These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

2

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for obtaining DNA fingerprints using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a selected sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is directly proportional to the fragment length. Additional dyes can be bound to the DNA piece and DNA fragments to provide information additional to length information. Oligonucleotide specific dyes and/or hybridization probes can be bound to the DNA fragments to provide information on oligonucleotide distribution or probe hybridization to DNA fragments of different sizes.

Jett, J.H.; Hammond, M.L.; Keller, R.A.; Marrone, B.L.; Martin, J.C.

1992-12-31

3

Nondetectability of restriction fragments and independence of DNA fragment sizes within and between loci in RFLP typing of DNA  

SciTech Connect

The authors provide experimental evidence showing that, during the restriction-enzyme digestion of DNA samples, some of the HaeIII-digested DNA fragments are small enough to prevent their reliable sizing on a Southern gel. As a result of such nondetectability of DNA fragments, individuals who show a single-band DNA profile at a VNTR locus may not necessarily be true homozygotes. In a population database, when the presence of such nondetectable alleles is ignored, they show that a pseudodependence of alleles within as well as across loci may occur. Using a known statistical method, under the hypothesis of independence of alleles within loci, they derive an efficient estimate of null allele frequency, which may be subsequently used for testing allelic independence within and across loci. The estimates of null allele frequencies, thus derived, are shown to agree with direct experimental data on the frequencies of HaeIII-null alleles. Incorporation of null alleles into the analysis of the forensic VNTR database suggests that the assumptions of allelic independence within and between loci are appropriate. In contrast, a failure to incorporate the occurrence of null alleles would provide a wrong inference regarding the independence of alleles within and between loci. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Chakraborty, R.; Zhong, Y.; Jin, L. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Budowle, B. (FBI Academy, Quantico, VA (United States))

1994-08-01

4

Monte Carlo predictions of DNA fragment-size distributions for large sizes after HZE particle irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSBs (double-strand breaks) produced by densely ionizing space radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. DSB clustering at large scales, from >100 Mbp down to approximately 2 kbp, is modeled using a Monte-Carlo algorithm. A random-walk model of chromatin is combined with a track model, that predicts the radial distribution of energy from an ion, and the RLC (randomly-located-clusters) formalism, in software called DNAbreak. This model generalizes the random-breakage model, whose broken-stick fragment-size distribution is applicable to low-LET radiation. DSB induction due to track interaction with the DNA volume depends on the radiation quality parameter Q. This dose-independent parameter depends only weakly on LET. Multi-track, high-dose effects depend on the cluster intensity parameter lambda, proportional to fluence as defined by the RLC formalism. After lambda is determined by a numerical experiment, the model reduces to one adjustable parameter Q. The best numerical fits to the experimental data, determining Q, are obtained. The knowledge of lambda and Q allows us to give biophysically based extrapolations of high-dose DNA fragment-size data to low doses or to high LETs.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.

2001-01-01

5

Role of finite-size fragments in analysis of DNA replication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In higher organisms, DNA replicates simultaneously from many origins. Recent in- vitro experiments have yielded large amounts of data on the state of replication of DNA fragments. From measurements of the time dependence of the average size of replicated and non-replicated domains, one can estimate the rate of initiation of DNA replication origins, as well as the average rate at which DNA bases are copied. One problem in making such estimates is that, in the experiments, the DNA is broken up into small fragments, whose finite size can bias downwards the measured averages. Here, we present a systematic way of accounting for this bias by deriving theoretical relationships between the original domain-length distributions and fragment-domain length distributions. We also derive unbiased average-domain-length estimators that yield accurate results even in cases where the replicated (or non-replicated) domains are larger than the average DNA fragment. Then we apply these estimators to previously obtained experimental data to extract improved estimates of replication kinetics parameters.

Bechhoefer, John; Zhang, Haiyang

2006-03-01

6

In vivo cleavage of cytosine-containing bacteriophage T4 DNA to genetically distinct, discretely sized fragments  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of bacteriophage T4D that are defective in genes 42 (dCMP hydroxymethylase), 46 (DNA exonuclease), and 56 (dCTPase) produce limited amounts of phage DNA in Escherichia coli B. In this DNA, glucosylated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is completely replaced by cytosine. It is found that this DNA rapidly becomes fragmented in vivo to at least 16 discrete bands as visualized on agarose gels subjected to electrophoresis. The sizes of the fragments ranged from more than 20 to less than 2 kilobase pairs. When DNAs from two of these bands were radioactively labeled in vitro by nick translation and hybridized to XbaI restiction fragments of cytosine-containing T4 DNA, evidence was obtained that the two bands are genetically distinct, i.e., they contain DNA from different parts of the T4 genome. Mutational inactivation of T4 endonuclease II (gene denA) prevented the fragmentation. Three different mutations in T4 endonuclease IV (gene denB) caused the same minor changes in the pattern of fragments. It is concluded that T4 endonuclease II is required, and endonuclease IV is involved to a minor extent, in the in vivo production of these cytosine-containing T4 DNA fragments. These DNA fragments are viewed as ''restriction fragments'' since they represent degradation products of DNA ''foreign'' to T4, they are of discrete size, and they are genetically distinct.

Carlson, K.; Wiberg, J.S.

1983-10-01

7

Sizing Highly Fragmented DNA in Individual Apoptotic Cells Using the Comet Assay and a DNA Crosslinking Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

TK6 human B lymphoblast cells exposed to ionizing radiation undergo apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner. The resulting highly fragmented DNA is easily detected using the comet assay, a sensitive microscopic gel electrophoresis method capable of measuring DNA strand breaks in individual cells. The degree of DNA fragmentation may be indicative of different stages in the fragmentation process, responses

Peggy L. Olive; Judit P. Banáth

1995-01-01

8

Direct calculation of the sizes of DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis using programmes written for a pocket calculator.  

PubMed Central

In order to facilitate the direct computation of the sizes of DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis, we have written and evaluated programmes for the Hewlett-Packard 41C programmable calculator. The sizes estimated for DNA fragments of known length using some of these programmes were found to be more accurate than the estimates obtained by conventional graphical procedures. These programmes should be adaptable to other programmable calculators. Images PMID:6320110

Gough, E J; Gough, N M

1984-01-01

9

Direct Random Mutagenesis of Gene-Sized DNA Fragments Using Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to amplify a DNA fragment with the concomitant creation of numerous mutations provided that one dNTP substrate is in excess over the three others. Advantage was taken of this behavior to systematically mutagenize a 291-bp-long DNA fragment and to define the rules relating the frequencies of each possible bp substitution to the

M. Fromant; S. Blanquet

1995-01-01

10

Performance Assessment of DNA Fragment Sizing by High-Sensitivity Flow Cytometry and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

The sizing of restriction fragments is the chief analytical technique utilized in the production of DNA fingerprints. Few techniques have been able to compete with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is capable of discriminating among bacteria at species and strain levels by resolving restriction fragments. However, an ultrasensitive flow cytometer (FCM) developed in our lab has also demonstrated the ability to discriminate bacteria at species and strain levels. The abilities of FCM warrant a quantitative parallel comparison with PFGE to assess and evaluate the accuracy and precision of DNA fragment sizing by both techniques. Replicate samples of Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 were analyzed along with two clinical S. aureus isolates. The absolute fragment sizing accuracy was determined for PFGE (5% ± 2%) and FCM (4% ± 4%), with sequence-predicted Mu50 SmaI fragment sizes used as a reference. Precision was determined by simple arithmetic methods (relative standard deviation for PFGE [RSDPFGE ] = 3% ± 2% and RSDFCM = 1.2% ± 0.8%) as well as by the use of dendrograms derived from Dice coefficient-unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Pearson-UPGMA analyses. All quantitative measures of PFGE and FCM precision were equivalent, within error. The precision of both methods was not limited by any single sample preparation or analysis step that was tracked in this study. Additionally, we determined that the curve-based clustering of fingerprint data provided a more informative and useful assessment than did traditional band-based methods. PMID:15131156

Ferris, Matthew M.; Yan, Xiaomei; Habbersett, Robbert C.; Shou, Yulin; Lemanski, Cheryl L.; Jett, James H.; Yoshida, Thomas M.; Marrone, Babetta L.

2004-01-01

11

Towards standardisation of cell-free DNA measurement in plasma: controls for extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and quantification.  

PubMed

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming an important clinical analyte for prenatal testing, cancer diagnosis and cancer monitoring. The extraction stage is critical in ensuring clinical sensitivity of analytical methods measuring minority nucleic acid fractions, such as foetal-derived sequences in predominantly maternal cfDNA. Consequently, quality controls are required for measurement of extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and yield for validation of cfDNA methods. We evaluated the utility of an external DNA spike for monitoring these parameters in a study comparing three specific cfDNA extraction methods [QIAamp circulating nucleic acid (CNA) kit, NucleoSpin Plasma XS (NS) kit and FitAmp plasma/serum DNA isolation (FA) kit] with the commonly used QIAamp DNA blood mini (DBM) kit. We found that the extraction efficiencies of the kits ranked in the order CNA kit > DBM kit > NS kit > FA kit, and the CNA and NS kits gave a better representation of smaller DNA fragments in the extract than the DBM kit. We investigated means of improved reporting of cfDNA yield by comparing quantitative PCR measurements of seven different reference gene assays in plasma samples and validating these with digital PCR. We noted that the cfDNA quantities based on measurement of some target genes (e.g. TERT) were, on average, more than twofold higher than those of other assays (e.g. ERV3). We conclude that analysis and averaging of multiple reference genes using a GeNorm approach gives a more reliable estimate of total cfDNA quantity. PMID:24853859

Devonshire, Alison S; Whale, Alexandra S; Gutteridge, Alice; Jones, Gerwyn; Cowen, Simon; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

2014-10-01

12

A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to < 0.01 Mbp, is modeled using computer simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

2000-01-01

13

The role of DNA fragmentation in apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation o f distinct DNA fragments of oligonucleosomal size (180–200 by lengths) is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis in many cells. Recent observations also suggest large DNA fragments and even single-strand cleavage events occur during cell death. These observations have raised many questions. What are the types o f DNA cleavage observed during apoptosis? What are the nucleases involved?

Carl D. Bortner; Nicklas B. E. Oldenburg; John A. Cidlowski

1995-01-01

14

Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

2001-01-01

15

DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells exposed to gamma-rays and very heavy ions. Fragment-size distributions determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) was assessed after treatment of mammalian cells (V79) with densely ionizing radiation. Cells were exposed to beams of heavy charged particles (calcium ions: 6.9 MeV/u, 2.1.10(3) keV/microm; uranium ions: 9.0 MeV/u, 1.4.10(4) keV/microm) at the linear accelerator UNILAC of GSI, Darmstadt. DNA was isolated in agarose plugs and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis under conditions that separated DNA fragments of size 50 kbp to 5 Mbp. The measured fragment distributions were compared to those obtained after gamma-irradiation and were analyzed by means of a convolution and a deconvolution technique. In contrast to the finding for gamma-radiation, the distributions produced by heavy ions do not correspond to the random breakage model. Their marked overdispersion and the observed excess of short fragments reflect spatial clustering of DSB that extends over large regions of the DNA, up to several mega base pairs (Mbp). At fluences of 0.75 and 1.5/microm2, calcium ions produce nearly the same shape of fragment spectrum, merely with a difference in the amount of DNA entering the gel; this suggests that the DNA is fragmented by individual calcium ions. At a fluence of 0.8/microm2 uranium ions produce a profile that is shifted to smaller fragment sizes in comparison to the profile obtained at a fluence of 0.4/microm2; this suggests cumulative action of two separate ions in the formation of fragments. These observations are not consistent with the expectation that the uranium ions, with their much larger LET, should be more likely to produce single particle action than the calcium ions. However, a consideration of the greater lateral extension of the tracks of the faster uranium ions explains the observed differences; it suggests that the DNA is closely coiled so that even DNA locations several Mbp apart are usually not separated by less than 0. 1 or 0.2 microm. PMID:9728743

Kraxenberger, F; Weber, K J; Friedl, A A; Eckardt-Schupp, F; Flentje, M; Quicken, P; Kellerer, A M

1998-07-01

16

DNA fragmentation by charged particle tracks.  

PubMed

High-LET (linear energy transfer) charged particles induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in a non-random fashion in mammalian cells. The clustering of DSB, probably determined by track structure as well as chromatin conformation, results in an excess of small- and intermediate-sized DNA fragments. DNA fragmentation in normal human fibroblasts (GM5758) was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after irradiation with photons (60Co) or 125 keV/micrometers nitrogen ions. Compared to conventional DSB analysis, i.e. assays only measuring the fraction of DNA smaller than a single threshold, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for DSB induction increased with 100%. Further, the size distribution of DNA fragments showed a significant dependence on radiation quality, with an excess of fragments up to 1 Mbp. Irradiation of naked genomic DNA without histone proteins increased the DSB yields 25 and 13 times for photons and nitrogen ions, respectively. The results suggest possible roles of both track structure and chromatin organization in the distribution of DNA double-strand breaks along the chromosome. PMID:12530431

Stenerlow, B; Hoglund, E; Carlsson, J

2002-01-01

17

RNA-Linked DNA Fragments In Vitro*  

PubMed Central

RNA-linked DNA fragments are intermediates in DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates by treatment with toluene. Covalent linkage of a short RNA stretch to the 5? end of the DNA is proved by transfer of 32P from [?-32P]dNTP to ribonucleotides upon digestion with alkali or pancreatic RNase, and by a small decrease in the molecular size upon alkaline hydrolysis. The 32P transfer experiments reveal a unique structure...p(rPy)p(rA)p(rU or rC)p(dC)p... at the RNA-DNA junction. PMID:4567338

Sugino, Akio; Okazaki, Reiji

1973-01-01

18

Integrated microdevice for DNA restriction fragment analysis  

SciTech Connect

An integrated monolithic device (8 mm x 10 mm) that performs an automated biochemical procedure is demonstrated. The device mixes a DNA sample with a restriction enzyme in a 0.7-nL reaction chamber and after a digestion period injects the fragments onto a 67-mm-long capillary electrophoresis channel for sizing. Materials are precisely manipulated under computer control within the channel structure using electrokinetic transport. Digestion of the plasmid pBR322 by the enzyme Hinfl and fragment analysis are completed in 5 min using 30 amol of DNA and 2.8 x 10{sup -3} unit of enzyme per run. 29 refs., 7 figs.

Jacobson, S.C.; Ramsey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-03-01

19

Reconstructing DNA replication kinetics from small DNA fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In higher organisms, DNA replicates simultaneously from many origins. Recent in vitro experiments have yielded large amounts of data on the state of replication of DNA fragments. From measurements of the time dependence of the average size of replicated and nonreplicated domains, one can estimate the rate of initiation of DNA replication origins, as well as the average rate at which DNA bases are copied. One problem in making such estimates is that, in the experiments, the DNA is broken up into small fragments, whose finite size can bias downward the measured averages. Here, we present a systematic way of accounting for this bias by deriving theoretical relationships between the original domain-length distributions and fragment-domain length distributions. We also derive unbiased average-domain-length estimators that yield accurate results, even in cases where the replicated (or nonreplicated) domains are larger than the average DNA fragment. Then we apply these estimators to previously obtained experimental data to extract improved estimates of replication kinetics parameters.

Zhang, Haiyang; Bechhoefer, John

2006-05-01

20

Physica Medica -Vol. XVII, Supplement 1, 2001 Monte Carlo Predictions of DNA Fragment-Size Distributions for  

E-print Network

University, New York, NY 10032 (USA) Abstract DSBs (double-strand breaks) produced by densely ionizing space double-strand break; DNAbreak = computer program based on a Monte Carlo algorithm for chromatin and its that have missed DNA are not shown). Panel B is the locations of DSBs (stars) produced along the chromosome

Brenner, David Jonathan

21

Stacking Interactions in Denaturation of DNA Fragments  

E-print Network

A mesoscopic model for heterogeneous DNA denaturation is developed in the framework of the path integral formalism. The base pair stretchings are treated as one-dimensional, time dependent paths contributing to the partition function. The size of the paths ensemble, which measures the degree of cooperativity of the system, is computed versus temperature consistently with the model potential physical requirements. It is shown that the ensemble size strongly varies with the molecule backbone stiffness providing a quantitative relation between stacking and features of the melting transition. The latter is an overall smooth crossover which begins from the \\emph{adenine-thymine} rich portions of the fragment. The harmonic stacking coupling shifts, along the $T$-axis, the occurrence of the multistep denaturation but it does not change the character of the crossover. The methods to compute the fractions of open base pairs versus temperature are discussed: by averaging the base pair displacements over the path ensemb...

Zoli, Marco

2011-01-01

22

DNA Sequence from Cretaceous Period Bone Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA was extracted from 80-million-year-old bone fragments found in strata of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the roof of an underground coal mine in eastern Utah. This DNA was used as the template in a polymerase chain reaction that amplified and sequenced a portion of the gene encoding mitochondrial cytochrome b. These sequences differ from all other cytochrome b

Scott R. Woodward; Nathan J. Weyand; Mark Bunnell

1994-01-01

23

RNA-Linked DNA Fragments in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA-linked DNA fragments are intermediates in DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates by treatment with toluene. Covalent linkage of a short RNA stretch to the 5' end of the DNA is proved by transfer of 32P from [alpha -32P]dNTP to ribonucleotides upon digestion with alkali or pancreatic RNase, and by a small decrease in the

Akio Sugino; Reiji Okazaki

1973-01-01

24

Increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in fibromyalgic muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether there is evidence of increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in muscle tissue of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Methods: Muscle tissues from 10 community residents with FM and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls were examined "blindly" for the presence of DNA fragmentation by two different methods: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) staining (TUNEL) and the FragEL-Klenow DNA fragmentation detection kit. Ultrastructural analysis of tissue was performed by electron microscopy. Results: DNA fragmentation was detected by both methods in 55.4 (SEM 2.5)% of the nuclei in muscle tissue of patients with FM compared with 16.1 (4.1)% (p<0.001) of the nuclei in healthy controls. Contrary to expectation, no typical features of apoptosis could be detected by electron microscopy. The myofibres and actin filaments were disorganised and lipofuscin bodies were seen; glycogen and lipid accumulation were also found. The number of mitochondria was significantly lower in patients with FM than in controls and seemed to be morphologically altered. Conclusion: The ultrastructural changes described suggest that patients with FM are characterised by abnormalities in muscle tissue that include increased DNA fragmentation and changes in the number and size of mitochondria. These cellular changes are not signs of apoptosis. Persistent focal contractions in muscle may contribute to ultrastructural tissue abnormalities as well as to the induction and/or chronicity of nociceptive transmission from muscle to the central nervous system. PMID:14962957

Sprott, H; Salemi, S; Gay, R; Bradley, L; Alarcon, G; Oh, S; Michel, B; Gay, S

2004-01-01

25

Stacking Interactions in Denaturation of DNA Fragments  

E-print Network

A mesoscopic model for heterogeneous DNA denaturation is developed in the framework of the path integral formalism. The base pair stretchings are treated as one-dimensional, time dependent paths contributing to the partition function. The size of the paths ensemble, which measures the degree of cooperativity of the system, is computed versus temperature consistently with the model potential physical requirements. It is shown that the ensemble size strongly varies with the molecule backbone stiffness providing a quantitative relation between stacking and features of the melting transition. The latter is an overall smooth crossover which begins from the \\emph{adenine-thymine} rich portions of the fragment. The harmonic stacking coupling shifts, along the $T$-axis, the occurrence of the multistep denaturation but it does not change the character of the crossover. The methods to compute the fractions of open base pairs versus temperature are discussed: by averaging the base pair displacements over the path ensemble we find that such fractions signal the multisteps of the transition in good agreement with the indications provided by the specific heat plots.

Marco Zoli

2011-06-21

26

Bacterial Species Determination from DNA-DNA Hybridization by Using Genome Fragments and DNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole genomic DNA-DNA hybridization has been a cornerstone of bacterial species determination but is not widely used because it is not easily implemented. We have developed a method based on random genome fragments and DNA microarray technology that overcomes the disadvantages of whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization. Reference genomes of four fluorescent Pseudomonas species were fragmented, and 60 to 96 genome fragments

JAE-CHANG CHO; JAMES M. TIEDJE

2001-01-01

27

Random DNA fragmentation with endonuclease V: application to DNA shuffling.  

PubMed

The enzyme endonuclease V nicks uracil-containing DNA at the second or third phosphodiester bond 3' to uracil sites. I applied the enzyme to random fragmentation of DNA to revise the complex DNA shuffling protocol. The merit of using endonuclease V is that cleavage occurs at random sites and the length of the fragments can easily be adjusted by varying the concentration of dUTP in the polymerase chain reaction. Unlike the conventional method using DNase I, no partial digestion or gel separation of fragments is required. Therefore, labor is dramatically reduced and reproducibility ensured. I applied this method to recombine two truncated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes and demonstrated successful DNA shuffling by the appearance of the fluorescent full-length GFP genes. PMID:12490730

Miyazaki, Kentaro

2002-12-15

28

Genetic Algorithms, Operators, and DNA Fragment Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study different genetic algorithm operators for one permutation problem associated with the Human Genome Project—the assembly of DNA sequence fragments from a parent clone whose sequence is unknown into a consensus sequence corresponding to the parent sequence. The sorted-order representation, which does not require specialized operators, is compared with a more traditional permutation representation, which does require specialized operators.

Rebecca J. Parsons; Stephanie Forrest; Christian Burks

1995-01-01

29

Simulation of DNA fragment distributions after irradiation with photons.  

PubMed

The Monte Carlo track structure code PARTRAC has been further improved by implementing electron scattering cross-sections for liquid water and by explicitly modelling the interaction of water radicals with DNA. The model of the genome inside a human cell nucleus in its interphase is based on the atomic coordinates of the DNA double helix with an additional volume for the water shell. The DNA helix is wound around histone complexes, and these nucleosomes are folded into chromatin fibres and further to fibre loops, which are interconnected to build chromosomes with a territorial organisation. Simulations have been performed for the irradiation of human fibroblast cells with carbon K and aluminium K ultrasoft x-rays, 220 kVp x-rays and 60Co gamma-rays. The ratio single-strand breaks to double-strand breaks (ssb/dsb) for both types of ultrasoft x-rays is lower than for gamma-rays by a factor of 2. The contributions of direct and indirect effects to strand break induction are almost independent of photon energy. Strand break patterns from indirect effects reflect differences in the susceptibility of the DNA helix to OH* attack inside the chromatin fibre. Distributions of small DNA fragments (<3 kbp) are determined by the chromatin fibre structure irrespective of whether direct or indirect effects are causing the breaks. In the calculated fragment size distributions for larger DNA fragments (>30 kbp), a substantial deviation from random breakage is found only for carbon K irradiation, and is attributed to its inhomogeneous dose distribution inside the cell nucleus. For the other radiation qualities, the results for larger fragments can be approximated by random breakage distributions calculated for a yield of dsb which is about 10% lower than the average for the whole genome. The excess of DNA fragments detected experimentally in the 8-300 kbp region after x-ray irradiation is not seen in our simulation results. PMID:10384954

Friedland, W; Jacob, P; Paretzke, H G; Merzagora, M; Ottolenghi, A

1999-05-01

30

RNA-Linked Nascent DNA Fragments in Escherichia coli*  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid that is extracted from E. coli labeled by a brief pulse of [3H]dT and depatured by treatment with heat, formamide, or formaldehyde bands in a region with a density higher than that of single-stranded E. coli DNA in a Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradient. If treated with alkali or RNase, it then exhibits the density of single-stranded DNA. These results suggest the presence of a short strand of RNA covalently linked to the nascent DNA. Evidence for the presence of covalently linked RNA-DNA molecules is also obtained by pulse labeling with [3H]U. Analyses of nascent nucleic acids from cells pulse labeled for various times, and of the molecules with different sizes, support the hypothesis that the short DNA fragments are formed by extension of even shorter RNA chains, which are synthesized on the parental DNA strands and are removed before ligation of the DNA fragments. The synthesis of the RNA segment of the RNA-DNA molecule is much less sensitive to rifampicin than is the synthesis of bulk RNA. Images PMID:4558661

Sugino, Akio; Hirose, Susumu; Okazaki, Reiji

1972-01-01

31

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments  

DOEpatents

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

Roslaniec, Mary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Cram, L. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

32

On the Distribution of Fragment Sizes in the Fragmentation of Polymer Chains.  

E-print Network

On the Distribution of Fragment Sizes in the Fragmentation of Polymer Chains. B.C. Hathorn, a B of a polymer is calcu­ lated using a simple model based on Transition State Theory to describe the distribution promotes completely random scission, with equal probability distribution for all possible fragment sizes. 1

Hathorn, Bryan C.

33

Capillary electrophoretic separation of DNA restriction fragments using dilute polymer solutions  

SciTech Connect

Because the mechanism of DNA separation in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood, selection of polymers is a {open_quotes}trial-and-error{close_quotes} procedure. We investigated dilute-solution DNA separations by capillary electrophoresis using solutions of four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp and star-(polyethylene oxide), like linear poly (ethylene oxide), provides separation of fragments up to 1353 bp.

Braun, B.; Blanch, W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1997-02-01

34

Fragmentation of DNA affects the accuracy of the DNA quantitation by the commonly used methods  

PubMed Central

Background Specific applications and modern technologies, like non-invasive prenatal testing, non-invasive cancer diagnostic and next generation sequencing, are currently in the focus of researchers worldwide. These have common characteristics in use of highly fragmented DNA molecules for analysis. Hence, for the performance of molecular methods, DNA concentration is a crucial parameter; we compared the influence of different levels of DNA fragmentation on the accuracy of DNA concentration measurements. Results In our comparison, the performance of the currently most commonly used methods for DNA concentration measurement (spectrophotometric, fluorometric and qPCR based) were tested on artificially fragmented DNA samples. In our comparison, unfragmented and three specifically fragmented DNA samples were used. According to our results, the level of fragmentation did not influence the accuracy of spectrophotometric measurements of DNA concentration, while other methods, fluorometric as well as qPCR-based, were significantly influenced and a decrease in measured concentration was observed with more intensive DNA fragmentation. Conclusions Our study has confirmed that the level of fragmentation of DNA has significant impact on accuracy of DNA concentration measurement with two of three mostly used methods (PicoGreen and qPCR). Only spectrophotometric measurement was not influenced by the level of fragmentation, but sensitivity of this method was lowest among the three tested. Therefore if it is possible the DNA quantification should be performed with use of equally fragmented control DNA. PMID:23406353

2013-01-01

35

A Mechanism of Gene Amplification Driven by Small DNA Fragments  

PubMed Central

DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s). Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA) occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB) external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation in nature. PMID:23271978

Mukherjee, Kuntal; Storici, Francesca

2012-01-01

36

Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. II. Experimental detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic 30-nm chromatin fiber in the mammalian cell consists of an unknown (possibly helical) arrangement of nucleosomes, with about 1.2 kb of DNA per 10-nm length of fiber. Track-structure considerations suggest that interactions of single delta rays or high-LET particles with the chromatin fiber might result in the formation of multiple lesions spread over a few kilobases of DNA (see the accompanying paper: W.R. Holley and A. Chatterjee, Radiat. Res. 145, 188-199, 1996). In particular, multiple DNA double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks may form. To test this experimentally, primary human fibroblasts were labeled with [3H]thymidine and exposed at 0 degrees C to X rays or accelerated nitrogen or iron ions in the LET range of 97-440 keV/microns. DNA was isolated inside agarose plugs and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions that allowed good separation of 0.1-2 kb size DNA. The bulk of DNA remained in the well or migrated only a small distance into the gel. It was found that DNA fragments in the expected size range were formed linearly with dose with an efficiency that increased with LET. A comparison of the yield of such fragments with the yield of total DNA double-strand breaks suggests that for the high-LET ions a substantial proportion (20-90%) of DNA double-strand breaks are accompanied within 0.1-2 kb by at least one additional DNA double-strand break. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on treating the 30-nm chromatin fiber as the target for ionizing particles. Theoretical considerations also predict that the clusters will contain numerous single-strand breaks and base damages. It is proposed that such clusters be designated "regionally multiply damaged sites." Postirradiation incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in a decline in the number of short DNA fragments, suggesting a repair activity. The biological significance of regionally multiply damaged sites is presently unknown.

Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

37

In vitro aggregation of the gene-sized DNA molecules of the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.  

PubMed Central

Macronuclear DNA of hypotrichous ciliates exists in the form of gene-sized DNA molecules. It can be resolved on agarose gels into a continuum of sizes upon which is imposed a set of characteristic DNA bands. Most or all of the DNA molecules carry identical terminal inverted repeat sequences. By incubating macronuclear DNA under increasingly stronger ionic conditions, high molecular weight DNA aggregates and ring-like DNA structures are formed. Experimental evidence is presented that this aggregation is not due to the presence of identical single-stranded DNA ends on each macronuclear DNA fragment, and an alternative model for DNA aggregation is discussed. Images PMID:6776521

Lipps, H J

1980-01-01

38

Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA  

PubMed Central

DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (?20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old. PMID:24248361

Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A. A.; Mayar, J. Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W.; Rosing, Minik T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

2013-01-01

39

Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA.  

PubMed

DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (? 20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old. PMID:24248361

Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A A; Mayar, J Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W; Rosing, Minik T; Poole, Anthony M; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

2013-12-01

40

Intermediate DNA at low added salt: DNA bubbles slow the diffusion of short DNA fragments  

E-print Network

We report a study of DNA (150 bp fragments) conformations in very low added salt $DNA concentration range $0.0015\\leq c \\leq 8$~mM (bp). We found an intermediate DNA conformation in the region $0.05 DNA has the diffusion coefficient, $D_p$ reduced below the values for both ssDNA coils and native dsDNA helices of similar polymerization degree $N$. Thus, this DNA population can not be a simple mix of dsDNA and of ssDNA which results from DNA melting. Here, melting occurs due to a reduction in screening concomitant with DNA concentration being reduced, in already very low salt conditions. The intermediate DNA is rationalized through the well known concept of fluctuational openings (DNA bubbles) which we postulate to form in AT-rich portions of the sequence, without the strands coming apart. Within the bubbles, DNA is locally stretched, while the whole molecule remains rod-like due to very low salt environment. Therefore, such intermediate DNA is elongated, in comparison to dsDNA, which accounts for its reduced $D_p$.

Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Ticijana Ban; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

2011-01-05

41

Impact and explosion crater ejecta, fragment size, and velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for the mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact and explosion craters. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter and an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragements ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that for planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity are nearly monodisperse, e.g., 20% of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contain fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. Using this model, the largest fragment that can be ejected from asteroids, the moon, Mars, and Earth is calculated as a function of crater diameter. In addition, the internal energy of ejecta versus ejecta velocity is found. The internal energy of fragments having velocities exceeding the escape velocity of the moon will exceed the energy required for incipient melting for solid silicates and thus, constrains the maximum ejected solid fragment size.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1983-01-01

42

Advanced microinstrumentation for rapid DNA sequencing and large DNA fragment separation  

SciTech Connect

Our efforts to develop novel technology for a rapid DNA sequencer and large fragment analysis system based upon gel electrophoresis are described. We are using microfabrication technology to build dense arrays of high speed micro electrophoresis lanes that will ultimately increase the sequencing rate of DNA by at least 100 times the rate of current sequencers. We have demonstrated high resolution DNA fragment separation needed for sequencing in polyacrylamide microgels formed in glass microchannels. We have built prototype arrays of microchannels having up to 48 channels. Significant progress has also been made in developing a sensitive fluorescence detection system based upon a confocal microscope design that will enable the diagnostics and detection of DNA fragments in ultrathin microchannel gels. Development of a rapid DNA sequencer and fragment analysis system will have a major impact on future DNA instrumentation used in clinical, molecular and forensic analysis of DNA fragments.

Balch, J.; Davidson, J.; Brewer, L.; Gingrich, J.; Koo, J.; Mariella, R.; Carrano, A.

1995-01-25

43

Dependence on radiation quality of DNA fragmentation spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy deposition by radiation initially gives rise to cellular critical lesions such as DNA doublestrand breaks (DSB), that later lead to the formation of relevant biological endpoints. Studies on fragment size distributions induced by radiations of various qualities can be of great help in linking the characteristics of radiation to cellular endpoints, providing information for understanding the main mechanisms of cell damage. Here we are concerned with the damage induced by heavy charged particles; this issue is very important in the field of radioprotection of astronauts participating in long term space missions, besides being relevant also in other fields, like hadrontherapy. Galactic Cosmic Rays contain a large component of high-LET particles (HZE), e.g. helium and carbon ions, as well as highcharge particles such as iron ions. These particles are characterized by complex track structures with energy depositions not only along the path of the primary particle, but also at relatively large distance form the path, due to the presence of high energy secondary electrons. In this work we have simulated the irradiation of human fibroblasts with ?-rays, protons, helium, carbon and iron ions at a fixed dose with the biophysical Monte Carlo code PARTRAC,and calculated the induction of DSB. The PARTRAC code includes accurate representation of the chromatin geometry and of the physical and physico-chemical processes associated with the energy deposition by radiation. The results of a first validation of the code have been reported in A. Campa et al. (2005) and D. Alloni et al. (2007a, 2007b). DNA fragment spectra were calculated based on the DSB induction patterns and compared in particular for particles of the same specific energy and for particles of the same LET. Special emphasis has been directed to the calculation of very small fragments (< 1 kbp) that are not detectable by the most common experimental techniques and that can significantly influence the RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) of high LET radiation. This work was partially supported by EU ("RISC-RAD" project, Contract no. FI6R-CT 2003- 508842, and "NOTE" project, Contract no. FI6R-036465) and ASI (Italian Space Agency, "Mo-Ma/COUNT" project). References A. Campa, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, R. Cherubini, V. Dini, G. Esposito, W.Friedland, S. Gerardi, S. Molinelli, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA DSB induced in human cells by charged particles and gamma rays: experimental results and theoretical approaches. Int. J. Radiat.Biol. 81, 841-854 (2005). D. Alloni, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, A. Campa, G. Esposito, W. Friedland, M.Liotta, A. Ottolenghi and H. G. Paretzke. Modeling of DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by 56 Fe ions. Adv. Space Res. 40, 1401-1407 (2007a). D. Alloni, F. Antonelli, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, A. Campa, V. Dini, G.Esposito, W. Friedland, M. Liotta, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone, E. Sorrentino and M. A. Tabocchini. Small DNA fragments induced in human fibroblasts by 56 Fe ions: experimental data and MC simulations. Proc. "Ion Beams in biology and medicine", Heidelberg, 26-29 September 2007, edited by J. Debus, K. Henrichs, G. Kraft, p. 164 (2207b).

Campa, Alessandro; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; Belli, Mauro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Facoetti, Angelica; Friedland, Werner; Liotta, Marco; Paretzke, Herwig

44

qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two genomes is demonstrated and which evaluates systematically the impact of DNA degradation on quantification of mtDNA copy number.

Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

2012-07-06

45

Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model of fragmentation based on a probabilistic calculation of the repeated fracture of a particle population. The resulting continuous solution, which is in closed form, gives the evolution of fragmentation products from an initial block, through a scale-invariant power-law relationship to a final comminuted powder. Models for the fragmentation of particles have been developed separately in mainly two different disciplines: the continuous integro-differential equations of batch mineral grinding (Reid, 1965) and the fractal analysis of geophysics (Turcotte, 1986) based on a discrete model with a single probability of fracture. The first gives a time-dependent development of the particle-size distribution, but has resisted a closed-form solution, while the latter leads to the scale-invariant power laws, but with no time dependence. Bird (2009) recently introduced a bridge between these two approaches with a step-wise iterative calculation of the fragmentation products. The development of the particle-size distribution occurs with discrete steps: during each fragmentation event, the particles will repeatedly fracture probabilistically, cascading down the length scales to a final size distribution reached after all particles have failed to further fragment. We have identified this process as the equivalent to a sequence of trials for each particle with a fixed probability of fragmentation. Although the resulting distribution is discrete, it can be reformulated as a continuous distribution in maturity over time and particle size. In our model, Turcotte's power-law distribution emerges at a unique maturation index that defines a regime boundary. Up to this index, the fragmentation is in an erosional regime with the initial particle size setting the scaling. Fragmentation beyond this index is in a regime of comminution with rebreakage of the particles down to the size limit of fracture. The maturation index can increment continuously, for example under grinding conditions, or as discrete steps, such as with impact events. In both cases our model gives the energy associated with the fragmentation in terms of the developing surface area of the population. We show the agreement of our model to the evolution of particle size distributions associated with episodic and continuous fragmentation and how the evolution of some popular fractals may be represented using this approach. C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model. Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Bird, N. R. A., Watts, C. W., Tarquis, A. M., & Whitmore, A. P. (2009). Modeling dynamic fragmentation of soil. Vadose Zone Journal, 8(1), 197-201. Reid, K. J. (1965). A solution to the batch grinding equation. Chemical Engineering Science, 20(11), 953-963. Turcotte, D. L. (1986). Fractals and fragmentation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 91(B2), 1921-1926.

Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

2013-12-01

46

DNA assisted fragmentation of nickel nanoparticle clusters and their spectral properties.  

PubMed

Nickel nanoparticle (NiNP) clusters in the range of 60-70 nm size on interaction with herring-sperm DNA (B-DNA) form a self-assembled duplex helix DNA structure with fragmented NiNPs as small as 5-15 nm, as evident from atomic force microscopic studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images also corroborate the findings. The properties of these self-assembled NiNPs-DNA structures have been further investigated by UV-visible, emission and circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. PMID:20398942

Prabakaran, Natarajan; Athappan, Periakaruppan

2010-07-01

47

Development of procedures for the identification of human papilloma virus DNA fragments in laser plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the investigation of laser plume for the existence of HPV DNA fragments, which possibly occur during laser treatment of virus infected tissue, human papillomas and condylomas were treated in vitro with the CO2-laser. For the sampling of the laser plume a new method for the trapping of the material was developed by use of water-soluble gelatine filters. These samples were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which was optimized in regard of the gelatine filters and the specific primers. Positive PCR results for HPV DNA fragments up to the size of a complete oncogene were obtained and are discussed regarding infectiousity.

Woellmer, Wolfgang; Meder, Tom; Jappe, Uta; Gross, Gerd; Riethdorf, Sabine; Riethdorf, Lutz; Kuhler-Obbarius, Christina; Loening, Thomas

1996-01-01

48

TNF-? is involved in activating DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Intraperitoneal administration of 100??g kg?1 (body weight) of tumour necrosis factor-? to rats for 8 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease in protein content, which was concomitant with a reduction in DNA content. Interestingly, the protein/DNA ratio was unchanged in the skeletal muscle of the tumour necrosis factor-?-treated animals as compared with the non-treated controls. Analysis of muscle DNA fragmentation clearly showed enhanced laddering in the skeletal muscle of tumour necrosis factor-?-treated animals, suggesting an apoptotic phenomenon. In a different set of experiments, mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour (the Lewis lung carcinoma) showed an increase in muscle DNA fragmentation (9.8-fold) as compared with their non-tumour-bearing control counterparts as previously described. When gene-deficient mice for tumour necrosis factor-? receptor protein I were inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma, they were also affected by DNA fragmentation; however the increase was only 2.1-fold. These results suggest that tumour necrosis factor-? partly mediates DNA fragmentation during experimental cancer-associated cachexia. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1012–1016. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600167 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953838

Carbó, N; Busquets, S; van Royen, M; Alvarez, B; López-Soriano, F J; Argilés, J M

2002-01-01

49

Creating Cost-Effective DNA Size Standards for Use in Teaching and Research Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I have devised a method with which a molecular size standard can be readily manufactured using Lambda DNA and PCR. This method allows the production of specific sized DNA fragments and is easily performed in a standard molecular biology laboratory. The material required to create these markers can also be used to provide a highly robust and…

Shultz, Jeff

2011-01-01

50

The 40-kDa subunit of DNA fragmentation factor induces DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the reconstitution of a path- way that leads to the apoptotic changes in nuclei by using recombinant DNA fragmentation factor (DFF), a heterodimeric protein of 40 and 45 kDa. Coexpression of DFF40 and DFF45 is required to generate recombinant DFF, which becomes activated when DFF45 is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFF45 dissociate from the

Xuesong Liu; Peng Li; Piotr Widlak; Hua Zou; Xu Luo; WILLIAM T. GARRARD; Xiaodong Wang

1998-01-01

51

Fenton fragmentation for faster electrophoretic on chip purification of amplifiable genomic DNA.  

PubMed

With a rapid and simple actuation protocol electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction is easy automatable, requires no moving parts, is easy to miniaturize and furthermore possesses a size dependent cut-off filter adjustable by the pore size of the hydrogel. However electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction from bacteria has so far been applied mainly for short RNA targets. One of the reasons is that electrophoretic processing of unfragmented genomic DNA strands is time-consuming, because of the length. Here DNA fragmentation would accelerate extraction and isolation. We introduce on-chip lysis and non-enzymatic DNA cleavage directly followed by a purifying step for receiving amplifiable DNA fragments from bacteria in less than 25min. In contrast to restriction enzymes the Fenton reaction is known to cleave DNA without nucleotide specificity. The reaction mix contains iron(II) EDTA, sodium ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme. The degree of fragmentation can be adjusted by the concentration of reagents. The results enable electrophoretic extraction methods to unspecifically process long genomic DNA in a short time frame, e.g. for pathogen detection in a lab-on-a-chip format. PMID:24970713

Hakenberg, S; Hügle, M; Meyer, P; Behrmann, O; Dame, G; Urban, G A

2015-05-15

52

Fiber optic system for rapid analysis of amplified DNA fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a fiber optic sensor for rapid and direct analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments with minimal sample processing and real-time data readout. To accomplish this, a novel DNA-recognition system was built onto the surface of fused silica fibers. DNA fragments, labeled with a fluorophore during amplification, are bound to and detected at the fiber surface by means of evanescent wave excitation/emission. Excess unincorporated fluorescent single-stranded oligonucleotide PCR primers make only a small contribution to the signal, as the modified fiber surface only efficiently binds double-stranded DNA with the proper PCR-incorporated terminal nucleotide sequence (5'-ATGACTCAT-3'). The surface- bound double-stranded DNA recognition element utilizes a genetically engineered dimeric sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Self-assembly into the proper conformation for binding DNA occurs by means of specific interactions of the active dimer with the Fc domains of a layer of IgG molecules (antibodies) covalently attached directly to the fiber surface. The modified fiber surface is regenerated between samples by stripping away bound DNA with high salt concentrations.

Mauro, J. Matthew; Cao, Lynn K.; Golden, Joel P.

1996-04-01

53

Combination of native and denaturing PAGE for the detection of protein binding regions in long fragments of genomic DNA  

PubMed Central

Background In a traditional electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) a 32P-labeled double-stranded DNA oligonucleotide or a restriction fragment bound to a protein is separated from the unbound DNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in nondenaturing conditions. An extension of this method uses the large population of fragments derived from long genomic regions (approximately 600 kb) for the identification of fragments containing protein binding regions. With this method, genomic DNA is fragmented by restriction enzymes, fragments are amplified by PCR, radiolabeled, incubated with nuclear proteins and the resulting DNA-protein complexes are separated by two-dimensional PAGE. Shifted DNA fragments containing protein binding sites are identified by using additional procedures, i. e. gel elution, PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Although the method allows simultaneous analysis of a large population of fragments, it is relatively laborious and can be used to detect only high affinity protein binding sites. Here we propose an alternative and straightforward strategy which is based on a combination of native and denaturing PAGE. This strategy allows the identification of DNA fragments containing low as well as high affinity protein binding regions, derived from genomic DNA (<10 kb) of known sequence. Results We have combined an EMSA-based selection step with subsequent denaturing PAGE for the localization of protein binding regions in long (up to10 kb) fragments of genomic DNA. Our strategy consists of the following steps: digestion of genomic DNA with a 4-cutter restriction enzyme (AluI, BsuRI, TruI, etc), separation of low and high molecular weight fractions of resultant DNA fragments, 32P-labeling with Klenow polymerase, traditional EMSA, gel elution and identification of the shifted bands (or smear) by denaturing PAGE. The identification of DNA fragments containing protein binding sites is carried out by running the gel-eluted fragments alongside with the full "spectrum" of initial restriction fragments of known size. Here the strategy is used for the identification of protein-binding regions in the 5' region of the rat p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) gene. Conclusion The developed strategy is based on a combination of traditional EMSA and denaturing PAGE for the identification of protein binding regions in long fragments of genomic DNA. The identification is straightforward and can be applied to shifted bands corresponding to stable DNA-protein complexes as well as unstable complexes, which undergo dissociation during electrophoresis. PMID:18533036

Kaer, Kristel; Mätlik, Kert; Metsis, Madis; Speek, Mart

2008-01-01

54

Influence of PMMA shielding on DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by iron and titanium ions.  

PubMed

In the framework of a collaborative project on the influence of the shielding on the biological effectiveness of space radiation, we studied DNA fragmentation induced by 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions and titanium ions with and without a 197-mm-thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) shield in AG1522 human fibroblasts. Pulsed- and constant-field gel electrophoresis were used to analyze DNA fragmentation in the size range 1-5700 kbp. The results show that, mainly owing to a higher production of small fragments (1-23 kbp), titanium ions are more effective than iron ions at inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), their RBE being 2.4 and 1.5, respectively. The insertion of a PMMA shield decreases DNA breakage, with shielding protection factors (ratio of the unshielded/shielded cross sections for DSB production) of about 1.6 for iron ions and 2.1 for titanium ions. However, the DSB yield (no. of DSBs per unit mass per unit dose) is almost unaffected by the presence of the shield, and the relative contributions of the fragments in the different size ranges are almost the same with or without shielding. This indicates that, under our conditions, the effect of shielding is mainly to reduce the dose per unit incident fluence, leaving radiation quality practically unaffected. PMID:16187791

Dini, Valentina; Antonelli, Francesca; Belli, Mauro; Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella

2005-10-01

55

Physical map of polyoma viral DNA fragments produced by cleavage with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, endonuclease R-HaeIII.  

PubMed

Digestion of polyoma viral DNA with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius generates at least 22 unique fragments. The fragments have been characterized with respect to size and physical order on the polyoma genome, and the 5' to 3' orientation of the (+) and (-) strands has been determined. A method for specific radiolabeling of adjacent fragments was employed to establish the fragment order. This technique may be useful for ordering the fragments produced by digestion of complex DNAs. PMID:163927

Summers, J

1975-04-01

56

A novel antitumor compound, NC190, induces topoisomerase II-dependent DNA cleavage and DNA fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel benzophenazine derivative, NC-190, is a potent antitumor compound. NC-190 has been shown to inhibit the DNA strand-passing\\u000a activity of DNA topoisomerase II. We investigated further the mode of action of NC-190 against DNA topoisomerase II and DNA\\u000a fragmentation. NC-190 inhibited the decatenation activity of purified topoisomerase II, but had only a weak inhibitory effect\\u000a against topoisomerase I. A

Takehiro Yamagishi; Shiro Nakaike; Tomotake Ikeda; Hisao Ikeya; Susumu Otomo

1996-01-01

57

Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Recovered  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genesis launched in 2001 with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors mounted on 5 arrays, comprised of 9 materials described in [1]. The array collectors were damaged during re-entry impact in Utah in 2004 [2], breaking into many smaller pieces and dust. A compilation of the number and approximate size of the fragments recovered was compiled from notes made during the field packaging performed in the Class 10,000 cleanroom at Utah Test and Training Range [3].

Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

2005-01-01

58

Neuronal nuclear DNA fragmentation in the aged canine brain: apoptosis or nuclear DNA fragility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal DNA fragmentation, as revealed with the method of in situ end-labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL), has\\u000a been reported in both the canine and human brains in normal ageing, and in some human age-related neurodegenerative diseases.\\u000a These results have suggested that apoptosis plays an important role in age-related neuronal loss. It is not clear, however,\\u000a whether the TUNEL method

D. Borràs; M. Pumarola; I. Ferrer

2000-01-01

59

Body size variation of mammals in a fragmented, temperate rainforest.  

PubMed

Body size is perhaps the most important trait of an organism, affecting all of its physiological and ecological processes and, therefore, fundamentally influencing its ability to survive and reproduce in different environments, including those that have been modified by human activities. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic transformation of old-growth forest landscapes can result in significant intraspecific changes in body size of resident biotas. We collected data on five species of nonvolant mammals (common deer mouse[Peromyscus maniculatus], northwestern deer mouse[P. keeni], southern red-backed vole[Clethrionomys gapperi], montane shrew[Sorex monticolus], and Trowbridge's shrew[S. trowbridgii]) to test whether body size (mass and length) of these species varied across types of land cover (macrohabitats) and along elevational gradients of the fragmented, temperate rainforest of Olympic National Forest (Washington, U.S.A.). We measured 2168 and 1134 individuals for body mass and body length, respectively. Three species (P. keeni, S. monticolus, and S. trowbridgii) exhibited significantly different body size among macrohabitats: individuals from fragments were smaller than those in old-growth corridors and those in more extensive stands of old-growth forest. Body size of P. keeni was significantly correlated with elevation along corridors, peaking near the medial reaches of the corridors. The effects of anthropogenic transformations of this landscape of old-growth, temperate rainforest, although not universal among the five species, were significant and rapid-developing in just a few decades following tree harvests. Thus, anthropogenic fragmentation may influence not only the diversity, species composition, and densities of local biotas, but also one of the most fundamental and defining characteristics of native species-their body size. PMID:17650255

Lomolino, Mark V; Perault, David R

2007-08-01

60

Iodine-125 decay in a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide. I. Fragment size distribution and evaluation of breakage probability.  

PubMed

Lobachevsky, P. N. and Martin, R. F. Iodine-125 Decay in a Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotide. I. Fragment Size Distribution and Evaluation of Breakage Probability. Incorporation of (125)I-dC into a defined location of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide was used to investigate DNA breaks arising from decay of the Auger electron-emitting isotope. Samples of the oligodeoxynucleotide were also labeled with (32)P at either the 5' or 3' end of either the (125)I-dC-containing (so-called top) or opposite (bottom) strand and incubated in 20 mM phosphate buffer or the same buffer plus 2 M dimethylsulfoxide at 4 degrees C during 18-20 days. The (32)P-end-labeled fragments produced by (125)I decays were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the (32)P activity in each fragment was determined by scintillation counting after elution of fragments from the gel. The relative fragment size distributions were then normalized on a per decay basis and converted to a distribution of single-strand break probabilities as a function of distance from the (125)I-dC. The results of three to five experiments for each of eight possible combinations of labels and incubation conditions are presented as a table showing the relative numbers of (32)P counts in different fragments as well as graphs of normalized fragment size distributions and probabilities of breakage. The average numbers of single-strand breaks per (125)I decay are 3. 3 and 3.7 in the top strand and 1.3 and 1.5 in the bottom strand with and without dimethylsulfoxide, respectively. Every (125)I decay event produces a break in the top strand, and breakage of the bottom strand occurs in 75-80% of the events. Thus a double-strand break is produced by (125)I decay with a probability of approximately 0.8. PMID:10669547

Lobachevsky, P N; Martin, R F

2000-03-01

61

DNA fragment conformations in adducts with Kiteplatin.  

PubMed

The anticancer activity of cisplatin is triggered by its formation of intrastrand adducts involving adjacent G residues of DNA. To obtain information on the different conformers that can be formed, carrier ligands such as 2,2'-bipiperidine, which provide large steric bulk near the platinum coordination plane and decrease the dynamic motion about the Pt-N7 bonds, were introduced ("retro-modelling" approach). In the present study we investigate the effect of cis-1,4-diaminocyclohexane (cis-1,4-DACH) on the formation, stability, and stereochemistry of (cis-1,4-DACH)Pt(ss-oligo) adducts (ss-oligo = d(GpG) with 3'- and/or 5'-substituents). Interesting features of this ligand, absent in previous retro-modelling studies, include the large bite angle (expected to impede the ease of interconversion between possible conformers), the presence of two protons on each nitrogen (a characteristic associated with antitumor activity), and the absence of chiral centres. The use of cis-1,4-DACH has made it possible to detect different conformers in a system containing a primary diamine carrier ligand associated with anticancer activity and to confirm the previous hypothesis that the coexistence of different conformers established in studies of retro models having relatively bulky ligands is not an artefact resulting from carrier-ligand bulk. Moreover, the data for the (cis-1,4-DACH)Pt(d(GpG)) and (cis-1,4-DACH)Pt(d(GGTTT)) adducts indicate that at a temperature close to the physiological one (40 °C) HH1 and ?HT1 conformers are present in comparable amounts. In contrast, at low temperature (close to 0 °C) the equilibrium shifts dramatically toward the more stable HH1 conformer (for the (cis-1,4-DACH)Pt(d(TGGT)) adduct the HH1 conformer is always dominant, even at high temperature). Notably, (cis-1,4-DACH)PtCl2 (Kiteplatin) has been recently reinvestigated and found to be particularly active against colorectal cancer (including oxaliplatin-resistant phenotypes). PMID:25144401

Margiotta, Nicola; Petruzzella, Emanuele; Platts, James A; Mutter, Shaun T; Deeth, Robert J; Ranaldo, Rosa; Papadia, Paride; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G; Hoeschele, James D; Natile, Giovanni

2015-02-10

62

Novel extraction method of genomic DNA suitable for long-fragment amplification from small amounts of milk.  

PubMed

Isolation of genomic DNA is a prerequisite for assessment of milk quality. As a source of genomic DNA, milk somatic cells from milking ruminants are practical, animal friendly, and cost-effective sources. Extracting DNA from milk can avoid the stress response caused by blood and tissue sampling of cows. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for amplifying long (>1,000 bp) DNA fragments and used it to evaluate the isolation of DNA from small amounts of milk. The techniques used for the separation of milk somatic cell were explored and combined with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-phenol method for optimizing DNA extraction from milk. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration and purity of the extracted DNA. Gel electrophoresis and DNA amplification technologies were used for to determine DNA size and quality. The DNA of 112 cows was obtained from milk (samples of 13 ± 1 mL) and the corresponding optical density ratios at 260:280 nm were between 1.65 and 1.75. Concentrations were between 12 and 45 ?g/?L and DNA size and quality were acceptable. The specific PCR amplification of 1,019- and 729-bp bovine DNA fragments was successfully carried out. This novel method can be used as a practical, fast, and economical mean for long genomic DNA extraction from a small amount of milk. PMID:25218756

Liu, Y F; Gao, J L; Yang, Y F; Ku, T; Zan, L S

2014-11-01

63

CE of Small DNA Fragments Using Linear Polyacrylamide Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations at codons 248 and 249 of p53 gene showed a relatively high incidence in gastric cancer patients. Development of\\u000a novel methods for the detection of codon mutations is of great importance for gastric cancer research. Studies have showed\\u000a that the separation matrix can significantly influence the separation efficiency and resolution of small DNA fragments in\\u000a CE. In order to

Zheng-Ping Jia; Rong Wang; Qiao-Yun Chen; Hua Xie; Jun Ma; Yuan-Yuan Liu; Juan Wang

2009-01-01

64

Kindred DNA amplification from two distinct populations of cDNA fragments.  

PubMed

Kindred DNA amplification is a novel and cost-effective method developed to isolate common cDNA fragments between two distinct cDNA populations. Unlike subtractive hybridization, which discards common sequences, kindred DNA amplification isolates and amplifies these sequences within a single hybridization procedure. The utility of this method is demonstrated by cloning the genes in common between two different but metabolically homologous muscles, murine ventricular myocardium and soleus. The reliability of kindred DNA amplification was confirmed by Southern hybridization. PMID:12765027

Puurand, Ulo; Kadaja, Lumme; Seppet, Enn K

2003-05-01

65

Short noncoding DNA fragments improve the immune potency of electroporation-mediated HBV DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

Electroporation (EP)-mediated DNA immunization can elicit effective immune responses in a variety of animals, and is widely used in research studies and clinical trials. However, high-pulse voltage, high DNA dose and multiple immunizations are still required to achieve considerable immune responses. To further improve the efficiency of EP-mediated DNA immunization, many parameters have been tried and optimized in recent years. In our early research, we found that the short noncoding DNA fragments (sf-DNA) can significantly enhance EP-mediated transgene expression of reporter genes. In this study, we tested the effect of sf-DNA on the immune potency of EP-mediated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccination in a mouse model. The results show that the use of sf-DNA in EP-mediated HBV DNA vaccination leads to an enhanced expression of the HBV surface antigen, resulting in higher cellular and humoral responses. Furthermore, the immune responses in the sf-DNA-mediated 120?V cm(-1) EP immunization group were higher than that of the 200?V?cm(-1) EP without sf-DNA groups. These data suggest that the sf-DNA can be used as an effective helper molecule to improve the immune response of EP-mediated HBV DNA vaccination, which may make the EP-mediated DNA vaccination more effective and suitable for animal and clinical application. PMID:24830435

Peng, J; Shi, S; Yang, Z; Ding, Q; Hai, W; Tang, H; Yang, Y; Bernstein, J R; Peyda, P; Xu, Y

2014-07-01

66

Ribosomal RNA genes in Euglena gracilis mitochondrial DNA: fragmented genes in a seemingly fragmented genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because relatively little information is available about mtDNA in the euglenid protozoa, distant relatives of the kinetoplastid\\u000a protozoa, we investigated mitochondrial genome structure and expression in Euglena gracilis. We found that isolated E. gracilis mtDNA comprises a heterodisperse collection of short molecules (modal size ~4 kbp) and that the mitochondrial large subunit\\u000a (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) rRNAs are each split

David F. Spencer; Michael W. Gray

2011-01-01

67

DNA fragmentation induced by Fe ions in human cells: shielding influence on spatially correlated damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outside the magnetic field of the Earth, high energy heavy ions constitute a relevant part of the biologically significant dose to astronauts during the very long travels through space. The typical pattern of energy deposition in the matter by heavy ions on the microscopic scale is believed to produce spatially correlated damage in the DNA which is critical for radiobiological effects. We have investigated the influence of a lucite shielding on the initial production of very small DNA fragments in human fibroblasts irradiated with 1 GeV/u iron (Fe) ions. We also used gamma rays as reference radiation. Our results show: (1) a lower effect per incident ion when the shielding is used; (2) an higher DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB) induction by Fe ions than by gamma rays in the size range 1-23 kbp; (3) a non-random DNA DSB induction by Fe ions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Rydberg, B.; Simone, G.; Tabocchini, M. A.

2004-01-01

68

Physical mapping of the Hind III, Eco RI, Sal and Sma restriction endonuclease cleavage fragments from bacteriophage T5 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA of bacteriophage T5+ (molecular weight 76×106 dalton) has been dissected by various specific endonucleases. The restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoRI produce 16 and 7 fragments respectively, whereas Sal and Sma produce 4 fragments each. Complete cleavage maps were established for the enzymes EcoRI, Sal and Sma and an almost complete map for HindIII. Furthermore the location and size

Alexander Gabain; Gary S. Hayward; Hermann Bujard

1976-01-01

69

Correlations between two markers of sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation and DNA fragmentation, in fertile and infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate two different assays of human sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation (DD) and DNA fragmentation (DF), and to correlate these with standard semen parameters.Design: Prospective, observational study.Setting: University infertility clinic.Patient(s): Forty consecutive semen samples from 33 nonazoospermic men presenting for infertility evaluation and 7 fertile men presenting for vasectomy.Intervention(s): Assessment of sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DD and DF.Main

Armand Zini; Ryszard Bielecki; Donna Phang; Maria Teresa Zenzes

2001-01-01

70

Factors affecting SFHR gene correction efficiency with single-stranded DNA fragment  

SciTech Connect

A 606-nt single-stranded (ss) DNA fragment, prepared by restriction enzyme digestion of ss phagemid DNA, improves the gene correction efficiency by 12-fold as compared with a PCR fragment, which is the conventional type of fragment used in the small fragment homologous replacement method [H. Tsuchiya, H. Harashima, H. Kamiya, Increased SFHR gene correction efficiency with sense single-stranded DNA, J. Gene Med. 7 (2005) 486-493]. To reveal the characteristic features of this gene correction with the ss DNA fragment, the effects on the gene correction in CHO-K1 cells of the chain length, 5'-phosphate, adenine methylation, and transcription were studied. Moreover, the possibility that the ss DNA fragment is integrated into the target DNA was examined with a radioactively labeled ss DNA fragment. The presence of methylated adenine, but not the 5'-phosphate, enhanced the gene correction efficiency, and the optimal length of the ss DNA fragment ({approx}600 nt) was determined. Transcription of the target gene did not affect the gene correction efficiency. In addition, the target DNA recovered from the transfected CHO-K1 cells was radioactive. The results obtained in this study indicate that length and adenine methylation were important factors affecting the gene correction efficiency, and that the ss DNA fragment was integrated into the double-stranded target DNA.

Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology (Japan); Kamiya, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokam@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

2005-11-04

71

Phylogenomics of caspase-activated DNA fragmentation factor  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of nuclear DNA by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a key step in apoptosis of mammalian cells. Using comparative genomics, we have here determined the evolutionary history of the genes encoding the two DFF subunits, DFFA (also known as ICAD) and DFFB (CAD). Orthologs of DFFA and DFFB were identified in Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the primitive metazoan clade cnidarians, and in various vertebrates and insects, but not in representatives of urochordates, echinoderms, and nematodes. The domains mediating the interaction of DFFA and DFFB, a caspase cleavage site in DFFA, and the amino acid residues critical for endonuclease activity of DFFB were conserved in Nematostella. These findings suggest that DFF has been a part of the primordial apoptosis system of the eumetazoan common ancestor and that the ancient cell death machinery has degenerated in several evolutionary lineages, including the one leading to the prototypical apoptosis model, Caenorhabditis elegans.

Eckhart, Leopold [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at; Fischer, Heinz [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Tschachler, Erwin [Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2007-04-27

72

DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology  

E-print Network

DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology Martin Mascher Leibniz Technology Since the central importance of the DNA in storing biological informa- tion had been recognised limitations permit scientists only to obtain contigu- ous DNA fragments whose lengths range from a few dozen

Willems, Wolfgang

73

Oak chloroplast-DNA polymorphisms detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)  

E-print Network

in the chloroplast (cp) DNA of oak species, would enable us to follow the inheritance of the most con- servative DNANote Oak chloroplast-DNA polymorphisms detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP — Petunia hybrida chloroplast (cp) DNA probes were used to find restriction fragment length

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Mitochondrial chaperone DnaJA3 induces Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and controlled by coordinated fusion and fission pathways. The role of mitochondrial chaperones in mitochondrial morphological changes and pathology is currently unclear. Here we report that altered levels of DnaJA3 (Tid1/mtHsp40) a mitochondrial member of the DnaJ protein family, and heat shock protein (Hsp) co-chaperone of matrix 70 kDa Hsp70 (mtHsp70/mortalin/HSPA9), induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Suppression of DnaJA3 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells. Elevated levels of DnaJA3 in normal Hs68 fibroblast cells and HeLa, SKN-SH, U87 and U251 cancer cell lines induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation induction was not observed in HeLa cells when other DnaJA family members, or mitochondrial DnaJ protein HSC20, were ectopically expressed, indicating that the effects on mitochondrial morphology were specific to DnaJA3. We show that the DnaJ domain (amino acids 88-168) of DnaJA3 is sufficient for the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, an H121Q point mutation of the DnaJ domain, which abrogates interaction and activation of mtHsp70 ATPase, eliminates fragmentation induced by DnaJA3. This suggests that DnaJA3 interaction with mtHsp70 may be critical in mitochondrial morphological changes. DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was dependent on fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Ectopic expression of the mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2), however, does not rescue DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Lastly, elevated levels of DnaJA3 inducing mitochondrial fragmentation were associated with reduction in cell viability. Taken together, elevated DnaJA3 induces Drp1-depedendent mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased cell viability. PMID:22595283

Elwi, Adam N; Lee, Byoungchun; Meijndert, H Christopher; Braun, Janice E A; Kim, Sung-Woo

2012-08-01

75

Regional localization of chromosome 3-specific DNA fragments by using a hybrid cell deletion mapping panel.  

PubMed Central

A series of human chromosome 3-specific DNA fragments isolated and characterized from a lamda phage genomic library were regionally localized on human chromosome 3. This was accomplished using filter hybridization blot analysis of a human chromosome 3 hybrid cell deletion mapping panel. Twenty-three new anonymous DNA fragments were assigned to one of four physical regions of chromosome 3. Seventeen DNA fragments were mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3, including one DNA fragment that demonstrated a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Five DNA fragments were assigned to 3p14.2----pter, including one highly polymorphic fragment sublocalized at 3p25----pter by in situ hybridization. This DNA fragment is the second reported distal 3p polymorphic probe. One DNA fragment was localized to 3p14----p14.2. In addition, three fragments previously assigned to chromosome 3 were confirmed. Polymorphic DNA probes DNF15S2 (formerly D1S1) and D3S2 were mapped to 3p14.2----pter. The previous 3p25 in situ localization of the c-raf-1 oncogene was supported by deletion panel mapping. The physical localization of these twenty-three new DNA fragments has more than doubled the number of cloned DNA fragments assigned to chromosome 3. These and future regional assignments of DNA fragment probes will facilitate construction of both a physical and genetic linkage map of chromosome 3. They may also be useful in characterizing the chromosomal and molecular aberrations involved in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), renal cell carcinoma, other malignancies, and the 3p14.2 common fragile site. Images p[446]-a Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2902784

Gerber, M J; Drabkin, H A; Firnhaber, C; Miller, Y E; Scoggin, C H; Smith, D I

1988-01-01

76

Enhanced resolution of DNA restriction fragments: A procedure by two-dimensional electrophoresis and double-labeling  

SciTech Connect

A probe-free method was developed to detect DNA rearrangement in bacteria based on the electrophoretic separation of twice-digested restriction fragments of genomic DNA into a two-dimensional (2-D) pattern. The first restriction enzyme digestion was done in solution, followed by electrophoresis of the restriction fragments in one dimension. A second restriction enzyme digestion was carried out in situ in the gel, followed by electrophoresis in a second dimension perpendicular to the first electrophoresis. The 2-D pattern provides for the resolution of 300-400 spots, which are defined and indexed by an x,y coordinate system with size markers. This approach has greatly increased the resolution power over conventional one-dimensional (1-D) electrophoresis. To study DNA rearrangement, a 2-D pattern from a test strain was compared with the 2-D pattern from a reference strain. After the first digestion, genomic DNA fragments from the test strain were labeled with 35S, while those from the reference strain were labeled with 32P. This was done to utilize the difference in the energy emission of 35S and 32P isotopes for autoradiography when two x-ray films were exposed simultaneously on top of the gel after the 2-D electrophoresis. The irradiation from the decay of 35S exposed only the lower film, whereas the irradiation from the decay of 32P exposed both the lower and upper films. Different DNA fragments existed in the test DNA compared with the reference DNA can be identified unambiguously by the differential two 2-D patterns produced on two films upon exposure to the 35S and 32P fragments in the same gel. An appropriate photographic procedure further simplified the process, allowing only the difference in DNA fragments between these two patterns to be shown in the map.

Yi, M.; Au, L.C.; Ichikawa, N.; Ts'o, P.O. (Johns Hopkins Univ., School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

77

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

78

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, K.K.

2000-04-04

79

Flooding and fragment size interact to determine survival and regrowth after fragmentation in two stoloniferous Trifolium species.  

PubMed

Clonal plants, which reproduce by means of stolons and rhizomes, are common in frequently flooded habitats. Resilience to disturbance is an important trait enabling plants to survive in such highly disturbed habitats. Resource storage is thought to enable clonal plants to resume growth after clonal fragmentation caused by disturbance. Here we investigated if submergence prior to disturbance reduces survival and regrowth of clonal fragments and whether or not genotypes originating from highly disturbed riverine habitats are more resistant to mechanical disturbance than genotypes from less disturbed coastal dune slack habitats. We further tested if variation in survival and regrowth was affected by internode size. Clones from contrasting habitats of two closely related Trifolium species were first genotypically characterized by amplification fragment length polymorphism and then subjected to soil flooding and subsequent clonal fragmentation. These species differ with respect to their abundance in riverine and dune slack habitats, with Trifolium repens mainly occurring in riverine grasslands and Trifolium fragiferum in coastal dune slacks. Soil flooding decreased survival and regrowth by up to 80 %. Plants originating from riverine grasslands were less negatively affected by fragmentation than plants from dune slack habitats. Surprisingly, ramets did not always benefit from being attached to a larger internode, as internode size was often negatively correlated with survival after fragmentation. Regrowth, on the other hand, was generally positively correlated with internode size. These unexpected results indicate that there may be contrasting selection pressures on internode size in stoloniferous species growing in severely disturbed habitats. PMID:24887003

Huber, Heidrun; Visser, Eric J W; Clements, Gijs; Peters, Janny L

2014-01-01

80

Flooding and fragment size interact to determine survival and regrowth after fragmentation in two stoloniferous Trifolium species  

PubMed Central

Clonal plants, which reproduce by means of stolons and rhizomes, are common in frequently flooded habitats. Resilience to disturbance is an important trait enabling plants to survive in such highly disturbed habitats. Resource storage is thought to enable clonal plants to resume growth after clonal fragmentation caused by disturbance. Here we investigated if submergence prior to disturbance reduces survival and regrowth of clonal fragments and whether or not genotypes originating from highly disturbed riverine habitats are more resistant to mechanical disturbance than genotypes from less disturbed coastal dune slack habitats. We further tested if variation in survival and regrowth was affected by internode size. Clones from contrasting habitats of two closely related Trifolium species were first genotypically characterized by amplification fragment length polymorphism and then subjected to soil flooding and subsequent clonal fragmentation. These species differ with respect to their abundance in riverine and dune slack habitats, with Trifolium repens mainly occurring in riverine grasslands and Trifolium fragiferum in coastal dune slacks. Soil flooding decreased survival and regrowth by up to 80 %. Plants originating from riverine grasslands were less negatively affected by fragmentation than plants from dune slack habitats. Surprisingly, ramets did not always benefit from being attached to a larger internode, as internode size was often negatively correlated with survival after fragmentation. Regrowth, on the other hand, was generally positively correlated with internode size. These unexpected results indicate that there may be contrasting selection pressures on internode size in stoloniferous species growing in severely disturbed habitats. PMID:24887003

Huber, Heidrun; Visser, Eric J. W.; Clements, Gijs; Peters, Janny L.

2014-01-01

81

Computer Simulation of Packing of Particles with Size Distributions Produced by Fragmentation Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragmentation schemes inspired by theoretical results and conjectures of Kolmogorov are applied to produce particle size distributions of different natures, depending on fragmentation parameters. A two-dimensional computer simulation method of packing is applied to the resulting distributions and the void fraction is evaluated. The relationship between the void fraction and characteristic parameters of the fragmentation process is studied.

Martín, Miguel Angel; Muñoz, Francisco J.; Reyes, Miguel; Taguas, F. Javier

2015-01-01

82

Inhibition of apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation activity in nonapoptotic cells: the role of DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF45/ICAD).  

PubMed

We have investigated the mechanism whereby nuclear DNA fragmentation activity emerging during early apoptosis is inhibited during normal cell life. In a cell-free system, cytosol fractions from diverse nonapoptotic human cell lines (Jurkat T-cell leukemia, HeLa carcinoma, SK-N-MC neuroblastoma, and WI-38 embryonic lung fibroblast) potently neutralized the nuclear DNA fragmentation activity of cytosol from apoptotic anti-Fas treated Jurkat cells. Recombinant human DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit (DFF45/ICAD), an inhibitor of the caspase-activated DNase DFF40/CAD, substituted for healthy cytosol in inhibiting DNA fragmentation. An antiserum against human DFF45 detected 44 and 34 kDa proteins (major and minor, respectively) in the cytosols but not in the nuclear or membrane fractions of various cultured human cells. Cytosols depleted of DFF45/ICAD by immunoadsorption had little or no inhibitor of nuclear DNA fragmentation activity and no caspase-activated DNA fragmentation activity. We conclude that immunoreactive DFF45/ICAD is the principal inhibitor of apoptotic DNase activity in the cytosol of healthy cells. PMID:9875236

Sabol, S L; Li, R; Lee, T Y; Abdul-Khalek, R

1998-12-01

83

Inverted Repeated DNA from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells Studied with Cloned DNA Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments from the DNA of Chinese hamster ovary cells produced by restriction endonuclease EcoRI were cloned in Charon 16A lambda bacteriophage and examined for the ability to hybridize in situ with 32P-labeled double-stranded regions from heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). Of 235 clones tested, 87 (37%) contained sequences that hybridized with the double-stranded hnRNA. Nine of these were examined for the

Warren R. Jelinek

1978-01-01

84

Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of transferring fragments of DNA from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate filters. The fragments can then be hybridized to radioactive RNA and hybrids detected by radioautography or fluorography. The method is illustrated by analyses of restriction fragments complementary to ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Xenopus laevis, and from several mammals.

E. M. Southern

1975-01-01

85

Cerebral Ischemia Produces Laddered DNA Fragments Distinct From Cardiac Ischemia and Archetypal Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophoretic pattern of laddered DNA fragments which has been observed after cerebral ischemia is considered to indicate that neurons are dying by apoptosis. Herein the authors directly demonstrate using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction methods that 99% of the DNA fragments produced after either global or focal ischemia in adult rats, or produced after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats, have staggered

John P. MacManus; Henry Fliss; Edward Preston; Ingrid Rasquinha; Ursula Tuor

1999-01-01

86

Nanopore-based assay for detection of methylation in double-stranded DNA fragments.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA in which methyl groups are added at the 5-carbon position of cytosine. Aberrant DNA methylation, which has been associated with carcinogenesis, can be assessed in various biological fluids and potentially can be used as markers for detection of cancer. Analytically sensitive and specific assays for methylation targeting low-abundance and fragmented DNA are needed for optimal clinical diagnosis and prognosis. We present a nanopore-based direct methylation detection assay that circumvents bisulfite conversion and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Building on our prior work, we used methyl-binding proteins (MBPs), which selectively label the methylated DNA. The nanopore-based assay selectively detects methylated DNA/MBP complexes through a 19 nm nanopore with significantly deeper and prolonged nanopore ionic current blocking, while unmethylated DNA molecules were not detectable due to their smaller diameter. Discrimination of hypermethylated and unmethylated DNA on 90, 60, and 30 bp DNA fragments was demonstrated using sub-10 nm nanopores. Hypermethylated DNA fragments fully bound with MBPs are differentiated from unmethylated DNA at 2.1- to 6.5-fold current blockades and 4.5- to 23.3-fold transport durations. Furthermore, these nanopore assays can detect the CpG dyad in DNA fragments and could someday profile the position of methylated CpG sites on DNA fragments. PMID:25569824

Shim, Jiwook; Kim, Younghoon; Humphreys, Gwendolyn I; Nardulli, Ann M; Kosari, Farhad; Vasmatzis, George; Taylor, William R; Ahlquist, David A; Myong, Sua; Bashir, Rashid

2015-01-27

87

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice. PMID:25031574

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-01-01

88

Rapid assessment of the effect of ciprofloxacin on chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli using an in situ DNA fragmentation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular procedures, but these are not effective at the single-cell level. We assessed ciprofloxacin (CIP)-induced chromosomal DNA breakage in single-cell Escherichia coli by direct visualization of the DNA fragments that diffused

María Tamayo; Rebeca Santiso; Jaime Gosalvez; Germán Bou; José Luis Fernández

2009-01-01

89

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in the Tm2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed which allows the isolation of very high molecular weight DNA (>2 million bp) from leaf protoplasts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The DNA isolated in this manner was digested in agarose with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The size range of the reslting fragments was determined by hybridization to a number

Martin W. Ganal; Nevin D. Young; Steven D. Tanksley

1989-01-01

90

Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA.

Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.

1996-01-01

91

DNA fingerprinting of human cell lines using PCR amplification of fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods for monitoring cell line identification and authentication include species-specific immunofluorescence, isoenzyme\\u000a phenotyping, chromosome analysis, and DNA fingerprinting. Most previous studies of DNA fingerprinting of cell lines have used\\u000a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, we examined the utility of an alternative and simpler method\\u000a of cell line DNA fingerprinting—polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of fragment length polymorphisms.

Rui Yan; Mark Ottenbreit; Bharati Hukku; Michael Mally; Sharong Chou; Joseph Kaplan

1996-01-01

92

Size distribution of fragment debris produced by simulated meteoroid impact of spacecraft wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory experimental program was conducted to determine the amount of fragment debris produced and its size distribution when simulated spacecraft walls are penetrated by hypervelocity projectiles. Two tests were made in which a spacecraft wall was struck with a small steel and an aluminum projectile, respectively. Results show that most of the fragment debris were irregularly shaped flat plates. The fragment data follow a cumulative number distribution law of the form N =am'b' where 'm' is fragment mass and 'a' and 'b' are constants. Orbital lifetimes of most of the fragments were very short, being on the order of a few days.

Bess, T. D.

1975-01-01

93

Impact of forest fragment size on between-group encounters in lion-tailed macaques.  

PubMed

Between-group encounters are an obvious outcome of intergroup competition. Between-group encounters in primates range from avoidance to fatally aggressive. The prevailing hypotheses explain such encounters as mate defense strategy by males and resource defense strategy by females. However, the rate and nature of between-group encounters may also be influenced by habitat and demographic characteristics. We studied the effect of forest fragment size on group encounters in lion-tailed macaques in the Western Ghats of southern India. The encounter rate decreased as the fragment size increased. Group density and home range overlap correlated positively with the encounter rate. The aggressive encounters were more in the relatively medium-sized fragment where the observed frequency of between-group encounters was higher than the expected frequency than in the small fragment and the large forest complex. Together, these results indicate a complex pattern of effects of fragment size on between-group encounters in primates. PMID:25028052

Kumara, Honnavalli Nagaraj; Singh, Mewa; Sharma, Anantha Krishna; Santhosh, Kumar; Pal, Arijit

2014-10-01

94

Size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA for noninvasive prenatal testing.  

PubMed

Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach that is based on the use of DNA fragment size as a diagnostic parameter. This approach is dependent on the fact that circulating fetal DNA molecules are generally shorter than the corresponding maternal DNA molecules. First, we performed plasma DNA size analysis using paired-end massively parallel sequencing and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma could be deduced from the overall size distribution of maternal plasma DNA. The fetal DNA fraction is a critical parameter affecting the accuracy of noninvasive prenatal testing using maternal plasma DNA. Second, we showed that fetal chromosomal aneuploidy could be detected by observing an aberrant proportion of short fragments from an aneuploid chromosome in the paired-end sequencing data. Using this approach, we detected fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 with 100% sensitivity (T21: 36/36; T18: 27/27) and 100% specificity (non-T21: 88/88; non-T18: 97/97). For trisomy 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% (20/21) and 99% (102/103), respectively. For monosomy X, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100% (10/10 and 8/8). Thus, this study establishes the principle of size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA. This approach has potential applications beyond noninvasive prenatal testing to areas such as oncology and transplantation monitoring. PMID:24843150

Yu, Stephanie C Y; Chan, K C Allen; Zheng, Yama W L; Jiang, Peiyong; Liao, Gary J W; Sun, Hao; Akolekar, Ranjit; Leung, Tak Y; Go, Attie T J I; van Vugt, John M G; Minekawa, Ryoko; Oudejans, Cees B M; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

2014-06-10

95

Growth and fragmentation of centimetre-sized dust aggregates: the dependence on aggregate size and porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carry out three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of spherical homogeneous SiO2 dust aggregates to investigate how the mass and the porosity of the aggregates affect their ability to survive an impact at various different collision velocities (between 1 and 27.5 m s-1). We explore how the threshold velocities for fragmentation vary with these parameters. Crucially, we find that the porosity plays a part of utmost importance in determining the outcome of collisions. In particular, we find that aggregates with filling factors ?37 per cent are significantly weakened and that the velocity regime in which the aggregates grow is reduced or even non-existent (instead, the aggregates either rebound off each other or break apart). At filling factors less than ?37 per cent we find that more porous objects are weaker but not as weak as highly compact objects with filling factors ?37 per cent. In addition, we find that (for a given aggregate density) collisions between very different mass objects have higher threshold velocities than those between very similar mass objects. We find that fragmentation velocities are higher than the typical values of 1 m s-1 and that growth can even occur for velocities as high as 27.5 m s-1. Therefore, while the growth of aggregates is more likely if collisions between different sized objects occurs or if the aggregates are porous with filling factor <37 per cent, it may also be hindered if the aggregates become too compact.

Meru, Farzana; Geretshauser, Ralf J.; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-11-01

96

Parallel algorithms for the DNA Fragment Assembly Problem Team ParaCore  

E-print Network

the complete DNA sequence of a living organism. Image from www.bristol.k12.ct.us #12;II. Shotgun sequencingParallel algorithms for the DNA Fragment Assembly Problem Team ParaCore ·Artur, Braga ·Igor Pelvain Science ­ Rochester Institute of Technology #12;Outline I. Overview: DNA as the support of genetic

Kaminsky, Alan

97

Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease  

PubMed Central

MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5? ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

2014-01-01

98

Chain reaction cloning: a one-step method for directional ligation of multiple DNA fragments.  

PubMed

A novel DNA assembly method, chain reaction cloning (CRC), is described. CRC enables the ordered assembly of multiple DNA fragments in a single step. The power of the technique was demonstrated by the directed in vitro assembly of a plasmid comprised of six DNA fragments from a pool of 12 available fragments. The odds of obtaining the correct plasmid clone in a single step, using conventional techniques, is less than 1 in 191000000. Using CRC, the desired plasmid was recovered at a frequency of one in two. Ligation is no longer the rate limiting step in cloning, and limitless possibilities exist for the reconstruction of complex genomes. PMID:10675609

Pachuk, C J; Samuel, M; Zurawski, J A; Snyder, L; Phillips, P; Satishchandran, C

2000-02-01

99

Population size, habitat fragmentation, and the nature of adaptive variation in a stream fish.  

PubMed

Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population size. We investigated these alternative hypotheses by analysing coding-gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with different biological functions in fragmented brook trout populations of variable sizes. Putative adaptive differentiation was greater between small and large populations or among small populations than among large populations. These trends were stronger for genetic population size measures than demographic ones and were present despite pronounced drift in small populations. Our results suggest that fragmentation affects natural selection and that the changes elicited in the adaptive genetic composition and differentiation of fragmented populations vary with population size. By generating more variable evolutionary responses, the alteration of selective pressures during habitat fragmentation may affect future population persistence independently of, and perhaps long before, the effects of demographic and genetic stochasticity are manifest. PMID:25056619

Fraser, Dylan J; Debes, Paul V; Bernatchez, Louis; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2014-09-01

100

A method for selective PCR-amplification of genomic DNA fragments (SAGF method)  

SciTech Connect

A method is suggested for dividing into individual sets of the complex mixtures of fragments obtained by DNA cleavage with type IIS and IIN restriction endonucleases producing single-stranded termini with different sequences at the DNA fragment ends. The method is based on the ligation of short double-stranded adapters with single-stranded ends complementary to termini of the selected set of fragments followed by PCR-amplification with the primer representing one of the adapter chains. Using endonucleases BcoKI and Bli736I, recognizing sequences CTCTTC and GGTCTC and producing three- and four nucleotide 5{prime}-termini, respectively, it has been shown that amplification of a set of fragments occurs only upon attachment of the adapters to the DNA fragments with DNA-ligase. Several possible applications of the SAGF method are suggested: obtaining individual bands in DNA fingerprinting; reducing the kinetic complexity of DNA in representative difference analysis (RDA method) of complex genomes; cataloging of DNA fragments; construction of physical genome maps. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Zheleznaya, L.A.; Menzenyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Matvienko, N.N. [Branch of Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Matvienko, N.I. [Institute of Protein Research, Pushchino (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

101

No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus.  

PubMed

It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses. PMID:23444031

Kaspersen, M D; Bungum, M; Fedder, J; Bonde, J; Larsen, P B; J Ingerslev, H; Höllsberg, P

2013-05-01

102

Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

1995-01-01

103

Impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the outcome of IVF with own or donated oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was performed to assess the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the outcome of IVF with own or donated oocytes. The study population included 178 couples (62 cycles of IVF, 116 of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) with own (n=77) and donor (n=101) oocytes. DNA fragmentation was evaluated by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling assay. Correlation

Marga Esbert; Alberto Pacheco; Francesca Vidal; Mireia Florensa; Marissa Riqueros; Agustín Ballesteros; Nicolás Garrido; Gloria Calderón

104

Statistical Exploration of Fragmentation Phase Space Source Sizes in Nuclear Multifragmentation  

E-print Network

The multiplicity distributions for individual fragment Z values in nuclear multifragmentation are binomial. The extracted maximum value of the multiplicity is found to depend on Z according to m=Z_0/Z, where Z_0 is the source size. This is shown to be a strong indication of statistical coverage of fragmentation phase space. The inferred source sizes coincide with those extracted from the analysis of fixed multiplicity charge distributions.

L. G. Moretto; L. Beaulieu; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak

2000-02-15

105

DNA fingerprinting by random amplified polymorphic DNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism is useful for yeast typing.  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to genomic DNA from nineteen yeast strains belonging to the genera Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces. Results obtained with five primers indicated that this technique is a powerful tool for yeast differentiation and identification. The data were consistent with those derived from restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using two S. cerevisiae DNA probes. We conclude that RAPD fingerprinting, combined with the analysis of RFLP, can provide unambiguous type assignment in yeasts. PMID:8578000

Paffetti, D; Barberio, C; Casalone, E; Cavalieri, D; Fani, R; Fia, G; Mori, E; Polsinelli, M

1995-09-01

106

Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA  

E-print Network

bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA mole

Nielsen, Rasmus

107

Size and Structure of Replicating Mitochondrial DNA in Cultured Tobacco Cells.  

PubMed Central

The BY-2 tobacco cell line was used to study the size and structure of replicating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Approximately 70 to 90% of the newly synthesized mtDNA did not migrate during pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Moving pictures of the fluorescently labeled molecules showed that most of the immobile well-bound DNA was in structures larger than the size of the BY-2 mitochondrial genome of ~270 kb. Most of the structures appeared as complex forms with multiple DNA fibers. The sizes of the circular molecules that were also observed ranged continuously from ~20 to 560 kb without prominent size classes. Pulse-chase and mung bean nuclease experiments showed that the well-bound DNA contained single-stranded regions and was converted to linear molecules of between 50 and 150 kb. MtDNA replication in plants may be initiated by recombination events that create branched structures of multigenomic concatemers that are then processed to 50- to 150-kb subgenomic fragments. PMID:12239390

Oldenburg, DJ; Bendich, AJ

1996-01-01

108

Size-controllable synthesis of bare gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser fragmentation in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a size-controllable synthesis of stable aqueous solutions of ultrapure low-size-dispersed Au nanoparticles by methods of femtosecond laser fragmentation from preliminary formed colloids. Such approach makes possible the tuning of mean nanoparticle size between a few nm and several tens of nm under the size dispersion lower than 70% by varying the fluence of pumping radiation during the fragmentation procedure. The efficient size control is explained by 3D geometry of laser fragmentation by femtosecond laser-induced white light super-continuum and plasma-related phenomena. Despite the absence of any protective ligands, the nanoparticle solutions demonstrate exceptional stability due to electric repulsion effect associated with strong negative charging of formed nanoparticles. Stable aqueous solutions of bare gold nanoparticles present a unique object with a variety of potential applications in catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photovoltaics, biosensing and biomedicine.

Maximova, Ksenia; Aristov, Andrei; Sentis, Marc; Kabashin, Andrei V.

2015-02-01

109

Size-controllable synthesis of bare gold nanoparticles by femtosecond laser fragmentation in water.  

PubMed

We report a size-controllable synthesis of stable aqueous solutions of ultrapure low-size-dispersed Au nanoparticles by methods of femtosecond laser fragmentation from preliminary formed colloids. Such approach makes possible the tuning of mean nanoparticle size between a few nm and several tens of nm under the size dispersion lower than 70% by varying the fluence of pumping radiation during the fragmentation procedure. The efficient size control is explained by 3D geometry of laser fragmentation by femtosecond laser-induced white light super-continuum and plasma-related phenomena. Despite the absence of any protective ligands, the nanoparticle solutions demonstrate exceptional stability due to electric repulsion effect associated with strong negative charging of formed nanoparticles. Stable aqueous solutions of bare gold nanoparticles present a unique object with a variety of potential applications in catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photovoltaics, biosensing and biomedicine. PMID:25605000

Maximova, Ksenia; Aristov, Andrei; Sentis, Marc; Kabashin, Andrei V

2015-02-13

110

DNA Fragmentation and DSB correlation Induced in Human Fibroblasts by Accelerated 56Fe Ions of Differing Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HZE particles from space radiation raise an important protection concern during long-term astronauts travels Although these particles are less abundant than protons they are more effective in damaging biological systems It is thought that this is due to the frequent production of spatially correlated DNA damaged sites particularly double strand breaks DSB since this correlation can strongly affect the repair capability of the cells In this work we have studied the DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by accelerated 56 Fe ions of four different energies i e 115 MeV u 414 MeV u 1 GeV u and 5 GeV u and by gamma-rays used as reference radiation DNA fragmentation was studied in various size ranges varying from 1 to 5700 kbp using Pulsed or Constant Field Gel Electrophoresis The DSB yields have been derived from fragmentation in the overall range as well as in the two ranges 1-23 and 23-5700 kbp The overall DSB yield slightly increased with the ion energy maily due to the contribution of the 23-5700 kbp fragments while that of small fragments 1-23 kbp was almost constant Accordingly the relative biological effectiveness RBE for DSB induction increased with energy from about 1 3 at 115 MeV u to about 1 8 at about 5 GeV u i e less than the RBE for chromosome aberration and cell inactivation The degree of spatial correlation of DSB was evaluated through the departure from the randomness of the fragment distribution with a simple theoretical tool that we have recently introduced To this aim a parameter R was used

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Furusawa, Y.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M. A.

111

Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (<1 eV) Electrons  

E-print Network

Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy ( excite DNA have long been known to cause strand breaks (i.e., bond cleavages), only recently has it been and subsequently undergo phosphate-sugar O-C bond cleavage, it is highly unlikely (in contrast to recent

Simons, Jack

112

Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in developmental biology and in maintenance of the steady state in continuously renewing tissues. Cur- rently, its existence is inferred mainly from gel elec- trophoresis of a pooled DNA extract as PCD was shown to be associated with DNA fragmentation. Based on this observation, we describe here the devel- opment of a

Yael Gavrieli; Yoav Sherman; Shmuel A. Ben-Sasson

1992-01-01

113

Fractionation of large mammalian DNA restriction fragments using vertical pulsed-field gradient gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design for pulsed field gradient (PFG) gel electrophoresis of large (>50 kb) DNA fragments is described. The method eliminates distortion of migration of DNA because of the geometry of the applied electric field, requires a single power supply and a simple switching device, and is extremely simple to use. Parameters investigated include variation in pulse time, conditions of

Katheleen Gardiner; William Laas; David Patterson

1986-01-01

114

Body Size Variation of Mammals in a Fragmented, Temperate Rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body size is perhaps the most important trait of an organism, affecting all of its physiological and ecological processes and, therefore, fundamentally influencing its ability to survive and reproduce in different environments, including those that have been modified by human activities. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic transformation of old-growth forest landscapes can result in significant intraspecific changes in body

MARK V. LOMOLINO; DAVID R. PERAULT

2007-01-01

115

Conformational stability of PrP amyloid fibrils controls their smallest possible fragment size.  

PubMed

Fibril fragmentation is considered to be an essential step in prion replication. Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the incubation period to prion disease and conformational stability of synthetic prions. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism that accounts for this correlation, we proposed that the conformational stability of prion fibrils controls their intrinsic fragility or the size of the smallest possible fibrillar fragments. Using amyloid fibrils produced from full-length mammalian prion protein under three growth conditions, we found a correlation between conformational stability and the smallest possible fragment sizes. Specifically, the fibrils that were conformationally less stable were found to produce shorter pieces upon fragmentation. Site-specific denaturation experiments revealed that the fibril conformational stability was controlled by the region that acquires a cross-beta-sheet structure. Using atomic force microscopy imaging, we found that fibril fragmentation occurred in both directions--perpendicular to and along the fibrillar axis. Two mechanisms of fibril fragmentation were identified: (i) fragmentation caused by small heat shock proteins, including alpha B-crystallin, and (ii) fragmentation due to mechanical stress arising from adhesion of the fibril to a surface. This study provides new mechanistic insight into the prion replication mechanism and offers a plausible explanation for the correlation between conformational stability of synthetic prions and incubation time to prion disease. PMID:18206163

Sun, Ying; Makarava, Natallia; Lee, Cheng-I; Laksanalamai, Pongpan; Robb, Frank T; Baskakov, Ilia V

2008-02-29

116

[Subcloning and sequencing of DNA fragment related to salt tolerance in Sinorhizobium meliloti 042B].  

PubMed

A 4 kb ClaI DNA fragment related to salt tolerance from S. meliloti 042B was digested by HindIII down 2.4 kb fragment, and a 1.6 kb ClaII-HindIII fragment was retained on plasmid pML122. Then, the 2.4 kb DNA fragment was ligated with plasmid pBBR1-MCS2, and the recombinant plasmid was transformed to E. coli DH5 alpha, and transformant GS2 was obtained. Three-parental mating experiments were carried out with transformant GS2 as donor, salt sensitive strains GZ17 as recipient and pRK2013 as helper plasmid, then the transconjugant GG2 was selected on FY plates containing kanamycin and 0.4 mol/L NaCl. The remaining DNA fragment was self ligated with pML122 and then transformed into E. coli S17-1 and transformat GS0 was obtained. Two-parental mating experiment was carried out with transformant GS0 as donor and salt sensitive strain GZ17 as recipient, but no transconjugant was obtained on the FY plates. Then, the 2.4 kb HindIII DNA fragment was ligated into sequencing vector pGEM-7Zf(+) for sequencing. The result of sequencing and analysis showed that the 2.4 kb DNA fragment contained three ORFs. According to the result of sequencing, further subcloning was conducted and 1.9 kb HindIII-Sac II DNA fragment related to salt tolerance was obtained. PMID:12549182

Ge, S; Fan, Z; Chen, X; Yang, S

2001-02-01

117

The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that or planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68% of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1986-01-01

118

Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions  

E-print Network

structure; Aggregation; Laboratory procedure; Tillage; Soil physics 1. Introduction The arrangement of soil by applying a mechanical stress, are generally used. Because the median size of the broken pieces of soilSieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions M. Di

Perfect, Ed

119

Flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus rickettsiae) characterized by a specific DNA fragment produced by restriction endonuclease digestion.  

PubMed Central

The DNA from flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii was characterized by using a specific DNA fragment produced by digestion with the enzyme BamHI. The DNA fragment was cloned into a plasmid vector and used to readily distinguish between available human- and flying squirrel-associated R. prowazekii DNAs derived from crude cytoplasmic extracts. Images PMID:3009528

Regnery, R L; Fu, Z Y; Spruill, C L

1986-01-01

120

The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-?). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product of magma fragmentation at or close to the fragmentation level. Given the high abrasiveness of pumice, hemispherical clasts should be observed if clast break-up followed efficient clast abrasion. As a consequence, finer grained pyroclastic fall deposits do not necessarily proof efficient secondary fragmentation in the conduit but may rather reveal the influence of conduit length on 'What size of pyroclasts can be erupted'?

Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

2013-12-01

121

Patch Size, Functional Isolation, Visibility and Matrix Permeability Influences Neotropical Primate Occurrence within Highly Fragmented Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are among the major current extinction causes. Remaining fragments are mostly small, isolated and showing poor quality. Being primarily arboreal, Neotropical primates are generally sensitive to fragmentation effects. Furthermore, primates are involved in complex ecological process. Thus, landscape changes that negatively interfere with primate population dynamic affect the structure, composition, and ultimately the viability of the whole community. We evaluated if fragment size, isolation and visibility and matrix permeability are important for explaining the occurrence of three Neotropical primate species. Employing playback, we verified the presence of Callicebus nigrifrons, Callithrix aurita and Sapajus nigritus at 45 forest fragments around the municipality of Alfenas, Brazil. We classified the landscape and evaluated the metrics through predictive models of occurrence. We selected the best models through Akaike Selection Criterion. Aiming at validating our results, we applied the plausible models to another region (20 fragments at the neighboring municipality of Poço Fundo, Brazil). Twelve models were plausible, and three were validated, two for Sapajus nigritus (Area and Area+Visibility) and one for Callicebus nigrifrons (Area+Matrix). Our results reinforce the contribution of fragment size to maintain biodiversity within highly degraded habitats. At the same time, they stress the importance of including novel, biologically relevant metrics in landscape studies, such as visibility and matrix permeability, which can provide invaluable help for similar studies in the future and on conservation practices in the long run. PMID:25658108

da Silva, Lucas Goulart; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Hasui, Érica; da Costa, Carla Aparecida; da Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira

2015-01-01

122

Patch Size, Functional Isolation, Visibility and Matrix Permeability Influences Neotropical Primate Occurrence within Highly Fragmented Landscapes.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are among the major current extinction causes. Remaining fragments are mostly small, isolated and showing poor quality. Being primarily arboreal, Neotropical primates are generally sensitive to fragmentation effects. Furthermore, primates are involved in complex ecological process. Thus, landscape changes that negatively interfere with primate population dynamic affect the structure, composition, and ultimately the viability of the whole community. We evaluated if fragment size, isolation and visibility and matrix permeability are important for explaining the occurrence of three Neotropical primate species. Employing playback, we verified the presence of Callicebus nigrifrons, Callithrix aurita and Sapajus nigritus at 45 forest fragments around the municipality of Alfenas, Brazil. We classified the landscape and evaluated the metrics through predictive models of occurrence. We selected the best models through Akaike Selection Criterion. Aiming at validating our results, we applied the plausible models to another region (20 fragments at the neighboring municipality of Poço Fundo, Brazil). Twelve models were plausible, and three were validated, two for Sapajus nigritus (Area and Area+Visibility) and one for Callicebus nigrifrons (Area+Matrix). Our results reinforce the contribution of fragment size to maintain biodiversity within highly degraded habitats. At the same time, they stress the importance of including novel, biologically relevant metrics in landscape studies, such as visibility and matrix permeability, which can provide invaluable help for similar studies in the future and on conservation practices in the long run. PMID:25658108

da Silva, Lucas Goulart; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Hasui, Érica; da Costa, Carla Aparecida; da Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira

2015-01-01

123

Purification of a 24-kD protease from apoptotic tumor cells that activates DNA fragmentation  

PubMed Central

We report the purification of a protease from tumor cells undergoing apoptosis that is involved in activating DNA fragmentation. Initial studies revealed that two inhibitors of serine proteases, N-1- tosylamide-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone and carbobenzoxy-Ala-Ala- borophe (DK120), suppressed tumor necrosis factor or ultraviolet (UV) light-induced DNA fragmentation in the U937 histiocytic lymphoma as well as UV light-induced DNA fragmentation in the BT-20 breast carcinoma, HL-60 myelocytic leukemia, and 3T3 fibroblasts. The protease was purified by affinity chromatography with DK120 as ligand and showed high activity on a synthetic substrate preferred by elastase-like enzymes (Ala-Ala-Pro-Val p-nitroanilide), but was inactive on the trypsin substrate, N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester, or the chymotrypsin substrate, Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide. The activity of the DK120-binding protease purified from U937 cells undergoing apoptosis was increased approximately 10-fold over that recovered from normal cells. Further purification to homogeneity by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a single band of 24 kD on a silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. In addition to protease activity, the purified enzyme induced DNA fragmentation into multiples of 180 basepairs in isolated U937 nuclei. These findings suggest the 24- kD protease is a novel enzyme that activates DNA fragmentation in U937 cells undergoing apoptosis. PMID:7964487

1994-01-01

124

BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of efficient methods to transfer large DNA fragments into plants will greatly facilitate the map-based cloning of genes. The recently developed BIBAC and TAC vectors have shown potential to deliver large DNA fragments into plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Here we report that BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium.

J. Song; J. M. Bradeen; S. K. Naess; J. P. Helgeson; J. Jiang

2003-01-01

125

RNA-Linked Nascent DNA Fragments in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid that is extracted from E. coli labeled by a brief pulse of [3H]dT and denatured by treatment with heat, formamide, or formaldehyde bands in a region with a density higher than that of single-stranded E. coli DNA in a Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradient. If treated with alkali or RNase, it then exhibits the density of single-stranded DNA. These

Akio Sugino; Susumu Hirose; Reiji Okazaki

1972-01-01

126

Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Novel Cytochrome P450 cDNA Fragments from Dastarcus helophoroides  

PubMed Central

The predatory beetle Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is a natural enemy of many longhorned beetles and is mainly distributed in both China and Japan. To date, no research on D. helophoroides P450 enzymes has been reported. In our study, for the better understanding of P450 enzymes in D. helophoroides, 100 novel cDNA fragments encoding cytochrome P450 were amplified from the total RNA of adult D. helophoroides abdomens using five pairs of degenerate primers designed according to the conserved amino acid sequences of the CYP6 family genes in insects through RT-PCR. The obtained nucleotide sequences were 250 bp, 270 bp, and 420 bp in length depending on different primers. Ninety-six fragments were determined to represent CYP6 genes, mainly from CYP6BK, CYP6BQ, and CYP6BR subfamilies, and four fragments were determined to represent CYP9 genes. Twenty-two fragments, submitted to GenBank, were selected for further homologous analysis, which revealed that some fragments of different sizes might be parts of the same P450 gene. PMID:25373175

Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Fei-Fei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Song, Wang; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

127

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of novel cytochrome P450 cDNA fragments from Dastarcus helophoroides.  

PubMed

The predatory beetle Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is a natural enemy of many longhorned beetles and is mainly distributed in both China and Japan. To date, no research on D. helophoroides P450 enzymes has been reported. In our study, for the better understanding of P450 enzymes in D. helophoroides, 100 novel cDNA fragments encoding cytochrome P450 were amplified from the total RNA of adult D. helophoroides abdomens using five pairs of degenerate primers designed according to the conserved amino acid sequences of the CYP6 family genes in insects through RT-PCR. The obtained nucleotide sequences were 250 bp, 270 bp, and 420 bp in length depending on different primers. Ninety-six fragments were determined to represent CYP6 genes, mainly from CYP6BK, CYP6BQ, and CYP6BR subfamilies, and four fragments were determined to represent CYP9 genes. Twenty-two fragments, submitted to GenBank, were selected for further homologous analysis, which revealed that some fragments of different sizes might be parts of the same P450 gene. PMID:25373175

Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Fei-Fei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Song, Wang; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

128

Improved procedure for the preparation of DNA restriction fragments suitable for sequencing  

SciTech Connect

A rapid and integrated procedure was developed for the preparation of small DNA restriction fragments ({le}1000bp) starting from a large cosmid (35,000 bp) containing exogenous DNA. The process is based on restriction enzymatic digestion followed by HPLC separation and fractions collection. All DNA fragments are separated in a single run, detected {open_quotes}on-line{close_quotes} by UV absorption, and straightforward collected with very high recovery. Small fragments can be directly subjected to the sequence procedure, whereas those larger than 1000 bp are redigested with a second enzyme, the fractionated subfragments are separated, ligated to plasmid vector, and sequenced. A human genomic cosmid of 35,000 bp (26H7) has been chosen as a model. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Pietta, P. [Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Milan (Italy); Mauri, P.; Appierto, V. [Istituto Tecnologie Biomediche Avanzate, Milan (Italy)

1994-02-01

129

Plant DNA Flow Cytometry and Estimation of Nuclear Genome Size  

PubMed Central

• Background DNA flow cytometry describes the use of flow cytometry for estimation of DNA quantity in cell nuclei. The method involves preparation of aqueous suspensions of intact nuclei whose DNA is stained using a DNA fluorochrome. The nuclei are classified according to their relative fluorescence intensity or DNA content. Because the sample preparation and analysis is convenient and rapid, DNA flow cytometry has become a popular method for ploidy screening, detection of mixoploidy and aneuploidy, cell cycle analysis, assessment of the degree of polysomaty, determination of reproductive pathway, and estimation of absolute DNA amount or genome size. While the former applications are relatively straightforward, estimation of absolute DNA amount requires special attention to possible errors in sample preparation and analysis. • Scope The article reviews current procedures for estimation of absolute DNA amounts in plants using flow cytometry, with special emphasis on preparation of nuclei suspensions, stoichiometric DNA staining and the use of DNA reference standards. In addition, methodological pitfalls encountered in estimation of intraspecific variation in genome size are discussed as well as problems linked to the use of DNA flow cytometry for fieldwork. • Conclusions Reliable estimation of absolute DNA amounts in plants using flow cytometry is not a trivial task. Although several well-proven protocols are available and some factors controlling the precision and reproducibility have been identified, several problems persist: (1) the need for fresh tissues complicates the transfer of samples from field to the laboratory and/or their storage; (2) the role of cytosolic compounds interfering with quantitative DNA staining is not well understood; and (3) the use of a set of internationally agreed DNA reference standards still remains an unrealized goal. PMID:15596459

DOLEŽEL, JAROSLAV; BARTOŠ, JAN

2005-01-01

130

Spermatozoal sensitive biomarkers to defective protaminosis and fragmented DNA  

PubMed Central

Human sperm DNA damage may have adverse effects on reproductive outcome. Infertile men possess substantially more spermatozoa with damaged DNA compared to fertile donors. Although the extent of this abnormality is closely related to sperm function, the underlying etiology of ensuing male infertility is still largely controversial. Both intra-testicular and post-testicular events have been postulated and different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the presence of damaged DNA in human spermatozoa. Three among them, i.e. abnormal chromatin packaging, oxidative stress and apoptosis, are the most studied and discussed in the present review. Furthermore, results from numerous investigations are presented, including our own findings on these pathological conditions, as well as the techniques applied for their evaluation. The crucial points of each methodology on the successful detection of DNA damage and their validity on the appraisal of infertile patients are also discussed. Along with the conventional parameters examined in the standard semen analysis, evaluation of damaged sperm DNA seems to complement the investigation of factors affecting male fertility and may prove an efficient diagnostic tool in the prediction of pregnancy outcome. PMID:17760963

Angelopoulou, Roxani; Plastira, Konstantina; Msaouel, Pavlos

2007-01-01

131

[Cloning of the Bacillus subtilis DNA fragment containing the genes for lysine and riboflavin biosynthesis].  

PubMed

The SalI fragment of chromosomal DNA of Bacillus subtilis carrying the gene for lysine biosynthesis and the regulatory operator region (ribO) from the riboflavin gene was cloned into Escherichia coli cells. This fragment was shown to contain the gene coding for lysine synthesizing enzyme. Localization of this gene in Bac. subtili was determined. New plasmids pLRS33 and pLRB4 were constructed using pBR322; they carry a fragment homologous to pLP102 plasmid containing the operon for riboflavin biosynthesis. PMID:6432632

Okunev, O V; Shevchenko, T N; Maliuta, S S

1984-07-01

132

Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assumption that distributions of mass versus size interval for fragmented materials fit the log normal distribution is empirically based and has historical roots in the late 19th century. Other often used distributions (e.g., Rosin-Rammler, Weibull) are also empirical and have the general form for mass per size interval: n(l) = kl? exp (-l?), where n(l) represents the number of particles of diameter l, l is the normalized particle diameter, and k, ?, and ? are constants. We describe and extend the sequential fragmentation distribution to include transport effects upon observed volcanic ash size distributions. The sequential fragmentation/transport (SFT) distribution is also of the above mathematical form, but it has a physical basis rather than empirical. The SFT model applies to a particle-mass distribution formed by a sequence of fragmentation (comminution) and transport (size sorting) events acting upon an initial mass m': n(x, m) = C ?? n(x', m')p(?)dx' dm', where x' denotes spatial location along a linear axis, C is a constant, and integration is performed over distance from an origin to the sample location and mass limits from 0 to m. We show that the probability function that models the production of particles of different size from an initial mass and sorts that distribution, p(?), is related to mg, where g (noted as ? for fragmentation processes) is a free parameter that determines the location, breadth, and skewness of the distribution; g(?) must be greater than -1, and it increases from that value as the distribution matures with greater number of sequential steps in the fragmentation or transport process; ? is expected to be near -1 for "sudden" fragmentation mechanisms such as single-event explosions and transport mechanisms that are functionally dependent upon particle mass. This free parameter will be more positive for evolved fragmentation mechanisms such as ball milling and complex transport processes such as saltation. The SFT provides better fits to many types of volcanic ash samples than does the log normal curve. Modeling of the SFT shows its similarity to the log normal curve on size frequency histograms; it differs by its variable skewness controlled by ?. Skewed distributions are typical of many volcanic ash samples, and characterization of them by the SFT allows interpretation of eruptive and transport mechanisms.

Wohletz, K. H.; Sheridan, M. F.; Brown, W. K.

1989-11-01

133

Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition  

SciTech Connect

Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2006-05-01

134

Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash  

SciTech Connect

The assumption that distributions of mass versus size interval for fragmented materials fit the log normal distribution is empirically based and has historical roots in the late 19th century. Other often used distributions (e.g., Rosin-Rammler, Weibull) are also empirical and have the general form for mass per size interval: {ital n}({ital l})={ital kl}{sup {alpha}} exp(-{ital l}{beta}), where {ital n}({ital l}) represents the number of particles of diameter {ital l}, {ital l} is the normalized particle diameter, and {ital k}, {alpha}, and {beta} are constants. We describe and extend the sequential fragmentation distribution to include transport effects upon observed volcanic ash size distributions. The sequential fragmentation/transport (SFT) distribution is also of the above mathematical form, but it has a physical basis rather than empirical. The SFT model applies to a particle-mass distribution formed by a sequence of fragmentation (comminution) and transport (size sorting) events acting upon an initial mass {ital m}{prime}: {ital n}({ital x}, {ital m})={ital C} {integral}{integral} {ital n}({ital x}{prime}, {ital m}{prime}){ital p}({xi}) {ital dx}{prime} {ital dm}{prime}, where {ital x}{prime} denotes spatial location along a linear axis, {ital C} is a constant, and integration is performed over distance from an origin to the sample location and mass limits from 0 to {ital m}.

Wohletz, K.H. (Earth and Space Science Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (USA)); Sheridan, M.F. (Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe (USA)); Brown, W.K. (Math/Science Division, Lassen College, Susanville, California (USA))

1989-11-10

135

46 astronomy /// may 05 MOON-SIZE FRAGMENTS FLY as bodies in the  

E-print Network

46 astronomy /// may 05 MOONS MOON-SIZE FRAGMENTS FLY as bodies in the Kuiper Belt collide. Some;Around each gas-giant planet orbit dozens of small moons born elsewhere. These far-ranging bodies HAMILTON elusive quarry were new uran- ian moons, small objects orbit- ing far from their giant blue

Hamilton, Douglas P.

136

A WHEAT DNA FRAGMENT EXHIBITS REDUCED POLLEN TRANSMISSION IN TRANSGENIC MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An 8.2 kb fragment of wheat genomic DNA containing the Glu1-Dx5 gene has been transferred to maize using biolistic transformation. The Glu1-Dx5 gene encodes the 1Dx5 high molecular weight glutenin subunit, a seed storage protein associated with good bread making properties. The transgenic maize plan...

137

A study on the relationship between antisense EGFR cDNA fragments and nuclear matrix proteins in glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The association of antisense epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cDNA fragments with nuclear matrix from EGFR-antisense transfected glioblastoma cell lines U343 and U87 was investigated. A 1015 bp DNA fragment (primer I-II) was amplified in both genomic DNA and nuclear matrix-associated DNA (NM DNA) from EGFR-antisense transfected glioblastoma cell lines U343E and U87E. Two different DNA fragments (940 bp and 110 bp) were amplified by primer I-III in both genomic DNA and NM DNA of U343E, while one 110 bp PCR product was shown with the same primer in both genomic DNA and NM DNA of U87E only. After EGFR-antisense transfection, the binding property of the 110 bp DNA fragment (primer IV-V) to nuclear matrix was not affected. Southwestern blotting demonstrated the presence of antisense EGFR cDNA binding nuclear matrix proteins. Our findings demonstrate that not only EGFR DNA is associated with nuclear matrix, but the transfected antisense EGFR cDNA also binds to nuclear matrix proteins. The nuclear matrix is most likely involved in the replication and transcription of antisense EGFR cDNA or hybridisation with sense mRNA in vitro. PMID:9857227

Wang, Z H; Yam, G H; Tian, X X; Ng, H K; Chew-Cheng, S B; Ding, M X; Chew, E C

1998-10-01

138

Chromosomal aneuploidies and DNA fragmentation of human spermatozoa from patients exposed to perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

This study investigated chromosomal aneuploidies and DNA damage in spermatozoa from male patients contaminated by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in whole blood and seminal plasma. Sperm aneuploidy and diploidy rate for chromosomes 18, X and Y were evaluated by FISH; sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling technique coupled to flow cytometry. Our results indicated that PFC contamination was present in 58% of subjects included in the study. A significant increase in alterations of sperm parameters was observed in PFC-positive subjects compared to PFC-negative subjects. As regards the sperm aneuploidy, both disomy and diploidy rates resulted significantly increased in subjects positive for PFC contamination compared to PFC-negative samples. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation index resulted significantly increased in PFC-contaminated subjects compared to PFC-non-contaminated subjects, with a significant increased level of dimmer DNA fragmentation index. Our results clearly indicate that PFC contamination may detrimentally affect spermatogenesis, disturbing both meiotic segregation and DNA integrity. We could therefore suggest cautions to reduce or eliminate any contact with these compounds because the long-term effects of PFC accumulation in the body are not predictable. PMID:25382683

Governini, L; Guerranti, C; De Leo, V; Boschi, L; Luddi, A; Gori, M; Orvieto, R; Piomboni, P

2014-11-01

139

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp. PMID:24019490

Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

2013-01-01

140

Types, Causes, Detection and Repair of DNA Fragmentation in Animal and Human Sperm Cells  

PubMed Central

Concentration, motility and morphology are parameters commonly used to determine the fertilization potential of an ejaculate. These parameters give a general view on the quality of sperm but do not provide information about one of the most important components of the reproductive outcome: DNA. Either single or double DNA strand breaks can set the difference between fertile and infertile males. Sperm DNA fragmentation can be caused by intrinsic factors like abortive apoptosis, deficiencies in recombination, protamine imbalances or oxidative stress. Damage can also occur due to extrinsic factors such as storage temperatures, extenders, handling conditions, time after ejaculation, infections and reaction to medicines or post-testicular oxidative stress, among others. Two singular characteristics differentiate sperm from somatic cells: Protamination and absence of DNA repair. DNA repair in sperm is terminated as transcription and translation stops post-spermiogenesis, so these cells have no mechanism to repair the damage occurred during their transit through the epididymis and post-ejaculation. Oocytes and early embryos have been shown to repair sperm DNA damage, so the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation depends on the combined effects of sperm chromatin damage and the capacity of the oocyte to repair it. In this contribution we review some of these issues. PMID:23203048

González-Marín, Clara; Gosálvez, Jaime; Roy, Rosa

2012-01-01

141

Microscopic Varicocelectomy Significantly Decreases the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index in Patients with Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background. Varicocele is associated with high levels of DNA damage in spermatozoa due to oxidative stress and elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, which has been currently proposed to be an essential additional diagnostic test to be recommended for patients with clinical varicocele. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters of semen and the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Methods. The details of 92 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2012. The sperm samples were evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines. Sperm DNA damage, characterized as DFI, was evaluated by sperm chromatin structure assay using flow cytometry. Results. There was a statistically significant improvement in the semen concentration, the total motile count, the total normal sperm count, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI; the percentage of sperm with denatured DNA) after varicocelectomy. There was a large decrease in DFI from a preoperative mean of 42.6% to a postoperative mean of 20.5% (P < 0.001). A higher preoperative DFI was associated with a larger decrease in postoperative DFI, and significant negative correlations were observed between the DFI and sperm motility (r = ?0.42, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our data suggest that varicocelectomy can improve multiple semen parameters and sperm DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. The patients with preoperative defects in those parameters showed greater improvement postoperatively. Further research in this area is needed to understand the exact mechanisms of DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:24712000

Kadioglu, Teoman Cem; Aliyev, Emin; Celtik, Murad

2014-01-01

142

Fragment size information from evolution of Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact fireballs  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used the CTH Eulerian shock physics code to perform 2-D and 3-D computational simulations of fragment penetration into Jupiter`s atmosphere and of the resulting fireball growth and evolution. These simulations have shown that information about the fragment diameters at the time of impact can be extracted from the trajectories of the fireballs, the maximum plume heights, and the size of the ejecta blanked. The fireball/plume evolution is dominated by the impact energy that is deposited above 50 km beneath the 1 bar level and is not sensitive to penetration depth. Fragments with diameters of 2-3 km at the time of impact produce fireballs similar to those that were observed, regardless of whether they were a single solid object or a low-density rubble pile. Uniform plume heights imply consistent diameters, but not necessarily equal masses.

Boslough, M.B.; Crawford, D.A.; Robinson, A.C.

1995-04-01

143

Chloroplast DNA variation in Populus . I. Intraspecific restriction fragment diversity within Populus deltoides , P. nigra and P. maximowiczii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined intraspecific chloroplast (cp) DNA variation within Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. maximowiczii by restriction fragment analysis using 16 restriction endonucleases and six heterologous probes of cloned Petunia cpDNA fragments. All three Populus species showed intraspecific cpDNA variation, which was intra- and inter-varietal in P. deltoides, intervarietal in P. nigra, and origin-specific in P. maximowiczii. Two varieties of

O. P. Rajora; B. P. Dancik

1995-01-01

144

DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

2014-06-25

145

Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation and its Correlation with Conventional Semen Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background The initial step in the diagnostic investigation of male infertility has been traditionally based on the conventional seminal profile. However, there are significant limitations regarding its ability to determine the underlying mechanisms that cause the disorder. Sperm DNA fragmentation has emerged as a potential causative factor of reproductive failure and its assessment has been suggested as a useful adjunct to the laboratory methodology of male infertility evaluation, especially before the application of assisted reproduction technology (ART). Methods A review of recent bibliography was carried out in PubMed by the use of relevant keywords, in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the conventional seminal parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation assessment as diagnostic tools in male infertility evaluation. Results A comprehensive diagnostic approach of male infertility should be based on a combination of diagnostic attributes, derived from the conventional semen analysis, as well as the investigation of genomic integrity testing. Conclusion Due to its strong correlation with several aspects of ART procedures and further consequences for the offspring, sperm DNA fragmentation is a parameter worth integrating in routine clinical practice. However, additional large scale studies focusing on specific subgroups of infertile men who may benefit from an efficient therapeutic management based on the optimization of sperm DNA integrity are needed. PMID:24696791

Evgeni, Evangelini; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Asimakopoulos, Byron

2014-01-01

146

[Level of DNA fragmentation in human sperm cells in varicocele and prostatitis].  

PubMed

Varicocele and prostatitis are the most common andrological diseases, which may be accompanied by a decrease in the production of sperm cells, the deterioration of their quality and increased risk of infertility. This work was aimed to the evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and main indices of sperm fertility (concentration, motility and morphology), and the relationship between these parameters in the men of active reproductive age suffering from prostatitis or varicocele. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation was performed by SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay) using flow cytometry; sperm parameters were evaluated according to WHO recommendations. It was shown that men with prostatitis (n = 9) and varicocele (n = 22) had significantly higher DFI compared with men in the control group (n = 22). Negative influence of these diseases on the concentration and the percentage of motile sperm cells in the ejaculate was revealed. These data suggest that the deterioration in the quality of semen in varicocele and prostatitis may be caused not only by pathospermia, but also, at least partially, by violation of the integrity of the sperm DNA. Evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation can be recommended for use in laboratory diagnostics for prediction of fertility in infertile men. PMID:25211925

Osadchuk, L V; Erkovich, A A; Tataru, D A; Markova, E V; Svetlakov, A V

2014-01-01

147

Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

148

On the accuracy of fragment size measurement by image analysis in combination with some distribution functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size distributions of fragments of crushed rock in conveyor belts and of blasted rock in a muckpile obtained by sieving are compared with the size distributions obtained by digital image analysis of photographs of the same materials taken on-site. Several calculation methods are tested, based on the raw distribution of fragment areas and on the volume-transformed ones. The influence of the calibration of the system on the results and the performance of the system in a non-calibrated mode are evaluated. The capacity of some distributions (Rosin-Rammler, Swebrec and lognormal) to fit the data in the coarse region (where particles can be delineated, i.e. discriminated individually) and to extrapolate to the non-delineated fines (where particles cannot be outlined and their contour delineated) is assessed. The error between the sizes measured and the sizes of the reference distributions (determined by sieving) increases from the coarse to the fines region. The maximum error at a given size depends primarily on its value relative to the fines cut-off (FCO) of the image analysis. In general, at sizes greater than the FCO, where the system is able to delineate fragments reliably, both volume and surface-based, calibrated, calculations can determine the sizes with maximum error expectancy of about 30%. Below the FCO, only the calibrated, volume calculation maintains a maximum error of 30%, down to sizes of about one fourth the FCO, rapidly increasing for smaller sizes. Where the calibration is done based on data above the FCO, errors can be large below this point, in excess of 80% at sizes half the FCO. In the fines range (sizes smaller than 0.2 times the FCO) the maximum errors can be close to or greater than 100% for most of the calculations and function fittings. Of the distributions tested, all of them are acceptable at sizes above the FCO; below that, the Swebrec function seems to adapt better towards the fines than the Rosin-Rammler and lognormal.

Sanchidrián, J. A.; Segarra, P.; Ouchterlony, F.; López, L. M.

2009-02-01

149

A Linear Relationship between Crystal Size and Fragment Binding Time Observed Crystallographically: Implications for Fragment Library Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection  

PubMed Central

High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size. PMID:24988328

Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

2014-01-01

150

Growth and fragmentation of centimetre-sized dust aggregates: the dependence on aggregate size and porosity  

E-print Network

We carry out three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of spherical homogeneous SiO2 dust aggregates to investigate how the mass and the porosity of the aggregates affects their ability to survive an impact at various different collision velocities (between 1 - 27.5m/s). We explore how the threshold velocities for fragmentation vary with these parameters. Crucially, we find that the porosity plays a part of utmost importance in determining the outcome of collisions. In particular, we find that aggregates with filling factors >37% are significantly weakened and that the velocity regime in which the aggregates grow is reduced or even non-existent (instead, the aggregates either rebound off each other or break apart). At filling factors less than ~37% we find that more porous objects are weaker but not as weak as highly compact objects with filling factors >37%. In addition we find that (for a given aggregate density) collisions between very different mass objects have higher threshold veloci...

Meru, Farzana; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

151

Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lung fragments of equines.  

PubMed

We compared three different protocols for DNA extraction from horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lung fragments, determining average final DNA concentration, purity, percentage of PCR amplification using beta-actin, and cost. Thirty-four samples from PBMC, and 33 samples from lung fragments were submitted to DNA extraction by three different protocols. Protocol A consisted of a phenol-chloroform and isoamylic alcohol extraction, Protocol B used alkaline extraction with NaOH, and Protocol C used the DNAzol((R)) reagent kit. Protocol A was the best option for DNA extraction from lung fragments, producing high DNA concentrations, with high sensitivity in PCR amplification (100%), followed by Protocols C and B. On the other hand, for PBMC samples, Protocol B gave the highest sensitivity in PCR amplification (100%), followed by Protocols C and A. We conclude that Protocol A should be used for PCR diagnosis from lung fragment samples, while Protocol B should be used for PBMC. PMID:20730710

Santos, E M; Paula, J F R; Motta, P M C; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Haddad, J P A; Del Puerto, H L; Reis, J K P

2010-01-01

152

‘Mitominis’: multiplex PCR analysis of reduced size amplicons for compound sequence analysis of the entire mtDNA control region in highly degraded samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional protocol for forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses involves the amplification and sequencing of the\\u000a two hypervariable segments HVS-I and HVS-II of the mtDNA control region. The primers usually span fragment sizes of 300–400 bp\\u000a each region, which may result in weak or failed amplification in highly degraded samples. Here we introduce an improved and\\u000a more stable approach using shortened

Cordula Eichmann; Walther Parson

2008-01-01

153

Dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation in domestic animals II. The stallion.  

PubMed

The mixed success of equine artificial insemination programs using chilled and frozen-thawed semen is most likely associated with the variable response of the sperm cell to the preservation process and the fact that stallions are not selected on the basis of reproductive performance. We propose that the traditional indicators of sperm viability do not fully account for male factor infertility in the stallion and that knowledge of sperm DNA damage in the original semen sample and during semen processing may provide a more informed explanation of an individual stallion's reproductive potential. This study reports on the validation of a sperm DNA fragmentation test based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD) for stallion spermatozoa and on its application to semen that was chilled (4 degrees C; n=10) or frozen-thawed (n=13). Semen samples were collected by artificial vagina and the proportion of sperm with fragmented DNA determined. Seminal plasma was then removed by centrifugation and the sperm pellet re-suspended in commercial extenders prior to being chilled or cryopreserved using standard industry protocols. Chilled semen was cooled slowly to 4 degrees C and stored for 1h before commencing the analysis; cryopreserved semen was thawed and immediately analyzed. Following chilling or cryopreservation, the semen samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analyzed for SCD after 0, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h storage. The results of this investigation revealed that there was no significant difference in the sperm DNA fragmentation index (sDFI) of sperm evaluated initially after collection compared to those tested immediately after chilling or cryopreservation. However, within 1h of incubation at 37 degrees C, both chilled and frozen-thawed spermatozoa showed a significant increase in the proportion of sDFI; after 6h the sDFI had increased to over 50% and by 48 h, almost 100% of the sperm showed DNA damage. While the sDFI of individual stallions at equivalent times of incubation was variable, an analysis of the rate of change of sDFI revealed no difference between stallions or the way in which the semen was preserved. In terms of sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, the highest intensity of sperm DNA damage occurred in the first 6h of incubation. We suggest that the SCD test can be used as a routine assessment tool for the development and refinement of preservation protocols designed to reduce stallion sperm DNA damage. PMID:17919715

López-Fernández, C; Crespo, F; Arroyo, F; Fernández, J L; Arana, P; Johnston, S D; Gosálvez, J

2007-12-01

154

Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

2001-09-15

155

DNase ? Is the Effector Endonuclease for Internucleosomal DNA Fragmentation in Necrosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis and necrosis, two major forms of cell death, can be distinguished morphologically and biochemically. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (INDF) is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis, and caspase-activated DNase (CAD), also known as DNA fragmentation factor 40 kDa (DFF40), is one of the major effector endonucleases. DNase ?, a Mg2+/Ca2+-dependent endonuclease, is also known to generate INDF but its role among other apoptosis-associated endonucleases in cell death is unclear. Here we show that (i) INDF occurs even during necrosis in cell lines, primary cells, and in tissues of mice in vivo, and (ii) DNase ?, but not CAD, is the effector endonuclease for INDF in cells undergoing necrosis. These results document a previously unappreciated role for INDF in necrosis and define its molecular basis. PMID:24312463

Mizuta, Ryushin; Araki, Shinsuke; Furukawa, Makoto; Furukawa, Yuki; Ebara, Syota; Shiokawa, Daisuke; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Kitamura, Daisuke

2013-01-01

156

Preparation of methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic microbore column for chromatographic separation of DNA fragments and oligonucleotides.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on the preparation of a microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column suitable not only for analytical purposes but also for potentially preparative applications. In order to meet the conflicting requirements of high permeability and good mechanical strength, the following two-step procedure was applied. First, an epoxy-containing monolith was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) within the confines of a silicosteel tubing of 1.02 mm i.d. and 1/16" o.d. in the presence of a ternary porogenic mixture of 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The monolithic matrix was subsequently converted into weak anion-exchanger via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy group with diethyl amine. The dynamic binding capacity was 21.4 mg mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 10% breakthrough. The morphology and porous structure of this monolith were assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). To optimize the separation efficiency, the effects of various chromatographic parameters upon the separation of DNA fragments were investigated. The resulting monolithic anion exchanger demonstrated good potential for the separation of both single- and double-stranded DNA molecules using a gradient elution with NaCl in Tris-HCl buffer (20 mM). Oligodeoxythymidylic acids (dT(12)-dT(18)) were successfully resolved at pH 8, while the fragments of 20 bp DNA ladder, 100 bp DNA ladder, and pBR322-HaeIII digest were efficiently separated at pH 9. PMID:22769012

Sabarudin, Akhmad; Huang, Junchao; Shu, Shin; Sakagawa, Shinnosuke; Umemura, Tomonari

2012-07-29

157

Cleavage of DNA fragments induced by UV nanosecond laser excitation at 193 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cleavage of dsDNA fragments in aqueous solution after irradiation with UV laser pulses at 193 nm has been studied. Samples\\u000a were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensity of damage of particular phosphodiester bond after\\u000a hot alkali treatment was shown to depend on the base pair sequence. It was established that the probability of cleavage is\\u000a twice higher for

N. N. Vtyurina; S. L. Grokhovski; I. V. Filimonov; O. I. Medvedkov; D. Yu. Nechipurenko; S. A. Vasiliev; Yu. D. Nechipurenko

2011-01-01

158

DNA vaccination using the fragment C of botulinum neurotoxin type A provided protective immunity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic substances known to produce severe neuromuscular paralysis. The currently used vaccine is prepared mainly from biohazardous toxins. Thus, we studied an alternative method and demonstrated that DNA immunization provided sufficient protection against botulism in a murine model. A plasmid of pBoNT\\/A-Hc, which encodes the fragment C gene of type A botulinum

Rong-Hwa Shyu; Men-Fang Shaio; Shiao-Shek Tang; Huey-Fen Shyu; Chi-Feng Lee; Meng-Hung Tsai; Jason E. Smith; Hsin-Hsien Huang; Jiunn-Jye Wey; Jan-Ling Huang; Hsin-Hou Chang

2000-01-01

159

A study of DNA fragmentation patterns in cells irradiated with charged particles: evidence for non-random distributions.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that the effectiveness of radiations of varying LET is similar when yields of dsb have been measured, despite large differences in biological response. Recent evidence has suggested however, that current techniques underestimate the yields of dsb. By monitoring the fragmentation of DNA over a wide range of fragment sizes (< 10 kbp > 6 Mbp) by pulsed field electrophoresis, RBE values greater than 1.0 for radiations of around 100 keV/mm have been determined. The data provide evidence for the production of correlated breaks produced within cells as particle tracks traverse the nucleus. The highly ordered structure of DNA within mammalian cells may lead to clustering of breaks over distances related to the repeating unit structures of the chromatin. As well as these regionally damaged sites, a major contributor to radiation effectiveness will be the localised clustering of damage in the 1-20 bp region. A major effort is required to elucidate the relative importance of these levels of clustering and their importance in biological response. PMID:11542636

Prise, K M; Newman, H C; Folkard, M; Michael, B D

1998-07-01

160

Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)] [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia) [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)] [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)] [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-04-20

161

Long-fragment DNA as a potential marker for stool-based detection of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Neoplastic cells that are exfoliated from the colorectal epithelium exhibit dysfunctional apoptotic mechanisms, and thus it is possible to identify high-molecular-weight DNA fragments (long DNA) in feces. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of fecal-based long DNA assays were evaluated for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Feces were collected from 54 healthy volunteers and 130 patients with CRC prior to surgical treatment. The presence of long DNA of the adenomatosis polyposis coli, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase and p53 genes was assessed by polymerase chain reaction followed by electrophoresis. The identification of long DNA in feces was found to exhibit a sensitivity of 56.2% and specificity of 96.3% for CRC detection. In addition, long DNA was identified in the feces of 58/90 (64.4%) patients with distal CRC and 15/40 (37.5%) patients with proximal CRC. This study indicates the potential of the fecal long DNA assay as a non-invasive and easily performed method for the detection of individuals with CRC. PMID:25436008

Zhang, Yibo; Suehiro, Yutaka; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Sakai, Kouhei; Hazama, Shoichi; Higaki, Shingo; Sakaida, Isao; Oka, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Takahiro

2015-01-01

162

Fragmentation of condensed-phase DNA components by hyperthermal He{sup +} impact  

SciTech Connect

We have observed severe damage to films of DNA components (thymine, D-ribose, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, and thymidine) induced by 10 to 100 eV He{sup +} ions (2.5-25 eV/amu). The damage is attributed to the kinetic and potential energies, as well as the chemical reactivity of the He{sup +} projectiles. Hyperthermal He{sup +} ion impact on these films results in the complete destruction of the molecules via fragmentation, and direct and indirect (secondary fragment) reactive scattering, all of which leads to the desorption of abundant cation and anion fragments. The chemical composition of the fragments is identified, and the fragmentation patterns are compared to those produced by Ar{sup +} irradiation. While the lower mass of He{sup +} ions causes less efficient desorption of very heavy fragments, several reactive collisions are also observed, including hydrogen abstraction by incident He{sup +} from any of the molecules studied to yield desorbing HeH{sup +}. This process likely occurs via the formation of an intermediate molecular ion (He-H-R)*{sup +}, which decays to HeH{sup +}+R . Compared to Ar{sup +}, here a significant (x23) enhancement in H{sup +} desorption is observed during He{sup +} ion irradiation, which likely involves (a) the decay of the intermediate (He-H-R)*{sup +}, or desorbing HeH{sup +}, and (b) Auger or quasiresonant excitations of C, N, or O atom centers (or C-H, N-H, or O-H bonds) by the incident He{sup +} ion. The formation of several molecular cations, e.g., H{sub 3}O{sup +}, also requires hydrogen abstraction from its parent or adjacent molecules by initial cation fragments prior to desorption.

Deng Zongwu; Imhoff, Marjorie; Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Huels, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Ion Reaction Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4 (Canada)

2006-07-15

163

Design and evaluation of PCR primers to amplify bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA fragments used for community fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments has frequently been applied to the fingerprinting of natural bacterial populations (PCR\\/DGGE). In this study, sequences of bacterial universal primers frequently used in PCR\\/DGGE were compared with 16S rDNA sequences that represent recently proposed divisions in the domain Bacteria. We found mismatches in 16S rDNA sequences from some groups

Kazuya Watanabe; Yumiko Kodama; Shigeaki Harayama

2001-01-01

164

EndoG Links Bnip3-Induced Mitochondrial Damage and Caspase-Independent DNA Fragmentation in Ischemic Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation and caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation are involved in cell damage in many tissues. However, differentiated cardiomyocytes repress the expression of the canonical apoptotic pathway and their death during ischemia is caspase-independent. The atypical BH3-only protein Bnip3 is involved in the process leading to caspase-independent DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes. However, the pathway by which DNA degradation ensues following Bnip3 activation is not resolved. To identify the mechanism involved, we analyzed the interdependence of Bnip3, Nix and EndoG in mitochondrial damage and DNA fragmentation during experimental ischemia in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our results show that the expression of EndoG and Bnip3 increases in the heart throughout development, while the caspase-dependent machinery is silenced. TUNEL-positive DNA damage, which depends on caspase activity in other cells, is caspase-independent in ischemic cardiomyocytes and ischemia-induced DNA high and low molecular weight fragmentation is blocked by repressing EndoG expression. Ischemia-induced EndoG translocation and DNA degradation are prevented by silencing the expression of Bnip3, but not Nix, or by overexpressing Bcl-xL. These data establish a link between Bnip3 and EndoG-dependent, TUNEL-positive, DNA fragmentation in ischemic cardiomyocytes in the absence of caspases, defining an alternative cell death pathway in postmitotic cells. PMID:21437288

Zhang, Jisheng; Ye, Junmei; Altafaj, Albert; Cardona, Maria; Bahi, Núria; Llovera, Marta; Cañas, Xavier; Cook, Stuart A.; Comella, Joan X.; Sanchis, Daniel

2011-01-01

165

EndoG links Bnip3-induced mitochondrial damage and caspase-independent DNA fragmentation in ischemic cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation and caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation are involved in cell damage in many tissues. However, differentiated cardiomyocytes repress the expression of the canonical apoptotic pathway and their death during ischemia is caspase-independent. The atypical BH3-only protein Bnip3 is involved in the process leading to caspase-independent DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes. However, the pathway by which DNA degradation ensues following Bnip3 activation is not resolved. To identify the mechanism involved, we analyzed the interdependence of Bnip3, Nix and EndoG in mitochondrial damage and DNA fragmentation during experimental ischemia in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our results show that the expression of EndoG and Bnip3 increases in the heart throughout development, while the caspase-dependent machinery is silenced. TUNEL-positive DNA damage, which depends on caspase activity in other cells, is caspase-independent in ischemic cardiomyocytes and ischemia-induced DNA high and low molecular weight fragmentation is blocked by repressing EndoG expression. Ischemia-induced EndoG translocation and DNA degradation are prevented by silencing the expression of Bnip3, but not Nix, or by overexpressing Bcl-x(L). These data establish a link between Bnip3 and EndoG-dependent, TUNEL-positive, DNA fragmentation in ischemic cardiomyocytes in the absence of caspases, defining an alternative cell death pathway in postmitotic cells. PMID:21437288

Zhang, Jisheng; Ye, Junmei; Altafaj, Albert; Cardona, Maria; Bahi, Núria; Llovera, Marta; Cañas, Xavier; Cook, Stuart A; Comella, Joan X; Sanchis, Daniel

2011-01-01

166

Environmental toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation as detected by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA[reg])  

SciTech Connect

Studies over the past two decades have clearly shown that reproductive toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation. This DNA fragmentation can usually be detected prior to observing alterations of metaphase chromosomes in embryos. Thus, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)-detected DNA damage is viewed as the molecular precursor to later gross chromosome damage observed under the light microscope. SCSA measurements of animal or human sperm consist of first obtaining a fresh or flash frozen neat semen sample in LN2 or dry ice. Samples are then sent to a SCSA diagnostic laboratory where the samples are thawed, diluted to {approx}1-2 x 106 sperm/ml, treated for 30 s with a pH 1.2 detergent buffer and then stained with acridine orange (AO). The low pH partially denatures DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks and the AO-ssDNA fluoresces red while the AO-dsDNA fluoresces green. Flow cytometry measurements of 5000 sperm/sample provide statistically robust data on the ratio of red to green sperm, the extent of the DNA fragmentation and the standard deviations of measures. Numerous experiments on rodents treated with reproductive toxicants clearly showed that SCSA measures are highly dose responsive and have a very low CV. Different agents that act on germ cells at various stages of development usually showed sperm DNA fragmentation when that germ cell fraction arrived in the epididymis or ejaculate. Some of these treated samples were capable of successful in vitro fertilization but with frequent embryo failure. A 2-year longitudinal study of men living a valley town with a reported abnormal level of infertility and spontaneous miscarriages and also a seasonal atmospheric smog pollution, showed, for the first time, that SCSA measurements of human sperm DNA fragmentation were detectable and correlated with dosage of air pollution while the classical semen measures were not correlated. Also, young men spraying pesticides without protective gear are at an increased risk for elevated sperm DNA fragmentation. Extensive DNA fragmentation probably cannot be repaired by the egg and the spontaneous abortion rate is {approx}2x higher if a man has more than 30% of sperm showing DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation is an excellent marker for exposure to potential reproductive toxicants and a diagnostic/prognostic tool for potential male infertility.

Evenson, Donald P. [HCLD, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States) and SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)]. E-mail: scsa@brookings.net; Wixon, Regina [SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

2005-09-01

167

Computer-based image analysis of one-dimensional electrophoretic gels used for the separation of DNA restriction fragments.  

PubMed Central

A stand-alone, interactive computer system has been developed that automates the analysis of ethidium bromide-stained agarose and acrylamide gels on which DNA restriction fragments have been separated by size. High-resolution digital images of the gels are obtained using a camera that contains a one-dimensional, 2048-pixel photodiode array that is mechanically translated through 2048 discrete steps in a direction perpendicular to the gel lanes. An automatic band-detection algorithm is used to establish the positions of the gel bands. A color-video graphics system, on which both the gel image and a variety of operator-controlled overlays are displayed, allows the operator to visualize and interact with critical stages of the analysis. The principal interactive steps involve defining the regions of the image that are to be analyzed and editing the results of the band-detection process. The system produces a machine-readable output file that contains the positions, intensities, and descriptive classifications of all the bands, as well as documentary information about the experiment. This file is normally further processed on a larger computer to obtain fragment-size assignments. Images PMID:6320097

Gray, A J; Beecher, D E; Olson, M V

1984-01-01

168

A conserved interaction between the replicative clamp loader and DNA ligase in eukaryotes: implications for Okazaki fragment joining.  

PubMed

The recruitment of DNA ligase I to replication foci and the efficient joining of Okazaki fragments is dependent on the interaction between DNA ligase I and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Although the PCNA sliding clamp tethers DNA ligase I to nicked duplex DNA circles, the interaction does not enhance DNA joining. This suggests that other factors may be involved in the joining of Okazaki fragments. In this study, we describe an association between replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader, and DNA ligase I in human cell extracts. Subsequently, we demonstrate that there is a direct physical interaction between these proteins that involves both the N- and C-terminal domains of DNA ligase I, the N terminus of the large RFC subunit p140, and the p36 and p38 subunits of RFC. Although RFC inhibited DNA joining by DNA ligase I, the addition of PCNA alleviated inhibition by RFC. Notably, the effect of PCNA on ligation was dependent on the PCNA-binding site of DNA ligase I. Together, these results provide a molecular explanation for the key in vivo role of the DNA ligase I/PCNA interaction and suggest that the joining of Okazaki fragments is coordinated by pairwise interactions among RFC, PCNA, and DNA ligase I. PMID:15502161

Levin, David S; Vijayakumar, Sangeetha; Liu, Xiuping; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Hurwitz, Jerard; Tomkinson, Alan E

2004-12-31

169

Paternal inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids of the genus Actinidia revealed by PCR-amplification of chloroplast DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) -amplified fragments were used to trace the pattern of plastid DNA inheritance in the genus Actinidia. A total of 51 progeny originating from interspecific crosses between three A. arguta cultivars and A. deliciosa, the kiwifruit, and 12 progeny originating from the cross between A. kolomikta and A. chinensis were analysed

Guido Cipriani; Raffaele Testolin; Michele Morgante

1995-01-01

170

Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

1994-01-01

171

Apoptotic death in epithelial cells: cleavage of DNA to 300 and/or 50 kb fragments prior to or in the absence of internucleosomal fragmentation.  

PubMed Central

To date, apoptosis has been characterized biochemically by the production of 180-200 bp internucleosomal DNA fragments resulting from the activation of an endonuclease(s). The principal morphological feature of apoptosis is the condensation of chromatin and it has been assumed that this may reflect the oligonucleosomal fragmentation pattern. We have re-examined this dogma by comparing the biochemical and morphological features of cell death in several epithelial cell types (HT-29-I1 colon adenocarcinoma, CC164 mink lung, DU-145 human prostatic carcinoma and MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma) and one mesenchymal cell line (H11ras-R3 ras-transformed rat fibroblasts). Cell death was induced either by serum deprivation, TGF-beta 1 or etoposide, or by leaving cells to reach confluence. Cell death was assessed with respect to detachment from monolayers, morphological changes and DNA integrity. The DNA-binding fluorophore Hoechst 33258 revealed chromatin condensation patterns consistent with apoptotic cell death in all cell types except MCF-7 cells. Using field inversion gel electrophoresis in conjunction with conventional 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, cleavage of DNA to 50 kbp fragments was observed in all cases except MCF-7 cells. This preceded the appearance of oligonucleosomal fragments in HT-29-I1, CC164 and H11ras-R3 cells. Although the DNA of DU-145 cells fragmented into 50 kbp units, and although the cells exhibited classical apoptotic morphology, no subsequent internucleosomal cleavage was observed. These results suggest that changes in the integrity of DNA indicative of the release of chromatin loop domains occur before cleavage at internucleosomal sites is initiated and that the latter is not an essential step in the apoptotic process. Images PMID:8253089

Oberhammer, F; Wilson, J W; Dive, C; Morris, I D; Hickman, J A; Wakeling, A E; Walker, P R; Sikorska, M

1993-01-01

172

Genome size and the proportion of repeated nucleotide sequence DNA in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reannealing kinetics of denatured DNA fragments from 23 species of higher plants have been studied, using hydroxylapatite chromatography to distinguish reannealed from single-stranded DNA. The 2C nuclear DNA contents of the species varied between 1.7 and 98 pg. The proportions of DNA in species with a nuclear DNA mass above 5 pg that reannealed with the kinetics of sequences

R. B. Flavell; M. D. Bennett; J. B. Smith; D. B. Smith

1974-01-01

173

Fragmentation of DNA components by hyperthermal heavy ion (Ar+ and Xe+) impact in the condensed phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overriding environmental factor that presently limits human endeavors in space is exposure to heavy ion radiation. While knowledge of its damage to living tissue is essential for radiation protection and risk estimates for astronauts, very little data exists at the molecular level regarding the nascent DNA damage by the primary particle track, or by secondary species during subsequent reaction cascades. This persistent lack of a basic understanding of nascent damage induced by such low dose, high LET radiation, introduces unacceptable errors in radiation risk estimates (based mainly on extrapolation from high dose, low LET radiation), particularly for long term exposure. Mutagenic effects induced by heavy ion radiation to cells are largely due to DNA damage by secondary transient species, i.e. secondary ballistic ions, electrons and radicals generated along the ion tracks; the secondary ions have hyperthermal energies up to several 100 eV, which they will deposit within a few nm in the surrounding medium; thus their LET is very high, and yields lethal clustered DNA lesions. We present measurements of molecular damage induced in films of DNA components by ions with precisely such low energies (1-100 eV) and compare results to conventional electron impact measurements. Experiments are conducted in UHV using a mass selected low energy ion source, and a high-resolution quadrupole MS to monitor ion yields desorbing from molecular films. Among the major fragments, NH4 + is identified in the desorption mass spectra of irradiated films of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, indicating efficient deamination; in cells this results in pre-mutagenic lesions. Experiments with 5-amino-Uracil, and comparison to previous results on uracil and thymine show that deamination is a key step in the NH4 + fragment formation. For Adenine, we also observe formation of amine aducts in the films, viz. amination of Adenine, and global fragmentation in all ion impact mass spectra, attributed mainly to kinetic & potential ion scattering.[Funded by NSERC and the Canadian Space Agency].

Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Ms; Michaud, Marc; Deng, Zongwu; Huels, Michael A.

174

DNA Barcoding for Identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasmas’ Using a Fragment of the Elongation Factor Tu Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf) gene for phytoplasma identification is reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420–444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX). Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed that the tuf tree is highly congruent with the 16S rRNA tree and had higher inter- and intra- group sequence divergence. Mean K2P inter?/intra- group divergences of the tuf barcode did not overlap and had approximately one order of magnitude difference for most groups, suggesting the presence of a DNA barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied for identification of phytoplasmas. Our findings suggest that the tuf barcode performs as well or better than a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and thus provides an easy procedure for phytoplasma identification. The obtained sequences were used to create a publicly available reference database that can be used by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification. PMID:23272216

Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Kawube, Geofrey; Bertaccini, Assunta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

2012-01-01

175

True ternary fission of 252Cf(sf), the collinear decay into fragments of similar size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ternary decay in 252Cf(sf, fff), with three cluster fragments of different masses (e.g.132Sn,52-48Ca,68-72Ni), has been observed by the FOBOS group in JINR. This work has established a new decay mode of heavy nuclei, the collinear cluster tripartition, (CCT). This "true ternary fission" of heavy nuclei has been predicted many times in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present report we discuss true ternary fission (FFF) into three nuclei of almost equal size (e.g. Z=98 ? Zi = 32, 34, 32) and other fission modes in the same system. The possible fission channels for 252 Cf(sf) are predicted from potential-energy (PES) calculations. These PES's show pronounced minima for several ternary fragmentation decays, suggesting a variety of collinear ternary fission modes. The FFF-decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed collinear CCT-decays, the central fragment has very small kinetic energy. The data of the cited experiment allow the extraction of the yield for some FFF-decays, by using specific gates on the measured parameters.

von Oertzen, W.; Nasirov, A. K.

2014-12-01

176

Onset of apoptotic DNA fragmentation can precede cell elimination by days in the small intestinal villus.  

PubMed

DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis, and has been viewed as a short-lived process (fragmentation and cell elimination could be longer (days). To address this possibility, we used a model system of cell death and replacement, the murine small intestinal villus. Pulses of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine were used to follow quantitatively cohorts of cells from their generation in the crypts to their elimination at the villus tips, resulting in a temporal 'yard-stick' where position on the villus indicated time before cell elimination; these data allowed a mathematical description of cell movement and clearance. Combining these data with ISEL+ quantitation, enterocytes were found to commence and maintain DNA fragmentation 2 - 3 days before elimination, a phenomenon that likely has relevance to studies on apoptosis also in other systems. PMID:10200526

Pompeiano, M; Hvala, M; Chun, J

1998-08-01

177

[DNA polymorphism in the Mongolian population. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA at seven loci of the nuclear genome].  

PubMed

Seven DNA markers from five genes and one chromosomal region were analysed in Mongolian population using the polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of alleles of the polymorphisms detected with HindIII in the HBG-2, AvaII in the HBB, MspI and XbaI in the Apo-B, PstI in the D7S8, HincII in the LDLR and allele frequency of the minisatellite fragment in the AT-3 have been determined. The results of the RELP for Apo-B(MspI), LDLR, D7S8 and AT-3 are obtained for the first time among Mongoloids. DNA markers studied demonstrated high level of polymorphisms in the population of Mongolia, except for XbaI and MspI restriction sites at the Apo-B locus. The data obtained for Mongolian population and the literature data were compared. PMID:1687037

Sambuugi?n, N; Petrishchev, V N; Rychkov, Iu G

1991-12-01

178

Size-related auto-fragment production and carbohydrate storage in auto-fragment of Myriophyllum spicatum L. in response to sediment nutrient and plant density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Size-related asexual reproduction of submersed macrophytes is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate how size-related\\u000a auto-fragmentation in Myriophyllum spicatum L. responds to sediment nutrients and plant density. An experiment was carried out with sediments containing two different\\u000a nutrient levels and with two levels of plant density. The results show that sediment nutrients and plant density brought about\\u000a a strong dependency

Dong Xie; Dan Yu

2011-01-01

179

Dynamics of enzymatic interactions during short flap human Okazaki fragment processing by two forms of human DNA polymerase ?.  

PubMed

Lagging strand DNA replication requires the concerted actions of DNA polymerase ?, Fen1 and DNA ligase I for the removal of the RNA/DNA primers before ligation of Okazaki fragments. To better understand this process in human cells, we have reconstituted Okazaki fragment processing by the short flap pathway in vitro with purified human proteins and oligonucleotide substrates. We systematically characterized the key events in Okazaki fragment processing: the strand displacement, Pol ?/Fen1 combined reactions for removal of the RNA/DNA primer, and the complete reaction with DNA ligase I. Two forms of human DNA polymerase ? were studied: Pol ?4 and Pol ?3, which represent the heterotetramer and the heterotrimer lacking the p12 subunit, respectively. Pol ?3 exhibits very limited strand displacement activity in contrast to Pol ?4, and stalls on encounter with a 5'-blocking oligonucleotide. Pol ?4 and Pol ?3 exhibit different characteristics in the Pol ?/Fen1 reactions. While Pol ?3 produces predominantly 1 and 2 nt cleavage products irrespective of Fen1 concentrations, Pol ?4 produces cleavage fragments of 1-10 nts at low Fen1 concentrations. Pol ?3 and Pol ?4 exhibit comparable formation of ligated products in the complete system. While both are capable of Okazaki fragment processing in vitro, Pol ?3 exhibits ideal characteristics for a role in Okazaki fragment processing. Pol ?3 readily idles and in combination with Fen1 produces primarily 1 nt cleavage products, so that nick translation predominates in the removal of the blocking strand, avoiding the production of longer flaps that require additional processing. These studies represent the first analysis of the two forms of human Pol ? in Okazaki fragment processing. The findings provide evidence for the novel concept that Pol ?3 has a role in lagging strand synthesis, and that both forms of Pol ? may participate in DNA replication in higher eukaryotic cells. PMID:24035200

Lin, Szu Hua Sharon; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Ernest Y C; Lee, Marietta Y W T

2013-11-01

180

Association of Self-DNA Mediated TLR9-Related Gene, DNA Methyltransferase, and Cytokeratin Protein Expression Alterations in HT29-Cells to DNA Fragment Length and Methylation Status  

PubMed Central

To understand the biologic role of self-DNA bound to Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), we assayed its effect on gene and methyltransferase expressions and cell differentiation in HT29 cells. HT29 cells were incubated separately with type-1 (normally methylated/nonfragmented), type-2 (normally methylated/fragmented), type-3 (hypermethylated/nonfragmented), or type-4 (hypermethylated/fragmented) self-DNAs. Expression levels of TLR9-signaling and proinflammatory cytokine-related genes were assayed by qRT-PCR. Methyltransferase activity and cell differentiation were examined by using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, -3A, -3B) and cytokeratin (CK) antibodies. Treatment with type-1 DNA resulted in significant increase in TLR9 expression. Type-2 treatment resulted in the overexpression of TLR9-related signaling molecules (MYD88A, TRAF6) and the IL8 gene. In the case of type-3 treatment, significant overexpression of NFkB, IRAK2, and IL8 as well as downregulation of TRAF6 was detected. Using type-4 DNA, TRAF6 and MYD88A gene expression was upregulated, while MYD88B, IRAK2, IL8, and TNFSF10 were all underexpressed. CK expression was significantly higher only after type-1 DNA treatment. DNMT3A expression could also be induced by type-1 DNA treatment. DNA structure may play a significant role in activation of the TLR9-dependent and even independent proinflammatory pathways. There may be a molecular link between TLR9 signaling and DNMT3A. The mode of self-DNA treatment may influence HT29 cell differentiation. PMID:24459426

F?ri, István; Sipos, Ferenc; Spisák, Sándor; Kiszner, Gerg?; Wichmann, Barnabás; Schöller, Andrea; Tulassay, Zsolt; M?zes, Györgyi; Molnár, Béla

2013-01-01

181

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a "run-away-decline process" leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to semi-natural grassland fragmentation, four short-lived grassland species were studied. During three years, data on population sizes were gathered for Carum carvi, Rhinanthus minor, Trifolium arvense and Viola tricolor in Swedish semi-natural grasslands varying in size and degree of isolation. A seed-sowing experiment was conducted to assess dispersal and seed limitation at a local and regional scale, respectively. Overall, the presence/absence of species was not related to fragment size and isolation (connectivity). However, for the fragments where the species were present, positive relationships between grassland size and population size were detected for three species. No significant relationships between isolation and population size were detected for any species. This study thus demonstrates that short-lived plant species, confined to semi-natural grasslands, respond to decreases in fragment size by forming smaller populations. Seed sowing indicated that the species are both dispersal and seed limited in the study area, and that disturbances are important for establishment. In order to maintain characteristic grassland species in fragmented (isolated) semi-natural grasslands, it may therefore be of interest to preserve large intact fragments instead of several small ones.

Kiviniemi, Katariina

2008-01-01

182

Influence of bovine sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress on early embryo in vitro development outcome.  

PubMed

Sperm chromatin fragmentation may be caused by a number of factors, the most significant of which is reactive oxygen species. However, little is known about the effect of sperm oxidative stress (OS) on DNA integrity, fertilization, and embryonic development in cattle. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of sperm OS susceptibility on the DNA fragmentation rate and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in a population of bulls. Groups of cryopreserved sperm samples were divided into four groups, based on their susceptibility to OS (G1, low OS; G2, average OS; G3, high OS; and G4, highest OS). Our results demonstrated that the sperm DNA integrity was compromised in response to increased OS susceptibility. Furthermore, semen samples with lower susceptibility to OS were also less susceptible to DNA damage (G1, 4.06%; G2, 6.09%; G3, 6.19%; and G4, 6.20%). In addition, embryo IVP provided evidence that the embryo cleavage rate decreased as the OS increased (G1, 70.18%; G2, 62.24%; G3, 55.85%; and G4, 50.93%), but no significant difference in the blastocyst rate or the number of blastomeres was observed among the groups. The groups with greater sensitivity to OS were also associated with a greater percentage of apoptotic cells (G1, 2.6%; G2, 2.76%; G3, 5.59%; and G4, 4.49%). In conclusion, we demonstrated that an increased susceptibility to OS compromises sperm DNA integrity and consequently reduces embryo quality. PMID:23940385

Simões, Renata; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Nichi, Marcilio; Paula-Lopes, Fabíola Freitas; Marques, Mariana Groke; Peres, Maria Angélica; Barnabe, Valquíria Hyppolito; Visintin, José Antônio; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

2013-01-01

183

Sequence context effects on 8-methoxypsoralen photobinding to defined DNA fragments  

SciTech Connect

The photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with DNA fragments of defined sequence was studied. The authors took advantage of the blockage by bulky adducts of the 3'-5'-exonuclease activity associated with the T4 DNA polymerase. The action of the exonuclease is stopped by biadducts as well as by monoadducts. The termination products were analyzed on sequencing gels. A strong sequence specificity was observed in the DNA photobinding of 8-MOP. The exonuclease terminates its digestion near thymine residues, mainly at potentially cross-linkable sites. There is an increasing reactivity of thymine residues in the order T < TT << TTT in a GC environment. For thymine residues in cross-linkable sites, the reactivity follows the order AT << TA approx. TAT << ATA < ATAT < ATATAA. Repeated A-T sequences are hot spots for the photochemical reaction of 8-MOP with DNA. Both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links are formed preferentially in 5'-TpA sites. The results highlight the role of the sequence and consequently of the conformation around a potential site in the photobinding of 8-MOP to DNA.

Sage, E.; Moustacchi, E.

1987-06-16

184

Multi-Niche Crowding in Genetic Algorithms and its Application to the Assembly of DNA Restriction-Fragments  

E-print Network

Multi-Niche Crowding in Genetic Algorithms and its Application to the Assembly of DNA Restriction the optima of a multi-modal function. A genetic algorithm that uses multi-niche crowding permits us to do words: Genetic algorithms, multi-modal functions, DNA restriction fragment assembly, human genome

Vemuri, Rao

185

Chromosomal location of PCR fragments as a source of DNA markers linked to aluminium tolerance genes in rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify and locate rye DNA sequences homologous to three wheat c-DNAs (wali1, wali2 and wali5) whose expression is induced by aluminium (Al) stress, we designed three pairs of specific primers. They were used in the\\u000a amplification of genomic DNA from wheat-rye disomic addition lines. The wali2 pair of primers amplified a 878-bp rye DNA fragment (rali2) located on chromosomes

F. J. Gallego; E. López-Solanilla; A. M. Figueiras; C. Benito

1998-01-01

186

Manning free counterions fraction for a rod-like polyion - short DNA fragments in very low salt  

E-print Network

We quantified the Manning free (uncondensed) counterions fraction $\\theta$ for dilute solutions of rod-like polyions - 150bp DNA fragments, in very low salt $salt environment, with the decrease in DNA concentration itself. The extremes of the experimental $\\theta(c)$ range occur towards the highest, above 1 mM and the lowest, below 0.05 mM, DNA concentrations, and correspond to the theoretical $\\theta$ values for dsDNA and ssDNA, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed Manning condensation and conductivity models to be valuable in description of dilute solutions of rod-like polyions.

Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Danijel Grgicin; Damir Aumiler; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

2010-10-04

187

High-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis of double-stranded DNA fragments using monomeric and dimeric fluorescent intercalating dyes  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence-detected capillary electrophoresis separations of [phi]X174/HaeIII DNA restriction fragments have been performed using monomeric and dimeric intercalating dyes. Replaceable hydroxyethyl cellulose solutions were used as the separation medium. Confocal fluorescence detection was performed following 488-nm laser excitation. The limits of DNA detection for on-column staining with monomeric dyes (ethidium bromide, two propidium dye derivatives, oxazole yellow, thiazole orange, and a polycationic thiazole orange derivative) were determined. The thiazole orange dyes provide the most sensitive detection with limiting sensitivities of 2-4 amol of DNA base pairs per band, and detection of the 603-bp fragment was successful, injecting from [phi]X174/HaeIII samples containing only 1-2 fg of this fragment per microliter. Separations of preformed DNA-dimeric dye complexes were also performed. The breadth of the bands observed in separations of preformed DNA-dimeric dye complexes is due to the presence of DNA fragments with different numbers of bound dye molecules that can be resolved as closely spaced subbands in many of our separations. The quality of these DNA-dye complex separations can be dramatically improved by performing the electrophoresis with 9-aminoacridine (9AA) in the column and running buffers. 43 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Zhu, H.; Clark, S.M.; Benson, S.C.; Rye, H.S.; Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-07-01

188

The mechanism underlying acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and mice involves mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation  

PubMed Central

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the predominant cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Toxicity begins with a reactive metabolite that binds to proteins. In rodents, this leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA fragmentation, resulting in necrotic cell death. While APAP metabolism is similar in humans, the later events resulting in toxicity have not been investigated in patients. In this study, levels of biomarkers of mitochondrial damage (glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] and mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]) and nuclear DNA fragments were measured in plasma from APAP-overdose patients. Overdose patients with no or minimal hepatic injury who had normal liver function tests (LTs) (referred to herein as the normal LT group) and healthy volunteers served as controls. Peak GDH activity and mtDNA concentration were increased in plasma from patients with abnormal LT. Peak nuclear DNA fragmentation in the abnormal LT cohort was also increased over that of controls. Parallel studies in mice revealed that these plasma biomarkers correlated well with tissue injury. Caspase-3 activity and cleaved caspase-3 were not detectable in plasma from overdose patients or mice, but were elevated after TNF-induced apoptosis, indicating that APAP overdose does not cause apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation are likely to be critical events in APAP hepatotoxicity in humans, resulting in necrotic cell death. PMID:22378043

McGill, Mitchell R.; Sharpe, Matthew R.; Williams, C. David; Taha, Mohammad; Curry, Steven C.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

2012-01-01

189

Validation of a field based chromatin dispersion assay to assess sperm DNA fragmentation in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in the use of assisted reproductive technology for genetic and reproductive management of captive dolphin populations, including evaluation of sperm DNA quality. This study validated a customized sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a means of assessing sperm DNA damage both in the field and in the laboratory. After performing the SCDt, two different sperm morphotypes were identified: (i) sperm with fragmented DNA showed large haloes of dispersed DNA fragments emerging from a compact sperm nucleoid core and (ii) sperm containing non-fragmented DNA displayed small compact haloes surrounded by a dense core of non-dispersed DNA and protein complex. Estimates of sperm DNA fragmentation by means of SCDt were directly comparable to results obtained following a two-tailed comet assay and showed a significant degree of correlation (r = 0.961; p < 0.001). This investigation also revealed that the SCDt, with minor modifications to the standard protocol, can be successfully conducted in the field using a LED florescence microscopy obtaining a high correlation (r = 0.993; p = 0.01) between the data obtained in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:25130370

Sánchez-Calabuig, M-J; López-Fernández, C; Martínez-Nevado, E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F; de la Fuente, J; Johnston, S D; Blyde, D; Harrison, K; Gosálvez, J

2014-10-01

190

Chloroplast DNA variation in Populus . II. Interspecific restriction fragment polymorphisms and genetic relationships among Populus deltoides, P. nigra, P. maximowiczii , and P. x canadensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment analysis was conducted to determine interspecific chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation and genetic relationships among Populus deltoides, P. nigra, P. x canadensis (P. deltoides x P. nigra), and P. maximowiczii. Total cellular DNAs of these poplars were digested with 16 restriction endonucleases, and Southern blots of the restriction digests were probed with six different cloned cpDNA fragments from Petunia.

O. P. Rajora; B. P. Dancik

1995-01-01

191

Storing DNA, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To store DNA, you need unusual storage containers. Organisms such as bacteria and viruses were the Human Genome Project's unconventional libraries and duplicating systems. "DNA libraries" give researchers a way to store and access genes of interest. These libraries consist of large numbers of DNA vectors each containing a different DNA fragment. Different vectors are used for DNA fragments of different sizes.

2008-10-06

192

ERp57/PDIA3 binds specific DNA fragments in a melanoma cell line.  

PubMed

ERp57/PDIA3 is a ubiquitously expressed disulfide isomerase protein, which acts in concert with calreticulin and calnexin in the folding of glycoproteins destined to the plasma membrane or to be secreted. Its canonical compartment is the endoplasmic reticulum, where it acts as a chaperone and redox catalyst, but non canonical locations have been described as well, and ERp57 has been found associated with DNA and nuclear proteins. In previous work performed in HeLa cells, ERp57 has been demonstrated to bind specific DNA sequences involved in the stress response. The direct interaction with the DNA sequences identified as ERp57-targeted regions in HeLa cells has now been confirmed in a melanoma cell line. Furthermore, the ERp57 silencing, achieved by RNA interference, has produced a significant down-regulation of the expression of target genes. The possible involvement of other proteins in complex with ERp57 has been studied by an in vitro biotin-streptavidin based binding assay and the interacting protein APE/Ref-1 has been also assessed for its direct association with the ERp57 target regions. In conclusion, nuclear ERp57 interacts in vivo with DNA fragments in melanoma cells and is potentially involved in the transcriptional regulation of its target genes. PMID:23587917

Aureli, Cristina; Gaucci, Elisa; Arcangeli, Valentina; Grillo, Caterina; Eufemi, Margherita; Chichiarelli, Silvia

2013-07-25

193

Prevalence of high DNA fragmentation index in male partners of unexplained infertile couples.  

PubMed

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameter DNA fragmentation Index (DFI) is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Clinical data show that a DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy by natural conception or by insemination. Already when DFI is above 20% the chance of natural pregnancy is reduced, this despite normal conventional semen parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of high DFI in male partners of unexplained infertile couples to further identification of male factors contributing to subfertility. Among 212 consecutive men under infertility investigation, 122 cases with the diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' were identified. For all but three, SCSA data were available. The percentage of couples with diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' in which the male partner has DFI >20% or DFI >30% was calculated. In the group diagnosed with 'unexplained infertility' 17.7% of the men (95% CI 10.8-24.5) presented with 20 ?DFI <30 and 8.4% (95% CI 3.40-13.4) had DFI ?30%. A significant part of men diagnosed as unexplained infertile according to traditional diagnostic methods has remarkably high degrees of fragmented sperm DNA. Apart from adding to our understanding of biology of infertility our finding has clinical implications. Couples in which the DFI of the male partner is high can avoid prolonged attempts to become spontaneously pregnant or referral for intrauterine insemination, both having low chances of leading to conception. PMID:23596042

Oleszczuk, K; Augustinsson, L; Bayat, N; Giwercman, A; Bungum, M

2013-05-01

194

Comparison of Control Region Sequencing and Fragment RFLP Analysis for Resolving Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships among Great Lakes Walleyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sequencing of 513 base pairs from the control region and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in two fragments totaling 7.6 kilobases (fragment RFLP) that were amplified by polymerase chain reaction were used to assess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Great Lakes walleye Stizostedion vitreum. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of these mtDNA markers in detecting genetic variation

Michael H. Gatt; Moira M. Ferguson; Arunas P. Liskauskas

2000-01-01

195

Hot Fusion: An Efficient Method to Clone Multiple DNA Fragments as Well as Inverted Repeats without Ligase  

PubMed Central

Molecular cloning is utilized in nearly every facet of biological and medical research. We have developed a method, termed Hot Fusion, to efficiently clone one or multiple DNA fragments into plasmid vectors without the use of ligase. The method is directional, produces seamless junctions and is not dependent on the availability of restriction sites for inserts. Fragments are assembled based on shared homology regions of 17–30 bp at the junctions, which greatly simplifies the construct design. Hot Fusion is carried out in a one-step, single tube reaction at 50°C for one hour followed by cooling to room temperature. In addition to its utility for multi-fragment assembly Hot Fusion provides a highly efficient method for cloning DNA fragments containing inverted repeats for applications such as RNAi. The overall cloning efficiency is in the order of 90–95%. PMID:25551825

Fu, Changlin; Donovan, William P.; Shikapwashya-Hasser, Olga; Ye, Xudong; Cole, Robert H.

2014-01-01

196

Hot Fusion: an efficient method to clone multiple DNA fragments as well as inverted repeats without ligase.  

PubMed

Molecular cloning is utilized in nearly every facet of biological and medical research. We have developed a method, termed Hot Fusion, to efficiently clone one or multiple DNA fragments into plasmid vectors without the use of ligase. The method is directional, produces seamless junctions and is not dependent on the availability of restriction sites for inserts. Fragments are assembled based on shared homology regions of 17-30 bp at the junctions, which greatly simplifies the construct design. Hot Fusion is carried out in a one-step, single tube reaction at 50 °C for one hour followed by cooling to room temperature. In addition to its utility for multi-fragment assembly Hot Fusion provides a highly efficient method for cloning DNA fragments containing inverted repeats for applications such as RNAi. The overall cloning efficiency is in the order of 90-95%. PMID:25551825

Fu, Changlin; Donovan, William P; Shikapwashya-Hasser, Olga; Ye, Xudong; Cole, Robert H

2014-01-01

197

A baculovirus alkaline nuclease knockout construct produces fragmented DNA and aberrant capsids  

SciTech Connect

DNA replication of bacmid-derived constructs of the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was analyzed by field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) in combination with digestion at a unique Eco81I restriction enzyme site. Three constructs were characterized: a parental bacmid, a bacmid deleted for the alkaline nuclease gene, and a bacmid from which the gp64 gene had been deleted. The latter was employed as a control for comparison with the alkaline nuclease knockout because neither yields infectious virus and their replication is limited to the initially transfected cells. The major difference between DNA replicated by the different constructs was the presence in the alkaline nuclease knockout of high concentrations of relatively small, subgenome length DNA in preparations not treated with Eco81I. Furthermore, upon Eco81I digestion, the alkaline nuclease knockout bacmid also yielded substantially more subgenome size DNA than the other constructs. Electron microscopic examination of cells transfected with the alkaline nuclease knockout indicated that, in addition to a limited number of normal-appearing electron-dense nucleocapsids, numerous aberrant capsid-like structures were observed indicating a defect in nucleocapsid maturation or in a DNA processing step that is necessary for encapsidation. Because of the documented role of the baculovirus alkaline nuclease and its homologs from other viruses in homologous recombination, these data suggest that DNA recombination may play a major role in the production of baculovirus genomes.

Okano, Kazuhiro [Department of Microbiology, Nash Hall Room 220, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3804 (United States); Vanarsdall, Adam L. [Department of Microbiology, Nash Hall Room 220, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3804 (United States); Rohrmann, George F. [Department of Microbiology, Nash Hall Room 220, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3804 (United States)]. E-mail: rohrmanng@orst.edu

2007-03-01

198

DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).  

PubMed

The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the presence of the desired DNA segments, and then submitted for fluorescent fragment length analysis (FLA) using capillary electrophoresis. DNA from armadillo passaged bacteria with a known number of repeat copies for each locus is used as a positive control. The FLA chromatograms are then examined using Peak Scanner software and fragment length is converted to number of VNTR copies (allele). Finally, the VNTR haplotypes are analyzed for patterns, and when combined with patient clinical data can be used to track distribution of strain types. PMID:21775969

Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2011-01-01

199

High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis.  

PubMed

A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs ranging from predominantly paternal to predominantly maternal. Regrowth of shoots from heteroplasmic plants following removal of top growth revealed the persistence of mixed plastids in a given plant. However, different shoots within a green heteroplasmic plant exhibited paternal, maternal, or mixed cpDNAs. Evidence of maternal nuclear genomic influence on the frequency of paternal plastid transmission was observed in some reciprocal crosses. A few tetraploid F1 progeny were obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=32) Medicago sativa ssp. sativa x diploid (2n=2x=16) M. sativa ssp. falcata crosses, and resulted from unreduced gametes. Here more than the maternal genome alone apparently functioned in controlling plastid transmission. Considering all crosses, only 5 of 212 progeny cpDNAs lacked evidence of a definitive paternal plastid fragment. PMID:24226119

Masoud, S A; Johnson, L B; Sorensen, E L

1990-01-01

200

Novel apparatus to measure hyperthermal heavy ion damage to DNA: Strand breaks, base loss, and fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel apparatus that allows us to irradiate nonvolatile organic films of high mass (1-100 {mu}g range) spread out over a large surface area (42 cm{sup 2}) with low energy (kT-100 eV) heavy ions and to quantitatively analyze the film substance via standard biochemical techniques afterwards. Here we discuss the details of the apparatus and method and show that it allows us to measure substantial damage to double stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) and its fundamental subunits induced by heavy ions with unprecedented low energies, i.e., 2.5 eV/amu; these energies correspond to track end energies of stopping ions or secondary ions created along primary ion tracks. We find that hyperthermal Ar{sup +} ions interacting with plasmid DNA will lead to the formation of single and double strand breaks, as well as fragmentation of nucleosides, which also involve chemical modifications and site specific rupture along the N1-C1 glycosidic bond, resulting in base release. In cells, such localized clustered damage will enhance the severity of DNA strand lesions, thus making them harder to repair.

Sellami, L.; Lacombe, S.; Hunting, D.; Wagner, R. J.; Huels, M. A. [Ion Reaction Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

2007-08-15

201

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by Detection of Specific DNA Fragments from Filtered Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Definitive diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection in adult patients is a clinically important challenge. Chronically infected adults pass few eggs in the urine, which are often missed when current diagnostic methods are used. In the work presented here, we report on an alternative diagnostic method based on presence of the S. haematobium-specific Dra 1, 121 bp repeat fragment in human urine. A novel method of collecting the urine specimens in the field and filtering them through heavy Whatman No. 3 paper was introduced. After drying, the samples remained viable for several months at room temperature. To test the potential use of this method, 89 urine specimens from school children in Kollo District, Niger, were examined. In all, 52 of 89 (58.4%) were positive for hematuria, 4 of 89 (49.4%) were positive for eggs, and 51 of 89 (57.3%) showed parasite-specific DNA. These were compared with 60 filtered urine specimens obtained from random samples of adults from two study sites in Nigeria, one endemic and one non-endemic for S. haematobium. In the 30 patients from the endemic site, all 10 samples with detectable eggs and 7 of the 20 egg-negative samples were DNA positive. It was concluded that the urine filter paper method was sufficiently sensitive to detect low and cryptic infections, that DNA detection was more sensitive than egg detection, and that the filtration method facilitated specimen collection and transport from the field. PMID:21633040

Ibironke, Olufunmilola A.; Phillips, Anna E.; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Sani M.; Shiff, Clive

2011-01-01

202

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by detection of specific DNA fragments from filtered urine samples.  

PubMed

Definitive diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection in adult patients is a clinically important challenge. Chronically infected adults pass few eggs in the urine, which are often missed when current diagnostic methods are used. In the work presented here, we report on an alternative diagnostic method based on presence of the S. haematobium-specific Dra 1, 121 bp repeat fragment in human urine. A novel method of collecting the urine specimens in the field and filtering them through heavy Whatman No. 3 paper was introduced. After drying, the samples remained viable for several months at room temperature. To test the potential use of this method, 89 urine specimens from school children in Kollo District, Niger, were examined. In all, 52 of 89 (58.4%) were positive for hematuria, 4 of 89 (49.4%) were positive for eggs, and 51 of 89 (57.3%) showed parasite-specific DNA. These were compared with 60 filtered urine specimens obtained from random samples of adults from two study sites in Nigeria, one endemic and one non-endemic for S. haematobium. In the 30 patients from the endemic site, all 10 samples with detectable eggs and 7 of the 20 egg-negative samples were DNA positive. It was concluded that the urine filter paper method was sufficiently sensitive to detect low and cryptic infections, that DNA detection was more sensitive than egg detection, and that the filtration method facilitated specimen collection and transport from the field. PMID:21633040

Ibironke, Olufunmilola A; Phillips, Anna E; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Sani M; Shiff, Clive

2011-06-01

203

Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Amyloid-? Peptides: Impact of Fragment Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease whose physiological characteristics include the accumulation of amyloid-containing deposits in the brain and consequent synapse and neuron loss. Unfortunately, most widely used drugs for the treatment can palliate the outer symptoms but cannot cure the disease itself. Hence, developing a new drug that can cure it. Most recently, the ``early aggregation and monomer'' hypothesis has become popular and a few drugs have been developed based on this hypothesis. Detailed understanding of the amyloid-? peptide structure can better help us to determine more effective treatment strategies; indeed, the structure of Amyloid has been studied extensively employing experimental and theoretical tools. Nevertheless, those studies have employed different fragment sizes of Amyloid and characterized its conformational nature in different media. Thus, the structural properties might be different from each other and provide a reason for the existing debates in the literature. Here, we performed all-atom MD simulations and present the structural and thermodynamic properties of A?1-16, A?1-28, and A?1-42 in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. Our studies show that the overall structures, secondary structures, and the calculated thermodynamic properties change with increasing peptide size. In addition, we find that the structural properties of those peptides are different from each other in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

Kitahara, T.; Wise-Scira, O.; Coskuner, O.

2010-10-01

204

In vitro DNA fragmentation of mitochondrial DNA caused by single-stranded breakage related to macroplasmodial senescence of the true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) isolated from Physarum polycephalum fragmented itself in weak ionic solutions. The mtDNA was dissolved in STE (saline Tris-EDTA: 150?mM NaCl, 10?mM Tris-HCl,\\u000a 1?mM EDTA), TE (10?mM Tris-HCl, 1?mM EDTA) and DW, and then electrophoresed in an agarose gel. The intact 86-kbp mtDNA band\\u000a was seen in STE, but several novel bands appeared in TE

Takashi Abe; Hiroyoshi Takano; Narie Sasaki; Kimie Mori; Shigeyuki Kawano

2000-01-01

205

Increased circulating cell-free DNA levels and mtDNA fragments in interventional cardiologists occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Circulating cell-free DNA (ccf-DNA) and mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA) have often been used as indicators of cell death and tissue damage in acute and chronic disorders, but little is known about changes in ccf-DNA and ccf-mtDNA concentrations following radiation exposure. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of chronic low-dose radiation exposure on serum ccf-DNA levels and ccf-mtDNA fragments (mtDNA-79 and mtDNA-230) of interventional cardiologists working in high-volume cardiac catheterization laboratory to assess their possible role as useful radiation biomarkers. We enrolled 50 interventional cardiologists (26 males; age?=?48.4?±?10 years) and 50 age- and gender-matched unexposed controls (27 males; age?=?47.6?±?8.3 years). Quant-iT™ dsDNA High-Sensitivity assay was used to measure circulating ccf-DNA isolated from serum samples. Quantitative analysis of mtDNA fragments was performed by real-time PCR. No significant relationships were found between ccf-DNA and ccf-mtDNA, and age, gender, smoking, or other clinical parameters. Ccf-DNA levels (44.2?±?31.1 vs. 30.6?±?19.2 ng/ml, P?=?0.013), ccf-mtDNA-79 (2.6?±?2.1 vs. 1.1?±?0.8, P < 0.01), and ccf-mtDNA-230 copies (2.0?±?1.8 vs. 1.04?±?0.9, P?=?0.02) were significantly higher in interventional cardiologists compared with the non-exposed group. In a subset (n?=?15) of interventional cardiologists with a reliable reconstruction of cumulative professional exposure (59.7?±?48.4 mSv; range: 1.4-182 mS), ccf-DNA (53.2?±?41.3 vs. 36.4?±?22.9 and 32.2?±?20.5, P?=?0.08), mtDNA-79 (2.4?±?2.1 vs. 2.03?±?1.7 and 1.09?±?0.82, P?=?0.05), and mtDNA-230 (2.0?±?2.2 vs. 1.5?±?1.4 and 1.04?±?0.9, P?=?0.09) tended to be significantly increased in high-exposure subjects compared with both low-exposure interventional cardiologists and controls. Our results provide evidence for a possible role of circulating DNA as a relevant biomarker of cellular damage induced by exposure to chronic low-dose radiation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25327629

Borghini, Andrea; Mercuri, Antonella; Turchi, Stefano; Chiesa, Maria Rosa; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

2014-10-18

206

Presence of DNA fragmentation and lack of neuroprotective effect in DFF45 knockout mice subjected to traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays an important pathophysiologic role in neuronal cell loss and associated neurologic deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). DNA fragmentation represents one of the characteristic biochemical features of neuronal apoptosis and is observed after experimental TBI. DFF45 and DFF40 are essential for DNA fragmentation in various models of apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used mice deficient in DFF45 and wild-type controls. Oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced by TBI was analyzed using in vivo and in vitro assays. Expression and integrity of DFF45 and DFF40 proteins was assessed by Western analysis. Other outcome measurements included neurologic scoring, learning/memory tests, lesion volume measurements (MRI), and assessment of cell viability in vitro among others. RESULTS: We compared the effects of controlled cortical impact (CCI) trauma in DFF45 knockout mice and wild-type controls. Analysis of TBI-induced DNA fragmentation in brain cortex from wild-type and DFF45 knockout mice indicates that, although somewhat delayed, oligonucleosomal cleavage of DNA occurs after TBI in DFF45 knockout mice. DFF45 knockouts showed no significant differences in behavioral outcomes or lesion volumes after TBI as compared to wild-type controls. Using an in vitro reconstitution system, we also demonstrated that cleavage of DFF45 by caspase-3 is not sufficient for DNA fragmentation induced by protein extracts from rat brain cortex. We found that endonuclease activity induced in rat brain cortex following TBI depends on the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+, but is not inhibited by Zn2+. Primary neuronal cultures from DFF45 knockouts failed to show DNA laddering in response to staurosporine, but did show prominent, albeit delayed, DNA fragmentation following treatment with etoposide. In contrast, primary neurons from wild-type animals demonstrated marked DNA fragmentation following treatment with staurosporine or etoposide. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that, in addition to DFF45/40, other endonucleases may be essential for chromatin degradation during neuronal apoptosis in adult brain after TBI. PMID:11471558

Yakovlev, A. G.; Di, X.; Movsesyan, V.; Mullins, P. G.; Wang, G.; Boulares, H.; Zhang, J.; Xu, M.; Faden, A. I.

2001-01-01

207

A DNA Metabarcoding Study of a Primate Dietary Diversity and Plasticity across Its Entire Fragmented Range  

PubMed Central

In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i) describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii) evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the distribution and the dispersal ability of this species. PMID:23527060

Quéméré, Erwan; Hibert, Fabrice; Miquel, Christian; Lhuillier, Emeline; Rasolondraibe, Emmanuel; Champeau, Julie; Rabarivola, Clément; Nusbaumer, Louis; Chatelain, Cyrille; Gautier, Laurent; Ranirison, Patrick; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Taberlet, Pierre; Chikhi, Lounès

2013-01-01

208

Characterization of HIFU ablation using DNA fragmentation labeling as apoptosis stain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to compare modalities to precisely quantify the extent of thermally induced lesions: gross pathology vs. histopathology vs. devascularization. Liver areas of 14 rabbits were targeted with HIFU and RF ablations in an acute study. Contrast enhanced computorized tomography (CE-CT) scan images were acquired two hours after HIFU and RF treatment to obtain the devascularized volumes of the livers. The animals were then euthanized and deep frozen. The livers were sliced and each slice was photographed and stacked yielding a volume of gross pathology. The volume VGP of the HIFU lesions were derived. The area AGP of the lesions were computed on a particular slice. The lesions were segmented as hypo intense (devascularized) regions on CE-CT images and their volumes VC were computed. The ratios VC/VGP were computed for all the HIFU lesions on all the 14 subjects with a mean value of 1.2. Histology was performed on the livers using Hematoxyline Eosine Staining (HES) and DNA Fragmentation labeling (TUNEL® technology) which characterizes apoptosis. Apoptotic regions of area AT were segmented on the images stained by TUNEL®. No necrosis was identified on the HES data. While TUNEL® did not mark the cores of the RF lesions as apoptotic, the periphery of HIFU and RF lesions was always recognized with TUNEL® as apoptotic. The ratio AGP/AT was computed. The mean value was 0.95 and 0.25 for HIFU and RF lesions respectively. These findings show that the devascularized territory seen on CE-CT scan coincide with the coagulated territories seen with gross pathology. Those actually correspond to cells in apoptosis. It is confirmed that HES stain does not show necrosis 2 hours after thermal ablation. TUNEL® technology for DNA fragmentation labeling appears as a useful marker for thermally induced acute lesions in the liver.

Anquez, Jeremie; Corréas, Jean-Michel; Pau, Bernard; Lacoste, François; Yon, Sylvain

2012-11-01

209

Ultrastructural and DNA fragmentation analyses in swim-up selected human sperm.  

PubMed

Seventeen sperm samples were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after swim-up separation. DNA-fragmentation was tested by terminal d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in unselected and selected semen samples, and the results were analyzed in relation to sperm ultrastructural characteristics detected by TEM. A significant improvement in mean numbers and percentages of structurally normal sperm was observed after swim-up selection, corresponding to a significant decrease in the percentage of necrotic and apoptotic sperm, while the percentage of sperm with immature nuclei did not change significantly. TUNEL indicated a significant decrease in chromatin-fragmented sperm after swim-up. Swim up selection based on sperm motility excludes many sperm with ultrastructural evidence of necrosis (absent or reacted acrosome, disrupted chromatin, broken plasma membrane) and apoptosis (misshapen nuclei with marginated chromatin), as confirmed by TUNEL analysis. Nevertheless, immature sperm with elliptical or roundish nuclei, misshapen acrosomes and uncondensed chromatin remain part of fertilizing pool. PMID:16338870

Piomboni, P; Bruni, E; Capitani, S; Gambera, L; Moretti, E; La Marca, A; De Leo, V; Baccetti, B

2006-01-01

210

Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

Although mechanisms for chromosomal instability in tumors have been described in animal and in vitro models, little is known about these processes in man. To explore cytogenetic evolution in human tumors, chromosomal breakpoint profiles were constructed for 102 pancreatic carcinomas and 140 osteosarcomas, two tumor types characterized by extensive genomic instability. Cases with few chromosomal alterations showed a preferential clustering of breakpoints to the terminal bands, whereas tumors with many changes showed primarily interstitial and centromeric breakpoints. The terminal breakpoint frequency was negatively correlated to telomeric TTAGGG repeat length, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric TTAGGG probes consistently indicated shortened telomeres and >10% of chromosome ends lacking telomeric signals. Because telomeric dysfunction may lead to formation of unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes, mitotic figures were also evaluated. Anaphase bridges were found in all cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated extensive structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with terminal transferase detection showing fragmented DNA in 5–20% of interphase cells. Less than 2% of cells showed evidence of necrosis or apoptosis, and telomerase was expressed in the majority of cases. Telomeric dysfunction may thus trigger chromosomal fragmentation through persistent bridge-breakage events in pancreatic carcinomas and osteosarcomas, leading to a continuous reorganization of the tumor genome. Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival. PMID:11675499

Gisselsson, David; Jonson, Tord; Petersén, ?sa; Strömbeck, Bodil; Dal Cin, Paola; Höglund, Mattias; Mitelman, Felix; Mertens, Fredrik; Mandahl, Nils

2001-01-01

211

Effects of fragment size and isolation on the occurrence of four short-lived plants in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to an area-related reduction in population size and a decreasing colonisation rate due to isolation. A reduction in grassland size may promote a “run-away-decline process” leading to reduced individual fitness and viability of the populations originally inhabiting the grassland. To circumvent the problems of time-lags associated with the slow response of long-lived plants to

Katariina Kiviniemi

2008-01-01

212

Amplified fragment length polymorphism versus random amplified polymorphic DNA markers: clonal diversity in Saxifraga cernua.  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers are sensitive to changes in reaction conditions and may express polymorphisms of nongenetic origin. Taxa with variable chromosome numbers are particularly challenging cases, as differences in DNA content may also influence marker reproducibility. We addressed these problems by comparing RAPD and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses of clonal identity and relationships in a chromosomally variable arctic plant, the polyploid Saxifraga cernua, which has been thought to be monoclonal over large geographical distances. Fifty-seven plants from four Greenland populations were analysed using a conservative scoring approach. In total, 26 AFLP and 32 RAPD multilocus phenotypes (putative clones) were identified, of which 21 were identical and each of the remaining five AFLP clones was split into two to three very similar RAPD clones. This minor difference can be explained by sampling error and stochastic variation. The pattern observed in Greenland corroborates our previous results from Svalbard, suggesting that rare sexual events in S. cernua are sufficient to maintain high levels of clonal diversity even at small spatial scales. We conclude that although AFLP analysis is superior in terms of efficiency, RAPDs may still be used as reliable markers in small low-tech laboratories. PMID:14653790

Kjølner, S; Såstad, S M; Taberlet, P; Brochmann, C

2004-01-01

213

The nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment, 71 base pairs in length, near the origin of DNA replication of bacteriophage 0X174.  

PubMed

Part of the nucleotide sequence of a restriction fragment covering the origin of phiX174 DNA replication 1 has been determined. The fragment A7c was obtained by digestion of phiX174 RF DNA by the restriction enzyme from Arthrobacter luteus, Alu 1. It was further cleaved into two fragments, one large and one small, by the action of the restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, Hae 111. The nucleotide sequence of the small fragment has been determined by analysis of the transcription products obtained by the action of Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase on denaturated template under conditions of low salt. Transcripts longer than the template were found. The whole sequence of 71 nucleotide pairs could be derived from complementary oligonucleotides, obtained after digestion of the transcripts with T1 or pancreatic RNAase. The sequence suggests that at least 4 of the 5 amber mutants 2 that have been mapped on this fragment are identical. On account of this and other evidence a reading frame is proposed. PMID:995652

Mansfeld, A D; Vereijken, J M; Jansz, H S

1976-10-01

214

On the size distribution of collision fragments of NLC dust particles and their relevance to meteoric smoke particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results from a new dust probe MUDD on the PHOCUS payload which was launched in July 2011. In the interior of MUDD all the incoming NLC/PMSE icy dust particles will collide, at an impact angle ~70° to the surface normal, with a grid constructed such that no dust particles can directly hit the bottom plate of the probe. Only collision fragments will continue down towards the bottom plate. We determine an energy distribution of the charged fragments by applying a variable electric field between the impact grid and the bottom plate of MUDD. We find that ~30% of the charged fragments have kinetic energies less than 10 eV, ~20% have energies between 10 and 20 eV while ~50% have energies above 20 eV. The transformation of limits in kinetic energy for ice or meteoric smoke particles (MSP) to radius is dependent on many assumptions, the most crucial being fragment velocity. We find, however, that the sizes of the charged fragments most probably are in the range of 1 to 2 nm if meteoric smoke particles (MSP), and slightly higher if ice particles. The observed high charging fraction and the dominance of fragment sizes below a few nm makes it very unlikely that the fragments can consist mainly of ice but that they must be predominantly MSP as predicted by Havnes and Næsheim (2007) and recently observed by Hervig et al. (2012). The MUDD results indicate that MSP are embedded in NLC/PMSE ice particles with a minimum volume filling factor of ~.05% in the unlikely case that all embedded MSP are released and charged. A few % volume filling factor (Hervig et al., 2012) can easily be reached if ~10% of the MSP are released and that their charging probability is ~0.1.

Havnes, O.; Gumbel, J.; Antonsen, T.; Hedin, J.; La Hoz, C.

2014-10-01

215

5-Azacytidine decreases fragmentation of nuclear DNA and pigment formation in first leaf cells of barley seedlings.  

PubMed

Realization of programmed cell death in senescence represents an activation/inactivation of the respective gene. Enzymatic methylation of nuclear DNA with the creation of 5methylcytosine is one of the mechanisms, which can regulate gene activity in animal and plant cells. 5Azacytidine (5azaC) acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation, and induces expression of a range of some genes including genes responsible for senescence. Fragmentation of nuclear DNA is one of the hallmarks of programmed cell death in apoptosis pathway in plant cells. The influence of 5azaC (100 microg/ml) on nuclear DNS amount and its fragmentation in the first leaf cells of barley was studied. It was shown that in the first leaf cells of barley seedlings there is an apoptosis pathway of programmed cell death. It was also observed that nuclear DNA fragmentation under the 5azaC influence is strongly inhibited, and the DNA amount in the first leaf increases. Synthesis and destruction of chlorophyll also play a significant role in programmed cell death in plants. It was shown that under the 5azaC influence, the absorption spectrum of a pigment does not change in leaves and coleoptiles in the light, whereas in the dark condition, these pigments are not created under the 5azaC influence. PMID:16309931

Shkute, N; Stivrina, N

2005-12-01

216

Both subtelomeric regions are required and sufficient for specific DNA fragmentation during macronuclear development in Stylonychia lemnae  

PubMed Central

Background: Programmed DNA-reorganization and DNA-elimination events take place frequently during cellular differentiation. An extreme form of such processes, involving DNA reorganization, DNA elimination and DNA fragmentation, is found during macronuclear differentiation in hypotrichous ciliates. Ciliated protozoa can therefore serve as a model system to analyze the molecular basis of these processes during cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. Results: Using a biological approach to identify cis-acting sequences involved in DNA fragmentation, we show that in the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae sequences required for specific DNA processing are localized in the 3'- and the 5'-subtelomeric regions of the macronuclear precursor sequence. They can be present at various positions in the two subtelomeric regions, and an interaction between the two regions seems to occur. Sequence comparison revealed a consensus inverted repeat in both subtelomeric regions that is almost identical to the putative Euplotes chromosome breakage sequence (E-Cbs), also identified by sequence comparison. When this sequence was mutagenized, a processed product could no longer be detected, demonstrating that the sequence plays a crucial role in DNA processing. By injecting a construct into the developing macronucleus, which exclusively contains the subtelomeric regions of the Stylonychia ?l-tubulin gene, we show that subtelomeric regions are not only required but are also sufficient for DNA processing in Stylonychia. Conclusions: Our results indicate that an inverted repeat with the core sequence 5'-TGAA present in both subtelomeric regions acts as a Cbs in Stylonychia. The results allow us to propose a mechanistic model for DNA processing in this ciliate. PMID:11182888

Jönsson, Franziska; Steinbrück, Günther; Lipps, Hans J

2001-01-01

217

Impact of bulge loop size on DNA triplet repeat domains: Implications for DNA repair and expansion.  

PubMed

Repetitive DNA sequences exhibit complex structural and energy landscapes, populated by metastable, noncanonical states, that favor expansion and deletion events correlated with disease phenotypes. To probe the origins of such genotype-phenotype linkages, we report the impact of sequence and repeat number on properties of (CNG) repeat bulge loops. We find the stability of duplexes with a repeat bulge loop is controlled by two opposing effects; a loop junction-dependent destabilization of the underlying double helix, and a self-structure dependent stabilization of the repeat bulge loop. For small bulge loops, destabilization of the underlying double helix overwhelms any favorable contribution from loop self-structure. As bulge loop size increases, the stabilizing loop structure contribution dominates. The role of sequence on repeat loop stability can be understood in terms of its impact on the opposing influences of junction formation and loop structure. The nature of the bulge loop affects the thermodynamics of these two contributions differently, resulting in unique differences in repeat size-dependent minima in the overall enthalpy, entropy, and free energy changes. Our results define factors that control repeat bulge loop formation; knowledge required to understand how this helix imperfection is linked to DNA expansion, deletion, and disease phenotypes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 1-12, 2014. PMID:23494673

Völker, Jens; Plum, G Eric; Gindikin, Vera; Klump, Horst H; Breslauer, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

218

[The discovery of a specific DNA fragment associated with maize cytoplasmic male sterility and its differential display].  

PubMed

Three pairs of PCR primers were designed according to the mitochondrial DNA sequence. PCR amplification was applied to 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm materials and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear materials. Multiplex PCR and general PCR protocol were adopted with total genomic DNA. As for the primers having detected polymorphsim between male sterility and its maintainers, differential display was conducted with mRNA from different development stage of microspore. The results showed as follows: with total genomic DNA template, primer P1-P2 has amplified a specific fragment only in all the male sterile materials, primer P5-P6 has amplified a specific fragment only in maintainer Huangzaosi, primer P3-P4 has no amplification in all the experiment materials. So primer P1-P2 can be used to distinguish male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm. RT-PCR was conducted with primer P1-P2 in inbred line huangzaosi and 48-2 with male sterile cytoplasm and normal cytoplasm, mRNA was separately isolated from tetrad stage, uninucleate stage and binucleate stage of microspore development, cDNA was obtained with random hexanucleotide primers. With the cDNA template, specific amplified fragments were also detected by primer P1-P2 in the male sterile materials at different development stage of microspore, but there was no amplification by primer P1-P2 in the 2 maintainer lines. This result indicated that primer P1-P2 can be transcripted at 3 development stages of microspore in all male sterile materials, and same transcript was produced by primer P1-P2 among all male sterile materials include 3 sets of isonuclear alloplasm and 3 sets of isoplasm allonuclear. It was suggested from this experiment that the specific DNA sequence detected by primer P1-P2 in all male sterile material total genomic DNA might be related to the cytoplasmic male sterile character. PMID:16257903

Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Zhu, Ying-Guo

2005-09-01

219

DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron) in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 ?g/ml). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ? 0.07 and 6.4 ? 0.09 ?g/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24082436

Samarghandian, Saeed; Shabestari, Mahmoud M

2013-01-01

220

Nuclear multifragmentation time-scale and fluctuations of largest fragment size D. Gruyer,1  

E-print Network

]. In this context we have tried to establish generic fea- tures of multifragmentation in order to deduce its nature phenomenon ("condensation of va- por"), not a fragmentation process ("shattering of glass"). Next [53], we

Boyer, Edmond

221

DNA Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the revolutionary changes that have occurred in biology since 1970 can be attributed directly to the ability to manipulate DNA in defined ways. The principal tools for this recombinant DNA technology are enzymes that can "cut and "paste" DNA. Restriction enzymes are the "chemical scissors" of the molecular biologist; these enzymes cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. A sample of someone's DNA, incubated with restriction enzymes, is reduced to millions of DNA fragments of varying sizes. A DNA sample from a different person would have a different nucleotide sequence and would thus be enzymatically "chopped up" into a very different collection of fragments. We have been asked to apply DNA fingerprinting to determine which suspect should be charged with a crime perpetrated in our city.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Suzanne Black N:Black;Suzanne ORG:Inglemoor High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

222

Estimation of census and effective population sizes: the increasing usefulness of DNA-based approaches  

E-print Network

REVIEW Estimation of census and effective population sizes: the increasing usefulness of DNA+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Population census size (NC) and effective population sizes (Ne) are two crucial and Ne, and the often undervalued and misunderstood ratio of effective-to-census size (Ne/NC). We focus

223

Cloning and mapping of BamHi endonuclease fragments of DNA from the transforming B95-8 strain of Epstein-Barr virus.  

PubMed Central

DNA from the B95-8 strain of Epstein-Barr virus was cleaved into 29 different fragments by BamHI endonuclease (EC 3.1.23.6). All of the fragments except the terminal fragments have been inserted into the pBR322 cloning vector and replicated in Escherichia coli. The location of each cloned DNA fragment in the viral genome has been determined, providing a more detailed physical map of the genome than has been available previously. Images PMID:6253994

Skare, J; Strominger, J L

1980-01-01

224

Suppression of the ptsH Mutation in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium by a DNA Fragment from Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

A DNA fragment from Lactobacillus casei that restores growth to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium ptsH mutants on glucose and other substrates of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been isolated. These mutants lack the HPr protein, a general component of the PTS. Sequencing of the cloned fragment revealed the absence of ptsH homologues. Instead, the complementation ability was located in a 120-bp fragment that contained a sequence homologue to the binding site of the Cra regulator from enteric bacteria. Experiments indicated that the reversion of the ptsH phenotype was due to a titration of the Cra protein, which allowed the constitutive expression of the fructose operon. PMID:9748463

Monedero, Vicente; Postma, Pieter W.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

1998-01-01

225

Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy for imaging apoptotic DNA fragmentation at the single-cell level in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The major characteristic of cell death by apoptosis is the loss of nuclear DNA integrity by endonucleases, resulting in the formation of small DNA fragments. The application of confocal imaging to in vivo monitoring of dynamic cellular events, like apoptosis, within internal organs and tissues has been limited by the accessibility to these sites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) to image in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation in surgically exteriorized sheep corpus luteum in the living animal. Following intra-luteal administration of a fluorescent DNA-staining dye, YO-PRO-1, DNA cleavage within nuclei of apoptotic cells was serially imaged at the single-cell level by FCFM. This imaging technology is sufficiently simple and rapid to allow time series in situ detection and visualization of cells undergoing apoptosis in the intact animal. Combined with endoscope, this approach can be used for minimally invasive detection of fluorescent signals and visualization of cellular events within internal organs and tissues and thereby provides the opportunity to study biological processes in the natural physiological environment of the cell in living animals.

Al-Gubory, Kais H. [Unite de Biologie du Developpement et de la Reproduction, Departement de Physiologie Animale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex (France)]. E-mail: kais.algubory@jouy.inra.fr

2005-11-01

226

Synthesis of well-defined phosphate-methylated DNA fragments: the application of potassium carbonate in methanol as deprotecting reagent.  

PubMed Central

A new deprotection procedure in the synthesis of (partially) phosphate-methylated oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed, involving treatment of fully protected DNA fragments with methanolic potassium carbonate. It is shown that base deprotection can be accomplished in potassium carbonate/methanol without affecting the methyl phosphotriesters. This methodology enables us to synthesize, both in solution and on a solid support, DNA fragments which are phosphate-methylated at defined positions. The solid phase synthesis, however, turns out to be accompanied by considerable demethylation of the phosphotriesters. It is demonstrated that this demethylation does not occur during the deprotection or work-up procedure. Furthermore, it was found that the latter side-reaction is suppressed when the standard capping procedure with acetic anhydride is included. PMID:2402444

Kuijpers, W H; Huskens, J; Koole, L H; van Boeckel, C A

1990-01-01

227

Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent for a swine disease affecting the pig industry worldwide. Infection with PRRSV leads to reproductive complications, respiratory illness, and weak immunity to secondary infections. To better control PRRSV infection, novel approaches for generating control measures are critically needed. Here, in vitro Gibson assembly (GA) of viral genomic cDNA fragments was tested for its use as a quick and simple method to recover infectious PRRSV in cell culture. GA involves the activities of T5-exonuclease, Phusion polymerase, and Taq ligase to join overlapping cDNA fragments in an isothermal condition. Four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire PRRSV genome and one vector fragment were used to create a plasmid capable of expressing the PRRSV genome. The assembled product was used to transfect a co-culture of 293T and MARC-145 cells. Supernatants from the transfected cells were then passaged onto MARC-145 cells to rescue infectious virus particles. Verification and characterization of the recovered virus confirmed that the GA protocol generated infectious PRRSV that had similar characteristics to the parental virus. This approach was then tested for the generation of a chimeric virus. By replacing one of the four genomic fragments with that of another virus strain, a chimeric virus was successfully recovered via GA. In conclusion, this study describes for the first time the use of GA as a simple, yet powerful tool for generating infectious PRRSV needed for studying PRRSV biology and developing novel vaccines. PMID:25300804

Suhardiman, Maman; Kramyu, Jarin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Wanasen, Nanchaya

2015-01-01

228

cDNA cloning of human DNA topoisomerase I: catalytic activity of a 67.7-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment.  

PubMed Central

cDNA clones encoding human topoisomerase I were isolated from an expression vector library (lambda gt11) screened with autoimmune anti-topoisomerase I serum. One of these clones has been expressed as a fusion protein comprised of a 32-kDa fragment of the bacterial TrpE protein linked to 67.7 kDa of protein encoded by the cDNA. Three lines of evidence indicate that the cloned cDNA encodes topoisomerase I. (i) Proteolysis maps of the fusion protein and human nuclear topoisomerase I are essentially identical. (ii) The fusion protein relaxes supercoiled DNA, an activity that can be immunoprecipitated by anti-topoisomerase I serum. (iii) Sequence analysis has revealed that the longest cDNA clone (3645 base pairs) encodes a protein of 765 amino acids that shares 42% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase I. The sequence data also show that the catalytically active 67.7-kDa fragment is comprised of the carboxyl terminus. Images PMID:2833744

D'Arpa, P; Machlin, P S; Ratrie, H; Rothfield, N F; Cleveland, D W; Earnshaw, W C

1988-01-01

229

Nuclear DNA fragmentation in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: does a mere positive in situ nuclear end-labeling indicate apoptosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of in situ end-labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation was used in the study of ten patients (two biopsies, eight\\u000a autopsies) with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). All the patients had the typical morphological lesions including\\u000a neuron loss, spongiform change and astrocytosis. Four of them also showed prion protein (PrP) deposits in the cerebral cortex,\\u000a and two of them kuru-like

I. Ferrer

1999-01-01

230

The ? subunit locus of the human fibronectin receptor: DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism and linkage mapping studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beta subunit of the human fibronectin receptor (FNRB) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the VLA (very late antigens of activation) family. Using pGEM-32, a 2.5-kb partial cDNA clone corresponding to the 3' portion of the human FNRB locus, multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were revealed on DNAs from unrelated Caucasians. RFLPs detected by five enzymes, BanII, HinfI,

Jingshi Wu; Luis A. Giuffra; Paul J. Goodfellow; Shirley Myers; Nancy L. Carson; Linda Anderson; L. Suzanne Hoyle; Nancy E. Simpson; Kenneth K. Kidd

1989-01-01

231

Use of Conserved Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Fragments and RAPD Pattern for Characterization of Lactobacillus fermentum in Ghanaian Fermented Maize Dough  

PubMed Central

The present work describes the use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for the characterization of 172 dominant Lactobacillus isolates from present and previous studies of Ghanaian maize fermentation. Heterofermentative lactobacilli dominate the fermentation flora, since approximately 85% of the isolates belong to this group. Cluster analysis of the RAPD profiles obtained showed the presence of two main clusters. Cluster 1 included Lactobacillus fermentum, whereas cluster 2 comprised the remaining Lactobacillus spp. The two distinct clusters emerged at the similarity level of <50%. All isolates in cluster 1 showed similarity in their RAPD profile to the reference strains of L. fermentum included in the study. These isolates, yielding two distinct bands of approximately 695 and 773 bp with the primers used, were divided into four subclusters, indicating that several strains are involved in the fermentation and remain dominant throughout the process. The two distinct RAPD fragments were cloned, sequenced, and used as probes in Southern hybridization experiments. With one exception, Lactobacillus reuteri LMG 13045, the probes hybridized only to fragments of different sizes in EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA of L. fermentum strains, thus indicating the specificity of the probes and variation within the L. fermentum isolates. PMID:10388723

Hayford, Alice E.; Petersen, Anne; Vogensen, Finn K.; Jakobsen, Mogens

1999-01-01

232

[Interaction of dNTP-binding sites of human DNA polymerase alpha and The Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I with nucleotides, pyrophosphate and their analogs].  

PubMed

AMP and NaF each taken separately were shown to activate DNA polymerization catalyzed by Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I by means of interaction of AMP or NaF with 3'----5'-exonuclease center of the enzyme. In the presence of NaF which is a selective inhibitor of 3'----5'-exonuclease center, AMP is an inhibitor of polymerization competitive with respect to dATP. Ki values and the pattern of inhibition with respect to dATP were determined for AMP, ADP, ATP, carboxymethylphosphonyl-5'-AMP, Pi, PPi, PPPi, methylenediphosphonic acid and its ethylated esters, phosphonoformic acid, phosphonoacetic acid and its ethylated esters as well as for some bicarbonic acids in the reactions of DNA polymerization catalyzed by Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I (in the presence of NaF) and DNA polymerase alpha from human placenta in the presence of poly(dT) template and r(pA)10 primer. All nucleotides and their analogs were found to be capable of competing with dATP for the active center of the enzyme. Most of the analogs of PPi and phosphonoacetic acid are inhibitors of Klenow fragment competitive with respect to dATP. Nowever these analogs display a mixed-type inhibition in the case of human DNA polymerase alpha. We postulated a similar mechanism of interaction for dNTP with both DNA-polymerases. It is suggested that each phosphate group of PPi makes equal contribution to the interaction with DNA polymerases and that the distance between the phosphate groups is important for this interaction. beta-phosphate of NTP or dNTP is suggested to make negligible contribution to the efficiency of the formation of enzyme complexes with dNTP. beta-phosphate is likely to be an essential point of PPi interaction with the active center of proteins during the cleavage of the alpha-beta-phosphodiester bond of dNTP in the reaction of DNA polymerization. PMID:2161489

Nevinski?, G A; Potapova, I A; Tarusova, N B; Khalabuda, O V; Khomov, V V

1990-01-01

233

Influence of Heteroanion and Ammonium Cation Size on the Composition and Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Polyoxovanadates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a systematic experimental investigation of the influence of different size cationic ammonium ligands and heteroanions on the composition, ionic charge state and gas-phase fragmentation pathways of anionic polyoxovanadates synthesized in solution. Four separate solutions of olyoxometalates (POMs) were prepared using all possible combinations of the tetraethylammonium [(C2H5)4N+] ligand, chloride (Cl-) heteroanion, tetrabutylammonium [(C4H9)4N+] ligand and acetate (CH3CO2-) heteroanion. Employing electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) we demonstrate that POM solutions synthesized using the small [(C2H5)4N+] ligand and Cl-heteroanion are composed predominately of large doubly and triply charged chlorine containing clusters with a size distribution centered at fourteen vanadium atoms. POM solutions prepared using the Cl- anion and [(C4H9)4N+] ligand are shown to contain slightly larger clusters with fifteen and sixteen vanadium atoms, thereby indicating that the size of the cationic ammonium ligand exerts only a weak influence on the polymerization of polyoxovanadates. POM solutions prepared using (C2H5)4NCl and (C4H9)4NCl also produced peaks consistent with the attachment of one and two ammonium cations to the larger clusters. Solutions prepared using the large CH3CO2 - heteroanion, in contrast, are demonstrated to contain much smaller singly and doubly *Manuscript Click here to view linked References 2 charged clusters with a size distribution centered at six vanadium atoms. In addition, while incorporation of one and two ammonium ligands into the smaller clusters was observed, no POMs containing the CH3CO2 - heteroanion were identified. The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of representative POMs containing one and two ammonium ligands were examined using collision induced dissociation (CID) and mass spectrometry. Similar primary fragmentation pathways involving partial loss of a ligand -[(CxHy)3N+ x = 2,4; y = 5,9] were observed for clusters containing both one and two ligands largely independent of the size, composition and charge state of the precursor ion. The [(C4H9)4N+] ligand was found to exhibit stronger interactions with the core of the POMs resulting in higher abundances of fragment ions containing (C4H9) units compared to (C2H5) units from [(C2H5)4N+]. These results provide fundamental insight into the interactions between anionic metal oxide clusters, heteroanions and cationic ammonium ligands that are responsible for the size and composition controlled synthesis of POMs in solution.

Johnson, Grant E.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Laskin, Julia

2013-11-15

234

Critical behavior of megabase-size DNA toward the transition into a compact state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the changes in the higher-order structure of a megabase-size DNA (S120-1 DNA) under different spermidine (SPD) concentrations through single-molecule observations using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We examined the difference between the folding transitions in S120-1 DNA and sub-megabase-size DNA, T4 DNA (166 kbp). From FM observations, it is found that S120-1 DNA exhibits intra-chain segregation as the intermediate state of transition, in contrast to the all-or-none nature of the transition on T4 DNA. Large S120-1 DNA exhibits a folding transition at lower concentrations of SPD than T4 DNA. AFM observations showed that DNA segments become aligned in parallel on a two-dimensional surface as the SPD concentration increases and that highly intense parallel alignment is achieved just before the compaction. S120-1 DNA requires one-tenth the SPD concentration as that required by T4 DNA to achieve the same degree of parallel ordering. We theoretically discuss the cause of the parallel ordering near the transition into a fully compact state on a two-dimensional surface, and argue that such parallel ordering disappears in bulk solution.

Yoshikawa, Yuko; Suzuki, Yuki; Yamada, Kozo; Fukuda, Wakao; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Imanaka, Tadayuki

2011-12-01

235

Secondary Craters and the Size-Velocity Distribution of Ejected Fragments around Lunar Craters Measured Using LROC Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Title: Secondary Craters and the Size-Velocity Distribution of Ejected Fragments around Lunar Craters Measured Using LROC Images Authors: Kelsi N. Singer1, Bradley L. Jolliff1, and William B. McKinnon1 Affiliations: 1. Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States. We report results from analyzing the size-velocity distribution (SVD) of secondary crater forming fragments from the 93 km diameter Copernicus impact. We measured the diameters of secondary craters and their distances from Copernicus using LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data. We then estimated the velocity and size of the ejecta fragment that formed each secondary crater from the range equation for a ballistic trajectory on a sphere and Schmidt-Holsapple scaling relations. Size scaling was carried out in the gravity regime for both non-porous and porous target material properties. We focus on the largest ejecta fragments (dfmax) at a given ejection velocity (?ej) and fit the upper envelope of the SVD using quantile regression to an equation of the form dfmax = A*?ej ^- ?. The velocity exponent, ?, describes how quickly fragment sizes fall off with increasing ejection velocity during crater excavation. For Copernicus, we measured 5800 secondary craters, at distances of up to 700 km (15 crater radii), corresponding to an ejecta fragment velocity of approximately 950 m/s. This mapping only includes secondary craters that are part of a radial chain or cluster. The two largest craters in chains near Copernicus that are likely to be secondaries are 6.4 and 5.2 km in diameter. We obtained a velocity exponent, ?, of 2.2 × 0.1 for a non-porous surface. This result is similar to Vickery's [1987, GRL 14] determination of ? = 1.9 × 0.2 for Copernicus using Lunar Orbiter IV data. The availability of WAC 100 m/pix global mosaics with illumination geometry optimized for morphology allows us to update and extend the work of Vickery [1986, Icarus 67, and 1987], who compared secondary crater SVDs for craters on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars. Additionally, meter-scale NAC images enable characterization of secondary crater morphologies and fields around much smaller primary craters than were previously investigated. Combined results from all previous studies of ejecta fragment SVDs from secondary crater fields show that ? ranges between approximately 1 and 3. First-order spallation theory predicts a ? of 1 [Melosh 1989, Impact Cratering, Oxford Univ. Press]. Results in Vickery [1987] for the Moon exhibit a generally decreasing ? with increasing primary crater size (5 secondary fields mapped). In the same paper, however, this trend is flat for Mercury (3 fields mapped) and opposite for Mars (4 fields mapped). SVDs for craters on large icy satellites (Ganymede and Europa), with gravities not too dissimilar to lunar gravity, show generally low velocity exponents (? between 1 and 1.5), except for the very largest impactor measured: the 585-km-diameter Gilgamesh basin on Ganymede (? = 2.6 × 0.4) [Singer et al., 2013, Icarus 226]. The present work, focusing initially on lunar craters using LROC data, will attempt to confirm or clarify these trends, and expand the number of examples under a variety of impact conditions and surface materials to evaluate possible causes of variations.

Singer, K. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; McKinnon, W. B.

2013-12-01

236

Isolation of novel non-HLA gene fragments from the hemochromatosis region (6p21. 3) by cDNA hybridization selection  

SciTech Connect

It has previously been shown that cDNA hybridization selection can identify and recover novel genes from large cloned genomic DNA such as cosmids or YACs. In an effort to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, this technique was applied to a 320-kb YAC containing the HLA-A gene. A short fragment cDNA library derived from human duodenum was selected with the YAC DNA. Ten novel gene fragments were isolated, characterized, and localized on the physical map of the YAC. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Goei, V.L.; Capossela, A.; Gruen, J.R.; Parimoo, S.; Chu, T.W. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1994-02-01

237

Gene-sized macronuclear DNA molecules are clustered in micronuclear chromosomes of the ciliate Oxytricha nova.  

PubMed Central

Following the sexual phase of its life cycle, the hypotrichous ciliate Oxytricha nova transforms a copy of its chromosomal micronucleus into a macronucleus containing short, linear DNA molecules with an average size of 2.2 kilobase pairs. In addition, more than 90% of the DNA sequences in the micronuclear genome are eliminated during this process. We have examined the organization of macronuclear DNA molecules in the micronuclear chromosomes. Macronuclear DNA molecules were found to be clustered and separated by less than 550 base pairs in two cloned segments of micronuclear DNA. Recombinant clones of two macronuclear DNA molecules that are adjacent in the micronucleus were also isolated and examined by DNA sequencing. The two macronuclear DNA molecules were found to be separated by only 90 base pairs in the micronuclear genome. Images PMID:3025603

Klobutcher, L A; Vailonis-Walsh, A M; Cahill, K; Ribas-Aparicio, R M

1986-01-01

238

DNA evidence for historic population size and past ecosystem impacts of gray whales  

E-print Network

of many baleen whale species. Information about past population sizes of baleen whales can be derived fromDNA evidence for historic population size and past ecosystem impacts of gray whales S. Elizabeth. Genetically determined past population sizes for Atlantic humpback, minke, and fin whales are surprisingly

Palumbi, Stephen

239

Genetic characterization of Epimedium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diagnosis.  

PubMed

Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of seven Epimedium species grown in different places in Japan. Their genetic characterization was performed by DNA analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 32 random primers having 10 base sequences, and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). E. sagittatum and E. koreanum were easily distinguished by a representative amplified band pattern. It became evident that E. sagittatum had extremely different genetic composition compared to the other species. A dendrogram obtained from the similarity matrix by cluster analysis indicates that E. sagittatum can be completely isolated from the other species. Moreover, it became evident that E. grandiflorum var. higoense, E. trifoliatobinatum and E. koreanum are independent species, contrary to the previous assumption that they are subspecies or a variety. The geographical variation of E. sempervirens was confirmed by cluster analysis. E. diphyllum showed wide genetic variations, in spite of sampling from the same area. PMID:8820914

Nakai, R; Shoyama, Y; Shiraishi, S

1996-01-01

240

Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Haemophilus influenzae is able to use hemoglobin as a sole source of heme, and heme-repressible hemoglobin binding to the cell surface has been demonstrated. Using an affinity purification methodology, a hemoglobin-binding protein of approximately 120 kDa was isolated from H. influenzae type b strain HI689 grown in heme-restricted but not in heme-replete conditions. The isolated protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and the derived amino acid sequence was used to design corresponding oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were used to probe a Southern blot of EcoRI-digested HI689 genomic DNA. A hybridizing band of approximately 4.2 kb was successfully cloned into pUC19. Using a 1.9-kb internal BglII fragment of the 4.2-kb clone as a probe, hybridization was seen in both typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae but not in other bacterial species tested. Following partial nucleotide sequencing of the 4.2-kb insert, a putative open reading frame was subcloned into an expression vector. The host Escherichia coli strain in which the cloned fragment was expressed bound biotinylated human hemoglobin, whereas binding of hemoglobin was not detected in E. coli with the vector alone. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the DNA fragment encoding an approximately 120-kDa heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding protein mediates one step in the acquisition of hemoglobin by H. influenzae in vivo. PMID:8757844

Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

1996-08-01

241

Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is able to use hemoglobin as a sole source of heme, and heme-repressible hemoglobin binding to the cell surface has been demonstrated. Using an affinity purification methodology, a hemoglobin-binding protein of approximately 120 kDa was isolated from H. influenzae type b strain HI689 grown in heme-restricted but not in heme-replete conditions. The isolated protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and the derived amino acid sequence was used to design corresponding oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were used to probe a Southern blot of EcoRI-digested HI689 genomic DNA. A hybridizing band of approximately 4.2 kb was successfully cloned into pUC19. Using a 1.9-kb internal BglII fragment of the 4.2-kb clone as a probe, hybridization was seen in both typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae but not in other bacterial species tested. Following partial nucleotide sequencing of the 4.2-kb insert, a putative open reading frame was subcloned into an expression vector. The host Escherichia coli strain in which the cloned fragment was expressed bound biotinylated human hemoglobin, whereas binding of hemoglobin was not detected in E. coli with the vector alone. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the DNA fragment encoding an approximately 120-kDa heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding protein mediates one step in the acquisition of hemoglobin by H. influenzae in vivo. PMID:8757844

Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

1996-01-01

242

PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and pyknosis during excitotoxin-induced neuronal death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA breaks and serves a role in DNA repair through the formation of polymers (poly(ADP)ribosylation) at sites of DNA damage. PARP-1 is activated by DNA damage in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex following excessive exposure to glutamate receptor agonists such as NMDA or kainic acid. In addition, recent studies suggest

Karen L Gilliams-Francis; Aurora A Quaye; Janice R Naegele

2003-01-01

243

Ku Proteins Join DNA Fragments as Shown by Atomic Force Microscopy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of the Ku protein to DNA was investigated using the atomic force microscope@ Ku was found to bind predominantly to the ends of double-strandedDNA. Experimentswith plasmid DNA revealed that Ku does not bind to circularplasmidsbut does bind to plasmidsthat have been linearized by treatment with ionizing radiation. The binding ofKu to poly(dG-dC)poly(dG-dC) polynucleotides and to a 400-bp DNA

Dalong Pang; Sunghan Yoo; Wffliam S Dynan; Mira Jung; Anatoly Dritschilo

244

Mitochondrial DNA of Clathrina clathrus (Calcarea, Calcinea): six linear chromosomes, fragmented rRNAs, tRNA editing, and a novel genetic code.  

PubMed

Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a large and ancient group of morphologically simple but ecologically important aquatic animals. Although their body plan and lifestyle are relatively uniform, sponges show extensive molecular and genetic diversity. In particular, mitochondrial genomes from three of the four previously studied classes of Porifera (Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha) have distinct gene contents, genome organizations, and evolutionary rates. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome of Clathrina clathrus (Calcinea, Clathrinidae), a representative of the fourth poriferan class, the Calcarea, which proves to be the most unusual. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of six linear chromosomes 7.6-9.4 kb in size and encodes at least 37 genes: 13 protein codings, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and 24 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Protein genes include atp9, which has now been found in all major sponge lineages, but no atp8. Our analyses further reveal the presence of a novel genetic code that involves unique reassignments of the UAG codons from termination to tyrosine and of the CGN codons from arginine to glycine. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial rRNAs are encoded in three (srRNA) and ?6 (lrRNA) fragments distributed out of order and on several chromosomes. The encoded tRNAs contain multiple mismatches in the aminoacyl acceptor stems that are repaired posttranscriptionally by 3'-end RNA editing. Although our analysis does not resolve the phylogenetic position of calcareous sponges, likely due to their high rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, it confirms mtDNA as a promising marker for population studies in this group. The combination of unusual mitochondrial features in C. clathrus redefines the extremes of mtDNA evolution in animals and further argues against the idea of a "typical animal mtDNA." PMID:23223758

Lavrov, Dennis V; Pett, Walker; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Forget, Lise; Lang, B Franz; Kayal, Ehsan

2013-04-01

245

High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs

S. A. Masoud; L. B. Johnson; E. L. Sorensen

1990-01-01

246

A fragment of chloroplast DNA was transferred horizontally, probably from non-eudicots, to mitochondrial genome of Phaseolus.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial genomes of some Phaseolus species contain a fragment of chloroplast trnA gene intron, named pvs-trnA for its location within the Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence (pvs). The purpose of this study was to determine the type of transfer (intracellular or horizontal) that gave rise to pvs-trnA. Using a PCR approach we could not find the respective portion of the trnA gene as a part of pvs outside the Phaseolus genus. However, a BLAST search revealed longer fragments of trnA present in the mitochondrial genomes of some Citrus species, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays. Basing on the identity or near-identity between these mitochondrial sequences and their chloroplast counterparts we concluded that they had relocated from chloroplasts to mitochondria via recent, independent, intracellular DNA transfers. In contrast, pvs-trnA displayed a relatively higher sequence divergence when compared with its chloroplast counterpart from Phaseolus vulgaris. Alignment of pvs-trnA with corresponding trnA fragments from 35 plant species as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that pvs-trnA grouped with non-eudicot sequences and was well separated from all Fabales sequences. In conclusion, we propose that pvs-trnA arose via horizontal transfer of a trnA intron fragment from chloroplast of a non-eudicot plant to Phaseolus mitochondria. This is the first example of horizontal transfer of a chloroplast sequence to the mitochondrial genome in higher plants. PMID:15803417

Woloszynska, Magdalena; Bocer, Tomasz; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Janska, Hanna

2004-11-01

247

Cell-free reconstitution of vacuole membrane fragmentation reveals regulation of vacuole size and number by TORC1  

PubMed Central

Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles—the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment. PMID:22238359

Michaillat, Lydie; Baars, Tonie Luise; Mayer, Andreas

2012-01-01

248

A New Large-DNA-Fragment Delivery System Based on Integrase Activity from an Integrative and Conjugative Element  

PubMed Central

During the past few decades, numerous plasmid vectors have been developed for cloning, gene expression analysis, and genetic engineering. Cloning procedures typically rely on PCR amplification, DNA fragment restriction digestion, recovery, and ligation, but increasingly, procedures are being developed to assemble large synthetic DNAs. In this study, we developed a new gene delivery system using the integrase activity of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE). The advantage of the integrase-based delivery is that it can stably introduce a large DNA fragment (at least 75 kb) into one or more specific sites (the gene for glycine-accepting tRNA) on a target chromosome. Integrase recombination activity in Escherichia coli is kept low by using a synthetic hybrid promoter, which, however, is unleashed in the final target host, forcing the integration of the construct. Upon integration, the system is again silenced. Two variants with different genetic features were produced, one in the form of a cloning vector in E. coli and the other as a mini-transposable element by which large DNA constructs assembled in E. coli can be tagged with the integrase gene. We confirmed that the system could successfully introduce cosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNAs from E. coli into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida in a site-specific manner. The integrase delivery system works in concert with existing vector systems and could thus be a powerful tool for synthetic constructions of new metabolic pathways in a variety of host bacteria. PMID:23686268

van der Meer, Jan Roelof

2013-01-01

249

Detection of fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells embedded in LR white: A combined histochemical (LM) and ultrastructural (EM) study.  

PubMed

We developed an improved method for the detection of double-strand DNA breaks in apoptotic cells at both the light (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) levels using a modification of the TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Cultured rat cerebellar granule cells were exposed to low potassium conditions to induce apoptosis. Twenty-four hr after treatment, one group of cells was fixed in situ with 4% paraformaldehyde and labeled for DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were visualized with diaminobenzidine (DAB) and viewed by LM. The second group of cells was detached from the culture dish, pelleted, fixed with a 4% paraformaldehyde and 0. 2% glutaraldehyde mixture, and embedded in LR White. For LM, the modified TUNEL technique was performed on 1.5-microm LR White sections and apoptotic cells were visualized using an enzymatic reaction to generate a blue precipitate. For EM, thin sections (94 nm) were processed and DNA fragmentation was identified using modified TUNEL with streptavidin-conjugated gold in conjunction with in-depth ultrastructural detail. Alternate sections of cells embedded in LR White can therefore be used for LM and EM TUNEL-based detection of apoptosis. The present findings suggest that the modified TUNEL technique on LR White semithin and consecutive thin sections has useful application for studying the fundamental mechanism of cell death. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:561-568, 1999) PMID:10082758

Goping, G; Wood, K A; Sei, Y; Pollard, H B

1999-04-01

250

Phototoxic effect of TPPS4 and MgTPPS4 on DNA fragmentation of HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative method of tumour treatment. It is based on a photochemical reaction of a photosensitizer, irradiation, and O(2) which converts to cytotoxic (1)O(2) and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The comet assay (also called single-cell gel electrophoresis, SCGE) is a sensitive, simple and quantitative technique for detection of DNA damage. In our study we investigated the phototoxicity of the two porphyrin photosensitizers, TPPS4 and MgTPPS4, on HeLa cells. Three different radiation doses and six different concentrations of the photosensitizers were used. Our results show that the DNA of the cells treated with the TPPS(4) and MgTPPS(4) at the concentrations higher than 5 ?M was highly fragmented indicating a strong phototoxic effect resulting in a cell apoptosis. On the base of our results we can hypothesize that even the irradiation dose of 1 J cm(-2) is sufficient enough to provoke the DNA fragmentation. PMID:21078379

Binder, S; Kolarova, H; Tomankova, K; Bajgar, R; Daskova, A; Mosinger, J

2011-09-01

251

Genome size expansion and the relationship between nuclear DNA content and spore size in the Asplenium monanthes fern complex (Aspleniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Homosporous ferns are distinctive amongst the land plant lineages for their high chromosome numbers and enigmatic genomes. Genome size measurements are an under exploited tool in homosporous ferns and show great potential to provide an overview of the mechanisms that define genome evolution in these ferns. The aim of this study is to investigate the evolution of genome size and the relationship between genome size and spore size within the apomictic Asplenium monanthes fern complex and related lineages. Results Comparative analyses to test for a relationship between spore size and genome size show that they are not correlated. The data do however provide evidence for marked genome size variation between species in this group. These results indicate that Asplenium monanthes has undergone a two-fold expansion in genome size. Conclusions Our findings challenge the widely held assumption that spore size can be used to infer ploidy levels within apomictic fern complexes. We argue that the observed genome size variation is likely to have arisen via increases in both chromosome number due to polyploidy and chromosome size due to amplification of repetitive DNA (e.g. transposable elements, especially retrotransposons). However, to date the latter has not been considered to be an important process of genome evolution within homosporous ferns. We infer that genome evolution, at least in some homosporous fern lineages, is a more dynamic process than existing studies would suggest. PMID:24354467

2013-01-01

252

Spent fuel waste form characteristics: Grain and fragment size statistical dependence for dissolution response  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project of the US Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV, for a high-level nuclear waste repository. All of the nuclear waste will be enclosed in a container package. Most of the nuclear waste will be in the form of fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel pellets in Zircaloy-clad rods from electric power reactors. If failure of both the container and its enclosed clad rods occurs, then the fragments of the fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel will be exposed to their surroundings. Even though the surroundings are an unsaturated zone, a possibility of water transport exists, and consequently, UO{sub 2} spent fuel dissolution may occur. A repository requirement imposes a limit on the nuclide release per year during a 10,000 year period; thus the short term dissolution response from fragmented fuel pellet surfaces in any given year must be understood. This requirement necessitates that both experimental and analytical activities be directed toward predicting the relatively short term dissolution response of UO{sub 2} spent fuel. The short term dissolution response involves gap nuclides, grain boundary nuclides, and grain volume nuclides. Analytical expressions are developed that describe the combined geometrical influences of grain boundary nuclides and grain volume nuclides on the dissolution rate of spent fuel. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.; Weed, H.; Nguyen, S.; McKenzie, W.; Prussin, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)

1991-04-01

253

Paternal inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids of the genus Actinidia revealed by PCR-amplification of chloroplast DNA fragments.  

PubMed

RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) -amplified fragments were used to trace the pattern of plastid DNA inheritance in the genus Actinidia. A total of 51 progeny originating from interspecific crosses between three A. arguta cultivars and A. deliciosa, the kiwifruit, and 12 progeny originating from the cross between A. kolomikta and A. chinensis were analysed together with their parents. No reciprocal crosses could be tested since they all failed to set viable seeds. Attempts to rescue immature embryos failed in all cases as well. The A. argutaXA. deliciosa crosses were checked for the RFLP patterns of a sequence encoding part of the Rubisco large subunit (rbcL), using either AluI or MseI, and for a sequence encoding part of the photosystem II D1 protein (psbA), using HinfI. The A. kolomiktaXA. chinensis cross was checked for the RFLP patterns of sequences encoding the spacers between trnT and the 5'-trnL exon (a-b spacer DNA) and the trnL 3' exon and trnF (e-f spacer DNA), respectively. The first spacer revealed a natural polymorphism between the two parent species due to a large deletion occurring in A. kolomikta detectable without further restriction enzyme treatment. The e-f spacer DNA was digested with HinfI. The comparison of the RFLP patterns in the parents and their progeny showed a strictly paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA in Actinidia, with no exception found in any of the crosses examined. As the reciprocal crosses were not available, we do not know whether paternal inheritance of plastids is restricted to the crosses we analysed or if this is the general rule for plastid inheritance in the genus Actinidia. Actinidia is dioecious and is the first purely outbreeding species for which a paternal plastid inheritance has so far been documented. PMID:7616960

Cipriani, G; Testolin, R; Morgante, M

1995-06-25

254

Molecular Identification of Bacteria from a Coculture by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S Ribosomal DNA Fragments as a Tool for Isolation in Pure Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular information about the bacterial composition of a coculture capable of sulfate reduction after exposure to oxic and microoxic conditions was used to identify and subsequently to isolate the components of the mixture in pure culture. PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA fragments from the coculture, analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulted in two distinct 16S ribosomal DNA bands,

ANDREAS TESKE; PAVEL SIGALEVICH; YEHUDA COHEN; ANDGERARD MUYZER; Moshe Shilo; Alexander Silberman

1996-01-01

255

Physical mapping of the Xba I, Hinc II, Bgl II, Xho I, Sst I, and Pvu II restriction endonuclease cleavage fragments of mitochondrial DNA of S. cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed molecular dissection of the yeast mitochondrial genome can be made with restriction endonucleases that generate site-specific cuts in DNA. The ordering of restriction fragments provides the basis of the physical mapping of mitochondrial transcripts and antibiotic resistance (ant®) loci, and is a means of analyzing the molecular organization of mtDNA of petite and mit- deletion mutants.

Richard Morimoto; Murray Rabinowitz

1979-01-01

256

Cloning and Stable Maintenance of 300-Kilobase-Pair Fragments of Human DNA in Escherichia coli Using an F-Factor-Based Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial cloning system for mapping and analysis of complex genomes has been developed. The BAC system (for bacterial artificial chromosome) is based on Escherichia coli and its single-copy plasmid F factor. It is capable of maintaining human genomic DNA fragments of >300 kilobase pairs. Individual clones of human DNA appear to be maintained with a high degree of structural

Hiroaki Shizuya; Bruce Birren; Ung-Jin Kim; Valeria Mancino; Tatiana Slepak; Yoshiaki Tachiiri; Melvin Simon

1992-01-01

257

Preparation of a "functional library" of African green monkey DNA fragments which substitute for the processing/polyadenylation signal in the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene.  

PubMed Central

Fragments of African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) DNA (3.5 to 18.0 kilobases) were inserted downstream from the thymidine kinase (TK, tk) coding region in pTK206/SV010, a gene construct which lacks both copies of the hexanucleotide 5'-AATAAA-3' and contains a simian virus 40 origin of replication, allowing it to replicate in Cos-1 cells. No polyadenylated tk mRNA was detected in Cos-1 cells transfected by pTK206/SV010. The ability of simian DNA fragments to restore tk gene expression was examined by measuring the incorporation of [125I]iododeoxycytidine into DNA in Cos-1 cells transfected by pTK206/SV010 insertion derivatives. tk gene expression was restored by the insertion in 56 of the 67 plasmids analyzed, and the level of expression equaled or exceeded that obtained with the wild-type tk gene in 30 of these. In all plasmids examined that showed restoration of tk gene expression, polyadenylated tk mRNA of discrete size was detected. The sizes of these tk mRNAs were consistent with the existence of processing and polyadenylation signals within the inserted DNA fragments. The frequency with which inserted fragments restored tk gene expression suggests that the minimal signal for processing and polyadenylation is a hexanucleotide (AAUAAA or a similar sequence). LTK- cells were biochemically transformed to TK+ with representative insertion constructs. pTK206/SV010 transformed LTK- cells at a very low frequency; the frequency of transformation with insertion derivatives was 40 to 12,000 times higher. Images PMID:6304500

Santangelo, G M; Cole, C N

1983-01-01

258

The mutT Defect Does Not Elevate Chromosomal Fragmentation in Escherichia coli Because of the Surprisingly Low Levels of MutM\\/MutY-Recognized DNA Modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide pool sanitizing enzymes Dut (dUTPase), RdgB (dITPase), and MutT (8-oxo-dGTPase) of Esch- erichia coli hydrolyze noncanonical DNA precursors to prevent incorporation of base analogs into DNA. Previous studies reported dramatic AT3CG mutagenesis in mutT mutants, suggesting a considerable density of 8-oxo-G in DNA that should cause frequent excision and chromosomal fragmentation, irreparable in the absence of RecBCD-catalyzed repair and

Ella Rotman; Andrei Kuzminov

2007-01-01

259

Phase Behavior, DNA Ordering, and Size Instability of Cationic Lipoplexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of cationic lipid-based nucleic acid deliv- ery are receiving increasing attention, but despite this the factors that determine high or low activity of lipo- plexes are poorly understood. This study is focused on the fine structure of cationic lipid-DNA complexes (lipo- plexes) and its relevance to transfection efficiency. Monocationic (N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl),N,N,N-tri- methylammonium chloride, N-(1-(2,3-dimyristyloxypro- pyl)-N,N-dimethyl-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium bromide) and polycationic (2,3-dioleyloxy-N-(2(sperminecar- boxamido)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanammonium

Dmitri Simberg; Dganit Danino; Yeshayahu Talmon; Abraham Minsky; Marilyn E. Ferrari; Carl J. Wheeler; Yechezkel Barenholz

260

DNA fragmentation, dATP pool elevation and potentiation of antifolate cytotoxicity in L1210 cells by hypoxanthine.  

PubMed Central

Exogenous purines (greater than or equal to 10(-5)M) can modulate the cytotoxicity of methotrexate (MTX) in cultured cells, protecting cells at low MTX concentrations (less than or equal to 8 x 10(-8) M) and markedly potentiating its effect at higher concentrations. The ability of hypoxanthine (HX) to modulate the effects of two antifolates-ICI 198583 (an inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase) and piritrexim (PTX, a lipophilic inhibitor of DHFR)-was investigated using cultured mouse leukaemic cells, L1210. HX (10(-4) M) was found to potentiate only the cytotoxicity of DHFR inhibitors (MTS and PTX), increasing cell kill by 20-70 fold to the level achieved by an equivalent concentration (10(-5) M) of ICI 198583 alone. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from cells exposed to antifolates for 24 h demonstrated that the chromatin was cleaved into multimers of 200 base pairs. This pattern of DNA cleavage indicates cell death via apoptosis. The degree of DNA fragmentation was found to be closely linked to cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation increased from 50% in cells treated with 10(-5) M MTX or PTX to 70% when HX was added with the drugs, a level achieved by 10(-5)M ICI 198583 alone. HX potentiation of cytotoxicity was correlated with a substantial increase in dATP in conjunction with low dTTP pools. The specific potentiation of DHFR inhibitors by HX may be due to their inhibition of purine synthesis with a concurrent rise in PRPP levels. Addition of HX with MTX substantially raised intracellular purine levels via the salvage pathway as indicated by ribonucleotide pool measurements. ICI 198583, on the other hand, stimulated de novo purine synthesis with or without added HX. Treatment with MTX plus HX or ICI 198583 (with or without HX) caused a reduction of dTTP pools to 8% of untreated control and excess dATP accumulation. The subsequent elevation (to 300% of control) of the dATP pool may provide a signal for endonucleolytic fragmentation of DNA and subsequent cell death. Images Figure 3 PMID:1562458

Kwok, J. B.; Tattersall, M. H.

1992-01-01

261

Winding single-molecule double-stranded DNA on a nanometer-sized reel  

PubMed Central

A molecular system of a nanometer-sized reel was developed from F1–ATPase, a rotary motor protein. By combination with magnetic tweezers and optical tweezers, single-molecule double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was wound around the molecular reel. The bending stiffness of dsDNA was determined from the winding tension (0.9–6.0 pN) and the diameter of the wound loop (21.4–8.5?nm). Our results were in good agreement with the conventional worm-like chain model and a persistence length of 54?±?9?nm was estimated. This molecular reel system offers a new platform for single-molecule study of micromechanics of sharply bent DNA molecules and is expected to be applicable to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of DNA-associating proteins on sharply bent DNA strands. PMID:22772992

You, Huijuan; Iino, Ryota; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

262

Effective population sizes and migration rates in fragmented populations of an endangered insect (Coenagrion mercuriale: Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Effective population sizes ( N e ) and migration rates ( m ) are critical evolutionary parameters that impact on population survival and determine the relative influence of selection and genetic drift. While the parameter m is well-studied in animal populations, N e remains challenging to measure and consequently is only rarely estimated, particularly in insect taxa. 2.

PHILLIP C. WATTS; ILIK J. SACCHERI; STEPHEN J. KEMP; DAVID J. THOMPSON

2007-01-01

263

A Fuzzy Classifier to Taxonomically Group DNA Fragments within a Metagenome  

E-print Network

Drainage metagenome into classes to represent the major Archea and Bacteria groups. The classification DNA is the building block of all life on this planet, from single cell microscopic bacteria to more of cultivation- free methods has been implied. In the past, microbial DNA was sequenced by culturing

Nicolescu, Monica

264

Sperm DNA fragmentation and morphological degeneration in chilled elephant (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta Africana) semen collected by transrectal massage.  

PubMed

Ejaculates from nine Asian and two African elephants were analysed to gain a further understanding of mechanisms underlying variable semen quality after transrectal massage. Semen analysis was performed after collection (0 h; subjective motility parameters only) and after 24 h of chilled storage at 10 °C (24 h; all ejaculate and sperm characteristics). Ejaculates with ?50% total motility (TM) at 24 h, which represented >90% of collection attempts, contained a sperm population with a high degree of DNA damage (64.2 ± 19.2% fragmented DNA) and an elevated incidence of detached heads (43.3 ± 22.5%). In contrast, good quality ejaculates designated as those with >50% TM at 24 h displayed higher (p < 0.05) values of sperm kinetic parameters, DNA integrity and normal morphology. Fertility potential was high for good quality ejaculates from two males (one Asian and one African bull) based on in vitro characteristics after chilled storage for up to 48 h post-collection. Urine contamination of semen, as assessed quantitatively by creatinine concentration, was confirmed as a significant factor in reduced elephant ejaculate quality. However, the identification of considerable DNA damage and morphological degeneration in the majority of ejaculates after only 24 h of chilled storage indicates that sperm ageing could be a primary contributor to inconsistent semen quality in the elephant. PMID:23536498

O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

2013-05-01

265

Transformation by Epstein-Barr virus requires DNA sequences in the region of BamHI fragments Y and H.  

PubMed Central

Eight independent recombinant Epstein-Barr virus genomes, each of which was a transforming strain, were made by superinfecting cell lines containing Epstein-Barr virus DNA (Raji or B95-8 strain) with a nontransforming virus (P3HR1 strain). A knowledge of the constitution of each transforming recombinant allowed the localization of the defect in the genome of the nontransforming parent to a 12-megadalton sequence within the EcoRI A fragment. Within this region, the nontransforming virus has a deletion of the BamHI Y fragment and about half of the sequences in the adjacent BamHI H fragment. The present data suggest that this deletion is responsible for the nontransforming phenotype. Furthermore, mapping a deletion in one of the recombinant genomes allowed the conclusion that a sequence (comprising about 20% of the Epstein-Barr virus genome) from the center of BamHI-D to BamHI-I' is not necessary for the maintenance of transformation by Epstein-Barr virus. Images PMID:2991556

Skare, J; Farley, J; Strominger, J L; Fresen, K O; Cho, M S; zur Hausen, H

1985-01-01

266

Short DNA Fragments without Sequence Similarity Are Initiation Sites for Replication in the Chromosome of the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that both a centromere (CEN) and a replication origin are necessary for plasmid maintenance in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (Vernis et al., 1997). Because of this requirement, only a small number of centromere-proximal replication origins have been isolated from Yarrowia. We used a CEN-based plasmid to obtain noncentromeric origins, and several new fragments, some unique and some repetitive sequences, were isolated. Some of them were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and correspond to actual sites of initiation (ORI) on the chromosome. We observed that a 125-bp fragment is sufficient for a functional ORI on plasmid, and that chromosomal origins moved to ectopic sites on the chromosome continue to act as initiation sites. These Yarrowia origins share an 8-bp motif, which is not essential for origin function on plasmids. The Yarrowia origins do not display any obvious common structural features, like bent DNA or DNA unwinding elements, generally present at or near eukaryotic replication origins. Y. lipolytica origins thus share features of those in the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in multicellular eukaryotes: they are discrete and short genetic elements without sequence similarity. PMID:10069816

Vernis, Laurence; Chasles, Marion; Pasero, Philippe; Lepingle, Andrée; Gaillardin, Claude; Fournier, Philippe

1999-01-01

267

Targeted lung expression of interleukin-11 enhances murine tolerance of 100% oxygen and diminishes hyperoxia-induced DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury is a frequent and treatment-limiting consequence of therapy with hyperoxic gas mixtures. To determine if IL-11 is protective in oxygen toxicity, we compared the effects of 100% O2 on transgenic mice that overexpress IL-11 in the lung and transgene (-) controls. IL-11 markedly enhanced survival in 100% O2 with 100% of transgene (-) animals dying within 72-96 h and > 90% of transgene (+) animals surviving for more than 10 d. This protection was associated with markedly diminished alveolar-capillary protein leak, endothelial and epithelial membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and pulmonary neutrophil recruitment. Significant differences in copper zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were not noted and the levels of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione were similar in transgene (+) and (-) animals. Glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and manganese superoxide dismutase activities were slightly higher in transgene (+) as versus (-) mice after 100% O2 exposure, and IL-11 diminished hyperoxia-induced expression of IL-1 and TNF. Hyperoxia also caused cell death with DNA fragmentation in the lungs of transgene (-) animals and IL-11 markedly diminished this cell death response. These studies demonstrate that IL-11 markedly diminishes hyperoxic lung injury. They also demonstrate this protection is associated with small changes in lung antioxidants, diminished hyperoxia-induced IL-1 and TNF production, and markedly suppressed hyperoxia-induced DNA fragmentation. PMID:9576762

Waxman, A B; Einarsson, O; Seres, T; Knickelbein, R G; Warshaw, J B; Johnston, R; Homer, R J; Elias, J A

1998-01-01

268

Crocin Effects on Human Myeloma Cells Regarding Intracellular Redox State, DNA Fragmentation, and Apoptosis or Necrosis Profile  

PubMed Central

Background: Well-documented studies reported several pharmacological properties for crocin, the active compound of Crocus sativus, such as its antitumor, radical scavenging, antidepressant, and memory-enhancing effects. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the possible cytotoxic activity of crocin on B lymphocytes in human myeloma (U266 cell line) after 24- and 48-hour treatment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, cell viability was determined by the colorimetric MTT assay and cell death pattern was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and DNA fragmentation were assessed using 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) kit and PI staining, respectively. Results: The highest concentration of crocin significantly decreased ROS production after 48 hours of treatment. However, crocin had no effect on the expression level of HSP (Heat shock protein). Additionally, its administration caused a mild decline in cell viability and a mild increase in the population of DNA fragmented cells as well as apoptosis. Conclusions: In our study, no prominent effect was seen; therefore, in order to have a better perspective of crocin activity against cancerous cell lines, further studies are highly recommended.

Rezaee, Ramin; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Riahi Zanjani, Bamdad; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abnous, Khalil; Zamani Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Tabasi, Nafiseh; Zali, Marjan; Rezaee, Marjan; Amin, Bahareh; Karimi, Gholamreza

2014-01-01

269

Induction of SCEs and DNA fragmentation in bovine peripheral lymphocytes by in vitro exposure to tolylfluanid-based fungicide  

PubMed Central

The potential for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of tolylfluanid-based fungicide (50% active agent) was evaluated using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and proliferation indices (PI) in cultured bovine peripheral lymphocytes. For the detection of possible genetic damage, DNA fragmentation assay was also applied. Bovine lymphocytes cultured for 72 h were treated with the fungicide at the final concentrations of 1.75, 3.5, 8.75, and 17.5 ?g/mL for the last 24 and 48 h of culture without S9 metabolic activation, and during the last 2 h of culture with S9 metabolic activation. In the SCE assays no evidence for genotoxic activity of the fungicide was found in treatments of 24 h without and 2 h with S9. After the 24 h exposure to tolylfluanid, a weak decrease in the PI was observed. With the prolonged exposure time (48 h), dose dependence in the increase of SCE frequencies was observed. Moreover, after 48 h exposure slight fragmentation of DNA at the concentrations of 3.5 and 8.75 ?g/mL was demonstrated. SCE quantification is the most widely used approach for the assessment of genotoxic/cytogenetic effects of chemical compounds. Positive results in the assay at 48 h exposure indicated a potential of the fungicide to increase frequency of chromosomal damage (replication injuries) that is the confirmation of early effect of exposure. PMID:21637552

Siviková, Katarína; Dianovsky, Ján; Holecková, Beáta

2011-01-01

270

Increase in the astaxanthin synthase gene (crtS) dose by in vivo DNA fragment assembly in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that is relevant to biotechnology, as it can synthesize the carotenoid astaxanthin. However, the astaxanthin levels produced by wild-type strains are low. Although different approaches for promoting increased astaxanthin production have been attempted, no commercially competitive results have been obtained thus far. A promising alternative to facilitate the production of carotenoids in this yeast involves the use of genetic modification. However, a major limitation is the few available molecular tools to manipulate X. dendrorhous. Results In this work, the DNA assembler methodology that was previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was successfully applied to assemble DNA fragments in vivo and integrate these fragments into the genome of X. dendrorhous by homologous recombination in only one transformation event. Using this method, the gene encoding astaxanthin synthase (crtS) was overexpressed in X. dendrorhous and a higher level of astaxanthin was produced. Conclusions This methodology could be used to easily and rapidly overexpress individual genes or combinations of genes simultaneously in X. dendrorhous, eliminating numerous steps involved in conventional cloning methods. PMID:24103677

2013-01-01

271

DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma. PMID:25576270

Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

2015-01-01

272

Gel electrophoresis, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early days of DNA manipulation, DNA fragments were laboriously separated by gravity. In the 1970s, the powerful tool of DNA gel electrophoresis was developed. This process uses electricity to separate DNA fragments by size as they migrate through a gel matrix.

2008-10-06

273

The effect of two pre-cryopreservation single layer colloidal centrifugation protocols in combination with different freezing extenders on the fragmentation dynamics of thawed equine sperm DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Variability among stallions in terms of semen cryopreservation quality renders it difficult to arrive at a standardized cryopreservation method. Different extenders and processing techniques (such us colloidal centrifugation) are used in order to optimize post-thaw sperm quality. Sperm chromatin integrity analysis is an effective tool for assessing such quality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two single layer colloidal centrifugation protocols (prior to cryopreservation) in combination with three commercial freezing extenders on the post-thaw chromatin integrity of equine sperm samples at different post-thaw incubation (37°C) times (i.e., their DNA fragmentation dynamics). Results Post-thaw DNA fragmentation levels in semen samples subjected to either of the colloidal centrifugation protocols were significantly lower (p<0.05) immediately after thawing and after 4 h of incubation at 37°C compared to samples that underwent standard (control) centrifugation. The use of InraFreeze® extender was associated with significantly less DNA fragmentation than the use of Botu-Crio® extender at 6 h of incubation, and than the use of either Botu-Crio® or Gent® extender at 24 h of incubation (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that single layer colloidal centrifugation performed with extended or raw semen prior to cryopreservation reduces DNA fragmentation during the first four hours after thawing. Further studies are needed to determine the influence of freezing extenders on equine sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics. PMID:23217215

2012-01-01

274

Optimization of STR locus enrichment for STR profiling of fragmented DNA.  

PubMed

DNA degradation is a major obstacle in gaining an accurate profile with standard DNA typing technology. Although alternative genotyping strategies such as mini-STRs and SNPs have proven to be more successful in profiling degraded DNA, these approaches also have limitations. Here, we show that locus enrichment by hybridization of degraded genomic DNA with an STR locus-specific biotinylated oligonucleotide is a powerful approach to overcome problems in STR typing of highly degraded DNA. An experimental investigation of factors affecting the efficiency of this method indicates that the choice of primer and molar ratio of primers to genomic DNA are critical factors in improving enrichment of the STR locus before genotyping with multiplex kits. In addition, we find that indirect capture rather than direct capture with magnetic beads yields better enrichment efficiency for STR locus enrichments. Using these strategies, we demonstrate an improvement in STR typing of DNA from cultured cells damaged by exposure to sunlight or UV. We suggest that this approach could be applied to highly degraded forensic samples alone or in combination with mini-STRs. PMID:25142119

Ham, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Se-Yong; Ahn, Jang-Won; Seo, Bo Young; Woo, Kwang-Man; Choi, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

2014-11-01

275

Adding resolution to ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with large fragments of mtDNA.  

PubMed

The construction of a stable phylogeny for the Cestoda, indicating the interrelationships of recognised orders and other major lineages, has proceeded iteratively since the group first received attention from phylogenetic systematists. Molecular analyses using nuclear ribosomal RNA gene fragments from the small (ssrDNA) and large (lsrDNA) subunits have been used to test competing evolutionary scenarios based on morphological data but could not arbitrate between some key conflicting hypotheses. To the ribosomal data, we have added a contiguous fragment of mitochondrial (mt) genome data (mtDNA) of partial nad1-trnN-trnP-trnI-trnK-nad3-trnS-trnW-cox1-trnT-rrnL-trnC-partial rrnS, spanning 4034-4447 bp, where new data for this region were generated for 18 species. Bayesian analysis of mtDNA and rDNA as nucleotides, and where appropriate as amino acids, demonstrated that these two classes of genes provide complementary signal across the phylogeny. In all analyses, except when using mt amino acids only, the Gyrocotylidea is sister group to all other Cestoda (Nephroposticophora), and Amphilinidea forms the sister group to the Eucestoda. However, an earliest-diverging position of Amphilinidea is strongly supported in the mt amino acid analysis. Amphilinidea exhibit a unique tRNA arrangement (nad1-trnI-trnL2-trnP-trnK-trnV-trnA-trnN-nad3), whereas Gyrocotylidea shares that of the derived lineages, providing additional evidence of the uniqueness of amphilinid genes and genomes. The addition of mtDNA to the rDNA genes supported the Caryophyllidea as the sister group to (Spathebothriidea+remaining Eucestoda), a hypothesis consistently supported by morphology. This relationship suggests a history of step-wise evolutionary transitions from simple monozoic, unsegmented tapeworms to the more familiar polyzoic, externally segmented (strobilate) forms. All our data partitions recovered Haplobothriidea as the sister group to Diphyllobothriidae. The sister-group relationship between Diphyllidea and Trypanorhyncha, as previously established using rDNA, is not supported by the mt data, although it is supported by the combined mt and rDNA analysis. With regards to the more derived taxa, in all except the mt amino acid analysis, the following topology is supported: (Bothriocephalidea (Litobothriidea (Lecanicephalidea (Rhinebothriidea (Tetraphyllidea, (Acanthobothrium, Proteocephalidea), (Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea, Cyclophyllidea)))))), where the Tetraphyllidea are paraphyletic. Evidence from the mt data provides strong (nucleotides) to moderate (amino acids) support for Tetraphyllidea forming a group to the inclusion of Proteocephalidea, with the latter consistently forming the sister group to Acanthobothrium. The interrelationships among Nippotaeniidea, Mesocestoididae, Tetrabothriidea and Cyclophyllidea remain ambiguous and require further systematic attention. Mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA data provide conflicting signal for certain parts of the cestode tree. In some cases mt data offer results in line with morphological evidence, such as the interrelationships of the early divergent lineages. Also, Tetraphyllidea, although remaining paraphyletic with the inclusion of the Proteocephalidea, does not include the most derived cestodes; a result which has consistently been obtained with rDNA. PMID:22406529

Waeschenbach, Andrea; Webster, B L; Littlewood, D T J

2012-06-01

276

Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains using random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs).  

PubMed

The genetic diversity among 16 strains of Erwinia amylovora, chosen to represent different host plant origins and geographical regions, was investigated by RAPD analysis. One strain of Erwinia herbicola and one of Agrobacterium vitis were used as outgroups. Ninety-eight different RAPD fragments were produced by polymerase chain reaction amplification with six different 10-mer primers. RAPD banding profiles were found that enabled the Erw. amylovora strains to be distinguished from one another. Cluster analysis based on the number of RAPD fragments shared between strains showed that strains of Erw. amylovora isolated from subfamily Pomoideae formed a single group, whereas two strains from Rubus (subfamily Rosoideae) formed a second group. Two strains isolated from Asian pear on Hokkaido, Japan, formed a third group. Sets of RAPD fragments were identified that enabled each of the two host-range groups and one geographical region (Hokkaido) of Erw. amylovora strains to be unambiguously distinguished from one another and from the outgroups. This study shows that strains of Erw. amylovora exhibit genetic diversity detectable by RAPD analysis, and that molecular and statistical analysis of RAPD fragments can be used both to distinguish between strains and to determine relatedness between them. PMID:12455904

Momol, M T; Momol, E A; Lamboy, W F; Norelli, J L; Beer, S V; Aldwinckle, H S

1997-03-01

277

Nanoscale structure of protamine/DNA complexes for gene delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the internal packing of gene carriers is a key-factor to realize both gene protection during transport and de-complexation at the delivery site. Here, we investigate the structure of complexes formed by DNA fragments and protamine, applied in gene delivery. We found that complexes are charge- and size-tunable aggregates, depending on the protamine/DNA ratio, hundred nanometers in size. Their compactness and fractal structure depend on the length of the DNA fragments. Accordingly, on the local scale, the sites of protamine/DNA complexation assume different morphologies, seemingly displaying clumping ability for the DNA network only for shorter DNA fragments.

Motta, Simona; Brocca, Paola; Del Favero, Elena; Rondelli, Valeria; Cantù, Laura; Amici, Augusto; Pozzi, Daniela; Caracciolo, Giulio

2013-02-01

278

DNA ruler : enhancing nanopore sizing resolution by multiple measurements on the same DNA molecule  

E-print Network

Nanopores are versatile sensors for label-free detection of single molecules and particles that have attracted attention for applications such as DNA sequencing and nanoparticle analysis. Detection of single molecules or ...

Sen, Yi-Heng

2012-01-01

279

Strongly structured DNA sequences as targets for genosensing: sensing phase design and coupling to PCR amplification for a highly specific 33-mer gliadin DNA fragment.  

PubMed

Electrochemical genosensors are becoming cost-effective miniaturizable alternatives to real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of sequence-specific DNA fragments. We report on the rapid detection of PCR amplicons without the need of purification or strand separation. A challenging target sequence for both PCR amplification and electrochemical detection allowed us to address some difficulties associated to hybridization on electrode surfaces. The target was a highly specific oligonucleotide sequence of wheat encoding the most immunogenic peptide of gliadin that triggers the immune response of celiac disease (CD), the 33-mer. With a sandwich assay format and a rational design of the capture and tagged-signaling probes the problems posed by the strong secondary structure of the target and complementary probes were alleviated. Using a binary self-assembled monolayer and enzymatic amplification, a limit of detection of 0.3 nM was obtained. The genosensor did not respond to other gluten-containing cereals such as rye and barley. Coupling to PCR to analyze wheat flour samples required tailoring both the capture and signaling probes. This is the first time that deleterious steric hindrance from long single-stranded regions adjacent to the electrode surface is reported for relatively short amplicons (less than 200 bp). The importance of the location of the recognition site within the DNA sequence is discussed. Since the selected gene fragment contains several repetitions of short sequences, a careful optimization of the PCR conditions had to be performed to circumvent the amplification of non-specific fragments from wheat flour. PMID:24813914

Martín-Fernández, Begoña; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; Frutos-Cabanillas, Gloria; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

2014-10-15

280

Genome size and DNA base composition of geophytes: the mirror of phenology and ecology?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Genome size is known to affect various plant traits such as stomatal size, seed mass, and flower or shoot phenology. However, these associations are not well understood for species with very large genomes, which are laregly represented by geophytic plants. No detailed associations are known between DNA base composition and genome size or species ecology. Methods Genome sizes and GC contents were measured in 219 geophytes together with tentative morpho-anatomical and ecological traits. Key Results Increased genome size was associated with earliness of flowering and tendency to grow in humid conditions, and there was a positive correlation between an increase in stomatal size in species with extremely large genomes. Seed mass of geophytes was closely related to their ecology, but not to genomic parameters. Genomic DNA GC content showed a unimodal relationship with genome size but no relationship with species ecology. Conclusions Evolution of genome size in geophytes is closely related to their ecology and phenology and is also associated with remarkable changes in DNA base composition. Although geophytism together with producing larger cells appears to be an advantageous strategy for fast development of an organism in seasonal habitats, the drought sensitivity of large stomata may restrict the occurrence of geophytes with very large genomes to regions not subject to water stress. PMID:22021815

Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr; Pavlí?ek, Tomáš

2012-01-01

281

Rapid genotyping of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates using melting curve analysis of RAPD-generated DNA fragments (McRAPD).  

PubMed

Typing of bacteria is important for monitoring newly emerging pathogens and for examining local outbreaks. We evaluated the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique in combination with melting curve analysis (McRAPD) of the amplified DNA fragments to genotype isolates from five Gram-negative species, i.e. Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. By determining the melting temperature peaks of the amplified DNA fragments, we were able to distinguish the different genotypes of isolates, as they had been assessed by other genotyping techniques, i.e. agarose gel electrophoresis of RAPD fragments, multilocus sequence typing and/or AFLP™. According to our results, McRAPD may offer the possibility of genotyping a limited number of bacterial isolates, e.g. in case of suspicion of hospital outbreak, via a less costly, more rapid, less laborious and more user-friendly technique than RAPD followed by electrophoresis. PMID:21320595

Deschaght, Pieter; Van Simaey, Leen; Decat, Ellen; Van Mechelen, Els; Brisse, Sylvain; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2011-05-01

282

p888, which contains a Bam HI to Not I fragment encoding a full-length profilin cDNA (16); p989,  

E-print Network

p888, which contains a Bam HI to Not I fragment encoding a full-length profilin cDNA (16); p989, which encodes a mutant form of profilin, Pfy1p-3, lacking the last three amino acids (18); p890, which contains the Bgl II to Stu I fragment from p182 (26), encoding Bni1p(1227­1397); p813, which con- tains

Grether, Gregory

283

Insights on genome size evolution from a miniature inverted repeat transposon driving a satellite DNA.  

PubMed

The genome size in eukaryotes does not correlate well with the number of genes they contain. We can observe this so-called C-value paradox in amphibian species. By analyzing an amphibian genome we asked how repetitive DNA can impact genome size and architecture. We describe here our discovery of a Tc1/mariner miniature inverted-repeat transposon family present in Xenopus frogs. These transposons named miDNA4 are unique since they contain a satellite DNA motif. We found that miDNA4 measured 331bp, contained 25bp long inverted terminal repeat sequences and a sequence motif of 119bp present as a unique copy or as an array of 2-47 copies. We characterized the structure, dynamics, impact and evolution of the miDNA4 family and its satellite DNA in Xenopus frog genomes. This led us to propose a model for the evolution of these two repeated sequences and how they can synergize to increase genome size. PMID:25193611

Scalvenzi, Thibault; Pollet, Nicolas

2014-12-01

284

Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy." Geophysical Research Letters 38.24 (2011). C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). 'Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time' Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Charalambous, C., Pike, W. T., Goetz, W., Hecht, M. H., & Staufer, U. (2011, December). 'A Digital Martian Soil based on In-Situ Data.' In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1669). Golombek, M., & Rapp, D. (1997). 'Size-frequency distributions of rocks on Mars and Earth analog sites: Implications for future landed missions.' Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(E2), 4117-4129. Golombek, M., Huertas, A., Kipp, D., & Calef, F. (2012). 'Detection and characterization of rocks and rock size-frequency distributions at the final four Mars Science Laboratory landing sites.' Mars, 7, 1-22.

Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

2013-12-01

285

The influence of polaron size on the conductivity of poly-DNA  

E-print Network

The velocity of polaron migration in the long poly-DNA chain (~40 base pairs) in an applied electric field has been studied within a polaron model. We found that the polaron velocity strongly depends on the polaron size. A small polaron shows a slow propagation and strong tolerance to the electric field, while a large polaron is much faster and less stable with increasing electric field. Moreover, the conductance of the DNA molecule within the polaron model is found to be sensitive to structural disorders in the DNA geometry, but that dependence diminishes with increasing temperature.

Julia A. Berashevich; Adam D. Bookatz; Tapash Chakraborty

2007-09-07

286

Fractals and fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renormalization group techniques on fragmentation problems is examined. The equations which represent fractals and the size-frequency distributions of fragments are presented. Method for calculating the size distributions of asteriods and meteorites are described; the frequency-mass distribution for these interplanetary objects are due to fragmentation. The application of two renormalization group models to fragmentation is analyzed. It is

D. L. Turcotte

1986-01-01

287

Successful carnivore identification with faecal DNA across a fragmented Amazonian landscape.  

PubMed

The use of scat surveys to obtain DNA has been well documented in temperate areas, where DNA preservation may be more effective than in tropical forests. Samples obtained in the tropics are often exposed to high humidity, warm temperatures, frequent rain and intense sunlight, all of which can rapidly degrade DNA. Despite these potential problems, we demonstrate successful mtDNA amplification and sequencing for faeces of carnivores collected in tropical conditions and quantify how sample condition and environmental variables influence the success of PCR amplification and species identification. Additionally, the feasibility of genotyping nuclear microsatellites from jaguar (Panthera onca) faeces was investigated. From October 2007 to December 2008, 93 faecal samples were collected in the southern Brazilian Amazon. A total of eight carnivore species was successfully identified from 71% of all samples obtained. Information theoretic analysis revealed that the number of PCR attempts before a successful sequence was an important negative predictor across all three responses (success of species identification, success of species identification from the first sequence and PCR amplification success), whereas the relative importance of the other three predictors (sample condition, season and distance from forest edge) varied between the three responses. Nuclear microsatellite amplification from jaguar faeces had lower success rates (15-44%) compared with those of the mtDNA marker. Our results show that DNA obtained from faecal samples works efficiently for carnivore species identification in the Amazon forest and also shows potential for nuclear DNA analysis, thus providing a valuable tool for genetic, ecological and conservation studies. PMID:21676206

Michalski, Fernanda; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Norris, Darren; Zieminski, Chris; Kashivakura, Cyntia Kayo; Trinca, Cristine S; Smith, Heath B; Vynne, Carly; Wasser, Samuel K; Metzger, Jean Paul; Eizirik, Eduardo

2011-09-01

288

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA fragment encoding a Schistosoma mansoni actin-binding protein (Smfilamin).  

PubMed

To identify vaccine candidates for Schistosoma mansoni, the IgG fraction of rabbit antiserum raised against immature female worms affinity purified over a NP-40 extract of 3-h schistosomula was used to immunoscreen a cercarial lambdagt11 cDNA library. One clone with a 1.5-kb cDNA insert revealed an encoded peptide of 479 amino acids, which bears homology to human actin-binding protein (ABP-280=filamin). Northern blot analysis revealed a transcript of about 8.6 kb, indicating that the complete gene was not cloned. Overlapping clones, which encode a composite sequence of 983 amino acids (45% identity with filamin), were subsequently isolated from the cDNA library. The 1.5-kb insert was cloned into pGEX, overexpressed, and the 479 amino acid peptide purified. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antisera specific to the peptide identified a 280-kDa molecule in adult worm extracts. RT-PCR demonstrated that Smfilaimin is expressed in various stages. Immunofluorescence studies with specific antisera revealed a tegument-associated fluorescence in adult worms. IgG specific to the Smfilamin fragment showed 36.6% killing of schistosomules in an in vitro killing assay. PMID:18283496

Mohamed, M R; Shalaby, K A; LoVerde, P T; Abd Allah, N M; Karim, A M

2008-04-01

289

Comparative typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by random amplification of polymorphic DNA or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA macrorestriction fragments.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments. Stains were clustered on the basis of interpretative criteria as presented previously for the PFGE analysis. Clusters of strains were also defined on the basis of epidemiological data and subsequently reanalyzed by RAPD. It was found that in an RAPD assay employing the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence ERIC2 as a primer, single band differences can be ignored; in this case, clonally related strains could be grouped as effectively and reliably as with PFGE. These data could be corroborated by the use of other primer species. However, some primers either showed reduced resolution or, in contrast, identified DNA polymorphisms beyond epidemiologically and PFGE-defined limits. Apparently, different primers define different windows of genetic variation. It is suggested that criteria for interpretation of the ERIC2 PCR fingerprints can be simple and straightforward: when single band differences are ignored, RAPD-determined grouping of P. aeruginosa is congruent with that obtained by PFGE. Consequently, this implies that RAPD can be used with trust as a first screen in epidemiological characterization of P. aeruginosa. The ability to measure the rate of molecular evolution of the P. aeruginosa genome clearly depends on the choice of restriction enzyme or primer when RAPD or PFGE, respectively, is applied for the detection of DNA polymorphisms. PMID:8940470

Renders, N; Römling, Y; Verbrugh, H; van Belkum, A

1996-01-01

290

Nearly all single base substitutions in DNA fragments joined to a GC-clamp can be detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

Duplex DNA fragments differing by single base substitutions can be separated by electrophoresis in denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gels, but only substitutions in a restricted part of the molecule lead to a separation (1). In an effort to circumvent this problem, we demonstrated that the melting properties and electrophoretic behavior of a 135 base pair DNA fragment containing a beta-globin promoter are changed by attaching a GC-rich sequence, called a 'GC-clamp' (2). We predicted that these changes should make it possible to resolve most, if not all, single base substitutions within fragments attached to the clamp. To test this possibility we examined the effect of several different single base substitutions on the electrophoretic behavior of the beta-globin promoter fragment in denaturing gradient gels. We find that the GC-clamp allows the separation of fragments containing substitutions throughout the promoter fragment. Many of these substitutions do not lead to a separation when the fragment is not attached to the clamp. Theoretical calculations and analysis of a large number of different mutations indicate that approximately 95% of all possible single base substitutions should be separable when attached to a GC-clamp. Images PMID:4000972

Myers, R M; Fischer, S G; Lerman, L S; Maniatis, T

1985-01-01

291

Characterization of Escherichia hermannii by ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Ribosomal DNA polymorphism was used to characterize strains of Escherichia hermannii and to differentiate them from E. coli. DNA from 11 E. hermannii strains previously separated into three zymotypes by enzyme electrophoretic polymorphism was digested with HindIII and EcoRI restriction enzymes and analyzed by Southern blotting. The 10 ribotypes obtained with EcoRI fell into 3 groups which correlated with the corresponding zymotypes, and the 5 ribotypes obtained with HindIII were clearly distinct from those of E. coli strains. PMID:7910695

Picard-Pasquier, N; Picard, B; Krishnamoorthy, R; Goullet, P

1993-01-01

292

[DNA polymorphism in the Russian population. Analysis of dna restriction fragment length polymorphism in seven loci of the nuclear genome].  

PubMed

Using the method for polymerase chain reaction the polymorphism of eight markers of the nuclear DNA was studied. In a sample of Russians taken at random (N = 118) from predominantly southern and central regions of Russia, allele frequencies were determined for restriction sites HindIII at HBG-2 and PAH loci, AvaII at the HBB locus, MspI at the ApoB locus, PstI at D7S8, HincII at LDLR, TaqI and BamHI at the DSX164. Comparative data for different world regions are presented. PMID:1353471

Petrishchev, V N; Sambuugi?n, N; Zhukova, O V; Rychkov, Iu G

1992-05-01

293

Size and DNA distributions of electrophoretically separated cultured human kidney cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrophoretic purification of purifying cultured cells according to function presumes that the size of cycle phase of a cell is not an overriding determinant of its electrophoretic velocity in an electrophoretic separator. The size distributions and DNA distributions of fractions of cells purified by density gradient electrophoresis were determined. No systematic dependence of electrophoretic migration upward in a density gradient column upon either size or DNA content were found. It was found that human leukemia cell populations, which are more uniform function and found in all phases of the cell cycle during exponential growth, separated on a vertical sensity gradient electrophoresis column according to their size, which is shown to be strictly cell cycle dependent.

Kunze, M. E.; Plank, L. D.; Todd, P. W.

1985-01-01

294

Conformational properties of DNA fragments containing GAC trinucleotide repeats associated with skeletal displasias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gene for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein contains five tandem repeats of the GAC trinucleotide. Its expansion by one repeat causes multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, while expansion by two repeats or, remarkably, deletion of one repeat causes pseudoachondroplasia. Here we used CD spectroscopy, PAGE and UV absorption spectroscopy to compare conformational properties of the DNA strands containing four, five, six

Michaela Vorlícková; Iva Kejnovská; Marcela Tumová; Jaroslav Kypr

2001-01-01

295

Identification of Neural Programmed Cell Death through the Detection DNA Fragmentation In Situ and by PCR  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is a fundamental process for the development and somatic maintenance of organisms. This unit describes methods for visualizing both dying cells in situ and for detection of nucleosomal ladders. A description of various current detection strategies is provided, as well as support protocols for preparing positive and negative controls and for preparing genomic DNA. PMID:18428472

Yung, Yun C.; Kennedy, Grace; Chun, Jerold

2009-01-01

296

Cloning of an M. tuberculosis DNA Fragment Associated with Entry and Survival Inside Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one-third of the world's human population. This widespread infection depends on the organism's ability to escape host defenses by gaining entry and surviving inside the macrophage. DNA sequences of M. tuberculosis have been cloned; these confer on a nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strain an ability to invade HeLa cells, augment macrophage phagocytosis, and survive for at least 24

Sergio Arruda; Gloria Bomfim; Ronald Knights; Tellervo Huima-Byron; Lee W. Riley

1993-01-01

297

Heterogeneity of rDNA distribution and genome size in Silene spp.  

PubMed

Genus Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae) contains about 700 species divided into 44 sections. According to recent taxonomic classification this genus also includes taxa previously classified in genera Lychnis and Melandrium. In this work, four Silene species belonging to different sections were studied: S. latifolia (syn. Melandrium album, Section Elisanthe), S. vulgaris (Inflatae), S. pendula (Erectorefractae), and S. chalcedonica (syn. Lychnis chalcedonica, Lychnidiformes). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a genome size of 2.25 and 2.35 pg/2C for S. vulgaris and S. pendula and of 5.73 and 6.59 pg/2C for S. latifolia and S. chalcedonica. All four species have the same chromosome number including the pair of sex chromosomes of the dioecious S. latifolia (2n = 2x = 24). Double target fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed the chromosomal locations of 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA. A marked variation in number and localization of rDNA loci but no correlation between the numbers of rDNA clusters and genome size was found. FISH and genome size data indicate that nuclear genomes of Silene species are highly diversified as a result of numerous DNA amplifications and translocations. PMID:11448040

Siroký, J; Lysák, M A; Dolezel, J; Kejnovský, E; Vyskot, B

2001-01-01

298

CCQM-K86/P113.1: Relative quantification of genomic DNA fragments extracted from a biological tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key comparison CCQM-K86 was performed to demonstrate and document the capacity of interested national metrology institutes (NMIs) and designated institutes (DIs) in the determination of the relative quantity of two specific genomic DNA fragments present in a biological tissue. The study provides the support for the following measurement claim: "Quantification of the ratio of the number of copies of specified intact sequence fragments of a length in the range of 70 to 100 nucleotides in a single genomic DNA extract from ground maize seed materials". The study was carried out under the auspices of the Bioanalysis Working Group (BAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) and was piloted by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) in Geel (Belgium). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in this key comparison: AIST (Japan), CENAM (Mexico), DMSc (Thailand), GLHK (Hong Kong), IRMM (European Union), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LGC (United Kingdom), MIRS/NIB (Slovenia), NIM (PR China), NIST (USA), NMIA (Australia), TÜBITAK UME (Turkey) and VNIIM (Russian Federation). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in a pilot study that was organized in parallel: LGC (United Kingdom), PKU (PR China), NFRI (Japan) and NIMT (Thailand). Good agreement was observed between the reported results of eleven participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Corbisier, P.; Vincent, S.; Schimmel, H.; Kortekaas, A.-M.; Trapmann, S.; Burns, M.; Bushell, C.; Akgoz, M.; Akyürek, S.; Dong, L.; Fu, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; Pérez Urquiza, M.; Bautista, J. L.; Garibay, A.; Fuller, B.; Baoutina, A.; Partis, L.; Emslie, K.; Holden, M.; Chum, W. Y.; Kim, H.-H.; Phunbua, N.; Milavec, M.; Zel, J.; Vonsky, M.; Konopelko, L. A.; Lau, T. L. T.; Yang, B.; Hui, M. H. K.; Yu, A. C. H.; Viroonudomphol, D.; Prawettongsopon, C.; Wiangnon, K.; Takabatake, R.; Kitta, K.; Kawaharasaki, M.; Parkes, H.

2012-01-01

299

Comparative Genomics of DNA Fragments from Six Antarctic Marine Planktonic Bacteria†  

PubMed Central

Six environmental fosmid clones from Antarctic coastal water bacterioplankton were completely sequenced. The genome fragments harbored small-subunit rRNA genes that were between 85 and 91% similar to those of their nearest cultivated relatives. The six fragments span four phyla, including the Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria (? and ?), Bacteroidetes, and high-G+C gram-positive bacteria. Gene-finding and annotation analyses identified 244 total open reading frames. Amino acid comparisons of 123 and 113 Antarctic bacterial amino acid sequences to mesophilic homologs from G+C-specific and SwissProt/UniProt databases, respectively, revealed widespread adaptation to the cold. The most significant changes in these Antarctic bacterial protein sequences included a reduction in salt-bridge-forming residues such as arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, reduced proline contents, and a reduction in stabilizing hydrophobic clusters. Stretches of disordered amino acids were significantly longer in the Antarctic sequences than in the mesophilic sequences. These characteristics were not specific to any one phylum, COG role category, or G+C content and imply that underlying genotypic and biochemical adaptations to the cold are inherent to life in the permanently subzero Antarctic waters. PMID:16461708

Grzymski, Joseph J.; Carter, Brandon J.; DeLong, Edward F.; Feldman, Robert A.; Ghadiri, Amir; Murray, Alison E.

2006-01-01

300

Analysis of conflicting experimental studies of DNA size in nanofluidic slits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental studies have reported conflicting accounts of the size variation of DNA in nanofluidic slitlike confinement; [Bonthuis et al., Physical Review Letters 101, 10, 108303 (2008)], [Tang et al., Macromolecules 43, 17, 7368 (2010)], [Strychalski et al., Macromolecules 45, 3, 1602 (2012)], [Lin et al., Macromolecules 45, 6, 2920 (2012)], [Dai et al., Soft Matter 8, 10, 2972 (2012)]. In an effort to resolve this controversy, these studies are analyzed by a reductive as opposed to predictive approach. Minimum references for DNA size (baselines) are simulated by a Monte Carlo methodology and quantitatively compared to measured and inferred DNA sizes. The measurements of Tang et al., Strychalski et al., and Lin et al. are consistent with the related baselines and in semi-quantitative agreement with each other. The inferences of Tang et al. and Dai et al. are consistent with the related baseline and in qualitative agreement with the measurements of Tang et al., Strychalski et al., and Lin et al. The measurements of Bonthuis et al. are inconsistently larger than the related baseline and the other experimental measurements and inferences of DNA size around the transition from moderate to weak slitlike confinement. A variety of physical and chemical differences between the experimental systems are examined in detail to elucidate this inconsistency. Detailed analyses of the baseline distribution and variation clarify several core physical attributes of the system related to excluded volume effects and chain dimensionality.

Stavis, Samuel M.; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Nablo, Brian J.; Geist, Jon

2013-03-01

301

[Characteristics of DNA adsorption on different sizes red soil colloidal particles].  

PubMed

By using balance reaction method, this paper studied the adsorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of DNA on four kinds of red soil colloids (organic matter-contained coarse clay, organic matter-removed coarse clay, organic matter-contained fine clay, and organic matter-removed fine clay). The DNA adsorption on the four red soil colloids was a process of fast reaction, and the adsorption isotherms were conformed to the Langmuir equation, with the corresponding correlation coefficient (r2) being 0.974, 0. 991, 0. 958, and 0. 975, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount of DNA on the colloidal particles followed the order of organic matter-contained fine clay > organic matter-removed fine clay > organic matter-contained coarse clay > organic matter-removed coarse clay, implying that the size and organic matter content of colloidal particles played an important role in DNA adsorption. Electrolyte concentration and type and adsorption system pH were the main factors affecting the DNA adsorption on the four soil colloids. Within a definite electrolyte concentration range (NaCl < 60 mmol . L-1 and CaCl2 <10 mmol L-1) , the adsorption amount of DNA on the red soil colloids increased significantly with the increase of electrolyte concentration. As compared with sodium ion, calcium ion had a greater promotion effect on the DNA adsorption, but the effect decreased significantly with the increase of adsorption system pH. The DNA adsorption on the organic matter-contained red soil colloids was an endothermic reaction, while the DNA adsorption on the organic matter-removed red soil colloids was an exothermic reaction. The DNA adsorption on the red soil colloids was a process of entropy increase. PMID:23755493

Liao, Min; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Fang, Shu; Qiu, Xiao-Bai; Chen, Na; Xu, Ya-Qian; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Xue-fang

2013-03-01

302

Coupling between denaturation and chain conformations in DNA: stretching, bending, torsion and finite size effects  

E-print Network

We develop further a statistical model coupling denaturation and chain conformations in DNA (Palmeri J, Manghi M and Destainville N 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 088103). Our Discrete Helical Wormlike Chain model takes explicitly into account the three elastic degrees of freedom, namely stretching, bending and torsion of the polymer. By integrating out these external variables, the conformational entropy contributes to bubble nucleation (opening of base-pairs), which sheds light on the DNA melting mechanism. Because the values of monomer length, bending and torsional moduli differ significantly in dsDNA and ssDNA, these effects are important. Moreover, we explore in this context the role of an additional loop entropy and analyze finite-size effects in an experimental context where polydA-polydT is clamped by two G-C strands, as well as for free polymers.

Manoel Manghi; John Palmeri; Nicolas Destainville

2008-09-02

303

Protein-Mediated DNA Loops: Effects of Protein Bridge Size and Kinks  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the probability that a portion of DNA closes on itself through thermal fluctuations. We investigate the dependence of this probability upon the size r of a protein bridge and/or the presence of a kink at half DNA length. The DNA is modeled by the Worm-Like Chain model, and the probability of loop formation is calculated in two ways: exact numerical evaluation of the constrained path integral and the extension of the Shimada and Yamakawa saddle point approximation. For example, we find that the looping free energy of a 100 base pairs DNA decreases from 24 kT to 13 kT when the loop is closed by a protein of r = 10 nm length. It further decreases to 5 kT when the loop has a kink of 120 degrees at half-length.

Nicolas Douarche; Simona Cocco

2005-11-16

304

Finite-size effects on long-range correlations: implications for analyzing DNA sequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the fluctuations in the correlation exponents obtained for noncoding DNA sequences. We find prominent sample-to-sample variations as well as variations within a single sample in the scaling exponent. To determine if these fluctuations may result from finite system size, we generate correlated random sequences of comparable length and study the fluctuations in this control system. We find that the DNA exponent fluctuations are consistent with those obtained from the control sequences having long-range power-law correlations. Finally, we compare our exponents for the DNA sequences with the exponents obtained from power-spectrum analysis and correlation-function techniques, and demonstrate that the original "DNA-walk" method is intrinsically more accurate due to reduced noise.

Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

1993-01-01

305

Characterization of highly virulent Escherichia coli strains by ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Patterns of ribosomal DNA polymorphism were examined to compare carboxylesterase B type B1 strains and B2 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. DNA from 14 type B2 strains showing the presence of alpha-haemolysin and mannose-resistant haemagglutinin and lethality to mice and 14 type B1 strains lacking these characteristics, was digested with HindIII, EcoRI, BamHI or BglII restriction enzymes and analysed by Southern blotting. The obtained ribotypes clearly differentiated the B2 strains from the B1 strains. These results indicate that genotypes of the highly virulent B2 strains are different from that of the less virulent B1 strains. PMID:1682207

Picard, B; Picard-Pasquier, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Goullet, P

1991-08-01

306

An analysis of population genetic structure and species history of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has several features that give it great utility in the study of geographic structure of natural populations. Its small size and covalently closed circular conformation make it easy to purify. Strict maternal inheritance and homoplasmy makes the effective copy number of mtDNA as little as 1\\/4 that of nuclear loci; this renders populational complements of mtDNA

Lawrence Richard Hale

1989-01-01

307

Multiphoton Dissociation of Electrosprayed MegaDalton-Sized DNA Ions in a Charge-Detection Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge detection mass spectrometry in combination with a linear electrostatic ion trap coupled to a continuous wavelength infrared CO2 laser has been used to study the multiphoton dissociation of DNA macromolecular ions. Samples, with masses ranging from 2.23 to 31.5 MDa, include single strand circular M13mp18, double strand circular M13mp18, and double strand linear LambdaPhage DNA fragments. Their activation energies for unimolecular dissociation were determined. Activation energy values slightly increase as a function of the molecular weight. The most important result is the difference between the fragmentations observed for hybridized double-strands and dimers of single strands.

Doussineau, Tristan; Paletto, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

2015-01-01

308

Multiphoton Dissociation of Electrosprayed MegaDalton-Sized DNA Ions in a Charge-Detection Mass Spectrometer.  

PubMed

Charge detection mass spectrometry in combination with a linear electrostatic ion trap coupled to a continuous wavelength infrared CO2 laser has been used to study the multiphoton dissociation of DNA macromolecular ions. Samples, with masses ranging from 2.23 to 31.5 MDa, include single strand circular M13mp18, double strand circular M13mp18, and double strand linear LambdaPhage DNA fragments. Their activation energies for unimolecular dissociation were determined. Activation energy values slightly increase as a function of the molecular weight. The most important result is the difference between the fragmentations observed for hybridized double-strands and dimers of single strands. PMID:25348472

Doussineau, Tristan; Paletto, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

2015-01-01

309

Rapid identification and classification of bacteria by 16S rDNA restriction fragment melting curve analyses (RFMCA).  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate restriction fragment melting curve analyses (RFMCA) as a novel approach for rapid classification of bacteria during food production. RFMCA was evaluated for bacteria isolated from sous vide food products, and raw materials used for sous vide production. We identified four major bacterial groups in the material analysed (cluster I-Streptococcus, cluster II-Carnobacterium/Bacillus, cluster III-Staphylococcus and cluster IV-Actinomycetales). The accuracy of RFMCA was evaluated by comparison with 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains satisfying the RFMCA quality filtering criteria (73%, n=57), with both 16S rDNA sequence information and RFMCA data (n=45) gave identical group assignments with the two methods. RFMCA enabled rapid and accurate classification of bacteria that is database compatible. Potential application of RFMCA in the food or pharmaceutical industry will include development of classification models for the bacteria expected in a given product, and then to build an RFMCA database as a part of the product quality control. PMID:17367680

Rudi, Knut; Kleiberg, Gro H; Heiberg, Ragnhild; Rosnes, Jan T

2007-08-01

310

Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homólogo al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad de Gallus gallus Partial sequence of a DNA fragment from wild ducks homologous to the Gallus gallus major histocompatibility complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a genomic DNA fragment from domestic duck (Anas domesticus) was amplified by PCR. Such fragment shared 93 % identity to the chicken (Gallus gallus) MHC class II, which correspond to DAB1- (Disabled 1)-like sequence. The DAB1 sequence was also amplified from nine wild duck species of the Anas genus, which after performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism

Sofía González-Guzmán; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Virginia León-Régagnonc; Gary García-Espinosa

311

Identification and typing of Malassezia yeasts using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP Tm), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular tools, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPTm), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, were explored for their usefulness to identify isolates of Malassezia yeasts. All seven species could be separated by AFLP and DGGE. Using AFLP, four genotypes could be distinguished within M. furfur. AFLP genotype 4 contained only isolates from deep human

Bart Theelen; Massimiliano Silvestri; Eveline Guého; Alex van Belkum; Teun Boekhout

2001-01-01

312

Mitotic stability of a coding DNA sequence-free version of Leishmania major chromosome 1 generated by targeted chromosome fragmentation.  

PubMed

The deletion of a 260-kb segment containing all the coding DNA sequences (CDS) of chromosome 1 of Leishmania major Friedlin strain was performed through homologous recombination during a transfection experiment. This allowed the selection of a mutant clone containing a linear extra chromosome sizing 155 kb (XC155). The structure of XC155 was determined by restriction analysis and DNA cloning and sequencing of the gel-purified chromosome: it is made of a 'mirror' inverted duplication of the 'right' end of chromosome 1a (approximately 25 kb at each end), and in its central part of a complex tandem amplification of the linearized transfection vector containing the hygromycin resistance gene (over approximately 105 kb). No sequence of the coding region of chromosome 1 (including the 1.6-kb 'switch' region) was found. By contrast, XC155 contains two large (approximately 13 kb) clusters of tandemly repeated subtelomeric sequences (272-bp 'satellite' DNA) as well as telomeric hexamer repeats. This extra chromosome was found to be mitotically stable after >150 generations without selective pressure in vitro. Two sequence elements are considered which may have an effect on mitotic stability and participate to centromeric function in this extra chromosome: the amplification of the input vector and the 272-bp 'satellite' DNA bound by telomeric repeats. PMID:12036593

Dubessay, Pascal; Ravel, Christophe; Bastien, Patrick; Stuart, Ken; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Blaineau, Christine; Pagès, Michel

2002-05-01

313

Reconstructing the history of a fragmented and heavily exploited red deer population using ancient and contemporary DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been an important human resource for millennia, experiencing intensive human influence through habitat alterations, hunting and translocation of animals. In this study we investigate a time series of ancient and contemporary DNA from Norwegian red deer spanning about 7,000 years. Our main aim was to investigate how increasing agricultural land use, hunting pressure and possibly human mediated translocation of animals have affected the genetic diversity on a long-term scale. Results We obtained mtDNA (D-loop) sequences from 73 ancient specimens. These show higher genetic diversity in ancient compared to extant samples, with the highest diversity preceding the onset of agricultural intensification in the Early Iron Age. Using standard diversity indices, Bayesian skyline plot and approximate Bayesian computation, we detected a population reduction which was more prolonged than, but not as severe as, historic documents indicate. There are signs of substantial changes in haplotype frequencies primarily due to loss of haplotypes through genetic drift. There is no indication of human mediated translocations into the Norwegian population. All the Norwegian sequences show a western European origin, from which the Norwegian lineage diverged approximately 15,000 years ago. Conclusions Our results provide direct insight into the effects of increasing habitat fragmentation and human hunting pressure on genetic diversity and structure of red deer populations. They also shed light on the northward post-glacial colonisation process of red deer in Europe and suggest increased precision in inferring past demographic events when including both ancient and contemporary DNA. PMID:23009643

2012-01-01

314

First principles effective electronic couplings for hole transfer in natural and size-expanded DNA  

PubMed Central

Hole transfer processes between base pairs in natural DNA and size-expanded DNA (xDNA) are studied and compared, by means of an accurate first principles evaluation of the effective electronic couplings (also known as transfer integrals), in order to assess the effect of the base augmentation on the efficiency of charge transport through double-stranded DNA. According to our results, the size expansion increases the average electronic coupling, and thus the CT rate, with potential implications in molecular biology and in the implementation of molecular nanoelectronics. Our analysis shows that the effect of the nucleobase expansion on the charge-transfer (CT) rate is sensitive to the sequence of base pairs. Furthermore, we find that conformational variability is an important factor for the modulation of the CT rate. From a theoretical point of view, this work offers a contribution to the CT chemistry in ?-stacked arrays. Indeed, we compare our methodology against other standard computational frameworks that have been adopted to tackle the problem of CT in DNA, and unravel basic principles that should be accounted for in selecting an appropriate theoretical level. PMID:19537767

Migliore, Agostino; Corni, Stefano; Varsano, Daniele; Klein, Michael L.; Di Felice, Rosa

2009-01-01

315

Sampling strategies for the analysis of glass fragments by LA-ICP-MS Part II: Sample size and sample shape considerations.  

PubMed

Glass fragments recovered from crime scenes are usually very small and therefore the amount of sample available to conduct forensic analyses is limited. Elemental analysis using conventional digestion methods consumes at least 2-3mg of glass per replicate. LA-ICP-MS requires 10,000 times less glass consumption per analysis ( approximately 280ng), and therefore the sample remains practically unaltered. Typically, the recovered fragments (unknowns) are 0.1-1mm in length, while the "known" samples are usually larger, i.e. a broken fragment from a windshield (>3mm). For bulk digestion analysis, the difference in fragment size does not present a problem for elemental comparisons - other than requiring at least 6mg for triplicate analysis - because the sample is crushed and homogenized before weighing. Laser ablation sampling results in the creation of small craters ( approximately 50mum diameter and 80mum deep) drilled into the sample due to the interaction of the laser with the glass target. This study aims to evaluate whether the quantitative elemental analysis using the LA sampling method is affected by the size of the glass fragment due to differences in heat dissipation and surface-laser interaction. The analytical method employed for the analysis of glass by LA-ICP-MS had previously shown to possess the same or better performance than dissolution ICP-MS methods in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection and discrimination power. A 266nm Nd:YAG laser with a flat top beam profile was used in single point mode sampling a 50mum spot size for 50s at 10Hz. Standard glass reference materials SRM 612 and SRM 610 were selected to conduct this work in order to account for different concentration ranges and different opacities of the samples. The set under study was comprised of seven fragments originating from each standard at different sizes and shapes ranging from 6 to 0.2mm length. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's honestly significant different test (HSD) was used for data analysis. The results show that there is no significant difference in the elemental composition of different sized fragments. The conclusions, however, cannot be generalized for fragments measuring less than 0.2mmx0.1mm. PMID:18970181

Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José R

2005-08-15

316

Identification of Clostridium Species and DNA Fingerprinting of Clostridium perfringens by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis?  

PubMed Central

An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied to 129 strains representing 24 different Clostridium species, with special emphasis on pathogenic clostridia of medical or veterinary interest, to assess the potential of AFLP for identification of clostridia. In addition, the ability of the same AFLP protocol to type clostridia at the strain level was assessed by focusing on Clostridium perfringens strains. All strains were typeable by AFLP, so the method seemed to overcome the problem of extracellular DNase production. AFLP differentiated all Clostridium species tested, except for Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium limosum, which clustered together with a 45% similarity level. Other Clostridium species were divided into species-specific clusters or occupied separate positions. Wide genetic diversity was observed among Clostridium botulinum strains, which were divided into seven species-specific clusters. The same AFLP protocol was also suitable for typing C. perfringens at the strain level. A total of 29 different AFLP types were identified for 37 strains of C. perfringens; strains initially originating from the same isolate showed identical fingerprinting patterns and were distinguished from unrelated strains. AFLP proved to be a highly reproducible, easy-to-perform, and relatively fast method which enables high throughput of samples and can serve in the generation of identification libraries. These results indicate that the AFLP method provides a promising tool for the identification and characterization of Clostridium species. PMID:16971642

Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Eerola, Erkki; Korkeala, Hannu

2006-01-01

317

Size-Controlled Construction of Magnetic Nanoparticle Clusters Using DNA-Binding Zinc Finger Protein.  

PubMed

Nanoparticle clusters (NPCs) have attracted significant interest owing to their unique characteristics arising from their collective individual properties. Nonetheless, the construction of NPCs in a structurally well-defined and size-controllable manner remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a strategy to construct size-controlled NPCs using the DNA-binding zinc finger (ZnF) protein. Biotinylated ZnF was conjugated to DNA templates with different lengths, followed by incubation with neutravidin-conjugated nanoparticles. The sequence specificity of ZnF and programmable DNA templates enabled a size-controlled construction of NPCs, resulting in a homogeneous size distribution. We demonstrated the utility of magnetic NPCs by showing a three-fold increase in the spin-spin relaxivity in MRI compared with Feridex. Furthermore, folate-conjugated magnetic NPCs exhibited a specific targeting ability for HeLa cells. The present approach can be applicable to other nanoparticles, finding wide applications in many areas such as disease diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of drugs and genes. PMID:25425202

Ryu, Yiseul; Jin, Zongwen; Lee, Joong-Jae; Noh, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Hyun; Jo, Seong-Min; Choi, Joonsung; Park, HyunWook; Cheon, Jinwoo; Kim, Hak-Sung

2015-01-12

318

Fractals and fragmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of renormalization group techniques on fragmentation problems is examined. The equations which represent fractals and the size-frequency distributions of fragments are presented. Method for calculating the size distributions of asteriods and meteorites are described; the frequency-mass distribution for these interplanetary objects are due to fragmentation. The application of two renormalization group models to fragmentation is analyzed. It is observed that the models yield a fractal behavior for fragmentation; however, different values for the fractal dimension are produced . It is concluded that fragmentation is a scale invariant process and that the fractal dimension is a measure of the fragility of the fragmented material.

Turcotte, D. L.

1986-01-01

319

DNA Fingerprinting by Sampled Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for characterizing DNA segments that combines limited sequencing with size separation of restriction fragments. As part of a multistep procedure, 5' overhangs of unknown sequence are generated by cleavage with a class IIS restriction enzyme. After labeling of these ends by using dideoxynucleotides tagged with distinctive fluorescent dyes, the restriction fragments are analyzed by polyacrylamide gel

Sydney Brenner; Kenneth J. Livak

1989-01-01

320

Contrasting patterns of DNA sequence arrangement in Apis mellifera (Honeybee) and Musca domestica (housefly)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the organization of the repeated and single copy DNA sequences in the genomes of two insects, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the housefly (Musca domestica). Analysis of the reassociation kinetics of honeybee DNA fragments 330 and 2,200 nucleotides long shows that approximately 90% of both size fragments is composed entirely of non-repeated sequences. Thus honeybee DNA contains

William R. Crainl; Eric H. Davidson; Roy J. Britten

1976-01-01

321

Effect of a triplex-binding ligand on triple helix formation at a site within a natural DNA fragment.  

PubMed Central

We have used DNase I footprinting to examine the effect of a triplex-binding ligand on the formation of parallel intermolecular DNA triple helices at a mixed sequence target site contained within a natural DNA fragment (tyrT). In the presence of 10 microM ligand (N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2-(naphthyl)quinolin-4-ylamine), the binding of CTCTTTTTGCTT (12G) to the sequence GAGAAAAATGAA (generating a complex containing 8 x T x AT, 1 x G x TA and 3 x C+ x GC triplets) was enhanced 3-fold at pH 5.5. When the oligonucleotide CTCTTTTTTCTT (12T) was substituted for 12G (replacing G x TA with T x TA) there was a large reduction in affinity for the target sequence. However, this was stabilized by about 300-fold in the presence of the ligand, requiring a similar concentration to produce a footprint as 12G in the absence of the ligand. When the sequence of the target site was altered to GAGAAAAAAGAA, generating an uninterrupted run of purines [tyrT(46A)], the binding of 12T (generating a complex containing 9 x T x AT, and 3 x C+ x GC triplets) was enhanced 3-fold by 10 microM of the triplex-binding ligand. However, although the binding of 12G to this sequence generating a complex containing a G x AT triplet, was much weaker, this too was stabilized by about 30-fold by the ligand, requiring a similar concentration as the perfect matched oligonucleotide (12T) in the absence of the ligand. A secondary, less stable footprint was also observed in these fragments when using either 12T or 12G, which was evident only in the presence of the triplex-binding ligand. This site, which contained a number of triplet mismatches, appears to be realated to the formation of four or five central T x AT triplets. This reduction in the stringency of oligonucleotide binding by the triplex-binding ligand promotes the formation of complexes at non-targeted regions but may also have the potential for enabling recognition at sites that contain regions where there are no specific triplet matches. PMID:8670052

Brown, P M; Drabble, A; Fox, K R

1996-01-01

322

DNA variation in the wild plant Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the level and pattern of DNA variation of Arabidopsis thaliana at the entire genome level, AFLP analysis was conducted for 38 ecotypes distributed throughout the world. Ten pairs of selective primers were used to detect a total of 472 bands, of which 374 (79. 2%) were polymorphic. The frequency distribution of polymorphic bands was skewed toward an excess of singleton variation. On the basis of AFLP variation, nucleotide diversity for the entire genome was estimated to be 0.0106, which was within the range reported previously for specific nuclear genes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distance was bimodal because of an ecotype (Fl-3) with a large number of unique bands. Linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic AFLPs was tested. The proportion of significant linkage disequilibria was close to random expectation after neglecting the ecotype Fl-3. This result indicates that the effect of recombination could not be ignored in this selfing species. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed on the basis of the AFLP variation. This tree has a star-like topology and shows no clear association between ecotype and geographic origin, suggesting a recent spread of this plant species and limited migration between its habitats. PMID:10430596

Miyashita, N T; Kawabe, A; Innan, H

1999-01-01

323

Role of increased male age in IVF and egg donation: is sperm DNA fragmentation responsible?  

PubMed

The well documented increase in age that women conceive their first child has detracted from a similar change observed in males. As both males and females decide to conceive later, the question of whether this may impact their fertility individually and as a couple becomes even more crucial. A paternal age of over 40 years at the time of conception is a frequently quoted male age threshold, however, currently there is no clearly accepted definition of advanced paternal age or even a consensus on the implications of advancing male age. In this paper, we review some of the potential risks to the offspring of advancing male age and examine. The data available regarding pregnancy outcomes based on paternal age in both the fertile and infertile populations. Within the infertile population specifically, we examine the association between male age and outcomes based on treatment modality, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and donor oocyte IVF. Finally, we discuss the various mechanisms by which male age may impact sperm and fertility potential, including sperm DNA damage. PMID:23273987

Humm, Kathryn C; Sakkas, Denny

2013-01-01

324

Probability of double-strand breaks in genome-sized DNA by {gamma}-ray decreases markedly as the DNA concentration increases  

SciTech Connect

By use of the single-molecule observation, we count the number of DNA double-strand breaks caused by {gamma}-ray irradiation with genome-sized DNA molecules (166 kbp). We find that P{sub 1}, the number of double-strand breaks (DSBs) per base pair per unit Gy, is nearly inversely proportional to the DNA concentration above a certain threshold DNA concentration. The inverse relationship implies that the total number of DSBs remains essentially constant. We give a theoretical interpretation of our experimental results in terms of attack of reactive species upon DNA molecules, indicating the significance of the characteristics of genome-sized giant DNA as semiflexible polymers for the efficiency of DSBs.

Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwaki, Takafumi [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Mori, Toshiaki [Radiation Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kenichi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

2013-05-07

325

Imaging and sizing of single DNA molecules on a mobile phone.  

PubMed

DNA imaging techniques using optical microscopy have found numerous applications in biology, chemistry and physics and are based on relatively expensive, bulky and complicated set-ups that limit their use to advanced laboratory settings. Here we demonstrate imaging and length quantification of single molecule DNA strands using a compact, lightweight and cost-effective fluorescence microscope installed on a mobile phone. In addition to an optomechanical attachment that creates a high contrast dark-field imaging setup using an external lens, thin-film interference filters, a miniature dovetail stage and a laser-diode for oblique-angle excitation, we also created a computational framework and a mobile phone application connected to a server back-end for measurement of the lengths of individual DNA molecules that are labeled and stretched using disposable chips. Using this mobile phone platform, we imaged single DNA molecules of various lengths to demonstrate a sizing accuracy of <1 kilobase-pairs (kbp) for 10 kbp and longer DNA samples imaged over a field-of-view of ?2 mm(2). PMID:25494442

Wei, Qingshan; Luo, Wei; Chiang, Samuel; Kappel, Tara; Mejia, Crystal; Tseng, Derek; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Yan, Eddie; Qi, Hangfei; Shabbir, Faizan; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Ozcan, Aydogan

2014-12-23

326

Use of rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms to differentiate strains of Candida albicans in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies in women with recurrent Candida vaginitis have been hampered in the past by the lack of a reproducible typing system. Several molecular probes have now been developed that have the ability to differentiate strains of Candida albicans and give reproducible results. In this investigation, 24 women with Candida vaginitis were studied in a longitudinal fashion for 30 days following short-course antifungal therapy. Seven women with either recurrent vaginitis or with multiple culture-positive sites with C. albicans were included in an epidemiological study. A total of 18 isolates of C. albicans (12 vaginal and six rectal) were typed utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rDNA. This technique was able to differentiate five different strains of C. albicans. Our epidemiologic study revealed that vaginal and rectal strains recovered from the same women were usually different. None of our patients had a similar vaginal and rectal strain prior to treatment, and only one patient had the same strain isolated from both the rectum and the vagina at the time of recurrence. On the other hand, we found that the same strain of C. albicans was initially and later recovered from the vagina in four of five women who failed treatment or developed recurrent vaginitis. These results suggest that recurrent episodes of C. albicans vaginitis, following short-course antifungal therapy, are often due to relapse of the original infecting strain and not due to autoinoculation from the rectum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1686996

Stein, G E; Sheridan, V L; Magee, B B; Magee, P T

1991-01-01

327

Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 108 atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15 ± 0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

Durand, O.; Soulard, L.

2013-11-01

328

Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions  

SciTech Connect

Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15?±?0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2013-11-21

329

On the importance of size of plastic fragments and pellets on the strandline: a snapshot of a Brazilian beach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments are reported as ubiquitous beach contaminants in the peer-reviewed literature.\\u000a A surface density of 0.3 virgin plastic pellets and plastic fragments per square centimeter of the strandline area was registered\\u000a on an urban beach of the northeast of Brazil. This beach is presently not affected by petrochemical facilities or pellet processing\\u000a plants. The main

Monica F. Costa; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti; Maria Christina B. Araújo; Ângela Spengler; Paula S. Tourinho

2010-01-01

330

DNA “fingerprints” detect genetic variation in Acer negundo ( Aceraceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic DNA samples from 21 box elder plants collected in Missouri (U.S.A.) were digested with restriction enzyme and southern blot hybridized with the M13 minisatellite probe. Each plant was found to have a unique DNA fragment pattern. Moreover, levels of genetic variation estimated from a similarity index appear to be related to sampling distances. However, size of the fragments utilized

Hilde Nybom; Steven H. Rogstad

1990-01-01

331

[Effect of 17beta-estradiol on mRNA expression of Bax proapoptotic protein and DNA fragmentation level in the human adrenal cortex].  

PubMed

The effect of 17beta-estradiol on the change of proapoptotic protein Bax mRNA level and DNA laddering in human adrenal cortex tissue was studied. The adding of 17beta-estradiol to incubation medium caused a decrease of the proapoptotic protein Bax mRNA level in adrenocorticocytes by 22% in comparison with control. Hormone influence decreases the DNA fragmentation by 50%. The obtained data suggest that 17beta-estradiol caused a significant antiapoptotic effect in human adrenal cortex. PMID:19873880

Tron'ko, M D; Kovzun, O I; Hrinchenko, Ie M; Mykosha, O S

2009-01-01

332

Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA sequences from multiple loci.  

PubMed Central

The effective population sizes of ancestral as well as modern species are important parameters in models of population genetics and human evolution. The commonly used method for estimating ancestral population sizes, based on counting mismatches between the species tree and the inferred gene trees, is highly biased as it ignores uncertainties in gene tree reconstruction. In this article, we develop a Bayes method for simultaneous estimation of the species divergence times and current and ancestral population sizes. The method uses DNA sequence data from multiple loci and extracts information about conflicts among gene tree topologies and coalescent times to estimate ancestral population sizes. The topology of the species tree is assumed known. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is implemented to integrate over uncertain gene trees and branch lengths (or coalescence times) at each locus as well as species divergence times. The method can handle any species tree and allows different numbers of sequences at different loci. We apply the method to published noncoding DNA sequences from the human and the great apes. There are strong correlations between posterior estimates of speciation times and ancestral population sizes. With the use of an informative prior for the human-chimpanzee divergence date, the population size of the common ancestor of the two species is estimated to be approximately 20,000, with a 95% credibility interval (8000, 40,000). Our estimates, however, are affected by model assumptions as well as data quality. We suggest that reliable estimates have yet to await more data and more realistic models. PMID:12930768

Rannala, Bruce; Yang, Ziheng

2003-01-01

333

Genetic markers in ribosomal DNA for the identification of members of the genus Anisakis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) defined by polymerase-chain-reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase-chain-reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to establish genetic markers in rDNA, for the identification of the three sibling species of the Anisakis simplex complex and morphologically differentiated Anisakis species, i.e. Anisakis physeteris, Anisakis schupakovi, Anisakis typica and Anisakis ziphidarum. Different restriction patterns were found between A. simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii with two of the restriction

S D'Amelio; K. D Mathiopoulos; C. P Santos; O. N Pugachev; S. C Webb; M Picanço; L Paggi

2000-01-01

334

Phylogenetic relationships of Thiomicrospira species and their identification in deep-sea hydrothermal vent samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments was used to explore the genetic diversity\\u000a of hydrothermal vent microbial communities, specifically to determine the importance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria therein.\\u000a DGGE analysis of two different hydrothermal vent samples revealed one PCR band for one sample and three PCR bands for the\\u000a other sample, which probably correspond to the dominant

Gerard Muyzer; Andreas Teske; Carl O. Wirsen; Holger W. Jannasch

1995-01-01

335

A 2.5 kb Nco I fragment of Ogura radish mitochondrial DNA is correlated with cytoplasmic male-sterility in Brassica cybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous reversion to fertility was studied in the progeny of a cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) Brassica napus cybrid containing recombinant B. napus\\/Ogura radish mitochondrial genomes. This reversion is concomitant with the disappearance of a 2.5 kb NcoI fragment present in the mitochondrial DNA of Ogura radish, and of CMS cybrids derived from plants carrying Ogura cytoplasm, and absent in the mitochondrial

Sandrine Bonhomme; Françoise Budar; Madina Férault; Georges Pelletier

1991-01-01

336

In situ detection of fragmented DNA (tunel assay) fails to discriminate among apoptosis, necrosis, and autolytic cell death: A cautionary note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of DNA fragments in situ using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay is increasingly applied to investigate active cell death (apoptosis). We studied the specificity of the assay in well-defined models of apoptosis and necrosis as well as in postmortem autolysis in rat liver. During involution of liver hyperplasia, which follows stopping treatment with

Bettina Grasl-Kraupp; Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky; Helga Koudelka; Krystyna Bukowska; Wilfried Bursch; Rolf Schulte-Hermann

1995-01-01

337

Clear Genetic Structure of Pinus kwangtungensis (Pinaceae) Revealed by a Plastid DNA Fragment with a Novel Minisatellite  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Pinus kwangtungensis is a five-needled pine, inhabiting isolated mountain tops, cliffs or slopes in the montane areas of southern China and northern Vietnam. Global warming and long-term deforestation in southern China threaten its existence and genetic integrity, and this species is listed as vulnerable in the China Species Red List. However, the level and distribution of genetic diversity in this vulnerable species are completely unknown. In this paper, the genetic diversity and structure are examined using paternally inherited plastid markers to shed light on its evolutionary history and to provide a genetic perspective for its conservation. Methods By means of direct sequencing, a new polymorphic fragment containing a minisatellite site was identified within the plastid genome of P. kwangtungensis. Using the minisatellite site along with five SNPs (one indel and four substitutions) within the same fragment, the population genetic structure and pollen flow were analysed in 17 populations of P. kwangtungensis in southern China. Key Results Analysis of 227 individuals from 17 populations revealed ten haplotypes at the minisatellite site. The haplotype diversity at species level was relatively high (0·629). Genetic diversity of each population ranged from 0 to 0·779, and the western populations harboured more genetic variation than the eastern and Hainan populations, although the former appeared to have experienced a bottleneck in recent history. Population subdivision based on this site was high (FST = 0·540 under IAM; RST = 0·677 under SMM). Three major clusters (eastern, western and Hainan) were identified based on a neighbor-joining dendrogram generated from genetic distances among the populations. The genetic structures inferred from all the polymorphic sites and the SNPs were in concordance with that from the minisatellite site. Conclusions The results suggest that there are at least three refugia for P. kwangtungensis and that populations in these refugia should be treated as separate evolutionarily significant units or conservation units. The high diversities in the western populations suggest that these were much larger in the past (e.g. glacial stages) and that the shrinking population size might have been caused by recent events (e.g. deforestation, global warming, etc.). The western populations should be given priority for conservation due to their higher genetic diversity and limited population sizes. It is concluded that the newly found minisatellite may serve as a novel and applicable molecular marker for unravelling evolutionary processes in P. kwangtungensis. PMID:18463112

Tian, Shuang; Luo, Lai-Chun; Ge, Song; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

2008-01-01

338

A novel transchromosomic system: stable maintenance of an engineered Mb-sized human genomic fragment translocated to a mouse chromosome terminal region.  

PubMed

Transchromosomic (Tc) technology using human chromosome fragments (hCFs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs), has been used for generating mice containing Mb-sized segments of the human genome. The most significant problem with freely segregating chromosomes with human centromeres has been mosaicism, possibly due to the instability of hCFs or HACs in mice. We report a system for the stable maintenance of Mb-sized human chromosomal fragments following translocation to mouse chromosome 10 (mChr.10). The approach utilizes microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and a combination of site-specific loxP insertion, telomere-directed chromosome truncation, and precise reciprocal translocation for the generation of Tc mice. Human chromosome 21 (hChr.21) was modified with a loxP site and truncated in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. Following transfer to mouse embryonic stem cells harboring a loxP site at the distal region of mChr.10, a ~4 Mb segment of hChr.21 was translocated to the distal region of mChr.10 by transient expression of Cre recombinase. The residual hChr.21/mChr.10ter fragment was reduced by antibiotic negative selection. Tc mice harboring the translocated ~4 Mb fragment were generated by chimera formation and germ line transmission. The hChr.21-derived Mb fragment was maintained stably in tissues in vivo and expression profiles of genes on hChr.21 were consistent with those seen in humans. Thus, Tc technology that enables translocation of human chromosomal regions onto host mouse chromosomes will be useful for studying in vivo functions of the human genome, and generating humanized model mice. PMID:24488595

Takehara, Shoko; Schulz, Thomas C; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Kazuki, Kanako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro

2014-06-01

339

Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culture system versus cell-free sequential-media) on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNA- fragmentation of in vitro developed bovine blastocysts. Materials and Methods Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2) plus vero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) for eight days. Subsequently, half of the expanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and post- warming embryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for two additional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvival and apoptosis were compared between the groups. Results For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryos to develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrification survival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3%) was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%). However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantly higher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4), the quality of survived embryos in terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF (65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusion Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos following cryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased with sequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency of sequential media for vitrification/warming purposes. PMID:24917920

Hajian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Asgari, Vajiheh; Ostadhoosseini, Somayyeh; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2011-01-01

340

Repeated Sequences and Large-Scale Size Variation of Mitochondrial DNA: A Common Feature among Scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genomes of seven species of scallops were examined for the presence of repeated sequences and within-species size variation. The mtDNA of one species, Argopecten irradians, shows a typical 16.2-kb invariant size and ap parently lacks repeated sequences. The mtDNA of another species, Placopecten mageilanicus, is known to be very large (>3 1 kb), to contain a tandemly repeated

Branimir Gjetvaj; Douglas I. Cook; Eleftherios Zouros

1992-01-01

341

Estimating Size and Trend of the North Interlake Woodland Caribou Population Using Fecal-DNA and Capture-Recapture Models.  

PubMed

A critical step in recovery efforts for endangered and threatened species is the monitoring of population demographic parameters. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the use of fecal-DNA based capture-recapture methods to estimate population sizes and population rate of change for the North Interlake woodland caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Manitoba, Canada. This herd is part of the boreal population of woodland caribou, listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (2003) and the provincial Manitoba Endangered Species Act (2006). Between 2004 and 2009 (9 surveys), we collected 1,080 fecal samples and identified 180 unique genotypes (102 females and 78 males). We used a robust design survey plan with 2 surveys in most years and analysed the data with Program MARK to estimate encounter rates (p), apparent survival rates (?), rates of population change (?), and population sizes (N). We estimated these demographic parameters for males and females and for 2 genetic clusters within the North Interlake. The population size estimates were larger for the Lower than the Upper North Interlake area and the proportion of males was lower in the Lower (33%) than the Upper North Interlake (49%). Population rate of change for the entire North Interlake area (2005-2009) using the robust design Pradel model was significantly <1.0 (? = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) and varied between sex and area with the highest being for males in Lower North Interlake (? = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.83-1.13) and the lowest being for females in Upper North Interlake (? = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97). The additivity of ? between sex and area is supported on the log scale and translates into males having a ? that is 0.09 greater than females and independent of sex, Lower North Interlake having a ? that is 0.06 greater than Upper North Interlake. Population estimates paralleled these declining trends, which correspond to trends observed in other fragmented populations of woodland caribou along the southern part of their range. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the applicability and success of non-invasive genetic sampling in monitoring populations of woodland caribou. © 2012 The Wildlife Society. PMID:22973066

Hettinga, Peter N; Arnason, Arni Neil; Manseau, Micheline; Cross, Dale; Whaley, Kent; Wilson, Paul J

2012-08-01

342

Estimating Size and Trend of the North Interlake Woodland Caribou Population Using Fecal-DNA and Capture–Recapture Models  

PubMed Central

A critical step in recovery efforts for endangered and threatened species is the monitoring of population demographic parameters. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the use of fecal-DNA based capture–recapture methods to estimate population sizes and population rate of change for the North Interlake woodland caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Manitoba, Canada. This herd is part of the boreal population of woodland caribou, listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (2003) and the provincial Manitoba Endangered Species Act (2006). Between 2004 and 2009 (9 surveys), we collected 1,080 fecal samples and identified 180 unique genotypes (102 females and 78 males). We used a robust design survey plan with 2 surveys in most years and analysed the data with Program MARK to estimate encounter rates (p), apparent survival rates (?), rates of population change (?), and population sizes (N). We estimated these demographic parameters for males and females and for 2 genetic clusters within the North Interlake. The population size estimates were larger for the Lower than the Upper North Interlake area and the proportion of males was lower in the Lower (33%) than the Upper North Interlake (49%). Population rate of change for the entire North Interlake area (2005–2009) using the robust design Pradel model was significantly <1.0 (? = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and varied between sex and area with the highest being for males in Lower North Interlake (? = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.83–1.13) and the lowest being for females in Upper North Interlake (? = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69–0.97). The additivity of ? between sex and area is supported on the log scale and translates into males having a ? that is 0.09 greater than females and independent of sex, Lower North Interlake having a ? that is 0.06 greater than Upper North Interlake. Population estimates paralleled these declining trends, which correspond to trends observed in other fragmented populations of woodland caribou along the southern part of their range. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the applicability and success of non-invasive genetic sampling in monitoring populations of woodland caribou. © 2012 The Wildlife Society. PMID:22973066

Hettinga, Peter N; Arnason, Arni Neil; Manseau, Micheline; Cross, Dale; Whaley, Kent; Wilson, Paul J

2012-01-01

343

DNA DNA DNA (d)DNA DNA DNA  

E-print Network

DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA [ 2008] (d)DNA DNA DNA DNA 2 3 DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA (a) (c) (b) (d) #12;DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA (b) DNA [Tanaka et al.2008] DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA #12;iGEM MIT MIT

Hagiya, Masami

344

DNA Restriction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA restriction through a series of illustrations of processes involved.

2011-11-25

345

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 116 Japanese was analyzed with nine restriction enzymes that recognize a four or five base pair sequence. The sizes of the mtDNA fragments produced by digestion by each enzyme were compared after gel electrophoresis. Double digestion experiments indicated that, in the coding region from URF2 (unidentified reading frame) to tRNAAsn (bp 5274–5691), there is an insertion

Satoshi Horai; Ei Matsunaga

1986-01-01

346

Intraspecific variation in Radopholus similis isolates assessed with restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA cistron.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of 19 isolates of Radopholus similis yielded significant diversity, both among isolates and within some individuals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism with HaeIII, AluI and Tru9I yielded two sets of patterns. Digestion with RsaI revealed one or two supernumerary bands in single nematodes from five isolates, and sequencing confirmed microheterogeneity in four of these. Phylogenetic analysis grouped most isolates closely together, except for the five isolates with additional bands for RsaI. Our data reveal more population structure than previously found and lend further support to the synonymy of R. similis and 'Radopholus citrophilus'. PMID:11812497

Elbadri, Gamal A A; De Ley, Paul; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Vierstraete, Andy; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-02-01

347

Nucleotide sequence of a 2 kbp BamH I fragment of Vicia faba chloroplast DNA containing the genes for threonine, glutamic acid and tyrosine transfer RNAs.  

PubMed Central

The entire nucleotide sequence of a 2014 bp BamH I fragment from broad bean (Vicia faba) chloroplast DNA containing the genes for tRNAThr (trnT), tRNAGlu (trnE) and tRNATyr (trnY) has been determined. The tRNAGlu and tRNATyr genes are separated by only 60 bp and are probably part of the same transcriptional unit. The tRNAThr gene is located on the complementary strand, 876 bp away from the tRNAGlu gene. This fragment also contains an open reading frame of 82 codons, as well as a series of AT-rich, direct and inverted repeats. PMID:6330696

Kuntz, M; Weil, J H; Steinmetz, A

1984-01-01

348

Effects of Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid on Propidium Iodide Accessibility to DNA: Consequences on Genome Size Evaluation in Coffee Tree  

PubMed Central

Estimates of genome size using flow cytometry can be biased by the presence of cytosolic compounds, leading to pseudo?intraspecific variation in genome size. Two important compounds present in coffee trees—caffeine and chlorogenic acid—modify accessibility of the dye propidium iodide to Petunia DNA, a species used as internal standard in our genome size evaluation. These compounds could be responsible for intraspecific variation in genome size since their contents vary between trees. They could also be implicated in environmental variations in genome size, such as those revealed when comparing the results of evaluations carried out on different dates on several genotypes. PMID:12876189

NOIROT, M.; BARRE, P.; DUPERRAY, C.; LOUARN, J.; HAMON, S.

2003-01-01

349

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers of isonuclear allocytoplasmic male sterile wheat accessions and their maintainer lines.  

PubMed

To produce a good F1 hybrid variety wheat crop, it is necessary to explore novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines and their maintainer line. This study aimed to identify cytoplasmic variation in three isonuclear-alloplasmic male sterile lines Aegilops kotschyi (Ae.kots) -90-110, Aegilops ventricosa (Ae.ven) -90-110, and Triticum spelta (T.spelta) -90-110 and their maintainer line, A-90-110, at the molecular level. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was isolated using a combination of centrifugation and density gradient ultracentrifugation, sucrose sedimentation, lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), potassium proteinase, and phenol/chloroform extraction methods. To detect mtDNA purity, specific primers were designed for nuclear (?-actin) and mitochondrial (COXIII) genes. Results indicated that the mtDNA was pure, and therefore suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic analysis. Comparative analysis of mtDNA was conducted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Reproducible polymorphisms were detected between the Aegilops and Triticum species and the male sterile lines. Four specific primers were screened from 64 AFLP marker primers, which provided the molecular basis for further studies investigating specific cytoplasmic male sterility characteristics. PMID:24301781

Ejaz, M; Qidi, Z; Gaisheng, Z; Qunzhu, W; Xinbo, Z

2013-01-01

350

Isolation and characterization of a 2.3-kilobase-pair cDNA fragment encoding the binding domain of the bovine leukemia virus cell receptor.  

PubMed Central

An immunoscreening strategy was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2.3-kbp cDNA inserts with identical nucleotide sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of bovine kidney cells (MDBK). One clone, BLVRcp1, hybridized with a 4.8-kb mRNA from cells of bovine origin and was also found to be conserved as a single-copy gene in murine, bovine, ovine, primate, canine, feline, and porcine DNAs. The same gene is amplified in caprine DNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor. The longest open reading frame of BLVRcp1 encodes a protein fragment of 729 amino acids with a putative receptor structure. BLVRcp1 cDNA was cloned in the eucaryotic expression vector pXT-1 and transfected into murine NIH 3T3 and human HEp-2 cells. Cells expressing BLVRcp1 mRNA became susceptible to BLV infection. BLVRcp1 has no known physiological function and has no significant homology with sequences registered in the GenBank and EMBL data libraries (31 July 1992). Expression of deleted constructs of BLVRcp1 indicates that the BLV binding region is encoded at the 5' side of the receptor clone. Images PMID:8380453

Ban, J; Portetelle, D; Altaner, C; Horion, B; Milan, D; Krchnak, V; Burny, A; Kettmann, R

1993-01-01

351

The fragment structure of a putative HsdR subunit of a type I restriction enzyme from Vibrio vulnificus YJ016: implications for DNA restriction and translocation activity  

PubMed Central

Among four types of bacterial restriction enzymes that cleave a foreign DNA depending on its methylation status, type I enzymes composed of three subunits are interesting because of their unique DNA cleavage and translocation mechanisms performed by the restriction subunit (HsdR). The elucidated N-terminal fragment structure of a putative HsdR subunit from Vibrio vulnificus YJ016 reveals three globular domains. The nucleolytic core within an N-terminal nuclease domain (NTD) is composed of one basic and three acidic residues, which include a metal-binding site. An ATP hydrolase (ATPase) site at the interface of two RecA-like domains (RDs) is located close to the probable DNA-binding site for translocation, which is far from the NTD nucleolytic core. Comparison of relative domain arrangements with other functionally related ATP and/or DNA complex structures suggests a possible translocation and restriction mechanism of the HsdR subunit. Furthermore, careful analysis of its sequence and structure implies that a linker helix connecting two RDs and an extended region within the nuclease domain may play a central role in switching the DNA translocation into the restriction activity. PMID:19625490

Uyen, Nguyen To; Park, Suk-Youl; Choi, Ji-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, Jeong-Sun

2009-01-01

352

Stock structure and homing fidelity in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

Efforts have been proposed worldwide to restore sturgeon populations through the use of hatcheries to supplement natural reproduction and to reintroduce sturgeon where they have become extinct. We examined the population structure and inferred the extent of homing in the anadromous Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). Restriction fragment length polymorphism and control region sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used to identify haplotypes of Gulf sturgeon specimens obtained from eight drainages spanning the subspecies' entire distribution from Louisiana to Florida. Significant differences in haplotype frequencies indicated substantial geographic structuring of populations. A minimum of four regional or river-specific populations were identified (from west to east): (1) Pearl River, LA and Pascagoula River, MS, (2) Escambia and Yellow rivers, FI, (3) Choctawbatchee River, FL and (4) Apalachicola Ochlockonee, and Suwannee rivers, FL. Estimates of maternally mediated gene flow between any pair of the four regional or river-specific stocks ranged between 0.15 to 1.2. Tandem repeats in the mtDNA control region of Gulf sturgeon were not perfectly conserved. This result, together with an absence of heteroplasmy and length variation in Gulf sturgeon mtDNA, indicates that the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA control region sequence evolution differ among acipenserids. PMID:8889537

Stabile, J; Waldman, J R; Parauka, F; Wirgin, I

1996-10-01

353

Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for feed products and four amplification methods for the 5'-junction fragment of Roundup Ready soybean.  

PubMed

Three methods of DNA extraction from feed products and four detection methods for the 5'-junction fragment of genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) were compared and evaluated. The DNA extraction methods, including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and guanidine hydrochloride (Kit), were assessed for their yields and purity of DNA, extraction time, and reagent cost. The DNA yields of CTAB, SDS, and Kit were 52-694, 164-1750 and 23-105 ng/mg sample, and their extraction time was 2.5-3, 2-2.5, and 1.5-2 h with reagent cost about US dollar 0.24, 0.13, and 1.9 per extraction, respectively. The SDS method was generally well suited to all kinds of feed matrices tested. The limits of detection for the four amplification protocols, including loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR, were 48.5, 4.85, 485, and 9 copies of the pTLH10 plasmid, respectively. The ranked results of the four detection methods were based on multiattribute utility theory as follows (from best to worse): HRCA, LAMP, PCR, and real-time PCR. This comparative evaluation was specifically useful for selection of a highly efficient DNA extraction or amplification method for detecting different GM ingredients. PMID:22515503

Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

2012-05-01

354

Nucleotide sequence of a 7-kb fragment of pACM1 encoding an IncM DNA primase and other putative proteins associated with conjugation.  

PubMed

A 7-kb fragment of pACM1 (fragment 90¿91) containing one or more kor (kill-override) loci was sequenced, and 28 open reading frames (ORFs; >/=50 codons) were identified. The nucleotide sequence has no significant homologs in the GenBank database except for a 1.3-kb region 98.6% identical to the iml (insensitivity to phage PhiM-mediated lysis) determinant fragment of IncM plasmid R446. Deduced amino acid sequences for several ORFs are homologous to those of known proteins, including the Sog DNA primases of IncI1 plasmids R64 and ColIb-P9 and the TraL, TraM, and TraN products of ColIb-P9. Two protein products of the putative primase ORF (ORF 1, 1100 amino acids) were detected by SDS-PAGE. The 158- and 107-kDa proteins were designated PriL and PriS, respectively. PriS is apparently produced by an in-frame reinitiation of the ORF 1 transcript at a second start codon located between a Sau96I site and a PstI site. The motif EGYATA, conserved among primases and associated with primase function, occurs in the first one-third of the deduced amino acid sequence of PriL and is not included in PriS. Partial suppression of the temperature-sensitive dnaG3 mutation in BW86 was demonstrated by recombinants that overexpressed both PriL and PriS, but not by constructs overexpressing only PriS. Therefore, primase function can be assigned to PriL. Fragment 90/91 represents a portion of the IncM tra region, which has not previously been examined in detail. PMID:10873523

Preston, K E; Radomski, C C; Venezia, R A

2000-07-01

355

The Origin, Evolution and Proposed Stabilization of the Terms ‘Genome Size’ and ‘C-Value’ to Describe Nuclear DNA Contents  

PubMed Central

• Background Perusing the literature on nuclear ‘genome size’ shows that the term is not stabilized, but applied with different meanings. It is used for the DNA content of the complete chromosome complement (with chromosome number n), for which others use ‘C-value’, but also for the DNA content of the monoploid chromosome set only (with chromosome number x). Reconsideration of the terminology is required. • Aim Our purpose is to discuss the currently unstable usage of the terms ‘genome size’ and ‘C-value’, and to propose a new unified terminology which can describe nuclear DNA contents with ease and without ambiguity. • Proposals We argue that there is a need to maintain the term genome size in a broad sense as a covering term, because it is widely understood, short and phonetically pleasing. Proposals are made for a unified and consensual terminology. In this, ‘genome size’ should mean the DNA content based on chromosome number x and n, and should be used mainly in a general sense. The necessary distinction of the kinds of genome sizes is made by the adjectives ‘monoploid’ and the neology ‘holoploid’. ‘Holoploid genome size’ is a shortcut for the DNA content of the whole chromosome complement characteristic for the individual (and by generalization for the population, species, etc.) irrespective of the degree of generative polyploidy, aneuploidies, etc. This term was lacking in the terminology and is for reasons of linguistic consistency indispensable. The abbreviated terms for monoploid and holoploid genome size are, respectively, Cx-value and C-value. Quantitative data on genome size should always indicate the C-level by a numerical prefix, such as 1C, 1Cx, 2C, etc. The proposed conventions cover general fundamental aspects relating to genome size in plants and animals, but do not treat in detail cytogenetic particularities (e.g. haploids, hybrids, etc.) which will need minor extensions of the present scheme in a future paper. PMID:15596473

GREILHUBER, JOHANN; DOLEŽEL, JAROSLAV; LYSÁK, MARTIN A.; BENNETT, MICHAEL D.

2005-01-01

356

The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 {+-} 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, MS 1018, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Weinman, Steven A. [Department of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, MS 1018, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

2011-03-15

357

Orthogonal enzyme arrays on a DNA origami scaffold bearing size-tunable wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new waffle-like DNA origami assembly (DNA waffle) with nine nanometer-scale wells in a 3 × 3 matrix pattern has been successfully constructed and used as a scaffold for selective nano-patterning of individual protein molecules. The folding pattern of the scaffold was specially designed so that the dimensions of each well could be independently tuned according to the dimensions of the guest nanoparticles. We demonstrated that two distinct proteins, streptavidin (SA) tetramer (d = 5 nm) and anti-fluorescein antibody (IgG) (inter-paratope distance ~14.0 nm), could be selectively captured in size-variable wells of dimensions 6.8 × 12 × 2.0 nm for SA and 6.8 × 12 × 2.0 nm or 10.2 × 12 × 2.0 nm for IgG, respectively, through the attachment of two biotins or two fluoresceins at the two edges of each well. This allowed the formation of a heterogeneous protein nanoarray of individual molecules. The position of SA or IgG capture can be fully controlled by placement of biotins or fluoresceins in the nanoarray well. Moreover, a hetero-nanoarray consisting of two kinds of enzyme: horseradish peroxidase-labeled streptavidin (HRP-SA) and alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-FITC antibody (AP-IgG) was successfully constructed through selective attachment of biotin or fluorescein in any desired wells. Successful enzyme-heteroarray formation was confirmed by enzymatic activity analyses after purification of mixtures of enzymes and DNA waffles.A new waffle-like DNA origami assembly (DNA waffle) with nine nanometer-scale wells in a 3 × 3 matrix pattern has been successfully constructed and used as a scaffold for selective nano-patterning of individual protein molecules. The folding pattern of the scaffold was specially designed so that the dimensions of each well could be independently tuned according to the dimensions of the guest nanoparticles. We demonstrated that two distinct proteins, streptavidin (SA) tetramer (d = 5 nm) and anti-fluorescein antibody (IgG) (inter-paratope distance ~14.0 nm), could be selectively captured in size-variable wells of dimensions 6.8 × 12 × 2.0 nm for SA and 6.8 × 12 × 2.0 nm or 10.2 × 12 × 2.0 nm for IgG, respectively, through the attachment of two biotins or two fluoresceins at the two edges of each well. This allowed the formation of a heterogeneous protein nanoarray of individual molecules. The position of SA or IgG capture can be fully controlled by placement of biotins or fluoresceins in the nanoarray well. Moreover, a hetero-nanoarray consisting of two kinds of enzyme: horseradish peroxidase-labeled streptavidin (HRP-SA) and alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-FITC antibody (AP-IgG) was successfully constructed through selective attachment of biotin or fluorescein in any desired wells. Successful enzyme-heteroarray formation was confirmed by enzymatic activity analyses after purification of mixtures of enzymes and DNA waffles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01598c

Yamazaki, Takahiro; Heddle, Jonathan Gardiner; Kuzuya, Akinori; Komiyama, Makoto

2014-07-01

358

Prokaryotic Genome Size and SSU rDNA Copy Number: Estimation of Microbial Relative Abundance from a Mixed Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the relative abundance of a specific prokaryote in an environmental sample is of major interest in applied\\u000a and environmental microbiology. Relative abundance can be calculated using knowledge of SSU rDNA copy number, amount of SSU\\u000a rDNA in the sample, and a weighted average estimate of the genome sizes for organisms in the original sample. By surveying\\u000a the literature,

G. B. Fogel; C. R. Collins; J. Li; C. F. Brunk

1999-01-01

359

Size effect on transfection and cytotoxicity of nanoscale plasmid DNA/polyethyleneimine complexes for aerosol gene delivery  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale plasmid DNA (pDNA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes were fabricated in the aerosol state using a nebulization system consisting of a collison atomizer and a cool-walled diffusion dryer. The aerosol fabricated nanoscale complexes were collected and employed to determine fundamental properties of the complexes, such as size, structure, surface charge, and in vitro gene transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. The results showed that mass ratio between pDNA and PEI should be optimized to enhance gene transfection efficiency without a significant loss of cell viability. These findings may support practical advancements in the field of nonviral gene delivery.

Hoon Byeon, Jeong, E-mail: jbyeon@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kim, Jang-Woo, E-mail: jwkim@hoseo.edu [Department of Digital Display Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-03

360

Detection and mapping of homologous, repeated and amplified DNA sequences by DNA renaturation in agarose gels.  

PubMed Central

A new molecular hybridization approach to the analysis of complex genomes has been developed. Tracer and driver DNAs were digested with the same restriction enzyme(s), and tracer DNA was labeled with 32P using T4 DNA polymerase. Tracer DNA was mixed with an excess amount of driver, and the mixture was electrophoresed in an agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, DNA was alkali-denatured in situ and allowed to reanneal in the gel, so that tracer DNA fragments could hybridize to the driver only when homologous driver DNA sequences were present at the same place in the gel, i.e. within a restriction fragment of the same size. After reannealing, unhybridized single-stranded DNA was digested in situ with S1 nuclease. The hybridized tracer DNA was detected by autoradiography. The general applicability of this technique was demonstrated in the following experiments. The common EcoRI restriction fragments were identified in the genomes of E. coli and four other species of bacteria. Two of these fragments are conserved in all Enterobacteriaceae. In other experiments, repeated EcoRI fragments of eukaryotic DNA were visualized as bands of various intensity after reassociation of a total genomic restriction digest in the gel. The situation of gene amplification was modeled by the addition of varying amounts of lambda phage DNA to eukaryotic DNA prior to restriction enzyme digestion. Restriction fragments of lambda DNA were detectable at a ratio of 15 copies per chicken genome and 30 copies per human genome. This approach was used to detect amplified DNA fragments in methotrexate (MTX)-resistant mouse cells and to identify commonly amplified fragments in two independently derived MTX-resistant lines. Images PMID:6310499

Roninson, I B

1983-01-01

361

Most compact hairpin-turn structure exerted by a short DNA fragment, d(GCGAAGC) in solution: an extraordinarily stable structure resistant to nucleases and heat.  

PubMed Central

The three-dimensional structure of a short DNA fragment, d(GCGAAGC) exhibiting an extraordinarily stable hairpin structure was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two possible models were obtained by molecular modelling using distance and torsion constraints. Only one of these two models is the correct structure, which can clearly explain all the 1H chemical shifts. d(GCGAAGC) is folded back on itself between A4 and A5, and all the sugars in the fragment adopt the C2'-endo conformation. This compact molecule is stabilized by regular extensive base-stacking interaction within each B-form helical strand of G1C2G3A4 and A5G6C7, and by two G-C and one G3-A5 base pairs. The molecule is hard to differentiate into stem and loop regions, so that we classify it as a turn (hairpin-turn) structure experted by a single-stranded DNA. This highly stacked structure shows high thermostability and strong resistance against nucleases contained in E. coli extracts and in human serum. Images PMID:8127706

Hirao, I; Kawai, G; Yoshizawa, S; Nishimura, Y; Ishido, Y; Watanabe, K; Miura, K

1994-01-01

362

Separation of Micronuclear DNA of Stylonychia lemnae by Pulsed-Field Electrophoresis and Identification of a DNA Molecule with a High Copy Number  

PubMed Central

DNA from the hypotrichous ciliatae Stylonychia lemnae was separated by PFGE. In addition to the separation of the macronuclear DNA molecules with a size up to ?40 kb, we were able to separate the micronuclear DNA with a size between ?90 kb and 2 Mb. One very prominent 90-kb DNA band appeared on the pulsed-field gels. We propose that this 90-kb DNA fragment represents a linear plasmid residing in the micronucleus in a very high copy number. About 10% of the micronuclear DNA consists of the 90-kb DNA molecule. It appears in the micronucleus as well as in the macronuclear anlagen during macronuclear development but not in the mature macronucleus. Thus, the multicopy DNA is eliminated during fragmentation of the macronuclear anlagen DNA in the course of macronuclear development. Therefore, this 90-kb DNA molecule might serve as an excellent tool to study the recognition and elimination of DNA during nuclear differentiation of hypotrichous ciliates. PMID:10413404

Maercker, Christian; Kortwig, Heike; Lipps, Hans J.

1999-01-01

363

DNA driven self-assembly of micron-sized rods using DNA-grafted bacteriophage fd virions  

E-print Network

We have functionalized the sides of fd bacteriophage virions with oligonucleotides to induce DNA hybridization driven self-assembly of high aspect ratio filamentous particles. Potential impacts of this new structure range from an entirely new building block in DNA origami structures, inclusion of virions in DNA nanostructures and nanomachines, to a new means of adding thermotropic control to lyotropic liquid crystal systems. A protocol for producing the virions in bulk is reviewed. Thiolated oligonucleotides are attached to the viral capsid using a heterobifunctional chemical linker. A commonly used system is utilized, where a sticky, single-stranded DNA strand is connected to an inert double-stranded spacer to increase inter-particle connectivity. Solutions of fd virions carrying complementary strands are mixed, annealed, and their aggregation is studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aggregation is clearly observed on cooling, with some degr...

Unwin, R R; Yanagishima, T; Blower, T R; Takahashi, H; Salmond, G P C; Edwardson, J M; Fraden, S; Eiser, E

2014-01-01

364

Simultaneous amplification of multiple DNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction in the analysis of transgenic plants and their progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the simultaneous amplification of different segments of foreign DNA in transgenic plants using the polymerase\\u000a chain reaction (PCR). We used PCR to simultaneously amplify different regions of transformed T-DNA in order to assay the integrity\\u000a of transformed constructions in primary tomato transformants. We also used simultaneous PCR amplification to examine the segregation\\u000a of transformed sequences in progeny of

Michael W. Lassner; Peter Peterson; John I. Yoder

1989-01-01

365

DNA cleavage within the MLL breakpoint cluster region is a specific event which occurs as part of higher-order chromatin fragmentation during the initial stages of apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

A distinct population of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is strongly associated with prior administration of topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors. These t-AMLs display distinct cytogenetic alterations, most often disrupting the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23 within a breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of 8.3 kb. We recently identified a unique site within the MLL bcr that is highly susceptible to DNA double-strand cleavage by classic topo II inhibitors (e.g., etoposide and doxorubicin). Here, we report that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be induced by either catalytic topo II inhibitors, genotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which do not target topo II, or nongenotoxic stimuli of apoptotic cell death, suggesting that this site-specific cleavage is part of a generalized cellular response to an apoptotic stimulus. We also show that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be linked to the higher-order chromatin fragmentation that occurs during the initial stages of apoptosis, possibly through cleavage of DNA loops at their anchorage sites to the nuclear matrix. In addition, we show that site-specific cleavage is conserved between species, as specific DNA cleavage can also be demonstrated within the murine MLL locus. Lastly, site-specific cleavage during apoptosis can also be identified at the AML1 locus, a locus which is also frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements present in t-AML patients. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential involvement of higher-order chromatin fragmentation which occurs as a part of a generalized apoptotic response in a mechanism leading to chromosomal translocation of the MLL and AML1 genes and subsequent t-AML. PMID:9199342

Stanulla, M; Wang, J; Chervinsky, D S; Thandla, S; Aplan, P D

1997-01-01

366

Evaluation of DNA fragments covering the entire genome of a monopartite begomovirus for induction of viral resistance in transgenic plants via gene silencing.  

PubMed

Tomato-infecting begomoviruses, a member of whitefly-transmitted geminivirus, cause the most devastating virus disease complex of cultivated tomato crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous strategies have been used to engineer crops for their resistance to geminiviruses. However, nearly all have concentrated on engineering the replication-associated gene (Rep), but not on a comprehensive evaluation of the entire virus genome. In this study, Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV), a predominant tomato-infecting begomovirus in Taiwan, was subjected to the investigation of the viral gene fragments conferring resistance to geminiviruses in transgenic plants. Ten transgenic constructs covering the entire ToLCTWV genome were fused to a silencer DNA, the middle half of N gene of Tomato spot wilt virus (TSWV), to induce gene silencing and these constructs were transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Two constructs derived from IRC1 (intergenic region flanked with 5' end Rep) and C2 (partial C2 ORF) were able to render resistance to ToLCTWV in transgenic N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic plants transformed with two other constructs, C2C3 (overlapping region of C2 and C3 ORFs) and Rep2 (3' end of the C1 ORF), significantly delayed the symptom development. Detection of siRNA confirmed that the mechanism of resistance was via gene silencing. This study demonstrated for the first time the screening of the entire genome of a monopartite begomovirus to discover viral DNA fragments that might be suitable for conferring virus resistance, and which could be potential candidates for developing transgenic plants with durable and broad-spectrum resistance to a DNA virus via a gene silencing approach. PMID:21597979

Lin, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

2012-04-01

367

Effect of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormality and histopathology of testes of male Wister rats.  

PubMed

The present study aims of to investigate the effects of low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on histopathology and apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells as well as lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality and DNA fragmentation. Eighteen animals were divided into three groups each group contain six animals. The rats were divided into three groups as following: Group 1 was administered saline (control). Group 2, received nandrolone decanoate (3mg/kg/weekly) (low dose) with intramuscular injection. Group 3, received intramuscular injection dose of nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/weekly) (high dose). After 8 weeks, caspase-3 assay was used to determine the apoptotic cells. The sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and testosterone concentration were also investigated in the experimental groups of both low and high dose compared to the control groups. Treated group with high dose showed degenerated germinal epithelial cells sloughed in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, where almost seminiferous tubules were devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa compared to control and group treated with low dose. Also, a significant increase of lipid peroxidation levels and heat shock proteins was observed in two groups administrated with two different doses of ND while, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone concentration was significantly decreased in two treated group when compared with control. Administration of ND at high and low doses leads to deteriorated sperm parameters, DNA fragmentation and testicular apoptosis. In conclusion, the administration ND at high doses more effective on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, sperm abnormality, histopathology, apoptotic and DNA changes compared to low dose group and to control group. PMID:25440442

Mohamed, Hanaa Mahmoud; Mohamed, Manal Abdul-Hamid

2015-01-01

368

C-Terminal Domain Swapping of SSB Changes the Size of the ssDNA Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) plays an important role in DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, and is therefore essential for cell survival. Bacterial SSB consists of an N-terminal ssDNA-binding/oligomerization domain and a flexible C-terminal protein-protein interaction domain. We characterized the ssDNA-binding properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae SSB (KpSSB), Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 SSB (StSSB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 SSB (PaSSB), and two chimeric KpSSB proteins, namely, KpSSBnStSSBc and KpSSBnPaSSBc. The C-terminal domain of StSSB or PaSSB was exchanged with that of KpSSB through protein chimeragenesis. By using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we characterized the stoichiometry of KpSSB, StSSB, PaSSB, KpSSBnStSSBc, and KpSSBnPaSSBc, complexed with a series of ssDNA homopolymers. The binding site sizes were determined to be 26 ± 2, 21 ± 2, 29 ± 2, 21 ± 2, and 29 ± 2 nucleotides (nt), respectively. Comparison of the binding site sizes of KpSSB, KpSSBnStSSBc, and KpSSBnPaSSBc showed that the C-terminal domain swapping of SSB changes the size of the binding site. Our observations suggest that not only the conserved N-terminal domain but also the C-terminal domain of SSB is an important determinant for ssDNA binding. PMID:25162017

Huang, Yen-Hua

2014-01-01

369

True ternary fission, the collinear decay into fragments of similar size in the 252Cf(sf) and 235U(nth, f) reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collinear cluster decay in 252Cf(sf, fff), with three cluster fragments of different masses (e.g. 132Sn, 52-48Ca, 68-72Ni), which has been observed by the FOBOS group in JINR, has established a new decay mode of heavy nuclei, the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT). The same type of ternary fission decay has been observed in the reaction 235U(nth, fff). This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has been predicted many times in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss true ternary fission (TFFF) into three nuclei of almost equal size (e.g. Z=98?Zi=32, 34, 32) in the same systems. The possible fission channels are predicted from potential-energy (PES) calculations. These PES's show pronounced minima for several ternary fragmentation decays, e.g. for 252Cf(sf) and for 235U(nth, f). They suggest the existence of a variety of collinear ternary fission modes. The TFFF-decays chosen in this letter have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed collinear CCT-decays. The data obtained in the above mentioned experiments allow us to extract the yield for these TFFF-decays in both systems by using specific gates on the measured parameters. These yields are a few 1.0?10-6/(binary fission).

von Oertzen, W.; Nasirov, A. K.

2014-06-01

370

Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI-DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Transfection efficiency is directly associated with the expression level and quantity of recombinant protein after the transient transfection of animal cells. The transfection process can be influenced by many still-unknown factors, so it is valuable to study the precise mechanism and explore these factors in gene delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is considered to have high transfection efficiency and endosome-disrupting capacity. Here we aimed to investigate optimal conditions for transfection efficiency by setting different parameters, including salt ion concentration, DNA/PEI ratio, and incubation time. We examined the PEI-DNA particle size using a Malvern particle size analyzer and assessed the transfection efficiency using flow cytometry in Chinese hamster ovary-S cells. Salt ions, higher amounts of PEI tended to improve the aggregation of PEI-DNA particles and the particle size of PEI-DNA complexes and the transfection efficiency were increased. Besides, the particle size was also found to benefit from longer incubation time. However, the transfection efficiency increased to maximum of 68.92 % at an incubation time of 10 min, but decreased significantly thereafter to 23.71 %, when incubating for 120 min (P < 0.05). Besides, PEI-DNA complexes formed in salt-free condition were unstable. Our results suggest DNA and PEI incubated in 300 mM NaCl at a ratio of 1:4 for 10 min could achieve the optimal transfection efficiency. Our results might provide guidance for the optimization of transfection efficiency and the industrial production of recombinant proteins. PMID:24166598

Sang, Yunxia; Xie, Kui; Mu, Yubin; Lei, Yun; Zhang, Baohong; Xiong, Sheng; Chen, Yantian; Qi, Nianmin

2015-01-01

371

DNA evidence for historic population size and past ecosystem impacts of gray whales  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem restoration may require returning threatened populations of ecologically pivotal species to near their former abundances, but it is often difficult to estimate historic population size of species that have been heavily exploited. Eastern Pacific gray whales play a key ecological role in their Arctic feeding grounds and are widely thought to have returned to their prewhaling abundance. Recent mortality spikes might signal that the population has reached long-term carrying capacity, but an alternative is that this decline was due to shifting climatic conditions on Arctic feeding grounds. We used a genetic approach to estimate prewhaling abundance of gray whales and report DNA variability at 10 loci that is typical of a population of ?76,000–118,000 individuals, approximately three to five times more numerous than today's average census size of 22,000. Coalescent simulations indicate these estimates may include the entire Pacific metapopulation, suggesting that our average measurement of ?96,000 individuals was probably distributed between the eastern and currently endangered western Pacific populations. These levels of genetic variation suggest the eastern population is at most at 28–56% of its historical abundance and should be considered depleted. If used to inform management, this would halve acceptable human-caused mortality for this population from 417 to 208 per year. Potentially profound ecosystem impacts may have resulted from a decline from 96,000 gray whales to the current population. At previous levels, gray whales may have seasonally resuspended 700 million cubic meters of sediment, as much as 12 Yukon Rivers, and provided food to a million sea birds. PMID:17848511

Alter, S. Elizabeth; Rynes, Eric; Palumbi, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

372

Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by Bamboo mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background The genes of plants can be up- or down-regulated during viral infection to influence the replication of viruses. Identification of these differentially expressed genes could shed light on the defense systems employed by plants and the mechanisms involved in the adaption of viruses to plant cells. Differential gene expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants in response to infection with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was revealed using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Results Following inoculation with BaMV, N. benthamiana displayed differential gene expression in response to the infection. Isolation, cloning, and sequencing analysis using cDNA-AFLP furnished 90 cDNA fragments with eight pairs of selective primers. Fifteen randomly selected genes were used for a combined virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) knockdown experiment, using BaMV infection to investigate the roles played by these genes during viral infection, specifically addressing the means by which these genes influence the accumulation of BaMV protein. Nine of the 15 genes showed either a positive or a negative influence on the accumulation of BaMV protein. Six knockdown plants showed an increase in the accumulation of BaMV, suggesting that they played a role in the resistance to viral infection, while three plants showed a reduction in coat protein, indicating a positive influence on the accumulation of BaMV in plants. An interesting observation was that eight of the nine plants showing an increase in BaMV coat protein were associated with cell rescue, defense, death, aging, signal transduction, and energy production. Conclusions This study reports an efficient and straightforward method for the identification of host genes involved in viral infection. We succeeded in establishing a cDNA-AFLP system to help track changes in gene expression patterns in N. benthamiana plants when infected with BaMV. The combination of both DNA-AFLP and VIGS methodologies made it possible to screen a large number of genes and identify those associated with infections of plant viruses. In this report, 9 of the 15 analyzed genes exhibited either a positive or a negative influence on the accumulation of BaMV in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:21184690

2010-01-01

373

DNA driven self-assembly of micron-sized rods using DNA-grafted bacteriophage fd virions  

E-print Network

We have functionalized the sides of fd bacteriophage virions with oligonucleotides to induce DNA hybridization driven self-assembly of high aspect ratio filamentous particles. Potential impacts of this new structure range from an entirely new building block in DNA origami structures, inclusion of virions in DNA nanostructures and nanomachines, to a new means of adding thermotropic control to lyotropic liquid crystal systems. A protocol for producing the virions in bulk is reviewed. Thiolated oligonucleotides are attached to the viral capsid using a heterobifunctional chemical linker. A commonly used system is utilized, where a sticky, single-stranded DNA strand is connected to an inert double-stranded spacer to increase inter-particle connectivity. Solutions of fd virions carrying complementary strands are mixed, annealed, and their aggregation is studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aggregation is clearly observed on cooling, with some degree of local order, and is reversible when temperature is cycled through the DNA hybridization transition.

R. R. Unwin; R. A. Cabanas; T. Yanagishima; T. R. Blower; H. Takahashi; G. P. C. Salmond; J. M. Edwardson; S. Fraden; E. Eiser

2014-11-18

374

Optical/Near-infrared Polarization Survey of Sh 2-29: Magnetic Fields, Dense Cloud Fragmentations, and Anomalous Dust Grain Sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sh 2-29 is a conspicuous star-forming region marked by the presence of massive embedded stars as well as several notable interstellar structures. In this research, our goals were to determine the role of magnetic fields and to study the size distribution of interstellar dust particles within this turbulent environment. We have used a set of optical and near-infrared polarimetric data obtained at OPD/LNA (Brazil) and CTIO (Chile), correlated with extinction maps, Two Micron All Sky Survey data, and images from the Digitized Sky Survey and Spitzer. The region's most striking feature is a swept out interstellar cavity whose polarimetric maps indicate that magnetic field lines were dragged outward, piling up along its borders. This led to a higher magnetic strength value (?400 ?G) and an abrupt increase in polarization degree, probably due to an enhancement in alignment efficiency. Furthermore, dense cloud fragmentations with peak AV between 20 and 37 mag were probably triggered by its expansion. The presence of 24 ?m point-like sources indicates possible newborn stars inside this dense environment. A statistical analysis of the angular dispersion function revealed areas where field lines are aligned in a well-ordered pattern, seemingly due to compression effects from the H II region expansion. Finally, Serkowski function fits were used to study the ratio of the total-to-selective extinction, revealing a dual population of anomalous grain particle sizes. This trend suggests that both effects of coagulation and fragmentation of interstellar grains are present in the region. Based on observations collected at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (CTIO, Chile) and Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA/MCT, Brazil).

Santos, Fábio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Reis, Wilson; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.

2014-03-01

375

Activation of Rac1 Increases c-Jun NH 2Terminal Kinase Activity and DNA Fragmentation in a Calcium-Dependent Manner in Rat Myoblast Cell Line H9c2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the role of intracellular Ca2+ in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and DNA fragmentation in the rat myoblast cell line H9c2 using small GTP-binding protein Rac1. A constitutively active mutant of Rac1 (V12-Rac1) increased JNK-responsive gene expression 6-fold, although this increase was attenuated by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. V12-Rac1 also increased the number of DNA fragmentated cells.

Motohiro Nishida; Taku Nagao; Hitoshi Kurose

1999-01-01

376

Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions

Isabel Taverniers; Erik Van Bockstaele; Marc De Loose

2004-01-01

377

Genetic relationship among 19 accessions of six species of Chenopodium L., by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAPD technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 19 accessions, including six species of the genus Chenopodium. A dendrogram was constructed using UPGMA from 399 DNA markers. The molecular data clustered species and accessions into five different groups. Group 1 with three cultivated varieties of C. nuttalliae, Group 2 included eight cultivars and two wild varieties of C.

Paulo M. Ruas; Alejandro Bonifacio; Claudete F. Ruas; Daniel J. Fairbanks; William R. Andersen

1999-01-01

378

Identification and Typing of Malassezia Species by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer and Large-Subunit Regions of Ribosomal DNA  

PubMed Central

Malassezia yeasts are associated with several dermatological disorders. The conventional identification of Malassezia species by phenotypic methods is complicated and time-consuming, and the results based on culture methods are difficult to interpret. A comparative molecular approach based on the use of three molecular techniques, namely, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer, and sequencing of the D1 and D2 domains of the large-subunit ribosomal DNA region, was applied for the identification of Malassezia species. All species could be correctly identified by means of these methods. The results of AFLP analysis and sequencing were in complete agreement with each other. However, some discrepancies were noted when the molecular methods were compared with the phenotypic method of identification. Specific genotypes were distinguished within a collection of Malassezia furfur isolates from Canadian sources. AFLP analysis revealed significant geographical differences between the North American and European M. furfur strains. PMID:15365020

Gupta, Aditya K.; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart; Summerbell, Richard; Batra, Roma

2004-01-01

379

Complexity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: combined results from esterase electrophoresis and rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

Esterase electrophoretic typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA regions (ribotyping) were used to differentiate 102 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates obtained from chronic lung infection in 23 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and two reference strains (including the type strain ATCC 10145). Twenty-five zymotypes were obtained with the former method and 16 ribotypes with the latter. Combination of the two typing systems led to the finding of 30 different types. Our data highlights the physiopathological complexity of P. aeruginosa infection in CF as, in six individual cases, several types were found among isolates from a given patient. On the other hand, two unique types were found in two and three patients respectively, raising the possibility of cross-infections. PMID:1675610

Denamur, E; Picard, B; Goullet, P; Bingen, E; Lambert, N; Elion, J

1991-06-01

380

Gene-sized pieces produced by digestion of linear duplex DNA with mung bean nuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single-strand specific endonuclease from mung bean sprouts catalyzes a limited number of doublestrand cleavages in linear duplex DNA from bacteriophages Tâ, gh-1 and PM2. A molecular weight range of approximately 1.4 to 0.2 x 10⁶ for the limit products derived from each DNA was estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The number of cleavages per Tâ DNA molecule at the

Warren D. Kroeker; David Kowalski

1978-01-01

381

Nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of a protein encoded in a small herpes simplex virus DNA fragment capable of trans-inducing alpha genes.  

PubMed Central

The five alpha genes of herpes simplex virus 1 are the first set of genes to be expressed after infection. Previous studies have shown that alpha genes resident in eukaryotic cells are induced by infection with herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 but not by other herpesviruses and indicate that the alpha trans-inducing factor was a structural component of the virion. This factor induces genes linked to a bona fide promoter and containing at the 5' end a small sequence derived from the promoter-regulatory domains of alpha genes. We report the sequence of a small DNA fragment shown previously to be capable of expressing the alpha trans-inducing factor in transient expression systems. The only gene encoded in its entirety in this fragment is predicted to specify a 479 amino acid protein with a Mr of 53,053. The precise termini of the 1.74-kilobase mRNA specifying this protein were determined in our 5' and 3' S1 nuclease protection studies. Images PMID:2994050

Pellett, P E; McKnight, J L; Jenkins, F J; Roizman, B

1985-01-01

382

Auxin-induced Rapid Degradation of Inhibitor of Caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) Induces Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation, Caspase Activation, and Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) is a major apoptotic nuclease, responsible for DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. CAD is normally activated in apoptosis as a result of caspase cleavage of its inhibitory chaperone ICAD. Other aspects of CAD regulation are poorly understood. In particular, it has been unclear whether direct CAD activation in non-apoptotic living cells can trigger cell death. Taking advantage of the auxin-inducible degron (AID) system, we have developed a suicide system with which ICAD is rapidly degraded in living cells in response to the plant hormone auxin. Our studies demonstrate that rapid ICAD depletion is sufficient to activate CAD and induce cell death in DT40 and yeast cells. In the vertebrate cells, ectopic CAD activation triggered caspase activation and subsequent hallmarks of caspase-dependent apoptotic changes, including phosphatidylserine exposure and nuclear fragmentation. These observations not only suggest that CAD activation drives apoptosis through a positive feedback loop, but also identify a unique suicide system that can be used for controlling gene-modified organisms. PMID:25248749

Samejima, Kumiko; Ogawa, Hiromi; Ageichik, Alexander V.; Peterson, Kevin L.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Kanemaki, Masato T.; Earnshaw, William C.

2014-01-01

383

Gene transfer in magnetic bacteria: transposon mutagenesis and cloning of genomic DNA fragments required for magnetosome synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Broad-host-range IncP and IncQ plasmids have been transferred to the aerobic magnetic bacterium Aquaspirillum sp. strain AMB-1. Conjugal matings with Escherichia coli S17-1 allowed high-frequency transfer of the RK2 derivative pRK415 (4.5 x 10(-3) transconjugant per recipient cell) and the RSF1010 derivative pKT230 (3.0 x 10(-3) transconjugant per recipient). These plasmids successfully formed autonomous replicons in transconjugants and could be isolated and transformed back into E. coli, illustrating their potential as shuttle vectors. A mobilizable plasmid containing transposon Tn5 was transferred to Aquaspirillum sp. strain AMB-1 and also to the obligately microaerophilic magnetic bacterium Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum MS-1. Five nonmagnetic kanamycin-resistant mutants of Aquaspirillum sp. strain AMB-1 in which Tn5 was shown to be integrated into the chromosome were obtained. Different genomic fragments containing the mutagenized regions were cloned into E. coli. Two genomic fragments were restriction mapped, and the site of Tn5 insertion was determined. They were shown to be identical, although derived from independent transposon insertions. One of these clones was found to hybridize strongly to regions of the A. magnetotacticum MS-1 chromosome. This is the first report of gene transfer in a magnetic bacterium. Images PMID:1314800

Matsunaga, T; Nakamura, C; Burgess, J G; Sode, K

1992-01-01

384

DNA profiling and plant variety registration. III: The statistical assessment of distinctness in wheat using amplified fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of AFLP analysis to produce DNA profiles from a set of 55 wheat varieties, commonly grown in the UK over the past\\u000a 60 years, is described. Using six different primer pairs, 90 polymorphic bands were readily recognised and recorded. These\\u000a AFLP bands are not significantly clustered and hence can be used with some confidence, even though they are

John R. Law; Paolo Donini; Robert M. D. Koebner; James C. Reeves; Robert J. Cooke

1998-01-01

385

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67?±?0.38) and (5.42?±?0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?DNA damage and necrosis in rats. PMID:24329421

Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2013-12-13

386

Okazaki Fragment Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Cellular DNA replication requires efficient copying of the double-stranded chromosomal DNA. The leading strand is elongated continuously in the direction of fork opening, whereas the lagging strand is made discontinuously in the opposite direction. The lagging strand needs to be processed to form a functional DNA segment. Genetic analyses and reconstitution experiments identified proteins and multiple pathways responsible for maturation of the lagging strand. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes the lagging-strand fragments are initiated by RNA primers, which are removed by a joining mechanism involving strand displacement of the primer into a flap, flap removal, and then ligation. Although the prokaryotic fragments are ?1200 nucleotides long, the eukaryotic fragments are much shorter, with lengths determined by nucleosome periodicity. The prokaryotic joining mechanism is simple and efficient. The eukaryotic maturation mechanism involves many enzymes, possibly three pathways, and regulation that can shift from high efficiency to high fidelity. PMID:23378587

Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A.

2013-01-01

387

Nucleolin forms a specific complex with a fragment of the viral (minus) strand of minute virus of mice DNA.  

PubMed Central

Nucleolin, a major nucleolar protein, forms a specific complex with the genome (a single-stranded DNA molecule of minus polarity) of parvovirus MVMp in vitro. By means of South-western blotting experiments, we mapped the binding site to a 222-nucleotide motif within the non-structural transcription unit, referred to as NUBE (nucleolin-binding element). The specificity of the interaction was confirmed by competitive gel retardation assays. DNaseI and nuclease S1 probing showed that NUBE folds into a secondary structure, in agreement with a computer-assisted conformational prediction. The whole NUBE may be necessary for the interaction with nucleolin, as suggested by the failure of NUBE subfragments to bind the protein and by the nuclease footprinting experiments. The present work extends the previously reported ability of nucleolin to form a specific complex with ribosomal RNA, to a defined DNA substrate. Considering the tropism of MVMp DNA replication for host cell nucleoli, these data raise the possibility that nucleolin may contribute to the regulation of the parvoviral life-cycle. Images PMID:1408821

Barrijal, S; Perros, M; Gu, Z; Avalosse, B L; Belenguer, P; Amalric, F; Rommelaere, J

1992-01-01

388

Real-time PCR designs to estimate nuclear and mitochondrial DNA copy number in forensic and ancient DNA studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore different designs to estimate both nuclear and mitochondrial human DNA (mtDNA) content based on the detection of the 5? nuclease activity of the Taq DNA polymerase using fluorogenic probes and a real-time quantitative PCR detection system. Human mtDNA quantification was accomplished by monitoring the real-time progress of the PCR-amplification of two different fragment sizes (113 and 287bp) within

Antonio Alonso; Pablo Mart??n; Cristina Albarrán; Pilar Garc??a; Oscar Garc??a; Lourdes Fernández de Simón; Julia Garc??a-Hirschfeld; Manuel Sancho; Concepción de la Rúa; Jose Fernández-Piqueras

2004-01-01

389

Secure Outsourcing of DNA Searching via Finite Marina Blanton and Mehrdad Aliasgari  

E-print Network

], and specific DNA-based ancestry testing [5]. DNAs or DNA fragments used in such computations are large in size to a ge- netic test. Error-resilient searching is achieved by representing the pat- tern as a finite over DNA data in a private manner with the purpose of identifying ancestry relationships or genetic

Boyer, Edmond

390

Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of artificial chromosome vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of exogenous DNA that range in size up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast by ligating them to vector sequences that allow their propagation as linear artificial chromosomes. Individual clones of yeast and human DNA that have been analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis appear to represent faithful replicas of the source DNA. The efficiency with

D. T. Burke; G. F. Carle; M. V. Olson

1987-01-01

391

The erratic mitochondrial clock: variations of mutation rate, not population size, affect mtDNA diversity across birds and mammals  

PubMed Central

Background During the last ten years, major advances have been made in characterizing and understanding the evolution of mitochondrial DNA, the most popular marker of molecular biodiversity. Several important results were recently reported using mammals as model organisms, including (i) the absence of relationship between mitochondrial DNA diversity and life-history or ecological variables, (ii) the absence of prominent adaptive selection, contrary to what was found in invertebrates, and (iii) the unexpectedly large variation in neutral substitution rate among lineages, revealing a possible link with species maximal longevity. We propose to challenge these results thanks to the bird/mammal comparison. Direct estimates of population size are available in birds, and this group presents striking life-history trait differences with mammals (higher mass-specific metabolic rate and longevity). These properties make birds the ideal model to directly test for population size effects, and to discriminate between competing hypotheses about the causes of substitution rate variation. Results A phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b third-codon position confirms that the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate is quite variable in birds, passerines being the fastest evolving order. On average, mitochondrial DNA evolves slower in birds than in mammals of similar body size. This result is in agreement with the longevity hypothesis, and contradicts the hypothesis of a metabolic rate-dependent mutation rate. Birds show no footprint of adaptive selection on cytochrome b evolutionary patterns, but no link between direct estimates of population size and cytochrome b diversity. The mutation rate is the best predictor we have of within-species mitochondrial diversity in birds. It partly explains the differences in mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns observed between mammals and birds, previously interpreted as reflecting Hill-Robertson interferences with the W chromosome. Conclusion Mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns in birds are strongly influenced by the wide, unexpected variation of mutation rate across species. From a fundamental point of view, these results are strongly consistent with a relationship between species maximal longevity and mitochondrial mutation rate, in agreement with the mitochondrial theory of ageing. Form an applied point of view, this study reinforces and extends the message of caution previously expressed for mammals: mitochondrial data tell nothing about species population sizes, and strongly depart the molecular clock assumption. PMID:19284537

Nabholz, Benoit; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

2009-01-01

392

Induction of circles of heterogeneous sizes in carcinogen-treated cells: two-dimensional gel analysis of circular DNA molecules.  

PubMed Central

Extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules are associated with genomic instability, and circles containing inverted repeats were suggested to be the early amplification products. Here we present for the first time the use of neutral-neutral two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis as a technique for the identification, isolation, and characterization of heterogeneous populations of circular molecules. Using this technique, we demonstrated that in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-treated simian virus 40-transformed Chinese hamster cells (CO60 cells), the viral sequences are amplified as circular molecules of various sizes. The supercoiled circular fraction was isolated and was shown to contain molecules with inverted repeats. 2D gel analysis of extrachromosomal DNA from CHO cells revealed circular molecules containing highly repetitive DNA which are similar in size to the simian virus 40-amplified molecules. Moreover, enhancement of the amount of circular DNA was observed upon N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment of CHO cells. The implications of these findings regarding the processes of gene amplification and genomic instability and the possible use of the 2D gel technique to study these phenomena are discussed. PMID:8628266

Cohen, S; Lavi, S

1996-01-01

393