tissue defects owing to its simplicity and capacity for expression of a variety of genes. Gene transduction by viral vectors is highly efficient; however, there are safety concerns associated with viruses. As a method for nonviral gene transduction, plasmid DNA delivery is safer and simpler, but requires an efficient carrier substance. Here, we aimed to develop a simple, efficient method for bone regeneration by gene transduction and to identify optimal conditions for plasmid DNA delivery at bone defect sites. We focused on carrier substances and compared the efficiencies of two collagen derivatives, atelocollagen, and gelatin hydrogel, as substrates for plasmid DNA delivery in vivo. To assess the efficiencies of these substrates, we examined exogenous expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) by fluorescence microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. GFP expression at the bone defect site was higher when gelatin hydrogel was used as a substrate to deliver plasmids than when atelocollagen was used. Moreover, the gelatin hydrogel was almost completely absorbed at the defect site, whereas some atelocollagen remained. When a plasmid harboring bone morphogenic protein 2 was delivered with the substrate to bony defect sites, more new bone formation was observed in the gelatin group than in the atelocollagen group. These results suggested that the gelatin hydrogel was more efficient than atelocollagen as a substrate for local gene delivery and may be a superior material for induction of bone regeneration. PMID:26848778

  16. Timed-release polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen T D; Truong, Nghia P; Gu, Wenyi; Jia, Zhongfan; Cooper, Matthew A; Monteiro, Michael J

    2013-02-11

    Triggered-release of encapsulated therapeutics from nanoparticles without remote or environmental triggers was demonstrated in this work. Disassembly of the polymer nanoparticles to unimers at precise times allowed the controlled release of oligo DNA. The polymers used in this study consisted of a hydrophilic block for stabilization and second thermoresponsive block for self-assembly and disassembly. At temperatures below the second block's LCST (i.e., below 37 °C for in vitro assays), the diblock copolymer was fully water-soluble, and when heated to 37 °C, the polymer self-assembled into a narrow size distribution of nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 25 nm. The thermoresponsive nature of the second block could be manipulated in situ by the self-catalyzed degradation of cationic 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate (DMAEA) units to negatively charged acrylic acid groups and when the amount of acid groups was sufficiently high to increase the LCST of the second block above 37 °C. The disassembly of the nanoparticles could be controlled from 10 to 70 h. The use of these nanoparticles as a combined therapy, in which one or more agents can be released in a predetermined way, has the potential to improve the personal point of care treatment of patients. PMID:23298322

  17. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  18. Probability of DNA knotting and the effective diameter of the DNA double helix.

    PubMed Central

    Rybenkov, V V; Cozzarelli, N R; Vologodskii, A V

    1993-01-01

    During the random cyclization of long polymer chains, knots of different types are formed. We investigated experimentally the distribution of knot types produced by random cyclization of phage P4 DNA via its long cohesive ends. The simplest knots (trefoils) predominated, but more complex knots were also detected. The fraction of knots greatly diminished with decreasing solution Na+ concentration. By comparing these experimental results with computer simulations of knotting probability, we calculated the effective diameter of the DNA double helix. This important excluded-volume parameter is a measure of the electrostatic repulsion between segments of DNA molecules. The calculated effective DNA diameter is a sensitive function of electrolyte concentration and is several times larger than the geometric diameter in solutions of low monovalent cation concentration. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8506378

  19. A multi-field approach to DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shi-Yong; Jia, Jun-Li

    2015-12-01

    DNA condensation is an important process in many fields including life sciences, polymer physics, and applied technology. In the nucleus, DNA is condensed into chromosomes. In polymer physics, DNA is treated as a semi-flexible molecule and a polyelectrolyte. Many agents, including multi-valent cations, surfactants, and neutral poor solvents, can cause DNA condensation, also referred to as coil-globule transition. Moreover, DNA condensation has been used for extraction and gene delivery in applied technology. Many physical theories have been presented to elucidate the mechanism underlying DNA condensation, including the counterion correlation theory, the electrostatic zipper theory, and the hydration force theory. Recently several single-molecule studies have focused on DNA condensation, shedding new light on old concepts. In this document, the multi-field concepts and theories related to DNA condensation are introduced and clarified as well as the advances and considerations of single-molecule DNA condensation experiments are introduced. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21204065 and 20934004) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y4110357).

  20. Cationic Lipid-Based Nucleic Acid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Jubeli, Emile; Goldring, William P D; Pungente, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids into cells remains an important laboratory cell culture technique and potential clinical therapy, based upon the initial cellular uptake, then translation into protein (in the case of DNA), or gene deletion by RNA interference (RNAi). Although viral delivery vectors are more efficient, the high production costs, limited cargo capacity, and the potential for clinical adverse events make nonviral strategies attractive. Cationic lipids are the most widely applied and studied nonviral vectors; however, much remains to be solved to overcome limitations of these systems. Advances in the field of cationic lipid-based nucleic acid (lipoplex) delivery rely upon the development of robust and reproducible lipoplex formulations, together with the use of cell culture assays. This chapter provides detailed protocols towards the formulation, delivery, and assessment of in vitro cationic lipid-based delivery of DNA. PMID:27436310

  1. Localization properties of electronic states in a polaron model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Starikov, E B; Hennig, D; Archilla, J F R

    2005-06-01

    We numerically investigate localization properties of electronic states in a static model of poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA polymers with realistic parameters obtained by quantum-chemical calculation. The randomness in the on-site energies caused by the electron-phonon coupling is completely correlated to the off-diagonal parts. In the single electron model, the effect of the hydrogen-bond stretchings, the twist angles between the base pairs and the finite system size effects on the energy dependence of the localization length and on the Lyapunov exponent are given. The localization length is reduced by the influence of the fluctuations in the hydrogen bond stretchings. It is also shown that the helical twist angle affects the localization length in the poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA polymer more strongly than in the poly(dA)-poly(dT) one. Furthermore, we show resonance structures in the energy dependence of the localization length when the system size is relatively small. PMID:15906117

  2. Junctional region sequences of T-cell receptor beta-chain genes expressed by pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibody-inducing helper T cells from lupus mice: possible selection by cationic autoantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, S; Leblanc, P; Datta, S K

    1991-01-01

    We rescued from the spleens of 10 (SWR x NZB)F1 (SNF1) mice with lupus nephritis the T cells that were activated in vivo and cloned 268 T-cell lines and hybridomas. Only 12% of these T-cell clones had the functional ability to preferentially augment the production of pathogenic anti-DNA autoantibodies. Among these, 16 helper T-cell (Th-cell) clones that were mostly CD4+ and had the strongest autoantibody-inducing ability were analyzed for T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain gene usage. Seven of the 16 Th-cell clones expressed beta-chain variable region (V beta) V beta 8 (8.2 or 8.3) genes and three expressed V beta 4, whereas two clones each used a V beta 1 or V beta 2 or V beta 14 gene, suggesting some restriction in TCR gene usage. Although heterogeneous, the V-D-J junctional region sequences of TCR beta-chain genes used by these Th-cell clones invariably encoded one or more negatively charged residues (aspartic or glutamic acid) that had been generated in most cases by unspecified nucleotide (N) additions. Representative pathogenic autoantibody-inducing Th-cell clones could rapidly induce the development of lupus nephritis when injected into young prenephritic SNF1 mice. The pathogenic autoantibody-inducing Th cells expressing the anionic residues in their TCR beta-chain junctions (complementarity-determining region CDR3) were probably selected by some cationic autoantigenic peptide presented by the anti-DNA B cells they preferentially helped. These results offer a clue regarding the nature of the primary autoantigen that may drive the pathogenic autoimmune response in lupus. Images PMID:1837146

  3. Tuning Cationic Block Copolymer Micelle Size by pH and Ionic Strength.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Dustin; Jiang, Yaming; Laaser, Jennifer E; Lodge, Timothy P; Reineke, Theresa M

    2016-09-12

    The formation, morphology, and pH and ionic strength responses of cationic block copolymer micelles in aqueous solutions have been examined in detail to provide insight into the future development of cationic micelles for complexation with polyanions such as DNA. Diblock polymers composed of a hydrophilic/cationic block of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and a hydrophobic/nonionic block of n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) were synthesized [denoted as DMAEMA-b-BMA (X-Y), where X = DMAEMA molecular weight and Y = molecular weight of BMA in kDa]. Four variants were created with block molecular weights of 14-13, 14-23, 27-14, 27-29 kDa and low dispersities less than 1.10. The amphiphilic polymers self-assembled in aqueous conditions into core-shell micelles that ranged in size from 25-80 nm. These cationic micelles were extensively characterized in terms of size and net charge in different buffers over a wide range of ionic strength (0.02-1 M) and pH (5-10) conditions. The micelle core is kinetically trapped, and the corona contracts with increasing pH and ionic strength, consistent with previous work on micelles with glassy polystyrene cores, indicating that the corona properties are independent of the dynamics of the micelle core. The contraction and extension of the corona scales with solution ionic strength and charge fraction of the amine groups. The aggregation numbers of the micelles were obtained by static light scattering, and the Rg/Rh ratios are close to that of a hard sphere. The zeta potentials of the micelles were positive up to two pH units above the corona pKa, suggesting that applications relying on micelle charge for stability should be viable over a wide range of solution conditions. PMID:27487088

  4. A cationic liposome-DNA complexes adjuvant (JVRS-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Xiangjie; Fairman, Jeffery; Lewis, David B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min; Tumpey, Terrence M; Lu, Xiuhua

    2016-05-01

    Influenza A (H5N1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. As inactivated H5N1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine in humans. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC). After the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were detected in ferrets immunized with adjuvanted vaccine compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. Following a second dose of adjuvanted vaccine, HAI antibody titers of ≥ 40 were detected against viruses from multiple H5N1 clades. HAI antibodies against newly isolated H5N2 and H5N8 viruses were also augmented by JVRS-100. Ferrets were challenged with a heterologous H5N1 virus. All ferrets that received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine exhibited mild illness, significantly reduced nasal wash virus titers and protection from lethal challenge. In contrast, ferrets that received unadjuvanted vaccine showed greater weight loss, high viral titers and 3 of 6 animals succumbed to the lethal challenge. Our results indicate that the addition of JVRS-100 to H5N1 vaccine enhanced immunogenicity and cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus disease in ferrets. JVRS-100 warrants further investigation as a potential adjuvant for influenza vaccines. PMID:26967975

  5. The cubyl cation rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Jalife, Said; Mondal, Sukanta; Cabellos, Jose Luis; Martinez-Guajardo, Gerardo; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A; Merino, Gabriel

    2016-02-25

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and high-level ab initio computations predict that the cage-opening rearrangement of the cubyl cation to the 7H(+)-pentalenyl cation is feasible in the gas phase. The rate-determining step is the formation of the cuneyl cation with an activation barrier of 25.3 kcal mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/def2-TZVP//MP2/def2-TZVP level. Thus, the cubyl cation is kinetically stable enough to be formed and trapped at moderate temperatures, but it may be rearranged at higher temperatures. PMID:26880646

  6. Comparison of the binding mode of plasmid DNA to allylamine plasma polymer and poly(ethylene glycol) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Andrew L.; Thissen, Helmut; Quinton, Jamie; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2008-05-01

    Concomitant with the development of advanced biomaterials and other biodevices, the precise control of biomolecule-surface interactions is becoming increasingly important. Of particular interest are devices presenting functional DNA either for hybridization or for uptake by cells. Such devices are poised to underpin advanced genomic studies and DNA therapy. However, these devices require an in-depth understanding of how specific biomolecules interact with particular surfaces. This report investigates how DNA interacts with two coatings commonly used for the control of protein and cell-surface interactions on biomedical devices, focusing on the nature of the DNA-surface interactions. The coatings were produced by allylamine plasma polymerization (ALAPP) and subsequent high-density grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). While the low protein binding nature of such coatings has been shown before, we show here that PEG grafted surfaces also exhibit significantly reduced attachment of double-stranded plasmid DNA with an equilibrium constant of 680 ml/mg as compared with 1600 ml/mg for ALAPP modified surfaces. Given these findings, there is scope to produce two-dimensionally controlled DNA adsorption patterns on spatially patterned ALAPP and PEG chemistries. Significantly, both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were shown to contribute to the binding of DNA to the ALAPP film. Finally, the ability to manipulate DNA by applying an electrical bias to these surfaces was also demonstrated.

  7. Poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) with well-defined chain-length for DNA vaccine delivery to dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weihang; Panus, David; Palumbo, R. Noelle; Tang, Rupei; Wang, Chun

    2011-01-01

    Poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEM) homopolymers with defined chain-length and narrow molecular weight distribution were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and a comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the colloidal properties of PAEM/plasmid DNA polyplexes, the uptake and subcellular trafficking of polyplexes in antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), and the biological performance of PAEM as a potential DNA vaccine carrier. PAEM of different chain-length (45, 75 and 150 repeating units) showed varying strength in condensing plasmid DNA into narrowly dispersed nanoparticles with very low cytotoxicity. Longer polymer chain-length resulted in higher levels of overall cellular uptake and nuclear uptake of plasmid DNA, but shorter polymer chains favored intracellular and intra-nuclear release of free plasmid from the polyplexes. Despite its simple chemical structure, PAEM transfected DCs very efficiently in vitro in media with or without serum and led to phenotypic maturation of DCs. When a model antigen-encoding ovalbumin plasmid was used, transfected DCs stimulated the activation of naïve CD8+ T cells to produce high levels of interferon-γ. The efficiency of transfection, DC maturation, and CD8+ T cell activation showed varying degrees of polymer chain-length dependence. These structurally defined cationic polymers may have much potential as efficient DNA vaccine carriers and immunostimulatory adjuvants. They may also serve as a model material system for elucidating structural and intracellular mechanisms of polymer-mediated DNA vaccine delivery. PMID:22082257

  8. Lipopolythioureas: a new non-cationic system for gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Jeanne; Mignet, Nathalie; Largeau, Céline; Spanedda, Maria-Vittoria; Seguin, Johanne; Scherman, Daniel; Herscovici, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A DNA-transfection protocol has been developed that makes use of thiourea non-cationic synthetic lipid, N-[1,3-bis(carbamothioylamino)propan-2-yl]-2-(dialkycarbamoylmethoxy)acetamide. It was found that these new compounds could be formulated without helper lipid and that the N-decanoyl and N-lauryl derivatives transfected B16 cells in the presence of serum with an efficiency at the same level as cationic lipids, under identical conditions. In vivo transfection using intratumoral injection was also investigated. It was found that compounds 18c and 19 showed an efficiency of the same magnitude as naked DNA and cationic lipid. PMID:17373770

  9. DNA acts as a nucleation site for transient cavitation in the ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Y K; Anchordoquy, T J; Lengsfeld, C S

    2006-03-01

    Several new technologies based upon ultrasound technology have been proposed as a method to enhance the delivery of genetic therapeutics. Using ultrasonic nebulization and a well-established method to quantitatively monitor transient cavitation, this study investigates the extent and factors influencing the degradation of DNA. Results from our studies show that the presence of DNA greatly enhances cavitation, and that the number of transient cavitation events also increases with the hydrodynamic diameter and number of DNA molecules in solution. More importantly, removing saturated gases from the plasmid DNA solutions resulted in a decrease in transient cavitation events but not degradation rate, suggesting that the cavitation event responsible for degradation occurs locally at the DNA molecule. Finally, complexing plasmid DNA with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine protected the native structure by reducing the molecule's potential to act as a heterogeneous nucleation site for transient cavitation. PMID:16432878

  10. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Objective is to use products from plant sources as monomers for direct production of polymers for plastic applications. (Epoxidized triglycerides as renewable monomers in photoinitiated cationic polymerization.) High-volume American agricultural products such as soybean, cotton or linseed oils or forestry products such as lignin and cellulose derived chemicals were targeted for use either directly or with slight modification for producing the plastics. Cationic photopolymerization will be used.

  11. Investigating the effects of block versus statistical glycopolycations containing primary and tertiary amines for plasmid DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Dustin; Reineke, Theresa M

    2014-07-14

    Polymer composition and morphology can affect the way polymers interact with biomolecules, cell membranes, and intracellular components. Herein, diblock, triblock, and statistical polymers that varied in charge center type (primary and/or tertiary amines) were synthesized to elucidate the role of polymer composition on plasmid DNA complexation, delivery, and cellular toxicity of the resultant polyplexes. The polymers were synthesized via RAFT polymerization and were composed of a carbohydrate moiety, 2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG), a primary amine group, N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (AEMA), and/or a tertiary amine moiety, N,N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylamide (DMAEMA). The lengths of both the carbohydrate and cationic blocks were kept constant while the primary amine to tertiary amine ratio was varied within the polymers. The polymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and the polyplex formulations with pDNA were characterized in various media using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Polyplexes formed with the block copolymers were found to be more colloidally stable than statistical copolymers with similar composition, which rapidly aggregated to micrometer sized particles. Also, polymers composed of a higher primary amine content were more colloidally stable than polymers consisting of the tertiary amine charge centers. Plasmid DNA internalization, transgene expression, and toxicity were examined with each polymer. As the amount of tertiary amine in the triblock copolymers increased, both gene expression and toxicity were found to increase. Moreover, it was found that increasing the content of tertiary amines imparted higher membrane disruption/destabilization. While both block and statistical copolymers had high transfection efficiencies, some of the statistical systems exhibited both higher transfection and toxicity than the analogous block polymers, potentially due to the lack of a

  12. Investigating the Effects of Block versus Statistical Glycopolycations Containing Primary and Tertiary Amines for Plasmid DNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polymer composition and morphology can affect the way polymers interact with biomolecules, cell membranes, and intracellular components. Herein, diblock, triblock, and statistical polymers that varied in charge center type (primary and/or tertiary amines) were synthesized to elucidate the role of polymer composition on plasmid DNA complexation, delivery, and cellular toxicity of the resultant polyplexes. The polymers were synthesized via RAFT polymerization and were composed of a carbohydrate moiety, 2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG), a primary amine group, N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (AEMA), and/or a tertiary amine moiety, N,N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylamide (DMAEMA). The lengths of both the carbohydrate and cationic blocks were kept constant while the primary amine to tertiary amine ratio was varied within the polymers. The polymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and the polyplex formulations with pDNA were characterized in various media using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Polyplexes formed with the block copolymers were found to be more colloidally stable than statistical copolymers with similar composition, which rapidly aggregated to micrometer sized particles. Also, polymers composed of a higher primary amine content were more colloidally stable than polymers consisting of the tertiary amine charge centers. Plasmid DNA internalization, transgene expression, and toxicity were examined with each polymer. As the amount of tertiary amine in the triblock copolymers increased, both gene expression and toxicity were found to increase. Moreover, it was found that increasing the content of tertiary amines imparted higher membrane disruption/destabilization. While both block and statistical copolymers had high transfection efficiencies, some of the statistical systems exhibited both higher transfection and toxicity than the analogous block polymers, potentially due to the lack of a

  13. Recent progress in gene therapy to deliver nucleic acids with multivalent cationic vectors.

    PubMed

    Junquera, Elena; Aicart, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    Due to the potential use as transfecting agents of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), multivalent cationic non-viral vectors have received special attention in the last decade. Much effort has been addressed to synthesize more efficient and biocompatible gene vectors able to transport nucleic acids into the cells without provoking an immune response. Among them, the mostly explored to compact and transfect nucleic acids are: (a) gemini and multivalent cationic lipids, mixed with a helper lipid, by forming lipoplexes; and (b) cationic polymers, polycations, and polyrotaxanes, by forming polyplexes. This review is focused on the progress and recent advances experimented in this area, mainly during the present decade, devoting special attention to the lipoplexes and polyplexes, as follows: (a) to its biophysical characterization (mainly electrostatics, structure, size and morphology) using a wide variety of experimental methods; and (b) to its biological activity (transfection efficacy and cytotoxicity) addressed to confirm the optimum formulations and viability of these complexes as very promising gene vectors of nucleic acids in nanomedicine. PMID:26265376

  14. DNA polymerase-mediated synthesis of unbiased threose nucleic acid (TNA) polymers requires 7-deazaguanine to suppress G:G mispairing during TNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Matthew R; Larsen, Andrew C; Zahurancik, Walter J; Fahmi, Nour Eddine; Meyers, Madeline; Suo, Zucai; Chaput, John C

    2015-04-01

    Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an unnatural genetic polymer capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution to generate folded molecules with ligand-binding activity. This property, coupled with a nuclease-resistant backbone, makes TNA an attractive candidate for future applications in biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that an engineered form of the Archaean replicative DNA polymerase 9°N, known commercially as Therminator DNA polymerase, can copy a three-letter genetic alphabet (A,T,C) from DNA into TNA. However, our ability to transcribe four-nucleotide libraries has been limited by chain termination events that prevent the synthesis of full-length TNA products. Here, we show that chain termination is caused by tG:dG mispairing in the enzyme active site. We demonstrate that the unnatural base analogue 7-deazaguanine (7dG) will suppress tGTP misincorporation by inhibiting the formation of Hoogsteen tG:dG base pairs. DNA templates that contain 7dG in place of natural dG residues replicate with high efficiency and >99% overall fidelity. Pre-steady-state kinetic measurements indicate that the rate of tCTP incorporation is 5-fold higher opposite 7dG than dG and only slightly lower than dCTP incorporation opposite either 7dG or dG. These results provide a chemical solution to the problem of how to synthesize large, unbiased pools of TNA molecules by polymerase-mediated synthesis. PMID:25785966

  15. Effect of dissolved organic material and cations on freeze-thaw conditioning of activated and alum sludges.

    PubMed

    Ormeci, B; Vesilind, P A

    2001-12-01

    Freeze-thaw conditioning effectively dewaters alum and activated sludges, but it works better on alum sludge than it does on activated sludge. The main difference between alum sludge and activated sludge is that activated sludge has high concentrations of both dissolved organic material and ions. Dissolved organic material and ions may possibly alter the freezing process and decrease the effectiveness of freeze-thaw conditioning on activated sludge. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of dissolved organic material and cations on freeze-thaw conditioning of sludges, and to improve the effectiveness of freeze-thaw conditioning on activated sludge. The results of this study show that although protein, carbohydrate and cation concentrations in activated sludge supernatant are initially high, they dramatically increase after freeze-thaw conditioning. The increase is likely to come from the release of extracellular and intracellular material to sludge supernatant. The observed increase in the DNA concentration in activated sludge supernatant after freeze-thaw conditioning indicates that freeze-thaw causes cell disruption. Alum sludge supernatant, on the other hand, initially contains low concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates and cations which do not noticeably change after freeze-thaw conditioning. When ECPs (extracellular polymers) and cations are extracted from activated sludge before freeze-thaw conditioning. the sludge settles and dewaters better after the freeze-thaw. The resulting aggregates are smaller and denser resembling the "coffee ground" aggregates of alum sludge. PMID:11763031

  16. Compaction of DNA with Lipid Modified Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarala, Sushma; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Ilies, Marc

    2012-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in modified inorganic nanoparticles, polymers or hybrid polymer-inorganic nanoparticles for use in DNA transfection, rather than viral vectors or liposomes. Adsorption of the DNA to the nanoparticles prevents enzymatic degradation of the DNA, although the reason for this protection is not completely understood. In order to compact the negatively charged DNA, a positively charged surface is required, and for transfection applications, the nanosystems must remain stable in suspension. It is also useful to minimize the amount of cytotoxic cationic lipid needed for DNA compaction in delivery applications. Here we investigate the colloidal stability of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) composed of mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC, 14:0 PC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DMTAP, 14:0 TAP), and their ability to compact plasmid DNA. Ionic strengths and DMPC/DMTAP ratios that resulted in SLB formation, no excess small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) in the suspensions, and colloidal stability, were determined. DNA/SLB/lipid ratios that resulted in compaction were then investigated.

  17. Multiplexed detection of protein cancer markers on Au/Ag-barcoded nanorods using fluorescent-conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiming; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    Integration of fluorescent-conjugated polymers as detection moiety with metallic striped nanorods for multiplexed detection of clinically important cancer marker proteins in an immunoassay format was demonstrated in this report. Specifically, cationic conjugated polymers were introduced to protein complexes through electrostatic binding to negatively charged double-stranded DNA, which was tagged on detection antibodies prior to antigen recognition. The intense fluorescence emission of conjugated polymers resulted in highly sensitive detection of cancer marker proteins wherein an undiluted bovine serum sample as low as approximately 25 target molecules captured on each particle was detectable. Meanwhile, the use of polymer molecules as the detection probe did not obscure the optical pattern of underlying nanorods, i.e., the encoding capability of barcoded nanorods was preserved, which allowed simultaneous detection of three cancer marker proteins with good specificity. PMID:20496173

  18. Bioreducible cross-linked polymers based on G1 peptide dendrimer as potential gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Hai-Jiao; Cao, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-11-24

    A series of cationic polymers based on low generation (G1) peptide dendrimer were synthesized with disulfide-containing linkages. The DNA binding abilities of the target polymers were studied by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence quenching assay. The bioreducible property of the disulfide-containing polymers P2 and P3 was also investigated in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assays reveal that these materials may condense DNA into nanoparticles with proper sizes and zeta-potentials. In vitro cell experiments show that compared to branched 25 KDa PEI, P2 and P3 may exhibit much higher gene transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in both HEK293 and U-2OS cells. Additionally, polymer prepared from Michael addition gives better gene transfection ability, while polymer prepared from ring-opening reaction has better serum tolerance. Results indicate that these polymers might be promising non-viral gene vectors for their easy preparation, very low cytotoxicity, and good transfection efficiency. PMID:25282264

  19. Combined delivery of the adiponectin gene and rosiglitazone using cationic lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Davaa, Enkhzaya; Kang, Bong-Seok; Han, Joo-Hui; Lee, Sang-Eun; Ng, Choon Lian; Myung, Chang-Seon; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2015-04-10

    For the combined delivery of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine; i.e., the ADN gene, and the potent PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, cationic lipid emulsions were formulated using the cationic lipid DOTAP, helper lipid DOPE, castor oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80. The effect of drug loading on the physicochemical characteristics of the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes was investigated. Complex formation between the cationic emulsion and negatively charged plasmid DNA was confirmed and protection from DNase was observed. The in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity were evaluated in HepG2 cells. The particle sizes of the cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 230-540 nm and those of the rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complex were in the range 220-340 nm. Gel retardation of the complexes was observed when the complexation weight ratios of the cationic lipid to plasmid DNA exceeded 4:1 for both the drug-free and rosiglitazone-loaded complexes. Both complexes stabilized plasmid DNA against DNase. The ADN expression level increased dose-dependently when cells were transfected with the cationic emulsion/DNA complexes. The rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion/DNA complexes showed higher cellular uptake in HepG2 cells depending on the rosiglitazone loading, but not depending on the type of plasmid DNA type such as pVAX/ADN, pCAG/ADN, or pVAX. The drug-loaded cationic emulsion/plasmid DNA complexes were less cytotoxic than free rosiglitazone. Therefore, a cationic emulsion could potentially serve as a co-delivery system for rosiglitazone and the adiponectin gene. PMID:25681724

  20. Mechanism of oligonucleotide release from cationic liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Zelphati, O; Szoka, F C

    1996-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for oligonucleotide (ODN) release from cationic lipid complexes in cells that accounts for various observations on cationic lipid-nucleic acid-cell interactions. Fluorescent confocal microscopy of cells treated with rhodamine-labeled cationic liposome/ fluorescein-labeled ODN (F-ODN) complexes show the F-ODN separates from the lipid after internalization and enters the nucleus leaving the fluorescent lipid in cytoplasmic structures. ODN displacement from the complex was studied by fluorescent resonance energy transfer. Anionic liposome compositions (e.g., phosphatidylserine) that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the cell membrane released ODN from the complex at about a 1:1 (-/+) charge ratio. Release was independent of ionic strength and pH. Physical separation of the F-ODN from monovalent and multivalent cationic lipids was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Fluid but not solid phase anionic liposomes are required, whereas the physical state of the cationic lipids does not effect the release. Water soluble molecules with a high negative linear charge density, dextran sulfate, or heparin also release ODN. However, ATP, spermidine, spermine, tRNA, DNA, polyglutamic acid, polylysine, bovine serum albumin, or histone did not release ODN, even at 100-fold charge excess (-/+). Based upon these results, we propose that the complex, after internalization by endocytosis, induces flip-flop of anionic lipids from the cytoplasmic facing monolayer. Anionic lipids laterally diffuse into the complex and form a charged neutralized ion-pair with the cationic lipids. This leads to displacement of the ODN from the cationic lipid and its release into the cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8876163

  1. Multifunctional hyperbranched glycoconjugated polymers based on natural aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingsheng; Hu, Mei; Wang, Dali; Wang, Guojian; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue; Sun, Jian

    2012-06-20

    Multifunctional gene vectors with high transfection, low cytotoxicity, and good antitumor and antibacterial activities were prepared from natural aminoglycosides. Through the Michael-addition polymerization of gentamycin and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, cationic hyperbranched glycoconjugated polymers were synthesized, and their physical and chemical properties were analyzed by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, GPC, ζ-potential, and acid-base titration techniques. The cytotoxicity of these hyperbranched glycoconjugated polycations was low because of the hydrolysis of degradable glycosidic and amide linkages in acid conditions. Owing to the presence of various primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in the polymers, hyperbranched glycoconjugated polymers showed high buffering capacity and strong DNA condensation ability, resulting in the high transfection efficiency. In the meantime, due to the introduction of natural aminoglycosides into the polymeric backbone, the resultant hyperbranched glycoconjugated polymers inhibited the growth of cancer cells and bacteria efficiently. Combining the gene transfection, antitumor, and antibacterial abilities together, the multifunctional hyperbranched glycoconjugated polymers based on natural aminoglycosides may play an important role in protecting cancer patients from bacterial infections. PMID:22591322

  2. Dynamics of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2008-03-01

    Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) has been used in KrF excimer laser (248 nm) lithography as a backbone polymer, and is also a promising material for EUV or electron beam lithography. Analysis of the intermediate species is important for the control of reactions in resist materials. Since the size of integrated circuits fabricated for mass production will decrease below 30 nm and the size error must also be decreased to the molecular level, the elucidation of proton dynamics at the molecular level is also important for reducing the deviation of the resist pattern size. In this study, the dynamics of PHS radical cations were studied, because PHS radical cation is main source of proton. The transient absorption of PHS was observed in the near-infrared region (NIR) in p-dioxane solutions by pulse radiolysis. The intramolecular PHS dimer radical cation (M2 +.) were observed, whereas p-cresol shows no distinct CR band. Although the radical cations of phenol derivatives are known to be easily deprotonated, it was found that M2 +. formation prevents deprotonation by its charge resonance stabilization.

  3. Interaction of Hyaluronan with Cationic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bano, Fouzia; Carril, Mónica; Di Gianvincenzo, Paolo; Richter, Ralf P

    2015-08-01

    The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is a main component of peri- and extracellular matrix, and an attractive molecule for materials design in tissue engineering and nanomedicine. Here, we study the morphology of complexes that form upon interaction of nanometer-sized amine-coated gold particles with this anionic, linear, and regular biopolymer in solution and grafted to a surface. We find that cationic nanoparticles (NPs) have profound effects on HA morphology on the molecular and supramolecular scale. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) shows that depending on their relative abundance, cationic NPs promote either strong compaction or swelling of films of surface-grafted HA polymers (HA brushes). Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy reveal that the NPs do also give rise to complexes of distinct morphologies-compact nanoscopic spheres and extended microscopic fibers-upon interaction with HA polymers in solution. In particular, stable and hydrated spherical complexes of single HA polymers with NPs can be prepared when balancing the ionizable groups on HA and NPs. The observed self-assembly phenomena could be useful for the design of drug delivery vehicles and a better understanding of the reorganization of HA-rich synthetic or biological matrices. PMID:26146006

  4. Cationic, helical polypeptide-based gene delivery for IMR-90 fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jonathan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Gabrielson, Nathan P.; Yin, Lichen; Guan, Linna; Chaudhury, Isthier; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Diblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-4-(((2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)amino)methyl)benzyl-L-glutamate) (PEG-b-PVBLG-8) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery in hard-to-transfect cells like IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The PEG-b-PVBLG-8 contained a membrane-disruptive, cationic, helical polypeptide block (PVBLG-8) for complexing with DNA and a hydrophilic PEG block to improve the biocompatibility of the gene delivery vehicle. The incorporation of PEG effectively reduced the toxicity of the helical PVBLG-8 block without dramatically compromising the polymer's ability to destabilize membranes or form complexes with DNA. PEG-b-PVBLG-8 copolymers with low (n = 76) and high (n = 287) degrees of polymerization (n) of the PVBLG-8 block were synthesized and evaluated for gene delivery. PEG-b-PVBLG-8 diblock polymers with a high degree of polymerization have a greater transfection efficiency and lower toxicity in IMR-90 cells than the commercial reagent Lipofectamine 2000. The usefulness of PEG-b-PVBLG-8 was further demonstrated via the successful transfection of hESCs without a measured loss in cell pluripotency markers. PMID:23997932

  5. Dissolving Polymers in Ionic Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, David; Harner, John

    2009-03-01

    Dissolution and phase behavior of polymers in ionic liquids have been assessed by solution characterization techniques such as intrinsic viscosity and light scattering (static and dynamic). Elevated viscosity proved the greatest obstacle. As yet, whether principles standard to conventional polymer solutions apply to ionic liquid solutions is uncertain, especially for polymers such as polyelectrolytes and hydrophilic block copolymers that may specifically interact with ionic liquid anions or cations. For flexible polyelectrolytes (polymers releasing counterions into high dielectric solvents), characterization in ionic liquids suggests behaviors more typical of neutral polymer. Coil sizes and conformations are approximately the same as in aqueous buffer. Further, several globular proteins dissolve in a hydrophilic ionic liquid with conformations analogous to those in buffer. General principles of solubility, however, remain unclear, making predictions of which polymer dissolves in which ionic liquid difficult; several otherwise intractable polymers (e.g., cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol) dissolve and can be efficiently functionalized in ionic liquids.

  6. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Ammonium Cationized Polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M. A.; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F.

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  7. Optimization of Brush-like Cationic Copolymers for Non-viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Pahang, JoshuelA; Pun, Suzie H.

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most broadly used polycations for gene delivery due to its high transfection efficiency and commercial availability but materials are cytotoxic and often polydisperse. The goal of current work is to develop an alternative family of polycations based on controlled living radical polymerization (CLRP) and to optimize the polymer structure for efficient gene delivery. In this study, well-defined poly(glycidyl methacrylate)(P(GMA)) homopolymers were synthesized using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by decoration using three different types of oligoamines, i.e., tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA), and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN), respectively, to generate various P(GMA-oligoamine) homopolycations. The effect of P(GMA) backbone length and structure of oligoamine on gene transfer efficiency was then determined. The optimal polymer, P(GMA-TEPA)50, provided comparable transfection efficiency but lower cytotoxicity than PEI. P(GMA-TEPA)50 was then used as the cationic block in di-block copolymers containing hydrophilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA). Polyplexes of block copolymers were stable against aggregation in physiological salt condition and in Opti-MEM due to the shielding effect of P(HPMA) and P(OEGMA). However, the presence of the HPMA/OEGMA block significantly decreased the transfection efficacy of P(GMA-TEPA)50homopolycation. To compensate for reduced cell uptake caused by the hydrophilic shell of polyplex, the integrin-binding peptide, RGD, was conjugated to the hydrophilic chain end of P(OEGMA)15-b-P(GMA-TEPA)50 copolymer by Michael-type addition reaction. At low polymer to DNA ratios, the RGD-functionalized polymer showed increased gene delivery efficiency to HeLa cells compared to analogous polymers lacking RGD. PMID:23240866

  8. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  9. Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

  10. Active microrheology of entangled blends of DNA and Actin link polymer flexibility to induced molecular deformations and stress propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Robert; Robertson-Anderson, Rae; Anderson Research Team

    Actin is a ubiquitous structural protein in the cytoskeleton that gives cells shape and rigidity, and plays important roles in mechanical processes such as cell motility and division. Actin's diverse roles stem from its ability to polymerize into semiflexible filaments that are less than one persistence length (17 µm) in length, and form entangled networks that display unique viscoelastic properties. We previously found that entangled actin networks propagate microscale forces over several persistence lengths (>60 m) and takes minutes to relax. DNA, oppositely, has thousands of persistence lengths (50 nm) per chain, exhibits minimal force propagation, and takes only seconds to re-equilibrate. To directly determine the role of flexibility in mechanical response and force propagation of entangled networks, we use optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to investigate blends of actin and DNA. We use optically driven microspheres to perturb the network far from equilibrium and measure the force the network creates in response to the induced force. We simultaneously track partially labeled actin filaments during the perturbation and subsequent relaxation period. We characterize filament deformation and show explicitly how induced microscale forces propagate through the network.

  11. Atomic-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of DNA-Polycation Complexes: Two Distinct Binding Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kondinskaia, Diana A; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Nesterenko, Alexey M; Antipina, Alexandra Yu; Gurtovenko, Andrey A

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic cationic polymers represent a promising class of delivery vectors for gene therapy. Here, we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the structure and properties of complexes of DNA with four linear polycations: polyethylenimine (PEI), poly-l-lysine (PLL), polyvinylamine (PVA), and polyallylamine (PAA). These polycations differ in their polymer geometries, protonation states, and hydrophobicities of their backbone chains. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time the existence of two distinct patterns of binding of DNA with polycations. For PEI, PLL, and PAA, the complex is stabilized by the electrostatic attraction between protonated amine groups of the polycation and phosphate groups of DNA. In contrast, PVA demonstrates an alternative binding pattern as it gets embedded into the DNA major groove. It is likely that both the polymer topology and affinity of the backbone chain of PVA to the DNA groove are responsible for such behavior. The differences in binding patterns can have important biomedical implications: embedding PVA into a DNA groove makes it less sensitive to changes in the aqueous environment (pH level, ionic strength, etc.) and could therefore hinder the intracellular release of genetic material from a delivery vector, leading to lower transfection activity. PMID:27280954

  12. The study of polyplex formation and stability by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of SYBR Green I-stained DNA.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Cosimo; Pezzoli, Daniele; Malloggi, Chiara; Candeo, Alessia; Capelli, Giulio; Bassi, Andrea; Volonterio, Alessandro; Taroni, Paola; Candiani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Polyplexes are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of DNA/RNA and cationic polymers specifically designed to deliver exogenous genetic material to cells by a process called transfection. There is a general consensus that a subtle balance between sufficient extracellular protection and intracellular release of nucleic acids is a key factor for successful gene delivery. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop suitable tools and techniques for enabling the monitoring of the stability of polyplexes in the biological environment they face during transfection. In this work we propose time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with SYBR Green I-DNA dye as a reliable tool for the in-depth characterization of the DNA/vector complexation state. As a proof of concept, we provide essential information on the assembly and disassembly of complexes formed between DNA and each of three cationic polymers, namely a novel promising chitosan-graft-branched polyethylenimine copolymer (Chi-g-bPEI), one of its building block 2 kDa bPEI and the gold standard transfectant 25 kDa bPEI. Our results highlight the higher information content provided by the time-resolved studies of SYBR Green I/DNA, as compared to conventional steady state measurements of ethidium bromide/DNA that enabled us to draw relationships among fluorescence lifetime, polyplex structural changes and transfection efficiency. PMID:25308511

  13. Cationic RAFT polymerization using ppm concentrations of organic acid.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2015-02-01

    A metal-free, cationic, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization was proposed and realized. A series of thiocarbonylthio compounds were used in the presence of a small amount of triflic acid for isobutyl vinyl ether to give polymers with controlled molecular weight of up to 1×10(5) and narrow molecular-weight distributions (Mw /Mn <1.1). This "living" or controlled cationic polymerization is applicable to various electron-rich monomers including vinyl ethers, p-methoxystyrene, and even p-hydroxystyrene that possesses an unprotected phenol group. A transformation from cationic to radical RAFT polymerization enables the synthesis of block copolymers between cationically and radically polymerizable monomers, such as vinyl ether and vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. PMID:25511364

  14. Novel alkyd-type coating resins produced using cationic polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Bret J.; Kalita, Harjyoti; Alam, Samim; Jayasooriyamu, Anurad; Fernando, Shashi; Samanata, Satyabrata; Bahr, James; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Sibi, Mukund; Vold, Jessica; Ulven, Chad

    2015-05-06

    Novel, partially bio-based poly(vinyl ether) copolymers derived from soybean oil and cyclohexyl vinyl ether (CHVE) were produced by cationic polymerization and investigated for application as alkyd-type surface coatings. Compared to conventional alkyd resins, which are produced by high temperature melt condensation polymerization, the poly(v9nyl ether)s provide several advantages. These advantages include milder, more energy efficient polymer synthesis, elimination of issues associated with gelation during polymer synthesis, production of polymers with well-defined composition and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, and elimination of film formation and physical property issues associated with entrained monomers, dimers, trimers, etc. The results of the studied showed that the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of the coatings produced from these novel polymers varied considerably as a function of polymer composition and cure temperature. Overall, the results suggest a good potential for these novel copolymers to be used for coatings cured by autoxidation.

  15. Water-Soluble Cationic Polyphosphazenes Grafted with Cyclic Polyamine and Imidazole as an Effective Gene Delivery Vector.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunying; Zhang, Xiao; Du, Changguo; Zhao, Baojing; He, Chunhua; Li, Chao; Qiao, Renzhong

    2016-04-20

    Gene therapy holds immense potential as a future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of numerous genetic diseases which are incurable to date. Nevertheless, safe and efficient gene delivery remains the most challenging aspects of gene therapy. In this study, a series of polyphosphazenes (PPZ) bearing cyclic polyamine and imidazole groups were synthesized and investigated for gene delivery. Agarose gel electrophoresis assays showed that poly(imidazole/1,4,7,10-tetraazyclodocane)phosphazene (Im-PPZ-cyclen) had good binding ability with plasmid DNA (pDNA), yielding positively charged particles with a size around 120-140 nm from a ratio of 10:1 to 5:1 (Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA, w/w). The cytotoxicity of Im-PPZ-cyclen assayed by MTT was lower than that of PEI 25 kDa, and was similar to that reported for poly(di-2-dimethylaminoethylamine)phosphazene (poly(di-DMAEA)phosphazene) to some degree. The maximum transfection efficiency of Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA complexes against 293 T cells at the ratio of 5:1 (Im-PPZ-cyclen/pDNA, w/w) is close to that of Lipofectamine 2000. The present work may provide a strategy for the design of new cationic polymers with reduced cytotoxicity and be applied to gene delivery as an efficient nonviral vector. PMID:26942629

  16. Novel cationic SLN containing a synthesized single-tailed lipid as a modifier for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wangyang; Liu, Chunxi; Ye, Jiesheng; Zou, Weiwei; Zhang, Na; Xu, Wenfang

    2009-05-01

    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can bind DNA directly via ionic interaction and mediate in vitro gene transfection. However, toxicity is still an obstacle, which is strongly dependent on the cationic lipid used. In the present study, a novel single-tailed cationic lipid, 6-lauroxyhexyl lysinate (LHLN), was synthesized and used as a modifier to prepare stable SLN-DNA complexes by a nanoprecipitation method. The commonly used cationic lipid cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) modified SLN-DNA formulation served as a contrast. These two formulations were characterized and compared in terms of morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding capacity, release profile, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The LHLN SLN-DNA complexes had a similar spherical morphology, a relatively narrow particle size distribution and a more remarkable DNA loading capability compared to the CTAB ones. Most importantly, LHLN modified SLN had a higher gene transfection efficiency than the naked DNA and CTAB ones, which was approximately equal to that of Lipofectamine-DNA complexes, and a lower cytotoxicity compared with CTAB-SLN and Lipofectamine 2000. Thus, the novel cationic SLN can achieve efficient transfection of plasmid DNA, and to some extent reduce the cytotoxicity, which might overcome some drawbacks of the conventional cationic nanocarriers in vivo and may become a promising non-viral gene therapy vector.

  17. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  18. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  19. Mechanism of How Salt-Gradient-Induced Charges Affect the Translocation of DNA Molecules through a Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Scheicher, Ralph H.; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using nanopores demonstrated that a salt gradient enhances the capture rate of DNA and reduces its translocation speed. These two effects can help to enable electrical DNA sequencing with nanopores. Here, we provide a quantitative theoretical evaluation that shows the positive net charges, which accumulate around the pore entrance due to the salt gradient, are responsible for the two observed effects: they reinforce the electric capture field, resulting in promoted molecule capture rate; and they induce cationic electroosmotic flow through the nanopore, thus significantly retarding the motion of the anionic DNA through the nanopore. Our multiphysical simulation results show that, during the polymer trapping stage, the former effect plays the major role, thus resulting in promoted DNA capture rate, while during the nanopore-penetrating stage the latter effect dominates and consequently reduces the DNA translocation speed significantly. Quantitative agreement with experimental results has been reached by further taking nanopore wall surface charges into account. PMID:23931325

  20. Synthesis of water-based cationic polyurethane for antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cationic polymers are often used as antimicrobial materials and transfection reagents. Water-based process could reduce environmental pollution and prevent the risk of solvent residue in the final product. In this study, waterborne biodegradable cationic polyurethane (WCPU) was synthesized by reacting polycaprolactone (PCL diol), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA) under 75°C. An aqueous dispersion of WCPU nanoparticles (NPs) could be acquired by vigorous stirring under acidic condition. The particles in the dispersion had an average size of ∼80nm and a zeta potential of ∼60mV. When cast into films, the contact angle of the film was ∼67° and the zeta potential was ∼16mV. WCPU NPs demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (100% inhibition with a contact time of 3h). Meanwhile, the antibacterial ratio of WCPU films to E. coli and S. aureus reached 100% after 24h of contact. Moreover, WCPU NPs could be used as a transfection reagent without significant toxicity for concentrations less than 1000μg/mL and showed the ability to condensate plasmid DNA. The transfection efficiency for HEK293T cells and hBMSCs was ∼60% and ∼30% at 48h, respectively, after the transfection. Therefore, the WCPU synthesized in this study has potential antibacterial and gene delivery applications. PMID:27451371

  1. Non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Scales, Charles W.; Huang, Faqing; McCormick, Charles L.

    2010-05-18

    The present invention provides novel non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers comprising a neutral-hydrophilic polymer and a cationic polymer, wherein both polymers have well-defined chain-end functionality. A representative example of such a block copolymer comprises poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) and poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) (PDMAPMA). Also provided is a synthesis method thereof in aqueous media via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Further provided are uses of these block copolymers as drug delivery vehicles and protection agents.

  2. DNA as Tunable Adaptor for siRNA Polyplex Stabilization and Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Heissig, Philipp; Klein, Philipp M; Hadwiger, Philipp; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    siRNA and microRNA are promising therapeutic agents, which are engaged in a natural mechanism called RNA interference that modulates gene expression posttranscriptionally. For intracellular delivery of such nucleic acid triggers, we use sequence-defined cationic polymers manufactured through solid phase chemistry. They consist of an oligoethanamino amide core for siRNA complexation and optional domains for nanoparticle shielding and cell targeting. Due to the small size of siRNA, electrostatic complexes with polycations are less stable, and consequently intracellular delivery is less efficient. Here we use DNA oligomers as adaptors to increase size and charge of cargo siRNA, resulting in increased polyplex stability, which in turn boosts transfection efficiency. Extending a single siRNA with a 181-nucleotide DNA adaptor is sufficient to provide maximum gene silencing aided by cationic polymers. Interestingly, this simple strategy was far more effective than merging defined numbers (4-10) of siRNA units into one DNA scaffolded construct. For DNA attachment, the 3' end of the siRNA passenger strand was beneficial over the 5' end. The impact of the attachment site however was resolved by introducing bioreducible disulfides at the connection point. We also show that DNA adaptors provide the opportunity to readily link additional functional domains to siRNA. Exemplified by the covalent conjugation of the endosomolytic influenza peptide INF-7 to siRNA via a DNA backbone strand and complexing this construct with a targeting polymer, we could form a highly functional polyethylene glycol-shielded polyplex to downregulate a luciferase gene in folate receptor-positive cells. PMID:26928236

  3. Electroactive intercalators for DNA analysis on microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Alvarez, Mario; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín

    2007-12-01

    Miniaturized analytical systems, especially microchip CE (MCE), are becoming a promising tool for analytical purposes including DNA analysis. These microdevices require a sensitive and miniaturizable detection system such as electrochemical detection (ED). Several electroactive DNA intercalators, including the organic dye methylene blue (MB), anthraquinone derivatives, and the metal complexes Fe(phen)3 2+ and Ru(phen)3 2+, have been tested for using in combination with thermoplastic olefin polymer of amorphous structure (Topas) CE-microchips and ED. Two end-channel approaches for integration of gold wire electrodes in CE-ED microchip were used. A 250 microm diameter gold wire was manually aligned at the outlet of the separation channel. A new approach based on a guide channel for integration of 100 and 50 microm diameter gold wire has been also developed in order to reduce the background current and the baseline noise level. Modification of gold wire electrodes has been also tested to improve the detector performance. Application of MCE-ED for ssDNA detection has been studied and demonstrated for the first time using the electroactive dye MB. Electrostatic interaction between cationic MB and anionic ssDNA was used for monitoring the DNA on microchips. Thus, reproducible calibration curves for ssDNA were obtained. This study advances the feasibility of direct DNA analysis using CE-microchip with ED. PMID:18004710

  4. The encapsulation of DNA molecules within biomimetic lipid nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Vonarbourg, Arnaud; Passirani, Catherine; Desigaux, Léa; Allard, Emilie; Saulnier, Patrick; Lambert, Olivier; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Pitard, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Most of DNA synthetic complexes result from the self-assembly of DNA molecules with cationic lipids or polymers in an aqueous controlled medium. However, injection of such self-assembled complexes in medium like blood that differ from that of their formulation leads to strong instability. Therefore, DNA vectors that have physico-chemical properties and structural organisation that will not be sensitive to a completely different medium in terms of ionic and protein composition are actively sought. To this end, the goal here was to discover and optimize a nanostructured system where DNA molecules would be encapsulated in nanocapsules consisting in an oily core and a shell covered by PEG stretches obtained through a nanoemulsion process in the absence of organic solvent. This encapsulation form of DNA molecules would prevent interactions with external hostile biological fluid. The results show the entrapment of lipoplexes into lipid nanocapsules, leading to the formation of neutral 110 nm-DNA nanocapsules. They were weakly removed by the immune system, displaying an increased blood half-life, and improved carcinoma cell transfection, in comparison to the parent lipoplexes. Our results demonstrate that the fabrication of nanocapsules encapsulating hydrophilic DNA in an oily core that meet criteria for blood injection is possible. PMID:19329183

  5. Supramolecular Polymers in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Elisha; Bastings, Maartje M C; Besenius, Pol; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2016-02-24

    This review discusses one-dimensional supramolecular polymers that form in aqueous media. First, naturally occurring supramolecular polymers are described, in particular, amyloid fibrils, actin filaments, and microtubules. Their structural, thermodynamic, kinetic, and nanomechanical properties are highlighted, as well as their importance for the advancement of biologically inspired supramolecular polymer materials. Second, five classes of synthetic supramolecular polymers are described: systems based on (1) hydrogen-bond motifs, (2) large π-conjugated surfaces, (3) host-guest interactions, (4) peptides, and (5) DNA. We focus on recent studies that address key challenges in the field, providing mechanistic understanding, rational polymer design, important functionality, robustness, or unusual thermodynamic and kinetic properties. PMID:26727633

  6. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-Targeting Cationic Gene Delivery System Based on a Modular Design Rationale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Xu, Luming; Jin, Yang; Qi, Chao; Li, Qilin; Zhang, Yunti; Jiang, Xulin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    En route to target cells, a gene carrier faces multiple extra- and intracellular hurdles that would affect delivery efficacy. Although diverse strategies have been proposed to functionalize gene carriers for individually overcoming these barriers, it is challenging to generate a single multifunctional gene carrier capable of surmounting all these barriers. Aiming at this challenge, we have developed a supramolecular modular approach to fabricate a multifunctional cationic gene delivery system. It consists of two prefunctionalized modules: (1) a host module: a polymer (PCD-SS-PDMAEMA) composed of poly(β-cyclodextrin) backbone and disulfide-linked PDMAEMA arms, expectedly acting to compact DNA and release DNA upon cleavage of disulfide linkers in reductive microenvironment; and (2) a guest module: adamantyl and folate terminated PEG (Ad-PEG-FA), expectedly functioning to reduce nonspecific interactions, improve biocompatibility, and provide folate-mediated cellular targeting specificity. Through the host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin units of the "host" module and adamantyl groups of the "guest" module, the PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1 (host) and Ad-PEG-FA (guest) self-assemble forming a supramolecular pseudocopolymer (PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1/PEG-FA). Our comprehensive analyses demonstrate that the functions preassigned to the two building modules are well realized. The gene carrier effectively compacts DNA into stable nanosized polyplexes resistant to enzymatic digestion, triggers DNA release in reducing environment, possesses significantly improved hemocompatibility, and specifically targets folate-receptor positive cells. Most importantly, endowed with these predesigned functions, the PCD-SS-PDMAEMA-1/PEG-FA supramolecular gene carrier exhibits excellent transfection efficacy for both pDNA and siRNA. Thus, this work represents a proof-of-concept example showing the efficiency and convenience of an adaptable, modular approach for conferring multiple functions to a single

  8. Structure and function studies of cationic lipid non-viral gene delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Nelle Lynn

    Gene and drug delivery systems incorporating lipids mimic the biological environment and thus offer many advantages. In order to design successful gene or drug delivery vehicles based on lipid molecules an understanding of the affects of biopolymers on lipid membranes is necessary. We have examined the structures and interactions involved in two systems based on model biomembrane/biopolymer mixtures that are relevant for gene and drug delivery research. Liposomes incorporating PEG-lipids have shown great promise as drug carriers since they have proven to increase blood circulation times by evading the immune system. Previously, it was found that the addition of single-end-anchored (SEA)-PEG-surfactants to fluid lamellar membrane systems induces a novel hydrogel. As an extension of this work, we examine the affects of adding double-end-anchored (DEA)-PEG-surfactants to fluid membrane systems. The DEA-PEG-surfactants can adopt either a looping or bridging configuration which could deeply alter the microstructure of lamellar phases. We show that the DEA-PEG-surfactants induce gelation of fluid Lalpha phases in a way similar to that previously reported for SEA-PEG-surfactants. We also show, via x-ray diffraction, two striking differences between the SEA-and DEA-PEG-surfactant systems which demonstrate the existence of a large concentration of bridging polymers in the DEA system. The use of cationic liposomes (formed by mixtures of cationic and neutral lipids) as carriers of DNA for delivery in cells is a promising alternative to viral carriers for gene therapy. Using x-ray diffraction and biological assays, we show key parameters for optimizing gene transfer with these systems that are mediated by properties of the lipid. We have found cationic liposomes complexed with supercoiled plasmid DNA in solution self-assemble into a lamellar or an inverted hexagonal structure depending on lipid composition. Transfection efficiencies, determined by X-Gal and Luciferase assays

  9. Preparation of Fe 3O 4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin; Yi, Changfeng; Xu, Zushun

    2012-04-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe3O4, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier.

  10. MLKL forms cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bingqing; Fang, Sui; Chen, Xueqin; Hu, Hong; Chen, Peiyuan; Wang, Huayi; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-01-01

    The mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein is a key factor in tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis. Recent studies on necroptosis execution revealed a commitment role of MLKL in membrane disruption. However, our knowledge of how MLKL functions on membrane remains very limited. Here we demonstrate that MLKL forms cation channels that are permeable preferentially to Mg2+ rather than Ca2+ in the presence of Na+ and K+. Moreover, the N-terminal domain containing six helices (H1-H6) is sufficient to form channels. Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method, we further determine that helix H1, H2, H3, H5 and H6 are transmembrane segments, while H4 is located in the cytoplasm. Finally, MLKL-induced membrane depolarization and cell death exhibit a positive correlation to its channel activity. The Mg2+-preferred permeability and five transmembrane segment topology distinguish MLKL from previously identified Mg2+-permeable channels and thus establish MLKL as a novel class of cation channels. PMID:27033670

  11. The Vaccine Adjuvant Chitosan Promotes Cellular Immunity via DNA Sensor cGAS-STING-Dependent Induction of Type I Interferons.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Elizabeth C; Jin, Lei; Mori, Andres; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Oleszycka, Ewa; Moran, Hannah B T; Mansouri, Samira; McEntee, Craig P; Lambe, Eimear; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Cunningham, Colm; Hertzog, Paul; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bowie, Andrew G; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-03-15

    The cationic polysaccharide chitosan is an attractive candidate adjuvant capable of driving potent cell-mediated immunity, but the mechanism by which it acts is not clear. We show that chitosan promotes dendritic cell maturation by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) and enhances antigen-specific T helper 1 (Th1) responses in a type I IFN receptor-dependent manner. The induction of type I IFNs, IFN-stimulated genes and dendritic cell maturation by chitosan required the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS and STING, implicating this pathway in dendritic cell activation. Additionally, this process was dependent on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the presence of cytoplasmic DNA. Chitosan-mediated enhancement of antigen specific Th1 and immunoglobulin G2c responses following vaccination was dependent on both cGAS and STING. These findings demonstrate that a cationic polymer can engage the STING-cGAS pathway to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:26944200

  12. From the Cover: A polymer library approach to suicide gene therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel G.; Peng, Weidan; Akinc, Akin; Hossain, Naushad; Kohn, Anat; Padera, Robert; Langer, Robert; Sawicki, Janet A.

    2004-11-01

    Optimal gene therapy for cancer must (i) deliver DNA to tumor cells with high efficiency, (ii) induce minimal toxicity, and (iii) avoid gene expression in healthy tissues. To this end, we generated a library of >500 degradable, poly(-amino esters) for potential use as nonviral DNA vectors. Using high-throughput methods, we screened this library in vitro for transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. We tested the best performing polymer, C32, in mice for toxicity and DNA delivery after intratumor and i.m. injection. C32 delivered DNA intratumorally 4-fold better than one of the best commercially available reagents, jetPEI (polyethyleneimine), and 26-fold better than naked DNA. Conversely, the highest transfection levels after i.m. administration were achieved with naked DNA, followed by polyethyleneimine; transfection was rarely observed with C32. Additionally, polyethyleneimine induced significant local toxicity after i.m. injection, whereas C32 demonstrated no toxicity. Finally, we used C32 to deliver a DNA construct encoding the A chain of diphtheria toxin (DT-A) to xenografts derived from LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. This construct regulates toxin expression both at the transcriptional level by the use of a chimeric-modified enhancer/promoter sequence of the human prostate-specific antigen gene and by DNA recombination mediated by Flp recombinase. C32 delivery of the A chain of diphtheria toxin DNA to LNCaP xenografts suppressed tumor growth and even caused 40% of tumors to regress in size. Because C32 transfects tumors locally at high levels, transfects healthy muscle poorly, and displays no toxicity, it may provide a vehicle for the local treatment of cancer. prostate | cationic polymers

  13. Long-circulating DNA-complexed biodegradable multiblock copolymers for gene delivery: degradation profiles and evidence of dysopsonization.

    PubMed

    Bikram, Malavosklish; Lee, Minhyung; Chang, Chien-Wen; Janát-Amsbury, Margit-María; Kern, Steven E; Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-03-01

    Biodegradable cationic polymers have become promising alternatives to traditional polycationic gene delivery systems in which the high charge densities of high molecular weight polymers contribute significantly to cellular toxicities. Previous research has shown that biodegradable, multiblock copolymers (MBC), PEG-PLL-g-16% His, are efficient gene carriers with negligible cellular toxicities. The present research was designed to characterize the polymer degradation as well as to determine the biodistribution of the MBC after systemic administration. Polymer degradation was performed in buffer as a function of pH, in serum and within polymer/pDNA complexes. The MBC exhibited exponential decay with a half-life (t1/2) of approximately 14 min at pH 9.0, approximately 5 h at pH 7.4 and approximately 2 h in serum. However, there was little or no degradation observed at pH 4.0 and the MBC within the complexes degraded between 4 and 8 h in serum. Biodistribution data performed with fluorescently labeled polymer and pDNA revealed that intact complexes remained in the blood up to 3 days, which was also reflected in the organs as a function of time. Therefore, the cumulative data suggest that PEG may be sterically stabilizing complexes in vivo via dysopsonization in which serum proteins mask the complexes from elements of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). PMID:15710513

  14. Potential of mean force of polyethylenimine-mediated DNA attraction.

    PubMed

    Bagai, Sampada; Sun, Chongbo; Tang, Tian

    2013-01-10

    The aggregation of DNA molecules induced by cationic polymers is of importance to applications in gene delivery. In this work, we performed a series of umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the potential of mean force (PMF) between two DNA molecules in the presence of polyethylenimine (PEI) molecules using the weighted histogram analysis method. The distance between the centers of mass of the two DNAs was chosen as the reaction coordinate, and the location and depth of the global minimum in the PMF curve were used to gauge the compactness and stability of the formed aggregate. The effects of PEI to DNA charge ratio (N/P charge ratio) and protonation state of the PEI were investigated. The DNA aggregation was found to be more favorable at higher PEI/DNA charge ratios and higher PEI protonation ratios. As compared with small multivalent ions, PEIs give rise to stronger DNA attraction even with an N/P charge ratio at which the DNAs are overneutralized. The effect of changing the protonation ratio on the compactness of the aggregate is more prominent than changing the N/P charge ratio, while the depth of the PMF well is more strongly influenced by the N/P charge ratio. PMID:23211095

  15. Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose with high antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Achraf; Boufi, Sami

    2015-10-20

    Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose (C-NFC) has been prepared via a high pressure homogenization using quaternized cellulose fibers with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. It has been shown that the quaternization of dried softwood pulp facilitated the defibrillation processes and prevented clogging of the homogenizer. The effects of the trimethylammonium chloride content on the fibrillation yield, the transparency degree of the gel, the rheological behavior of the NFC suspension and their electrokinetic properties were investigated. AFM observation showed that the NFC suspension consisted of individualized cellulose I nanofibrils 4-5nm in width and length in the micronic scale. In addition to their strong reinforcing potential, the inclusion of C-NFC into a polymer matrix was shown to efficiently enhance the antibacterial activity. The reinforcing potential of C-NFC, studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), was compared to anionic NFC and the difference was explained in terms of the nanofibrils capacities to build up a strong networks held by hydrogen bonding. PMID:26256179

  16. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David S.H.; Johnson, Russell N.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2011-01-01

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK10, containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(l)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(d)K10, containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(d)-lysine, and (iii) pH(d)Cath(d)K10, containing all (d) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK10 and pHCath(d)K10 within one hour while no degradation of pH(d)Cath(d)K10 was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK10 copolymers show DNA release by 4 hrs of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(d)K10 and pH(d)Cath(d)K10 show no DNA release within 8 hrs. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK10 was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. PMID:22036879

  17. Predoped conductive polymers as battery electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.; Shacklette, L.W.

    1989-02-14

    An improved battery is described. The anode consists of one or more conjugated backbone polymers and one or more electroactive materials selected from the group consisting of metals which alloy with alkali metals and alkali metal cation inserting material. The electrolyte consists of an organic solvent and an alkali-metal salt. There is also a cathode alkali-metal cations from the electrolyte being inserted into the anode as a metal alloy or as an inserted ion in the alkali metal cation inserting material during the charging of the battery; the improvement comprises an anode in which the conjugated backbone polymers contained in the anode have been predoped with one or more alkali metal cations to the reduced state prior to incorporation of the anode into the battery.

  18. Chitosan: a novel platform in proton-driven DNA strand rearrangement actuation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dami; Singha, Kaushik; Jang, Mi-Kyeong; Nah, Jae-Woon; Park, In-Kyu; Kim, Won Jong

    2009-04-01

    Nanometre-scaled DNA machine based on molecular recognition properties of DNA has now become a powerful tool in nanodevices, miniaturized structure, and nanofabrication. The common principle behind designing a DNA nanomachine is DNA strand exchange or rearrangement, which is solely controlled by the stabilization through associative and dissociative forces arising from base pair interaction of DNA molecules. Thus, highly effective DNA reaction actuator will make DNA nanomachine more flexible, controllable, and powerful device. Here, we report the novel polymer-mediated platform in proton-driven DNA strand rearrangement actuation. This cationic low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) exhibited pH-dependent complexation with oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). It formed complex with ODN only at low pH and accelerated the DNA strand exchange (or rearrangement) reaction between dsDNA and its complementary ssDNA at pH 5.0. However, no complexation was observed between LMWSC and ODN at neutral pH. We assume that at physiological pH, LMWSC is not protonated enough for formation of complex with ODN. Therefore, it can not diminish the electrostatic repulsion among the negatively charged DNA strands of the three-stranded intermediate formed during the strand exchange reaction. In contrast, LMWSC becomes positively charged at acidic pH, and it stabilizes the three-stranded intermediate by spreading out the accumulated counter-ions and increasing the entropy of the system. This fascinating observation prompted us to believe that this intelligent proton-driven DNA reaction actuator has a potential for the precise control of DNA nanomachine and would be applied for operating and controlling nanoscaled machine. PMID:19396376

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance. PMID:26606647

  20. Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Porous ZrO2 and hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized from a strong acid cation exchange resin. Spherical cation exchange beads, polystyrene based polymer, were used as a morphological-directing template. Aqueous ion exchange reaction was used to chemically bind (ZrO)(2+) ions to the polystyrene structure. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene at 600 C produces porous ZrO2 spheres with a surface area of 24 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 42 microns. Hollow TiO2 spheres were synthesized by using the beads as a micro-reactor. A direct surface reaction - between titanium isopropoxide and the resin beads forms a hydrous TiO2 shell around the polystyrene core. The pyrolysis of the polystyrene core at 600 C produces hollow anatase spheres with a surface area of 42 sq m/g with a mean sphere size of 38 microns. The formation of ceramic spheres was studied by XRD, SEM and B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption measurements.

  1. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  2. Reversible DNA compaction.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    In this review we summarize and discuss the different methods we can use to achieve reversible DNA compaction in vitro. Reversible DNA compaction is a natural process that occurs in living cells and viruses. As a result these process long sequences of DNA can be concentrated in a small volume (compacted) to be decompacted only when the information carried by the DNA is needed. In the current work we review the main artificial compacting agents looking at their suitability for decompaction. The different approaches used for decompaction are strongly influenced by the nature of the compacting agent that determines the mechanism of compaction. We focus our discussion on two main artificial compacting agents: multivalent cations and cationic surfactants that are the best known compacting agents. The reversibility of the process can be achieved by adding chemicals like divalent cations, alcohols, anionic surfactants, cyclodextrins or by changing the chemical nature of the compacting agents via pH modifications, light induced conformation changes or by redox-reactions. We stress the relevance of electrostatic interactions and self-assembly as a main approach in order to tune up the DNA conformation in order to create an on-off switch allowing a transition between coil and compact states. The recent advances to control DNA conformation in vitro, by means of molecular self-assembly, result in a better understanding of the fundamental aspects involved in the DNA behavior in vivo and serve of invaluable inspiration for the development of potential biomedical applications. PMID:24444152

  3. Dissecting the cation-cation interaction between two uranyl units.

    PubMed

    Tecmer, Paweł; Hong, Sung W; Boguslawski, Katharina

    2016-07-21

    We present a state-of-the-art computational study of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) cation-cation interactions (dications) in aqueous solution. Reliable electronic structures of two interacting uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) subunits as well as those of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) clusters are presented for the first time. Our theoretical study elucidates the impact of cation-cation interactions on changes in the molecular structure as well as changes in vibrational and UV-Vis spectra of the bare uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) moieties for different total spin-states and total charges of the dications. PMID:27335229

  4. Effects of electrostatic screening on the conformation of single DNA molecules confined in a nanochannel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ce; Zhang, Fang; van Kan, Jeroen A; van der Maarel, Johan R C

    2008-06-14

    Single T4-DNA molecules were confined in rectangular-shaped channels with a depth of 300 nm and a width in the range of 150-300 nm casted in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanofluidic chip. The extensions of the DNA molecules were measured with fluorescence microscopy as a function of the ionic strength and composition of the buffer as well as the DNA intercalation level by the YOYO-1 dye. The data were interpreted with the scaling theory for a wormlike polymer in good solvent, including the effects of confinement, charge, and self-avoidance. It was found that the elongation of the DNA molecules with decreasing ionic strength can be interpreted in terms of an increase of the persistence length. Self-avoidance effects on the extension are moderate, due to the small correlation length imposed by the channel cross-sectional diameter. Intercalation of the dye results in an increase of the DNA contour length and a partial neutralization of the DNA charge, but besides effects of electrostatic origin it has no significant effect on the bare bending rigidity. In the presence of divalent cations, the DNA molecules were observed to contract, but they do not collapse into a condensed structure. It is proposed that this contraction results from a divalent counterion mediated attractive force between the segments of the DNA molecule. PMID:18554066

  5. Low-density lipoprotein peptide-combined DNA nanocomplex as an efficient anticancer drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Tao, Jun; Hua, Haiying; Sun, Pengchao; Zhao, Yongxing

    2015-08-01

    DNA is a type of potential biomaterials for drug delivery due to its nanoscale geometry, loading capacity of therapeutics, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, DNA is easily degraded by DNases in the body circulation and has low intracellular uptake. In the present study, we selected three cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor targeted peptide (RLT), to modify DNA and improve the issues. A potent anti-tumor anthracycline-doxorubicin (DOX) was intercalated into DNA non-covalently and the DOX/DNA was then combined with PEI, CTAB, and RLT, respectively. Compact nanocomplexes were formed by electrostatic interaction and could potentially protect DNA from DNases. More importantly, RLT had the potential to enhance intracellular uptake by LDL receptor mediated endocytosis. In a series of in vitro experiments, RLT complexed DNA enhanced intracellular delivery of DOX, increased tumor cell death and intracellular ROS production, and reduced intracellular elimination of DOX. All results suggested that the easily prepared and targeted RLT/DNA nanocomplexes had great potential to be developed into a formulation for doxorubicin with enhanced anti-tumor activity. PMID:25960329

  6. Porous networks derived from synthetic polymer-clay complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Elder, D.L.

    1995-05-12

    Synthetic hectorites were hydrothermally crystallized with direct incorporation of a cationic polymer poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA), and two neutral cellulosic polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). Synthetic PDDA-hectorite displays the lowest d-spacing at 15.8 {Angstrom} along with less polymer incorporation (7.8 wt % organic) than the neutral polymers (18--22 wt % organic). Thermal analysis and small angle neutron scattering were used to further examine the polymer-clay systems. Clay platelets of the largest size and best stacking order occur when cationic PDDA polymer is used. PDDA also enhances these properties over the crystallites prepared for a control mineral, where no polymer is used. HEC acts to aggregate the silica, leaving less to react to form clay. The clay platelets which result from HEC are small, not stacked to a large degree, and oriented randomly. Neutral HPMC acts more like cationic PDDA in that larger clay platelets are allowed to form. The extended microstructure of the clay network remains undisturbed after polymer is removed by calcination. When no polymer is used, the synthetic hectorite has a N{sub 2} BET surface area of 200 M{sup 2}/gm, even after calcination. This increases by 20--50% for the synthetic polymer-hectorites after the polymer is removed by calcination.

  7. The cation-π interaction.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-04-16

    The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(δ-)-H(δ+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is

  8. The Cation-π Interaction

    PubMed Central

    DOUGHERTY, DENNIS A.

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author’s perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forgo aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction – Li+ binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4+ with 19 kcal/mol– distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2 – 5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) Cδ−–Hδ+ bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li+>Na+>K+>Rb+: as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane

  9. Flexible polyelectrolyte conformation in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, C. B.; Kuhn, P. S.; Diehl, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we have studied the conformation of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. We developed a simple theoretical model for the formation of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes and mixed micelles formed by cationic and anionic surfactant molecules, in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, with the hydrophobic interaction included explicitly as an effective short-ranged attraction between the surfactant hydrocarbon tails. This simple model allows us to calculate the extension of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes as a function of the anionic surfactant concentration, for different types of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. A discrete conformational transition from a collapsed state to an elongated coil was found, for all surfactant chain lengths we have considered, in agreement with the experimental observations for the unfolding of ​DNA-cationic surfactant complexes.

  10. Effect of Mechanical Agitation on Cationic Liposome Transport across an Unstirred Water Layer in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Ayu; Matsuoka, Kenta; Fujita, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    To develop an effective oral delivery system for plasmid DNA (pDNA) using cationic liposomes, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of uptake and transport of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into the intestinal epithelium. In particular, evaluation of the involvement of an unstirred water layer (UWL), which is a considerable permeability barrier, in cationic liposome transport is very important. Here, we investigated the effects of a UWL on the transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into a Caco-2 cell monolayer. When Caco-2 cells were transfected with cationic liposome/pDNA complexes in shaking cultures to reduce the thickness of the UWL, gene expression was significantly higher in Caco-2 cells compared with static cultures. We also found that this enhancement of gene expression by shaking was not attributable to activation of transcription factors such as activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In addition, the increase in gene expression by mechanical agitation was observed at all charge ratios (1.5, 2.3, 3.1, 4.5) of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes. Transport experiments using Transwells demonstrated that mechanical agitation increased the uptake of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by Caco-2 cells, whereas transport of the complexes across a Caco-2 cell monolayer did not occurr. Moreover, the augmentation of the gene expression of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by shaking was observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results indicate that a UWL greatly affects the uptake and transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into an epithelial monolayer in vitro. PMID:27476939

  11. Cationic nanoemulsions as potential carriers for intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Khachane, P V; Jain, A S; Dhawan, V V; Joshi, G V; Date, A A; Mulherkar, R; Nagarsenker, M S

    2015-04-01

    Successful cytosolic delivery enables opportunities for improved treatment of various genetic disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. Cationic nanoemulsions were designed using alternative excipients and evaluated for particle size, charge, effect of sterilization on its stability, DNA condensation potential and cellular uptake efficiency. Various concentrations of non-ionic and ionic stabilizers were evaluated to design formula for colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion comprised of 5% Capmul MCM, 0.5% didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), 1% phospholipid, 1% Poloxamer 188 and 2.25% glycerol and possessed particle size of 81.6 ± 3.56 nm and 137.1 ± 1.57 nm before and after steam sterilization, respectively. DNA condensation studies were carried out at various nanoemulsion: DNA ratios ranging from 1:1 to 10:1. Cell uptake studies were conducted on human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines which are widely reported for transfection studies. The nanoemulsions showed excellent cellular uptake as evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Overall, a colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion with good DNA condensation ability was successfully fabricated for efficient cytosolic delivery and potential for in vivo effectiveness. PMID:25972740

  12. Molecularly Regulated Reversible DNA Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Niancao; Shi, Xuechen; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Natural polymers are synthesized and decomposed under physiological conditions. However, it is challenging to develop synthetic polymers whose formation and reversibility can be both controlled under physiological conditions. Here we show that both linear and branched DNA polymers can be synthesized via molecular hybridization in aqueous solutions, on the particle surface, and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) without the involvement of any harsh conditions. More importantly, these polymers can be effectively reversed to dissociate under the control of molecular triggers. Since nucleic acids can be conjugated with various molecules or materials, we anticipate that molecularly regulated reversible DNA polymerization holds potential for broad biological and biomedical applications. PMID:27100911

  13. Drilling fluids based on a mixture of a sulfonated thermoplastic polymer and a sulfonated elastomeric polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Lundberg, R.D.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Walker, T.O.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to mixtures of sulfonated thermoplastic polymers and sulfonated elastomeric polymers which function as viscosification agents when added to oil-based drilling muds which are the fluids used to maintain pressure, cool drill bits, and lift cuttings from the holes in the drilling operation for oil and gas wells. The sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers both have about 5 to about 200 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the sulfonated thermoplastic or elastomeric polymers, wherein the sulfonated groups are neutralized with a metallic cation or an amine or ammonium counterion. A polar cosolvent can optionally be added to the mixture of oil drilling mud and sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers, wherein the polar cosolvent increases the solubility of the sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymer in the oil drilling mud by decreasing the strong ionic interactions between the sulfonate groups of the sulfonated polymers.

  14. Polymer/surfactant transport in micellar flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.; Kellerhals, G.E.

    1981-10-01

    For the surfactant formulations used (particular surfactant concentration, surfactant type, cosolvent type, cosolvent concentration, etc.), the results show that surfactant systems containing polymer as a mobility control agent may exhibit adverse polymer transport behavior during flow through porous media. Polymer generally lagged behind the surfactant even though the two species were injected simultaneously in the surfactant slug. This poor polymer transport definitely could have a detrimental effect on the efficiency of a micellar flooding process in the field. Phase studies show that when some surfactant systems containing xanthan gum are mixed with crude oil at various salinities, a polymer-rich, gel-like phase forms. The polymer lag phenomenon in core tests can be related to phase separation due to divalent cations generated in situ as a result of ion exchange with the clays and the surfactant. 18 refs.

  15. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  16. Cation Diffusion in Xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    Xenotime is an important mineral in metamorphic paragenesis, and useful in isotopic dating, garnet-xenotime thermometry, and monazite-xenotime thermometry, so diffusion data for xenotime of cations of geochronological and geochemical importance are of some interest. We report here on diffusion of the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na2}CO{3}-MoO_{3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run with sources containing a single REE. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from thirty minutes to a month, at temperatures from 1000 to 1400C. The REE distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): DSm = 1.7x10-4 exp(-442 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DDy = 3.5x10-7 exp(-365 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DYb = 7.4x10-7 exp(-371 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1. Diffusivities of these REE do not differ greatly in xenotime, in contrast to the findings noted for the REE in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997), where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE+3

  17. Antisense precision polymer micelles require less poly(ethylenimine) for efficient gene knockdown.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Johans J; Edwardson, Thomas G; Conway, Justin W; Trinh, Tuan; Khan, Farhad; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2015-12-28

    Therapeutic nucleic acids are powerful molecules for shutting down protein expression. However, their cellular uptake is poor and requires transport vectors, such as cationic polymers. Of these, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) has been shown to be an efficient vehicle for nucleic acid transport into cells. However, cytotoxicity has been a major hurdle in the development of PEI-DNA complexes as clinically viable therapeutics. We have synthesized antisense-polymer conjugates, where the polymeric block is completely monodisperse and sequence-controlled. Depending on the polymer sequence, these can self-assemble to produce micelles of very low polydispersity. The introduction of linear poly(ethylenimine) to these micelles leads to aggregation into size-defined PEI-mediated superstructures. Subsequently, both cellular uptake and gene silencing are greatly enhanced over extended periods compared to antisense alone, while at the same time cellular cytotoxicity remains very low. In contrast, gene silencing is not enhanced with antisense polymer conjugates that are not able to self-assemble into micelles. Thus, using antisense precision micelles, we are able to achieve significant transfection and knockdown with minimal cytotoxicity at much lower concentrations of linear PEI then previously reported. Consequently, a conceptual solution to the problem of antisense or siRNA delivery is to self-assemble these molecules into 'gene-like' micelles with high local charge and increased stability, thus reducing the amount of transfection agent needed for effective gene silencing. PMID:26597764

  18. Optical properties of DNA-CTMA biopolymers and applications in metal-biopolymer-metal photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Kim, Sung Jin; Bartsch, Carrie M.; Heckman, Emily M.; Ouchen, Fahima; Cartwright, Alexander N.

    2011-09-01

    The potential of using a DNA biopolymer in an electro-optic device is presented. A complex of DNA with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium-chloride (CTMA) was used to obtain an organic-soluble DNA material (DNA-CTMA). Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was added to the DNACTMA to increase the electrical conductivity of the biopolymer. The CW absorbance and time-resolved photoluminescence of the resulting DNA-CTMA and DNA-CTMA-PEDOT:PSS were investigated. Both DNA materials have absorbance peaks at ~260 nm and a broad, Stokes shifted, photoluminescence peak around 470nm. The photoluminescence lifetime of the materials was observed to decrease with increasing UV excitation. Specifically, excitation with a high power ultrafast (~150fs) UV (266nm) laser pulse resulted in a drastic decrease in the photoluminescence lifetime decreases after a few minutes. Moreover, the observed decrease was faster in an air ambient than in a nitrogen ambient. This is most likely due to photo-oxidation that degrades the polymer surface resulting in an increase in the non-radiative recombination. In order to investigate the photoconductivity of these two materials, metal-biopolymer-metal (MBM) ultraviolet photodetectors with interdigitated electrodes were fabricated and characterized. The photoresponsivity of these devices was limited by the transport dynamics within the film. The prospects for the use of these materials in optical devices will be discussed.

  19. Theory and simulations of toroidal and rod-like structures in single-molecule DNA condensation.

    PubMed

    Cortini, Ruggero; Caré, Bertrand R; Victor, Jean-Marc; Barbi, Maria

    2015-03-14

    DNA condensation by multivalent cations plays a crucial role in genome packaging in viruses and sperm heads, and has been extensively studied using single-molecule experimental methods. In those experiments, the values of the critical condensation forces have been used to estimate the amplitude of the attractive DNA-DNA interactions. Here, to describe these experiments, we developed an analytical model and a rigid body Langevin dynamics assay to investigate the behavior of a polymer with self-interactions, in the presence of a traction force applied at its extremities. We model self-interactions using a pairwise attractive potential, thereby treating the counterions implicitly. The analytical model allows to accurately predict the equilibrium structures of toroidal and rod-like condensed structures, and the dependence of the critical condensation force on the DNA length. We find that the critical condensation force depends strongly on the length of the DNA, and finite-size effects are important for molecules of length up to 10(5)μm. Our Langevin dynamics simulations show that the force-extension behavior of the rod-like structures is very different from the toroidal ones, so that their presence in experiments should be easily detectable. In double-stranded DNA condensation experiments, the signature of the presence of rod-like structures was not unambiguously detected, suggesting that the polyamines used to condense DNA may protect it from bending sharply as needed in the rod-like structures. PMID:25770562

  20. Theory and simulations of toroidal and rod-like structures in single-molecule DNA condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortini, Ruggero; Caré, Bertrand R.; Victor, Jean-Marc; Barbi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    DNA condensation by multivalent cations plays a crucial role in genome packaging in viruses and sperm heads, and has been extensively studied using single-molecule experimental methods. In those experiments, the values of the critical condensation forces have been used to estimate the amplitude of the attractive DNA-DNA interactions. Here, to describe these experiments, we developed an analytical model and a rigid body Langevin dynamics assay to investigate the behavior of a polymer with self-interactions, in the presence of a traction force applied at its extremities. We model self-interactions using a pairwise attractive potential, thereby treating the counterions implicitly. The analytical model allows to accurately predict the equilibrium structures of toroidal and rod-like condensed structures, and the dependence of the critical condensation force on the DNA length. We find that the critical condensation force depends strongly on the length of the DNA, and finite-size effects are important for molecules of length up to 105μm. Our Langevin dynamics simulations show that the force-extension behavior of the rod-like structures is very different from the toroidal ones, so that their presence in experiments should be easily detectable. In double-stranded DNA condensation experiments, the signature of the presence of rod-like structures was not unambiguously detected, suggesting that the polyamines used to condense DNA may protect it from bending sharply as needed in the rod-like structures.