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1

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-01-01

2

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-02-01

3

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

4

Sizing of single fluorescently stained DNA fragments by scanning microscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe an approach to determine DNA fragment sizes based on the fluorescence detection of single adsorbed fragments on specifically coated glass cover slips. The brightness of single fragments stained with the DNA bisintercalation dye TOTO-1 is determined by scanning the surface with a confocal microscope. The brightness of adsorbed fragments is found to be proportional to the fragment length. The method needs only minute amount of DNA, beyond inexpensive and easily available surface coatings, like poly-l-lysine, 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane and polyornithine, are utilizable. We performed DNA-sizing of fragment lengths between 2 and 14 kb. Further, we resolved the size distribution before and after an enzymatic restriction digest. At this a separation of buffers or enzymes was unnecessary. DNA sizes were determined within an uncertainty of 7–14%. The proposed method is straightforward and can be applied to standardized microtiter plates.

Laib, Stephan; Rankl, Michael; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Seeger, Stefan

2003-01-01

5

Distribution of DNA fragment sizes after irradiation with ions.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is responsible for production of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a DNA structure. In contrast to sparsely ionizing radiation, densely ionizing radiation produces DSBs that are non-randomly distributed along the DNA molecule and can form clusters of various size. The paper discusses minimalistic models that describe observable patterns of fragment length in DNA segments irradiated with heavy ions and applies the formalism to interpret the recent experimental data collected by use of atomic force microscope (AFM). PMID:19823885

Gudowska-Nowak, E; Psonka-Anto?czyk, K; Weron, K; Elsässer, T; Taucher-Scholz, G

2009-11-01

6

Monte Carlo predictions of DNA fragment-size distributions for large sizes after HZE particle irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSBs (double-strand breaks) produced by densely ionizing space radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. DSB clustering at large scales, from >100 Mbp down to approximately 2 kbp, is modeled using a Monte-Carlo algorithm. A random-walk model of chromatin is combined with a track model, that predicts the radial distribution of energy from an ion, and the RLC (randomly-located-clusters) formalism, in software called DNAbreak. This model generalizes the random-breakage model, whose broken-stick fragment-size distribution is applicable to low-LET radiation. DSB induction due to track interaction with the DNA volume depends on the radiation quality parameter Q. This dose-independent parameter depends only weakly on LET. Multi-track, high-dose effects depend on the cluster intensity parameter lambda, proportional to fluence as defined by the RLC formalism. After lambda is determined by a numerical experiment, the model reduces to one adjustable parameter Q. The best numerical fits to the experimental data, determining Q, are obtained. The knowledge of lambda and Q allows us to give biophysically based extrapolations of high-dose DNA fragment-size data to low doses or to high LETs.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.

2001-01-01

7

DNA Fragmentation Simulation Method (FSM) and Fragment Size Matching Improve aCGH Performance of FFPE Tissues  

PubMed Central

Whole-genome copy number analysis platforms, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, are transformative research discovery tools. In cancer, the identification of genomic aberrations with these approaches has generated important diagnostic and prognostic markers, and critical therapeutic targets. While robust for basic research studies, reliable whole-genome copy number analysis has been unsuccessful in routine clinical practice due to a number of technical limitations. Most important, aCGH results have been suboptimal because of the poor integrity of DNA derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Using self-hybridizations of a single DNA sample we observed that aCGH performance is significantly improved by accurate DNA size determination and the matching of test and reference DNA samples so that both possess similar fragment sizes. Based on this observation, we developed a novel DNA fragmentation simulation method (FSM) that allows customized tailoring of the fragment sizes of test and reference samples, thereby lowering array failure rates. To validate our methods, we combined FSM with Universal Linkage System (ULS) labeling to study a cohort of 200 tumor samples using Agilent 1 M feature arrays. Results from FFPE samples were equivalent to results from fresh samples and those available through the glioblastoma Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This study demonstrates that rigorous control of DNA fragment size improves aCGH performance. This methodological advance will permit the routine analysis of FFPE tumor samples for clinical trials and in daily clinical practice.

Craig, Justin M.; Vena, Natalie; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Idbaih, Ahmed; Fouse, Shaun D.; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Hill, D. Ashley; Margraf, Linda R.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Kieran, Mark W.; Norden, Andrew D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Loda, Massimo; Santagata, Sandro; Ligon, Keith L.; Ligon, Azra H.

2012-01-01

8

Linear induction of DNA double-strand breakage with X-ray dose, as determined from DNA fragment size distribution  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has been applied to separate DNA from mouse L1210 cells exposed to X-ray doses of 1 to 50 Gy. Simultaneous separation of marker chromosomes in the range 0.1 to 12.6 Mbp allowed calculation of the size distribution of the radiation-induced fragments. The distribution was consistent with a random induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs). A theoretical relationship between the size distribution of such fragments and the average number of induced breaks was used to calculate the yield and dose response. The DNA distribution was determined by both radiolabeling and fluorescence staining. Two independent methods were use to evaluate the radiation-induced yield of DSBs, both assuming that all DNA is broken at random. In the first method we compared the theoretical and experimental fraction of DNA that is below a given size limit. By this method we estimated the yield to be 0.006-0.007 DSB/GY per million base pairs using the radiolabel and 0.004-0.008 DSB/Gy per million base pairs by fluorescence staining. The dose response was linear in both cases. In the second method we looked only at the size distribution in the resolving part of the gel and compared it to the theoretical distribution. By this method a value of approximately 0.012 DSB/Gy/Mb was found, using fluorescence as a measure of DNA distribution. In a normal diploid mammalian genome of size 60000 Mbp, this is equivalent to a yield of 25-50 DSBs/Gy or 70 DSBs/GY, respectively. The second approach, which looks only at the smaller fragments, may overestimate the yield, while the first approach suffers from uncertainties about the fraction of DNA irreversibly trapped in the well. The assay has the capacity to detect a dose of less than 1 Gy. 58 refs., 10 figs.

Erixon, K.; Cedervall, B. [Karolinksa Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-05-01

9

Sizing Highly Fragmented DNA in Individual Apoptotic Cells Using the Comet Assay and a DNA Crosslinking Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

TK6 human B lymphoblast cells exposed to ionizing radiation undergo apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner. The resulting highly fragmented DNA is easily detected using the comet assay, a sensitive microscopic gel electrophoresis method capable of measuring DNA strand breaks in individual cells. The degree of DNA fragmentation may be indicative of different stages in the fragmentation process, responses

Peggy L. Olive; Judit P. Banáth

1995-01-01

10

The use of biphasic linear ramped pulsed field gel electrophoresis to quantify DNA damage based on fragment size distribution  

SciTech Connect

The development of biphasic linear pulse ramping gel electrophoresis has permitted resolution of DNA fragments from 200 Kbp to 6 Mbp in a single gel. We used this technique to measure radiation-induced DNA damage based on fragment size. Human colon cancer cells (HT29 and LS174T) and Chinese hamster ovary cells were embedded in agarose, deproteinized, irradiated with 5-80 Gy, and assessed for DNA double strand breakage using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The frequency of DNA double strand breakage determined using a previously published method was compared to the breakage frequency calculated using the fragment size distribution. Both methods produced similar estimates for breakage frequency of approximately 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} breaks Gy{sup {minus}1} bp{sup {minus}1}. These findings suggest that biphasic linear pulse ramping gel electrophoresis can yield a quantitative estimate of DNA fragment distribution resulting from irradiation. The ability to quantify the distribution of DNA fragment sizes produced by irradiation should yield information concerning the mechanisms of both DNA double strand break induction and repair. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Lawrence, T.S.; Normolle, D.P.; Davis, M.A.; Maybaum, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1993-10-20

11

Accurate evaluation of the sizes of DNA fragments (from 30 to 4700 kb) in pulse field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Construction of long-range genomic maps by pulse field gel electrophoresis requires optimum resolution of large DNA fragments. Using the transverse-alternating field electrophoresis system, we describe a method to accurately evaluate the sizes of fragments generated by rare-cutter digestions within the 30-4700-kb range. A protocol generating large (greater than 1000 kb) molecules by partial digestion is also reported. PMID:1667081

Crété, N; Delabar, J M; Sinet, P M; Créau-Goldberg, N

1991-12-01

12

Correlations between fragment sizes in sequential fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size correlations in a sequential fragmentation process originate from the correlations the progeny of a single fragmentation event necessarily have. A multidimensional equation describing the binary fragmentation of a unit segment is formulated. The fragments are assumed to keep their positions with respect to the original segment. If the fragmentation rate is not dependent on fragment size the distribution 0305-4470/30/21/021/img1 for n successive adjacent fragments is shown to asymptotically approach an n-dimensional log-normal distribution. Explicit forms of the asymptotic distribution and the correlations are given in terms of the parameters of 0305-4470/30/21/021/img2, the probability that a fragmentation event with parent size y produces progeny size x.

Lensu, Mikko

1997-11-01

13

A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to < 0.01 Mbp, is modeled using computer simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

2000-01-01

14

Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

2001-01-01

15

Fragmentation of Genomic DNA using Microwave Irradiation  

PubMed Central

An unconventional approach for DNA fragmentation was investigated to explore its feasibility as an alternative to the existing DNA fragmentation techniques for next-generation DNA sequencing application. Current methods are based on strong-force liquid shearing or specialized enzymatic treatments. There are shortcomings for these platforms yet to be addressed, including aerosolization of genomic materials, which may result in the cross-contamination and biohazards; the difficulty in multiplexing; and the potential sequence biases. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the microwave irradiation as a simple, unbiased, and easy-to-multiplex way to fragment genomic DNA randomly. In addition, heating DNA at high temperature was attempted for the same purpose and for comparison. Adaptive focused acoustic sonication was used as the control. The yield and functionality for the DNA fragments and DNA fragment libraries were analyzed to assess the feasibility and use of the proposed approach. Both microwave irradiation and thermal heating can fragment genomic DNA to the size ranges suitable for next-generation sequencing (NGS) shotgun library preparation. However, both treatments caused severe reduction in PCR amplification efficiency, which led to low production in emulsion PCR (emPCR). The result was improved by amplification prior to emPCR. Further improvements, such as DNA strand repairing, are needed for the method to be applied practically in NGS.

Yang, Yu; Hang, Jun

2013-01-01

16

RNA-Linked DNA Fragments In Vitro*  

PubMed Central

RNA-linked DNA fragments are intermediates in DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates by treatment with toluene. Covalent linkage of a short RNA stretch to the 5? end of the DNA is proved by transfer of 32P from [?-32P]dNTP to ribonucleotides upon digestion with alkali or pancreatic RNase, and by a small decrease in the molecular size upon alkaline hydrolysis. The 32P transfer experiments reveal a unique structure...p(rPy)p(rA)p(rU or rC)p(dC)p... at the RNA-DNA junction.

Sugino, Akio; Okazaki, Reiji

1973-01-01

17

DNA fragmentation in microorganisms assessed in situ.  

PubMed

Chromosomal DNA fragmentation may be a direct or indirect outcome of cell death. Unlike DNA fragmentation in higher eukaryotic cells, DNA fragmentation in microorganisms is rarely studied. We report an adaptation of a diffusion-based assay, developed as a kit, which allows for simple and rapid discrimination of bacteria with fragmented DNA. Intact cells were embedded in an agarose microgel on a slide, incubated in a lysis buffer to partially remove the cell walls, membranes, and proteins, and then stained with a DNA fluorochrome, SYBR Gold. Identifying cells with fragmented DNA uses peripheral diffusion of DNA fragments. Cells without DNA fragmentation show only limited spreading of DNA fiber loops. These results have been seen in several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as in yeasts. Detection of DNA fragmentation was confirmed by fluoroquinolone treatment and by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Proteus mirabilis with spontaneously fragmented DNA during exponential and stationary growth or Escherichia coli with DNA damaged after exposure to hydrogen peroxide or antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or ampicillin, was clearly detected. Similarly, fragmented DNA was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after amphotericin B treatment. Our assay may be useful for the simple and rapid evaluation of DNA damage and repair as well as cell death, either spontaneous or induced by exogenous stimuli, including antimicrobial agents or environmental conditions. PMID:18689511

Fernández, José Luis; Cartelle, Mónica; Muriel, Lourdes; Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, María; Goyanes, Vicente; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán

2008-10-01

18

Detection of single lambda DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors have demonstrated flow cytometric detection and sizing of single pieces of fluorescently stained lambda DNA (48.5 kb) and individual Kpn I restriction fragments of lambda DNA at 17.05 kb and 29.95 kb. DNA fragments were stained stoichiometrically with an intercalating dye such that the fluorescence from each fragment was directly proportional to fragment length. Laser powers range from 10 to 100 mW and transit times through the focused laser beam were several milliseconds. Measurements were made using time-resolved single photon counting of the detected fluorescence emission from individual stained DNA fragments. Samples were analyzed at rates of about 50 fragments per second. The measured fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated with DNA fragment length over the range measured. Detection sensitivity and resolution needed for analysis of small pieces of DNA are discussed and a comparison of single photon counting measurements of DNA fragments to measurements using more conventional flow cytometers is made. Applications of this methodology to DNA sizing and DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Keller, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

19

A Stochastic Model of DNA Fragments Rejoining  

PubMed Central

When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, DNA damages in the form of single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs), base damage or their combinations are frequent events. It is known that the complexity and severity of DNA damage depends on the quality of radiation, and the microscopic dose deposited in small segments of DNA, which is often related to the linear transfer energy (LET) of the radiation. Experimental studies have suggested that under the same dose, high LET radiation induces more small DNA fragments than low-LET radiation, which affects Ku efficiently binding with DNA end and might be a main reason for high-LET radiation induced RBE [1] since DNA DSB is a major cause for radiation-induced cell death. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model of DNA fragments rejoining according to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism. By conducting Gillespie's stochastic simulation, we found several factors that impact the efficiency of DNA fragments rejoining. Our results demonstrated that aberrant DNA damage repair can result predominantly from the occurrence of a spatial distribution of DSBs leading to short DNA fragments. Because of the low efficiency that short DNA fragments recruit repair protein and release the protein residue after fragments rejoining, Ku-dependent NHEJ is significantly interfered with short fragments. Overall, our work suggests that inhibiting the Ku-dependent NHEJ may significantly contribute to the increased efficiency for cell death and mutation observed for high LET radiation.

Li, Yongfeng; Qian, Hong; Wang, Ya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2012-01-01

20

Prolonged incubation of processed human spermatozoa will increase DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

One of the causes of failure in ART is sperm DNA fragmentation which may be associated with long period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The objective was to evaluate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test after swim-up at different time intervals prior to use. In this prospective study, 21 normozoospermic specimens were analysed. The samples were incubated at 37 °C after preparation by direct swim-up. DNA fragmentation was assessed at different time intervals (0, 1, 2 and 3 h) using SCD test. Spermatozoa with no DNA fragmentation showed large- or medium-sized halos, and sperm cells with DNA fragmentation showed either a small halo or no halo. The rates of normal morphology and progressive motility after sperm processing were 72.33 ± 2.53% and 90 ± 1.02%, respectively. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after 2 h (8.81 ± 0.93%, P = 0.004) and 3 h (10.76 ± 0.89%, P < 0.0001) of incubation compared to 0 h (4.38 ± 0.8%). A positive correlation was found between the incubation time and sperm DNA damage (P < 0.0001). Prolonged incubation of prepared normozoospermic samples at 37 °C is associated with higher rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, sperm samples intended for ART procedures should be used within 2 h of incubation at 37 °C. PMID:24689689

Nabi, A; Khalili, M A; Halvaei, I; Roodbari, F

2014-05-01

21

Agarose gel electrophoresis for the separation of DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most effective way of separating DNA fragments of varying sizes ranging from 100 bp to 25 kb(1). Agarose is isolated from the seaweed genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, and consists of repeated agarobiose (L- and D-galactose) subunits(2). During gelation, agarose polymers associate non-covalently and form a network of bundles whose pore sizes determine a gel's molecular sieving properties. The use of agarose gel electrophoresis revolutionized the separation of DNA. Prior to the adoption of agarose gels, DNA was primarily separated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation, which only provided an approximation of size. To separate DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA is loaded into pre-cast wells in the gel and a current applied. The phosphate backbone of the DNA (and RNA) molecule is negatively charged, therefore when placed in an electric field, DNA fragments will migrate to the positively charged anode. Because DNA has a uniform mass/charge ratio, DNA molecules are separated by size within an agarose gel in a pattern such that the distance traveled is inversely proportional to the log of its molecular weight(3). The leading model for DNA movement through an agarose gel is "biased reptation", whereby the leading edge moves forward and pulls the rest of the molecule along(4). The rate of migration of a DNA molecule through a gel is determined by the following: 1) size of DNA molecule; 2) agarose concentration; 3) DNA conformation(5); 4) voltage applied, 5) presence of ethidium bromide, 6) type of agarose and 7) electrophoresis buffer. After separation, the DNA molecules can be visualized under uv light after staining with an appropriate dye. By following this protocol, students should be able to: Understand the mechanism by which DNA fragments are separated within a gel matrix Understand how conformation of the DNA molecule will determine its mobility through a gel matrix Identify an agarose solution of appropriate concentration for their needs Prepare an agarose gel for electrophoresis of DNA samples Set up the gel electrophoresis apparatus and power supply Select an appropriate voltage for the separation of DNA fragments Understand the mechanism by which ethidium bromide allows for the visualization of DNA bands Determine the sizes of separated DNA fragments. PMID:22546956

Lee, Pei Yun; Costumbrado, John; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Kim, Yong Hoon

2012-01-01

22

Increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in fibromyalgic muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether there is evidence of increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in muscle tissue of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Methods: Muscle tissues from 10 community residents with FM and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls were examined "blindly" for the presence of DNA fragmentation by two different methods: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) staining (TUNEL) and the FragEL-Klenow DNA fragmentation detection kit. Ultrastructural analysis of tissue was performed by electron microscopy. Results: DNA fragmentation was detected by both methods in 55.4 (SEM 2.5)% of the nuclei in muscle tissue of patients with FM compared with 16.1 (4.1)% (p<0.001) of the nuclei in healthy controls. Contrary to expectation, no typical features of apoptosis could be detected by electron microscopy. The myofibres and actin filaments were disorganised and lipofuscin bodies were seen; glycogen and lipid accumulation were also found. The number of mitochondria was significantly lower in patients with FM than in controls and seemed to be morphologically altered. Conclusion: The ultrastructural changes described suggest that patients with FM are characterised by abnormalities in muscle tissue that include increased DNA fragmentation and changes in the number and size of mitochondria. These cellular changes are not signs of apoptosis. Persistent focal contractions in muscle may contribute to ultrastructural tissue abnormalities as well as to the induction and/or chronicity of nociceptive transmission from muscle to the central nervous system.

Sprott, H; Salemi, S; Gay, R; Bradley, L; Alarcon, G; Oh, S; Michel, B; Gay, S

2004-01-01

23

Using DNA fragments as probes.  

PubMed

All hybridization methods depend upon the ability of denatured DNA to reanneal when complementary strands are present in an environment near but below their Tm (melting temperature). A detailed procedure is described in which bacteriophage plaques or bacterial colonies bound to a filter membrane are detected by hybridization with a radioactive probe. Hybridization proceeds on prewet filters placed in a sealable plastic bag. After hybridization the filters are removed from the sealed bag, excess probe is washed off, and the filters are autoradiographed to identify the clones that have hybridized with the probe. An Alternate Protocol differs mainly in that formamide is not used in the hybridization solution. PMID:18265258

Strauss, W M

2001-05-01

24

Bacterial Species Determination from DNA-DNA Hybridization by Using Genome Fragments and DNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole genomic DNA-DNA hybridization has been a cornerstone of bacterial species determination but is not widely used because it is not easily implemented. We have developed a method based on random genome fragments and DNA microarray technology that overcomes the disadvantages of whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization. Reference genomes of four fluorescent Pseudomonas species were fragmented, and 60 to 96 genome fragments

JAE-CHANG CHO; JAMES M. TIEDJE

2001-01-01

25

Genomic DNA fingerprinting by restriction fragment end labeling.  

PubMed Central

A typing method for bacteria was developed and applied to several species, including Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Total genomic DNA was digested with a restriction endonuclease, and fragments were enabled with [alpha-32P]dATP by using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase and separated by electrophoresis in 6% polyacrylamide/8 M urea (sequencing gel). Depending on the restriction endonuclease and the bacterium, the method produced approximately 30-50 well-separated fragments in the size range of 100-400 nucleotides. For A. actinomycetemcomitans, all strains had bands in common. Nevertheless, many polymorphisms could be observed, and the 31 strains tested could be classified into 29 distinct types. Furthermore, serotype-specific fragments could be assigned for the three serotypes investigated. The method described is very sensitive, allowing more distinct types to be distinguished than other commonly used typing methods. When the method was applied to 10 other clinically relevant bacterial species, both species-specific bands and strain-specific bands were found. Isolates from different locations of one patient showed indistinguishable patterns. Computer-assisted analysis of the DNA fingerprints allowed the determination of similarity coefficients. It is concluded that genomic fingerprinting by restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL) is a powerful and generally applicable technique to type bacterial species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

van Steenbergen, T J; Colloms, S D; Hermans, P W; de Graaff, J; Plasterk, R H

1995-01-01

26

Enzymatic multiplication of a chemically synthesized DNA fragment.  

PubMed Central

A synthetic DNA fragment of 19 residues was enlarged by the enzymatic addition of deoxyadenylate residues to its 3'-end with calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. The 3'-terminus of this elongated DNA strand was blocked with 2', 3'-dideoxyadenylate to prevent hydrolysis by the 3'-exonuclease function of E. coli DNA polymerase I. This elongated and 3'-blocked fragment was annealed to an oligomeric primer and used as a template for the synthesis of a complementary copy of the synthetic 19-mer. The product of such a repair synthesis was separated by gel filtration and analyzed by nearest neighbor techniques. All template strands were copied with complete repair in over 90% of the chains. Facile recovery of the elongated template by virtue of its size permitted repetition of the copy process, thus allowing accumulation of the desired strand.

Olson, K; Gabriel, T; Michalewsky, J; Harvey, C

1975-01-01

27

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments  

DOEpatents

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

Roslaniec, Mary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Cram, L. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

28

Phosphorylation of Okazaki-like DNA fragments in mammalian cells and role of polyamines in the processing of this DNA.  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells DNA synthesis is more complicated than in prokaryotes and less well understood. Here we incubated intact mammalian cells (polyamine auxotrophic Chinese hamster ovary cells and primary human fibroblasts) with [32P]orthophosphate and found that, besides high molecular weight DNA, a species of low molecular weight DNA, approximately 450 bp in size, became efficiently labeled. The short DNA was labeled first, and in pulse-chase experiments the labeling was transient. The isolated small DNA fragments (RNase A-treated) were phosphorylated by T4 polynucleotide kinase specific for polynucleotides with 5'-OH ends. A polynucleotide kinase phosphorylating these DNA pieces was also detected in nuclear extracts of the cells. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase removed most of the 32P label incorporated into the small DNA in vivo. Labeling with deoxyribonucleosides did not reveal these fragments. We hypothesize that the low molecular weight DNA represents Okazaki fragments and that the mammalian DNA replication machinery includes a polynucleotide kinase phosphorylating the 5'-termini of Okazaki fragments. This would imply a novel step in DNA synthesis. We also show that depriving cells of polyamines reversibly blocks synthesis of high molecular weight DNA and leads to accumulation of the short DNA pieces, suggesting a role for polyamines in joining the Okazaki fragments. Images

Pohjanpelto, P; Holtta, E

1996-01-01

29

A Relation for Fragment Sizes of Explosive Loaded Aluminum Cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that the fragment size from explosively-loaded metal cylinders can be related to the expansion rate driven by high pressure explosive detonation products. During expansion, high strain rates alter material properties, and failure mechanisms influencing fragment size distribution become dependent on dynamic phenomena such as localized shear banding. The purpose of this paper is to extend known relations for steel fragment size to aluminum cylinders. The present approach utilizes high strain rate properties of aluminum with Grady and Kipp dynamic fragmentation theory to determine mean fragment size, and a statistical fragment distribution to account for randomness in the aluminum cylinder material. To determine the expansion strain rate, the explosive detonation and cylinder expansion are modeled using a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction routine. Experimental results for an aluminum-cased C4 charge are provided for model validation. Further analysis of a series of modeling results is shown to establish relationships for aluminum fragment size as a function of detonation pressure and the metal to explosive mass ratio.

Leadbetter, J.; Donahue, L.; Ripley, R. C.; Zhang, F.

2009-06-01

30

Impact and explosion crater ejecta, fragment size, and velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed for the mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact and explosion craters. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter and an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragements ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that for planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity are nearly monodisperse, e.g., 20% of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contain fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. Using this model, the largest fragment that can be ejected from asteroids, the moon, Mars, and Earth is calculated as a function of crater diameter. In addition, the internal energy of ejecta versus ejecta velocity is found. The internal energy of fragments having velocities exceeding the escape velocity of the moon will exceed the energy required for incipient melting for solid silicates and thus, constrains the maximum ejected solid fragment size.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1983-01-01

31

Improved single-strand DNA sizing accuracy in capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

Interpolation algorithms can be developed to size unknown single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments based on their electrophoretic mobilities, when they are compared with the mobilities of standard fragments of known sizes; however, sequence-specific anomalous electrophoretic migration can affect the accuracy and precision of the called sizes of the fragments. We used the anomalous migration of ssDNA fragments to optimize denaturation conditions for capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electrophoretic system uses a refillable polymer that both coats the capillary wall to suppress electro-osmotic flow and acts as the sieving matrix. The addition of 8 M urea to the polymer solution, as in slab gel electrophoresis, is insufficient to fully denature some anomalously migrating ssDNA fragments in this capillary electrophoresis system. The sizing accuracy of these fragments is significantly improved by the addition of 2-pyrrolidinone, or increased capillary temperature (60 degrees C). the effect of these two denaturing strategies is additive, and the best accuracy and precision in sizing results are obtained with a combination of chemical and thermal denaturation.

Rosenblum, B B; Oaks, F; Menchen, S; Johnson, B

1997-01-01

32

Comparison of hypervelocity fragmentation and spall experiments with Tuler–Butcher spall and fragment size criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation compares predictive theories of dynamic spall and fragmentation with previously reported experimental data. In the experimental tests, aluminum spheres normally impacted thin aluminum plates at over approximately 4.5–7.5km\\/s. Scaling features of the impact breakup phenomenon were explored through selected variation in sphere size and plate thickness. The principal diagnostic was high-resolution flash radiography. Fragment-size features of resulting

Dennis E. Grady

2006-01-01

33

DNA fragmentation induced by ionizing radiation - Atomic Force Microscopy study .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA as a carrier of genetic information is considered to be the critical target for radiation induced damage Especially severe are DNA double-strand breaks DSBs formed when breaks occur in both strands of the molecule The DSBs production is determined by the spatial distribution of ionization events dependent on the physical properties of the energy deposition and the chemical environment of the DNA According to theoretical predictions high LET charged particle radiation induces lesions in close proximity forming so called clustered damage in the DNA Atomic Force Microscopy AFM was newly established as a technique allowing the direct visualization of DNA fragments resulting from DSBs induced in small DNA molecules plasmids by ionizing radiation We have used AFM to visualize the DNA fragmentation induced by heavy ions high LET radiation and to compare it to the fragmentation pattern obtained after X-rays low LET radiation Plasmid supercoiled DNA was irradiated in vitro with X-rays and 3 9 MeV u Ni ions within a dose range 0 -- 3000 Gy Afterwards the samples were analyzed using AFM which allowed the detection and length measurement of individual fragments with a nanometer resolution Recording of the length of the induced fragments allowed to distinguish between molecules broken by a single DSB or by multiple DSBs The fragment length distributions were derived for different doses and different radiation qualities The first results of the measurement of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation show an influence of radiation quality on

Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Psonka, K.; Elsaesser, Th.; Brons, S.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

34

Capillary electrophoretic separation of DNA restriction fragments using dilute polymer solutions  

SciTech Connect

Because the mechanism of DNA separation in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood, selection of polymers is a {open_quotes}trial-and-error{close_quotes} procedure. We investigated dilute-solution DNA separations by capillary electrophoresis using solutions of four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp and star-(polyethylene oxide), like linear poly (ethylene oxide), provides separation of fragments up to 1353 bp.

Braun, B.; Blanch, W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1997-02-01

35

A Mechanism of Gene Amplification Driven by Small DNA Fragments  

PubMed Central

DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s). Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA) occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB) external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation in nature.

Mukherjee, Kuntal; Storici, Francesca

2012-01-01

36

Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

2014-03-01

37

Single-drop fragmentation determines size distribution of raindrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many natural objects, raindrops are distributed in size. By extension of what is known to occur inside the clouds, where small droplets grow by accretion of vapour and coalescence, raindrops in the falling rain at the ground level are believed to result from a complex mutual interaction with their neighbours. We show that the raindrops' polydispersity, generically represented according to Marshall-Palmer's law (1948), is quantitatively understood from the fragmentation products of non-interacting, isolated drops. Both the shape of the drops' size distribution, and its parameters are related from first principles to the dynamics of a single drop deforming as it falls in air, ultimately breaking into a dispersion of smaller fragments containing the whole spectrum of sizes observed in rain. The topological change from a big drop into smaller stable fragments-the raindrops-is accomplished within a timescale much shorter than the typical collision time between the drops.

Villermaux, Emmanuel; Bossa, Benjamin

2009-09-01

38

Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model of fragmentation based on a probabilistic calculation of the repeated fracture of a particle population. The resulting continuous solution, which is in closed form, gives the evolution of fragmentation products from an initial block, through a scale-invariant power-law relationship to a final comminuted powder. Models for the fragmentation of particles have been developed separately in mainly two different disciplines: the continuous integro-differential equations of batch mineral grinding (Reid, 1965) and the fractal analysis of geophysics (Turcotte, 1986) based on a discrete model with a single probability of fracture. The first gives a time-dependent development of the particle-size distribution, but has resisted a closed-form solution, while the latter leads to the scale-invariant power laws, but with no time dependence. Bird (2009) recently introduced a bridge between these two approaches with a step-wise iterative calculation of the fragmentation products. The development of the particle-size distribution occurs with discrete steps: during each fragmentation event, the particles will repeatedly fracture probabilistically, cascading down the length scales to a final size distribution reached after all particles have failed to further fragment. We have identified this process as the equivalent to a sequence of trials for each particle with a fixed probability of fragmentation. Although the resulting distribution is discrete, it can be reformulated as a continuous distribution in maturity over time and particle size. In our model, Turcotte's power-law distribution emerges at a unique maturation index that defines a regime boundary. Up to this index, the fragmentation is in an erosional regime with the initial particle size setting the scaling. Fragmentation beyond this index is in a regime of comminution with rebreakage of the particles down to the size limit of fracture. The maturation index can increment continuously, for example under grinding conditions, or as discrete steps, such as with impact events. In both cases our model gives the energy associated with the fragmentation in terms of the developing surface area of the population. We show the agreement of our model to the evolution of particle size distributions associated with episodic and continuous fragmentation and how the evolution of some popular fractals may be represented using this approach. C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model. Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Bird, N. R. A., Watts, C. W., Tarquis, A. M., & Whitmore, A. P. (2009). Modeling dynamic fragmentation of soil. Vadose Zone Journal, 8(1), 197-201. Reid, K. J. (1965). A solution to the batch grinding equation. Chemical Engineering Science, 20(11), 953-963. Turcotte, D. L. (1986). Fractals and fragmentation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 91(B2), 1921-1926.

Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

2013-12-01

39

DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by 56Fe ions: experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

We studied the DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by iron-ion beams of two different energies: 115 MeV/nucleon and 414 MeV/nucleon. Experimental data were obtained in the fragment size range 1-5700 kbp; Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the PARTRAC code; data analysis was also performed through the Generalized Broken Stick (GBS) model. The comparison between experimental and simulated data for the number of fragments produced in two different size ranges, 1-23 kbp and 23-5700 kbp, gives a satisfactory agreement for both radiation qualities. The Monte Carlo simulations also allow the counting of fragments outside the experimental range: The number of fragments smaller than 1 kbp is large for both beams, although with a strong difference between the two cases. As a consequence, we can compute different RBEs depending on the size range considered for the fragment counting. The PARTRAC evaluation takes into account fragments of all sizes, while the evaluation from the experimental data considers only the fragments in the range of 1-5700 kbp. When the PARTRAC evaluation is restricted to this range, the agreement between experimental and computed RBE values is again good. When fragments smaller than 1 kbp are also considered, the RBE increases considerably, since gamma rays produce a small number of such fragments. The analysis performed with the GBS model proved to be quite sensitive to showing, with a phenomenological single parameter, variations in double-strand break (DSB) correlation. PMID:19397444

Campa, A; Alloni, D; Antonelli, F; Ballarini, F; Belli, M; Dini, V; Esposito, G; Facoetti, A; Friedland, W; Furusawa, Y; Liotta, M; Ottolenghi, A; Paretzke, H G; Simone, G; Sorrentino, E; Tabocchini, M A

2009-04-01

40

[Thermoadsorptive separation of DNA by size using a polymeric sorbent].  

PubMed

The article describes theoretical aspects of isolation and separation of DNA fragments by size using a polymeric sorbent. On this basis we presented a theoretical model of thermal desorption of DNA fragments of different length. Assuming that, under certain pH, interaction of DNA with the polymer sorbent is of an ion-dipole character and moving dipoles interact with the sorbent according to the Boltzmann distribution with the total charge of the DNA fragment in its pore, the expression for the interaction energy as a function of temperature is obtained. Equating the thermal energy to the interaction energy of the ion-dipole character, we have found the critical temperature of DNA separation from the sorbent. Account of the conformation of single-stranded DNA in the coil form leads to the dependence of DNA separation temperature, i.e., desorption, on the length of the DNA chain. The temperature for desorption increases symbatically to the contour length of DNA. PMID:24159809

Asirmetov, A Kh; Azimov, Zh T; Turaeva, N N; Oksengendler, B L; Rashidova, S Sh

2013-01-01

41

Genotyping by mass spectrometric analysis of short DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to produce small DNA fragments from PCR products for analysis of defined DNA variations by mass spectrometry. The genomic region to be analyzed is PCR-amplified with primers containing a sequence for the type IIS restriction endonuclease BpmI. BpmI digestion of the resultant PCR products yields fragments as small as seven bases, which are then analyzed

Steven J. Laken; Peta E. Jackson; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Paul T. Strickland; John D. Groopman; Marlin D. Friesen; Bert Vogelstein

1998-01-01

42

In vitro aggregation of the gene-sized DNA molecules of the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.  

PubMed Central

Macronuclear DNA of hypotrichous ciliates exists in the form of gene-sized DNA molecules. It can be resolved on agarose gels into a continuum of sizes upon which is imposed a set of characteristic DNA bands. Most or all of the DNA molecules carry identical terminal inverted repeat sequences. By incubating macronuclear DNA under increasingly stronger ionic conditions, high molecular weight DNA aggregates and ring-like DNA structures are formed. Experimental evidence is presented that this aggregation is not due to the presence of identical single-stranded DNA ends on each macronuclear DNA fragment, and an alternative model for DNA aggregation is discussed. Images

Lipps, H J

1980-01-01

43

In vitro aggregation of the gene-sized DNA molecules of the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.  

PubMed

Macronuclear DNA of hypotrichous ciliates exists in the form of gene-sized DNA molecules. It can be resolved on agarose gels into a continuum of sizes upon which is imposed a set of characteristic DNA bands. Most or all of the DNA molecules carry identical terminal inverted repeat sequences. By incubating macronuclear DNA under increasingly stronger ionic conditions, high molecular weight DNA aggregates and ring-like DNA structures are formed. Experimental evidence is presented that this aggregation is not due to the presence of identical single-stranded DNA ends on each macronuclear DNA fragment, and an alternative model for DNA aggregation is discussed. PMID:6776521

Lipps, H J

1980-07-01

44

Structural organization and differential expression of three stilbene synthase genes located on a 13 kb grapevine DNA fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 13 kb DNA fragment was isolated from a grapevine (Vitis var. Optima) genomic library by hybridizing with elicitor-induced stilbene synthase cDNA as a probe. After fragmentation with Eco RI, subcloning and sequencing, two full-size stilbene synthase genes (Vst1 and Vst2) and the 3' end of a third stilbene synthase gene (Vst3) were located within the 13 kb fragment. Vst1

Wilfried Wiese; Barbara Vornam; Elvira Krause; Helmut Kindl

1994-01-01

45

Fragment-size prediction during dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted tin: recovery experiments and modeling issues  

SciTech Connect

We are interested in dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted metals. The present work is devoted to laser-shock experiments in tin samples including fragments recovery and post-test evaluation of the fragment-size distribution. These results are compared with theoretical predictions from hydrocode simulations coupled with a modified formulation of a fragmentation model from the literature.

Signor, L.; Roy, G.; Llorca, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Centre de Valduc-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Resseguier, T. de [LCD - UPR 9028, ENSMA, 1 ave. Clement Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Dragon, A. [LMPM - UMR 6617, ENSMA, 1 ave. Clement Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

2007-12-12

46

Modeling the dust size distribution in comets with dust fragmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic model was developed of a spherically symmetric dusty gas flow in a cometary atmosphere assuming a single fluid, inviscid, perfect gas. The hydrodynamics for gas and dust, which involves the gas drag force (momentum transfer), heat exchange between gas and dust, photodissociation energy for H2O gas, and radiative heating and cooling terms for dust particles, are solved using the Gear method for stiff, coupled differential equations. Calculations were done with a dust size distribution for radii alpha = 0.01 micron to 10 cm with densities variable with the size. A nucleus size of 4.0 km radius with a density of 0.5 g/cu cm and a total dust-to-gas mass ratio chi = 1 was adopted. There are indications from in situ observations that dust particle fragment into smaller ones. Fragmentation of dust particles was incorporated into the model. This is done by adding source and sink terms in the continuity equations for the dust. Lifetimes for the decay of dust particles were assumed as a function of particle size. It is also assumed that dust particles always fragment only into the next smaller size.

Konno, Ichishiro; Huebner, Walter F.

1990-01-01

47

Single drop fragmentation is the source of raindrops size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many natural objects, raindrops are distributed in size. By extension of what is known to occur inside the clouds, where small droplets grow by accretion of vapor and coalescence, raindrops in the falling rain at the ground level are believed to result from a complex mutual interaction with their neighbors. We show that the raindrops polydispersity, generically represented according to Marshall-Palmer's law, is quantitatively understood from the fragmentation products of non interacting, isolated drops. Both the shape of the drops size distribution, and its parameters are related from first principles to the dynamics of a single drop deforming as it falls in air, ultimately breaking into a dispersion of smaller fragments containing the whole spectrum of sizes observed in rain. The transformation is accomplished within a timescale much shorter than the typical collision time between the drops.

Villermaux, Emmanuel; Bossa, Benjamin

2009-11-01

48

Selective binding of anti-DNA antibodies to native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence.  

PubMed

Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of autoantibodies directed against a limited subset of nuclear antigens, including DNA. DNA-specific B cells take up mammalian DNA through their B cell receptor, and this DNA is subsequently transported to an endosomal compartment where it can potentially engage TLR9. We have previously shown that ssDNA-specific B cells preferentially bind to particular DNA sequences, and antibody specificity for short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Since CpG-rich DNA, the ligand for TLR9 is found in low abundance in mammalian DNA, we sought to determine whether antibodies derived from DNA-reactive B cells showed binding preference for CpG-rich native dsDNA, and thereby select immunostimulatory DNA for delivery to TLR9. We examined a panel of anti-DNA antibodies for binding to CpG-rich and CpG-poor DNA fragments. We show that a number of anti-DNA antibodies do show preference for binding to certain native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence, but this does not correlate directly with the presence of CpG dinucleotides. An antibody with preference for binding to a fragment containing optimal CpG motifs was able to promote B cell proliferation to this fragment at 10-fold lower antibody concentrations than an antibody that did not selectively bind to this fragment, indicating that antibody binding preference can influence autoreactive B cell responses. PMID:22285306

Uccellini, Melissa B; Busto, Patricia; Debatis, Michelle; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Viglianti, Gregory A

2012-03-30

49

DNA fragments assembly based on nicking enzyme system.  

PubMed

A couple of DNA ligation-independent cloning (LIC) methods have been reported to meet various requirements in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The principle of LIC is the assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments by single-stranded (ss) DNA overlaps annealing. Here we present a method to generate single-stranded DNA overlaps based on Nicking Endonucleases (NEases) for LIC, the method was termed NE-LIC. Factors related to cloning efficiency were optimized in this study. This NE-LIC allows generating 3'-end or 5'-end ss DNA overlaps of various lengths for fragments assembly. We demonstrated that the 10 bp/15 bp overlaps had the highest DNA fragments assembling efficiency, while 5 bp/10 bp overlaps showed the highest efficiency when T4 DNA ligase was added. Its advantage over Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning (SLIC) and Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) was obvious. The mechanism can be applied to many other LIC strategies. Finally, the NEases based LIC (NE-LIC) was successfully applied to assemble a pathway of six gene fragments responsible for synthesizing microbial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). PMID:23483947

Wang, Rui-Yan; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Ying-Ying; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2013-01-01

50

qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two genomes is demonstrated and which evaluates systematically the impact of DNA degradation on quantification of mtDNA copy number.

Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

2012-07-06

51

Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Recovered  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genesis launched in 2001 with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors mounted on 5 arrays, comprised of 9 materials described in [1]. The array collectors were damaged during re-entry impact in Utah in 2004 [2], breaking into many smaller pieces and dust. A compilation of the number and approximate size of the fragments recovered was compiled from notes made during the field packaging performed in the Class 10,000 cleanroom at Utah Test and Training Range [3].

Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

2005-01-01

52

Rapid hierarchical assembly of medium-size DNA cassettes  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology applications call for efficient methods to generate large gene cassettes that encode complex gene circuits in order to avoid simultaneous delivery of multiple plasmids encoding individual genes. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Here, we describe a novel protocol that allows one-step cloning of up to four gene-size DNA fragments, followed by a second assembly of these concatenated sequences into large circular DNA. The protocols described here comprise a simple, cheap and fast solution for routine construction of cassettes with up to 10 gene-size components.

Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan Leo; Xie, Zhen; Frank, Stefan; Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Mitschka, Sibylle; Kolanus, Waldemar; Murray, Andrew; Benenson, Yaakov

2012-01-01

53

DNA assisted fragmentation of nickel nanoparticle clusters and their spectral properties.  

PubMed

Nickel nanoparticle (NiNP) clusters in the range of 60-70 nm size on interaction with herring-sperm DNA (B-DNA) form a self-assembled duplex helix DNA structure with fragmented NiNPs as small as 5-15 nm, as evident from atomic force microscopic studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images also corroborate the findings. The properties of these self-assembled NiNPs-DNA structures have been further investigated by UV-visible, emission and circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. PMID:20398942

Prabakaran, Natarajan; Athappan, Periakaruppan

2010-07-01

54

The Mechanism and Dynamics of Translesion DNA Synthesis Catalyzed by the Escherichia coli Klenow fragment  

PubMed Central

Translesion DNA synthesis represents the ability of a DNA polymerase to incorporate and extend beyond damaged DNA. In this report, the mechanism and dynamics by which the Escherichia coli Klenow fragment performs translesion DNA synthesis during the misreplication of an abasic site were investigated using a series of natural and non-natural nucleotides. Like most other high fidelity DNA polymerases, the Klenow fragment follows the “A-rule” of translesion DNA synthesis by preferentially incorporating dATP opposite the non-instructional lesion. However, several 5-substituted indolyl nucleotides lacking classical hydrogen-bonding groups are incorporated ~100-fold more efficiently than the natural nucleotide. In general, analogs that contain large substituent groups in conjunction with significant ?-electron density display the highest catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) forincorporation. While the measured Km values depend upon the size and ?-electron density of the incoming nucleotide, kcat values are surprisingly independent of both biophysical features. As expected, the efficiency by which these non-natural nucleotides are incorporated opposite templating nucleobases is significantly reduced. This reduction reflects minimal increases in Km values coupled with large decreases in kcat. The kinetic data obtained with the Klenow fragment are compared to that of the high fidelity bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase and reveal distinct differences in the dynamics by which these non-natural nucleotides are incorporated opposite an abasic site. These biophysical differences argue against a unified mechanism of translesion DNA synthesis and suggest that polymerases employ different catalytic strategies during the misreplication of damaged DNA.

Sheriff, Asim; Motea, Edward; Lee, Irene; Berdis, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

55

Fragmentation of DNA in a sub-microliter microfluidic sonication device.  

PubMed

Fragmentation of DNA is an essential step for many biological applications including the preparation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. As sequencing technologies push the limits towards single cell and single molecule resolution, it is of great interest to reduce the scale of this upstream fragmentation step. Here we describe a miniaturized DNA shearing device capable of processing sub-microliter samples based on acoustic shearing within a microfluidic chip. A strong acoustic field was generated by a Langevin-type piezo transducer and coupled into the microfluidic channel via the flexural lamb wave mode. Purified genomic DNA, as well as covalently cross-linked chromatin were sheared into various fragment sizes ranging from ?180 bp to 4 kb. With the use of standard PDMS soft lithography, our approach should facilitate the integration of additional microfluidic modules and ultimately allow miniaturized NGS workflows. PMID:23014736

Tseng, Qingzong; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Furlong, Eileen E M; Merten, Christoph A

2012-11-21

56

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

2008-09-01

57

Creating Cost-Effective DNA Size Standards for Use in Teaching and Research Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I have devised a method with which a molecular size standard can be readily manufactured using Lambda DNA and PCR. This method allows the production of specific sized DNA fragments and is easily performed in a standard molecular biology laboratory. The material required to create these markers can also be used to provide a highly robust and…

Shultz, Jeff

2011-01-01

58

In situ labelling of fragmented DNA in cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a biochemically and morphologically gene-regulated distinctive form of cell death playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostatis, viral infections and clearance of damaged cells. The process is initiated by a cascade of intercellular and intracellular signals through an intrinsic cell suicide program resulting in early DNA fragmentation characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation. Recently some authors have reported

S Barduagni; A Frezzolini; G Ferranti; M Papi; O De Pità

1998-01-01

59

Electrophoretic migration behavior of DNA fragments in polymer solution.  

PubMed

A newly developed polymer coil shrinking theory is described and compared with the existing entangled solution theory to explain electrophoretic migration behaviour of DNA in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer solution in buffer containing 100 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane 100 mM boric acid, 2 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at pH 8.3. The polymer coil shrinking theory gave a better model to explain the results obtained. The polymer coil shrinking concentration, Cs, was found to be 0.305% and the uniform entangled concentration, C+, 0.806%. The existence of three regions (the dilute, semidilute, and concentrated solution) at different polymer concentrations enables a better understanding of the system to guide the selection of the best conditions to separate DNA fragments. For separating large fragments (700/ 800 bp), dilute solutions (HPMC < 0.3%) should be used to achieve a short migration time (10 min). For small fragments (200/300 bp), concentrated solutions are preferred to obtain constant resolution and uniform separation. The best resolution is 0.6% HPMC due to a combined interaction of the polymer coils and the entangled structure. The possibility of DNA separation in semidilute solution is often neglected and the present results indicate that this region has a promising potential for analytical separation of DNA fragments. PMID:11504046

Jin, Y; Lin, B; Fung, Y S

2001-07-01

60

Efficient Double Fragmentation ChIP-seq Provides Nucleotide Resolution Protein-DNA Binding Profiles  

PubMed Central

Immunoprecipitated crosslinked protein-DNA fragments typically range in size from several hundred to several thousand base pairs, with a significant part of chromatin being much longer than the optimal length for next-generation sequencing (NGS) procedures. Because these larger fragments may be non-random and represent relevant biology that may otherwise be missed, but also because they represent a significant fraction of the immunoprecipitated material, we designed a double-fragmentation ChIP-seq procedure. After conventional crosslinking and immunoprecipitation, chromatin is de-crosslinked and sheared a second time to concentrate fragments in the optimal size range for NGS. Besides the benefits of increased chromatin yields, the procedure also eliminates a laborious size-selection step. We show that the double-fragmentation ChIP-seq approach allows for the generation of biologically relevant genome-wide protein-DNA binding profiles from sub-nanogram amounts of TCF7L2/TCF4, TBP and H3K4me3 immunoprecipitated material. Although optimized for the AB/SOLiD platform, the same approach may be applied to other platforms.

Mokry, Michal; Hatzis, Pantelis; de Bruijn, Ewart; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Schuijers, Jurian; van de Wetering, Marc; Guryev, Victor; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin

2010-01-01

61

Major DNA fragmentation is a late event in apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, the terminal morphological and biochemical events of programmed cell death, is characterized by specific changes in cell surface and nuclear morphology. In addition, DNA fragmentation in an internucleosomal pattern is detectable in mass cultures of apoptotic cells. However, DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological changes may not necessarily be associated events. In this study, we examined OVCAR-3 and KB human carcinoma cells using time-lapse video phase-contrast microscopy to characterize the surface and nuclear morphological features of apoptosis in response to treatment with either taxol or ricin. The surface morphological features of apoptosis were the same in both cell types and with both drugs. Using an in situ nick-translation histochemical assay, these single cells were also examined for DNA strand breaks during apoptosis. Surface morphological changes demonstrated discrete stages of cell rounding, surface blebbing, followed by cessation of movement and the extension of thin surface microspikes, followed much later by surface blistering and cell lysis. Nuclear features examined by DAPI cytochemistry demonstrated apoptotic nuclear condensation very early in this sequence, usually at the time of initial surface blebbing. The nick-translation assay, however, demonstrated DNA strand breaks at a much later time, only after the formation of separated apoptotic bodies or after final cell lysis. This study points out the differences between surface and nuclear morphological changes in apoptosis, and the large temporal separation between nuclear morphological changes and major DNA fragmentation detectable by this in situ technique. This result suggests caution in using in situ nick-translation as a direct correlate of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in apoptosis. PMID:9212818

Collins, J A; Schandi, C A; Young, K K; Vesely, J; Willingham, M C

1997-07-01

62

High interindividual restriction fragment length and copy number of polymorphism of a TVRI family in moderate human DNA repeats  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the selection of cloned human DNA sequences, with a copy number not exceeding 1000 copies per diploid genome, and their testing for interindividual restriction fragment lengths and copy number of polymorphism (RFLCP). As a result of the investigation a DNA clone was found (TVRI-6), about 2.8 kilobase-pairs in size, for which an unusually high level of interindividual RFLCP was discovered. The TVRI-6 sequence was obtained from a bank of Pst I restriction fragments of human placental nuclear DNA cloned in pBR 322. The bank was analyzed by hybridization of colonies with phosphorus 32-labelled human nuclear DNA.

Rogaev, E.I.; Shapiro, Yu.A.

1987-06-01

63

Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation properties of butylated hydroxyanisole.  

PubMed

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic food additive that is used to prevent oils, fats, and shortenings from oxidative deterioration and rancidity. It was tested for potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity upon A549 lung cancer cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis were used for cytotoxicity assessment, whereas genotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by DAPI staining, alkaline comet, and DNA fragmentation assays. BHA dose- and time-dependently decreased the growth of A549 cells with an IC50 of ?0.55, 0.4, and 0.3?mM BHA at 24, 48, and 72?h, respectively. Primary and late apoptosis in the treated cells was determined using the flow cytometry analyses. In addition, single-strand DNA breakage has been observed through the comet assay technique. In addition, the morphology of DAPI-stained cells and DNA fragmentation assay using gel electrophoresis showed clear fragmentation in the chromatin and DNA rings within the nucleus of cells treated with BHA. PMID:23413972

Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Forouharmehr, Ali; Eskandani, Morteza; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Kafil, Vala; Kashanian, Soheila; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

2013-03-01

64

Size-velocity distribution of large ejecta fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of three primary extraterrestrial craters and the associated craters were examined to generate a size-velocity distribution for large ejecta fragments. The lunar craters Copernicus and Aristillus and the Martian crater Dv on Olympus Mons were used. Attention was focused on the radial distances between the primary and secondary crater centers and the diameters of the secondaries. The primary craters selected are all relatively young, which avoided contamination of the data from secondaries from other primaries. Attempts were made to account for the speed of the hypervelocity impacts and the elemental compositions of the impactors. An apparent velocity cutoff of about 1 km/sec was observed for the secondaries, which implies that no meteoroid impacts can accelerate ejecta to escape velocities from the moon or Mars.

Vickery, A. M.

1986-08-01

65

Size-velocity distribution of large ejecta fragments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of three primary extraterrestrial craters and the associated craters were examined to generate a size-velocity distribution for large ejecta fragments. The lunar craters Copernicus and Aristillus and the Martian crater Dv on Olympus Mons were used. Attention was focused on the radial distances between the primary and secondary crater centers and the diameters of the secondaries. The primary craters selected are all relatively young, which avoided contamination of the data from secondaries from other primaries. Attempts were made to account for the speed of the hypervelocity impacts and the elemental compositions of the impactors. An apparent velocity cutoff of about 1 km/sec was observed for the secondaries, which implies that no meteoroid impacts can accelerate ejecta to escape velocities from the moon or Mars.

Vickery, A. M.

1986-01-01

66

Controlling DNA fragmentation in MALDI-MS by chemical modification  

SciTech Connect

Fragmentation has proven to be a major factor limiting accessible mass range, sensitivity, and mass resolution in the analysis of DNA by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Previous work has shown that this DNA fragmentation is strongly dependent on both the MALDI matrix and the nucleic acid sequence employed. Fragmentation is initiated by nucleobase protonation, leading to cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond with base loss, followed by cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. In this study, asymmetric oligonucleotides incorporating cytidine and cytidine analogs such as 5-methyl-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, 5-bromo-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, aracytidine, and 2{prime}-fluorodeoxycytidine nucleosides were used to systematically investigate the influence of the structural changes on the stability of the N-glycosidic bond. Modifications of the deoxyribose sugar ring by replacing the 2{prime}-hydrogen with more electron-withdrawing groups such as the hydroxyl or fluoro group stabilize the N-glycosidic bond to a greater extent than the C5 nucleobase modifications. 2{prime}-Hydroxyl and 2{prime}-fluoro groups respectively are shown to partially or completely block fragmentation at the modified nucleosides. Mixtures of oligonucleotides incorporating such modifications demonstrate remarkably extended accessible mass range, as well as increased sensitivity and mass resolution. 39 refs., 11 figs.

Tang, W.; Zhu, L.; Smith, L.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1997-02-01

67

Detection of Irradiated Food: DNA Fragmentation in Grapefruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing the simple microgel electrophoresis of single cells - `comet assay' - on grapefruit seeds enabled a rapid identification of irradiated fruits. Fruits were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation for insect disinfestation and quarantine purposes. Seeds were isolated, crushed, and the cells embedded in an agarose layer. After lysis of the cells, they were subjected to microgel electrophoresis for 2.5 minutes, and then stained. Fruits irradiated with 0.2 kGy and higher doses showed typical DNA fragmentation, the DNA fragments stretching or migrating out of the cells forming a tail towards the anode, giving the damaged cells an appearance of a comet. With increasing dose a longer extension of the DNA from the nucleus towards the anode is observed. Undamaged cells will appear as intact nuclei without tails. The DNA comet assay is thus a rapid and inexpensive screening technique to detect irradiated grapefruits. Suspected samples may subsequently be analysed by officially validated methods for detection of irradiated foods.

Delincée, Henry

1998-06-01

68

Application of automated DNA sizing technology for genotyping microsatellite loci  

SciTech Connect

Highly polymorphic microsatellite loci offer great promise for gene mapping studies, but fulfillment of this potential will require substantial improvements in methods for accurate and efficient genotyping. Here, the authors report a genotyping method based on fluorescently labeled PCR primers and size characterization of PCR products using an automated DNA fragment analyzer. They capitalize on the availability of three distinct fluorescent dyes to uniquely label loci that overlap in size. This innovation increases by threefold the number of loci that can be analyzed simultaneously. They label size standards with a fourth dye and combine these with the microsatellite PCR products in each gel lane. Computer programs provide very rapid and accurate sizing of microsatellite alleles and efficient data management. In addition, fluorescence signals are linear over a much greater range of intensity than conventional autoradiography. This facilitates multiplexing of loci (since signal intensities often vary greatly) and helps distinguish major peaks from artifacts, thereby improving genotyping accuracy. 29 refs., 3 figs.

Ziegle, J.S.; Corcoran, K.P.; Mayrand, P.E.; Hoff, L.B.; McBride, L.J.; Kronick, M.N. (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA (United States)); Su, Ying; Diehl, S.R. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States))

1992-12-01

69

Ribosomal RNA genes in Euglena gracilis mitochondrial DNA: fragmented genes in a seemingly fragmented genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because relatively little information is available about mtDNA in the euglenid protozoa, distant relatives of the kinetoplastid\\u000a protozoa, we investigated mitochondrial genome structure and expression in Euglena gracilis. We found that isolated E. gracilis mtDNA comprises a heterodisperse collection of short molecules (modal size ~4 kbp) and that the mitochondrial large subunit\\u000a (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) rRNAs are each split

David F. Spencer; Michael W. Gray

2011-01-01

70

Isolation of DNA fragments containing replicating growing forks from both E. coli and B. subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a restriction enzyme digestion of gently lysed E. coli or B. subtilis cells, it is possible to isolate a minute fraction of the total DNA that has an unusually high sedimentation coefficient. Upon inspection of this DNA in the electron microscope, branched DNA fragments are observed. Single branched DNA fragments were analyzed by restriction enzyme and

Manuel S. Valenzuela; Maria Del Pilar Aguinaga; Ross B. Imman

1981-01-01

71

DNA flexibility studied by covalent closure of short fragments into circles.  

PubMed Central

The ring closure probability, or j factor, has been measured for DNA restriction fragments of defined sequence bearing EcoRI cohesive ends and ranging in size from 126 to 4361 base pairs (bp). The j factor is defined as the ratio of the equilibrium constants for cyclization and for bimolecular association via the cohesive ends. The end-joining reactions are fast compared to covalent closure of the cohesive ends by T4 DNA ligase. The rate of ligase closure is shown to be proportional to the equilibrium fraction of DNA molecules with joined cohesive ends, both in cyclization and in bimolecular association reactions. The j factor changes by less than 10-fold between 242 and 4361 bp, whereas it decreases by more than 100-fold between 242 and 126 bp as the DNA reaches the size range of the persistence length (150 bp). As regards ring closure, short DNA fragments are surprisingly flexible. These data are in good agreement with predictions by others for the ring closure probability of a wormlike chain. Images

Shore, D; Langowski, J; Baldwin, R L

1981-01-01

72

DNA fragmentation induced by fe ions in human cells: shielding influence on spatially correlated damage  

SciTech Connect

Outside the magnetic field of the Earth, high energy heavy ions constitute a relevant part of the biologically significant dose to astronauts during the very long travels through space. The typical pattern of energy deposition in the matter by heavy ions on the microscopic scale is believed to produce spatially correlated damage in the DNA which is critical for radiobiological effects. We have investigated the influence of a lucite shielding on the initial production of very small DNA fragments in human fibroblasts irradiated with 1 GeV/u iron (Fe) ions. We also used small gamma, Greek-rays as reference radiation. Our results show: (1) a lower effect per incident ion when the shielding is used; (2) an higher DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB) induction by Fe ions than by small gamma, Greek-rays in the size range 123 kbp; (3) a non-random DNA DSB induction by Fe ions.

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Rydberg, B.; Simone, G.; Tabocchini, M.A.

2003-11-19

73

DNA fragmentation induced by Fe ions in human cells: shielding influence on spatially correlated damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outside the magnetic field of the Earth, high energy heavy ions constitute a relevant part of the biologically significant dose to astronauts during the very long travels through space. The typical pattern of energy deposition in the matter by heavy ions on the microscopic scale is believed to produce spatially correlated damage in the DNA which is critical for radiobiological effects. We have investigated the influence of a lucite shielding on the initial production of very small DNA fragments in human fibroblasts irradiated with 1 GeV/u iron (Fe) ions. We also used gamma rays as reference radiation. Our results show: (1) a lower effect per incident ion when the shielding is used; (2) an higher DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSB) induction by Fe ions than by gamma rays in the size range 1-23 kbp; (3) a non-random DNA DSB induction by Fe ions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Rydberg, B.; Simone, G.; Tabocchini, M. A.

2004-01-01

74

FARM SIZE, LAND FRAGMENTATION AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUTHERN RWANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butare, where this study was conducted, exhibits one of the highest population densities in Rwanda. As a direct result of population growth, most peasants have small fields and land fragmentation is common. The purpose of this article is to examine the effect of land fragmentation on economic efficiency. Regression analysis shows that area operated is primarily determined by the population-land

C. Bizimana; W. L. Nieuwoudt; S. R. D. Ferrer

2004-01-01

75

Flooding and fragment size interact to determine survival and regrowth after fragmentation in two stoloniferous Trifolium species.  

PubMed

Clonal plants, which reproduce by means of stolons and rhizomes, are common in frequently flooded habitats. Resilience to disturbance is an important trait enabling plants to survive in such highly disturbed habitats. Resource storage is thought to enable clonal plants to resume growth after clonal fragmentation caused by disturbance. Here we investigated if submergence prior to disturbance reduces survival and regrowth of clonal fragments and whether or not genotypes originating from highly disturbed riverine habitats are more resistant to mechanical disturbance than genotypes from less disturbed coastal dune slack habitats. We further tested if variation in survival and regrowth was affected by internode size. Clones from contrasting habitats of two closely related Trifolium species were first genotypically characterized by amplification fragment length polymorphism and then subjected to soil flooding and subsequent clonal fragmentation. These species differ with respect to their abundance in riverine and dune slack habitats, with Trifolium repens mainly occurring in riverine grasslands and Trifolium fragiferum in coastal dune slacks. Soil flooding decreased survival and regrowth by up to 80 %. Plants originating from riverine grasslands were less negatively affected by fragmentation than plants from dune slack habitats. Surprisingly, ramets did not always benefit from being attached to a larger internode, as internode size was often negatively correlated with survival after fragmentation. Regrowth, on the other hand, was generally positively correlated with internode size. These unexpected results indicate that there may be contrasting selection pressures on internode size in stoloniferous species growing in severely disturbed habitats. PMID:24887003

Huber, Heidrun; Visser, Eric J W; Clements, Gijs; Peters, Janny L

2014-01-01

76

Flooding and fragment size interact to determine survival and regrowth after fragmentation in two stoloniferous Trifolium species  

PubMed Central

Clonal plants, which reproduce by means of stolons and rhizomes, are common in frequently flooded habitats. Resilience to disturbance is an important trait enabling plants to survive in such highly disturbed habitats. Resource storage is thought to enable clonal plants to resume growth after clonal fragmentation caused by disturbance. Here we investigated if submergence prior to disturbance reduces survival and regrowth of clonal fragments and whether or not genotypes originating from highly disturbed riverine habitats are more resistant to mechanical disturbance than genotypes from less disturbed coastal dune slack habitats. We further tested if variation in survival and regrowth was affected by internode size. Clones from contrasting habitats of two closely related Trifolium species were first genotypically characterized by amplification fragment length polymorphism and then subjected to soil flooding and subsequent clonal fragmentation. These species differ with respect to their abundance in riverine and dune slack habitats, with Trifolium repens mainly occurring in riverine grasslands and Trifolium fragiferum in coastal dune slacks. Soil flooding decreased survival and regrowth by up to 80 %. Plants originating from riverine grasslands were less negatively affected by fragmentation than plants from dune slack habitats. Surprisingly, ramets did not always benefit from being attached to a larger internode, as internode size was often negatively correlated with survival after fragmentation. Regrowth, on the other hand, was generally positively correlated with internode size. These unexpected results indicate that there may be contrasting selection pressures on internode size in stoloniferous species growing in severely disturbed habitats.

Huber, Heidrun; Visser, Eric J. W.; Clements, Gijs; Peters, Janny L.

2014-01-01

77

Physical mapping of the Hind III, Eco RI, Sal and Sma restriction endonuclease cleavage fragments from bacteriophage T5 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA of bacteriophage T5+ (molecular weight 76×106 dalton) has been dissected by various specific endonucleases. The restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoRI produce 16 and 7 fragments respectively, whereas Sal and Sma produce 4 fragments each. Complete cleavage maps were established for the enzymes EcoRI, Sal and Sma and an almost complete map for HindIII. Furthermore the location and size

Alexander Gabain; Gary S. Hayward; Hermann Bujard

1976-01-01

78

Impact and explosion crater ejecta, fragment size, and velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation had the objective to develop models for the distribution of fragments which are ejected at a given velocity for both impact and explosion cratering. It is pointed out that the results have application to the physics of planetary accretion and the origin of meteorites. The impact ejection of fine dust into the earth's atmosphere has been proposed as a mechanism for extinctions which occurred at the end of the Cretaceous. A technique is developed for determining the distribution of fragments which are ejected at a given velocity. The experimental data base for the distribution fragments in the ejecta blankets of impact, explosion, and nuclear craters, are discussed. Attention is also given to impact flow field calculations, fragmentation theory, and the applications of the derived relations.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1985-01-01

79

Ca2 antagonists inhibit DNA fragmentation and toxic cell death induced by acetaminophen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca2 accumulates in the nucleus and DNA undergoes enzymatic cleavage into internucleosome- length fragments before acetaminophen and dimethyl- nitrosamine produce hepatic necrosis in vivo and toxic cell death in vitro. However, Ca2-endonudease fragmen- tation of DNA is characteristic of apoptosis, a type of cell death considered biochemically and functionally distinct from toxic cell death. The present studies investigate DNA fragmentation

SIDHARTHA D. RAY; LISA M KAMENDULIS; MARK W. GURULE; ROBERT D. YORKIN; GEORGE B. CORCORAN

1993-01-01

80

Okazaki fragment processing-independent role for human Dna2 enzyme during DNA replication.  

PubMed

Dna2 is an essential helicase/nuclease that is postulated to cleave long DNA flaps that escape FEN1 activity during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation in yeast. We previously demonstrated that the human Dna2 orthologue (hDna2) localizes to the nucleus and contributes to genomic stability. Here we investigated the role hDna2 plays in DNA replication. We show that Dna2 associates with the replisome protein And-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Depletion of hDna2 resulted in S/G(2) phase-specific DNA damage as evidenced by increased ?-H2AX, replication protein A foci, and Chk1 kinase phosphorylation, a readout for activation of the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint. In addition, we observed reduced origin firing in hDna2-depleted cells consistent with Chk1 activation. We next examined the impact of hDna2 on OF maturation and replication fork progression in human cells. As expected, FEN1 depletion led to a significant reduction in OF maturation. Strikingly, the reduction in OF maturation had no impact on replication fork progression, indicating that fork movement is not tightly coupled to lagging strand maturation. Analysis of hDna2-depleted cells failed to reveal a defect in OF maturation or replication fork progression. Prior work in yeast demonstrated that ectopic expression of FEN1 rescues Dna2 defects. In contrast, we found that FEN1 expression in hDna2-depleted cells failed to rescue genomic instability. These findings suggest that the genomic instability observed in hDna2-depleted cells does not arise from defective OF maturation and that hDna2 plays a role in DNA replication that is distinct from FEN1 and OF maturation. PMID:22570476

Duxin, Julien P; Moore, Hayley R; Sidorova, Julia; Karanja, Kenneth; Honaker, Yuchi; Dao, Benjamin; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Campbell, Judith L; Monnat, Raymond J; Stewart, Sheila A

2012-06-22

81

Short-fragment DNA-mediated in vivo DNA electroporation delivery.  

PubMed

Electroporation is an effective physical delivery method. A variety of factors have been shown to affect the electroporation-mediated gene delivery efficiency. Here we report the usefulness of noncoding short-fragment DNA (sf-DNA) for facilitating electroporation-mediated gene transfer. The plasmid pGL3-control encoding firefly luciferase was injected into tissue together with or without sf-DNA in different length or dose. Immediately after injection, the tissues were electroporated and the level of luciferase activity was assessed 24 h later. The results showed that plasmid DNA formulated with sf-DNA resulted in significant improvement in electroporation-mediated gene transfer efficiency. The effect is dose and length dependent, and also found in low-voltage electroporation. These results indicated that sf-DNA can be used as a helper molecule to improve the electroporation-mediated gene transfection efficiency. PMID:24510812

Peng, Jinliang; Zhao, Yonggang; Xu, Yuhong

2014-01-01

82

A dearth of small particles in debris disks. An energy-constrained smallest fragment size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. A prescription for the fragment size distribution resulting from dust grain collisions is essential when modelling a range of astrophysical systems, such as debris disks and planetary rings. Aims: While the slope of the fragment size distribution and the size of the largest fragment are well known, the behaviour of the distribution at the small size end is theoretically and experimentally poorly understood. This leads debris disk codes to generally assume a limit equal to, or below, the radiation blow-out size. Methods: We use energy conservation to analytically derive a lower boundary of the fragment size distribution for a range of collider mass ratios. Focusing on collisions between equal-sized bodies, we apply the method to debris disks. Results: For a given collider mass, the size of the smallest fragments is found to depend on collision velocity, material parameters, and the size of the largest fragment. We provide a physically motivated recipe for the calculation of the smallest fragment, which can be easily implemented in codes for modelling collisional systems. For plausible parameters, our results are consistent with the observed predominance of grains much larger than the blow-out size in Fomalhaut's main belt and in the Herschel cold debris disks. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Krijt, S.; Kama, M.

2014-06-01

83

Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Effective Population Size in the Endangered Rio Grande Silvery Minnow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity to evaluate effects of river fragmentation on remnant populations of the federally endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). Analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial (mt)DNA detected little spatial genetic structure over the current geographic range, consistent with high gene flowdespite fragmentation by dams. However, maximum-likelihood analysis of temporal genetic data

DOMINIQUE ALÒ; THOMAS F. TURNER

2005-01-01

84

Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR): sequence-specific modification of genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells by small DNA fragments.  

PubMed

The sequence-specific correction of a mutated gene (e.g., point mutation) by the Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR) method is a highly attractive approach for gene therapy. Small DNA fragments (SDFs) were used in SFHR to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and murine cells. The advantage of this gene targeting approach is to maintain the physiologic expression pattern of targeted genes without altering the regulatory sequences (e.g., promoter, enhancer), but the application of this technique requires the knowledge of the sequence to be targeted. In our recent study, an optimized SFHR protocol was used to replace the eGFP mutant sequence in SV-40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-SV40), with the wild-type eGFP sequence. Nevertheless in the past, SFHR has been used to correct several mutant genes, each related to a specific genetic disease (e.g., spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis, severe combined immune deficiency). Several parameters can be modified to optimize the gene modification efficiency, as described in our recent study. In this chapter we describe the main guidelines that should be followed in SFHR application, in order to increase technique efficiency. PMID:24557898

Luchetti, Andrea; Malgieri, Arianna; Sangiuolo, Federica

2014-01-01

85

Growth and fragmentation of centimetre-sized dust aggregates: the dependence on aggregate size and porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carry out three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of spherical homogeneous SiO2 dust aggregates to investigate how the mass and the porosity of the aggregates affect their ability to survive an impact at various different collision velocities (between 1 and 27.5 m s-1). We explore how the threshold velocities for fragmentation vary with these parameters. Crucially, we find that the porosity plays a part of utmost importance in determining the outcome of collisions. In particular, we find that aggregates with filling factors ?37 per cent are significantly weakened and that the velocity regime in which the aggregates grow is reduced or even non-existent (instead, the aggregates either rebound off each other or break apart). At filling factors less than ?37 per cent we find that more porous objects are weaker but not as weak as highly compact objects with filling factors ?37 per cent. In addition, we find that (for a given aggregate density) collisions between very different mass objects have higher threshold velocities than those between very similar mass objects. We find that fragmentation velocities are higher than the typical values of 1 m s-1 and that growth can even occur for velocities as high as 27.5 m s-1. Therefore, while the growth of aggregates is more likely if collisions between different sized objects occurs or if the aggregates are porous with filling factor <37 per cent, it may also be hindered if the aggregates become too compact.

Meru, Farzana; Geretshauser, Ralf J.; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-11-01

86

Size distribution of fragment debris produced by simulated meteoroid impact of spacecraft wall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory experimental program was conducted to determine the amount of fragment debris produced and its size distribution when simulated spacecraft walls are penetrated by hypervelocity projectiles. Two tests were made in which a spacecraft wall was struck with a small steel and an aluminum projectile, respectively. Results show that most of the fragment debris were irregularly shaped flat plates. The fragment data follow a cumulative number distribution law of the form N =am'b' where 'm' is fragment mass and 'a' and 'b' are constants. Orbital lifetimes of most of the fragments were very short, being on the order of a few days.

Bess, T. D.

1975-01-01

87

DNA fragmentation, gliosis and histological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The extent of DNA fragmentation analysed using the TUNEL technique was evaluated in post-mortem human brain tissue. Twenty-four patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a short post-mortem delay were analysed. We report an increase in the count of TUNEL-labelled cells as the pathology of AD intensifies. Our results point out a significant correlation between neurofibrillary tangle and senile/neuritic plaque score and TUNEL-labelled cells. Patients with two copies of apolipoprotein (Apo) Eepsilon4 allele had highest number of histopathological hallmarks lesions of AD, whereas the ApoE genotype did not significantly influence the density of TUNEL-positive cells. No significant correlation was found between beta-amyloid protein load and TUNEL-labelled cells. There was no relationship between the age at death, age at onset, extent of astrogliosis or microgliosis and TUNEL-labelled cells in our material. PMID:11078220

Overmyer, M; Kraszpulski, M; Helisalmi, S; Soininen, H; Alafuzoff, I

2000-12-01

88

DNA fragmentation in human substantia nigra: apoptosis or perimortem effect?  

PubMed

DNA fragmentation was examined in situ in flash-frozen human postmortem midbrain as a marker for programmed cell death. A large series of cases comprising 16 pathologically confirmed idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) cases, 14 control cases without brain pathology, and a group of 6 patients with other parkinsonian movement disorders were examined using TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin 3' end-labeling histology. Labeling of neurons and glia was seen in the substantia nigra of control and IPD cases and in other movement disorder cases. Labeled nuclei were seen in melanized nigral neurons; apoptotic bodies were also found but were more commonly associated with nigral glia. In the control group, labeling of neurons and glia was strongly associated with poor agonal status, assessed by tissue pH, a marker for antemortem hypoxia. The mean tissue pH of the control group with neuronal labeling was 6.28 (SEM .057), which was significantly different from that of the unlabeled group 6.55 (SEM .055). Mean tissue pH for all cases was 6.38. There was no association of nigral neuronal labeling with poor agonal status in the IPD cases, which showed labeling throughout the range of pH values. However, extranigral labeling, seen in the mesencephalon, red nucleus, superior colliculus, rostral pons, and periaqueductal gray matter, in all three subject groups was associated with tissue pH values of less than 6.3. These findings suggest that DNA fragmentation is influenced by antemortem hypoxia and that apoptosis-like changes seen in the postmortem nigra may parallel those seen in experimental ischemia in the animal brain. The likely influence of perimortem factors on these changes indicates that results from postmortem studies of apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative disease should be treated with caution and underlines the importance of determining postmortem markers for agonal status in human brain. PMID:9827610

Kingsbury, A E; Mardsen, C D; Foster, O J

1998-11-01

89

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

90

DNA fragmentation induced by Fe ions in human cell: shielding influence on spatially correlated damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outside the magnetic field of the Earth, high energy heavy ions (HZE particles) constitute a relevant part of the biologically significant dose to astronauts during the very long travels through the space. For heavy ions the primary ionization sites occur in a correlated manner along the track of the particles and their typical pattern of energy deposition on the microscopic scale is expected to have an important role in their effects on living cells. It has been pointed out that multiple Double Strand Breaks (DSB) can be produced in local proximity by the same particle track, creating a small region of clustered damage. We have investigated the influence of the shielding on the biological effects of heavy ions, studying the initial production of very small DNA fragments in human fibroblasts irradiated with iron ions. Theoretical studies have shown that materials rich in hydrogen, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), could be more suitable in reducing the radiation risk. This is due mainly to a lower production of secondary neutrons and target fragments in hydrogen-rich materials compared to aluminium, which is the current shield used to protect astronauts. We have measured the size distribution of DNA fragments induced by high-energy Fe ions over a range from 1 kbp to 23 kpb that are produced by DSB occured over distances comparable with the chromatin fiber dimensions. 1 GeV/u Fe ion beams were obtained from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and irradiations were performed without and with a 190 mm thick PMMA shielding. Plateau phase AG1522 cells were irradiated in agarose plugs with doses up to 600 Gy and DSB induction was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis after Pulsed/Constant Field Gel Electrophoresis. The results until now obtained show that the number of DSB increases linearly either when plotted versus fluence either versus dose. The fragment distribution indicates the occurrence of a spatially correlated damage. When a PMMA shield is used, the dose-rate of the Fe ions beam decreases by a factor around 0.5 and a concomitant marked decrease in the DNA fragments production per unit dose is found.

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Chatterjee, A.; Esposito, G.; Rydberg, B.; Simone, G.

91

Autonomous replication of human chromosomal DNA fragments in human cells.  

PubMed Central

We have examined whether a human chromosome has distinct segments that can replicate autonomously as extrachromosomal elements. Human 293S cells were transfected with a set of human chromosomal DNA fragments of 8-15 kilobase pairs that were cloned on an Escherichia coli plasmid vector. The transfected cells were subsequently cultured in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine during two cell generations, and several plasmid clones labeled in both of the daughter DNA strands were isolated. Efficiency of replication of these clones, as determined from the ratios of heavy-heavy and one-half of heavy-light molecules to total molecules recovered from density-labeled cells, was 9.4% per cell generation on the average. Replication efficiency of control clones excluded during the selection was about 2.2% and that of the vector plasmid alone was 0.3%. A representative clone p1W1 replicated in a semiconservative manner only one round during the S phase of the cell cycle. It replicated extrachromosomally without integration into chromosome. The human segment of the clone was composed of several subsegments that promoted autonomous replication at different efficiencies. Our results suggest that certain specific nucleotide sequences are involved in autonomous replication of human segments. Images

Masukata, H; Satoh, H; Obuse, C; Okazaki, T

1993-01-01

92

A program for selecting DNA fragments to detect mutations by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods.  

PubMed Central

A computer program was developed to automate the selection of DNA fragments for detecting mutations within a long DNA sequence by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods. The program, MELTSCAN, scans through a user specified DNA sequence calculating the melting behavior of overlapping DNA fragments covering the sequence. Melting characteristics of the fragments are analyzed to determine the best fragment for detecting mutations at each base pair position in the sequence. The calculation also determines the optimal fragment for detecting mutations within a user specified mutational hot spot region. The program is built around the statistical mechanical model of the DNA melting transition. The optimal fragment for a given position is selected using the criteria that its melting curve has at least two steps, the base pair position is in the fragment's lowest melting domain, and the melting domain has the smallest number of base pairs among fragments that meet the first two criteria. The program predicted fragments for detecting mutations in the cDNA and genomic DNA of the human p53 gene.

Brossette, S; Wartell, R M

1994-01-01

93

Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of transferring fragments of DNA from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate filters. The fragments can then be hybridized to radioactive RNA and hybrids detected by radioautography or fluorography. The method is illustrated by analyses of restriction fragments complementary to ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Xenopus laevis, and from several mammals.

E. M. Southern

1975-01-01

94

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-01-01

95

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.  

PubMed

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham's F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice. PMID:25031574

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-05-01

96

Population size, habitat fragmentation, and the nature of adaptive variation in a stream fish.  

PubMed

Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population size. We investigated these alternative hypotheses by analysing coding-gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with different biological functions in fragmented brook trout populations of variable sizes. Putative adaptive differentiation was greater between small and large populations or among small populations than among large populations. These trends were stronger for genetic population size measures than demographic ones and were present despite pronounced drift in small populations. Our results suggest that fragmentation affects natural selection and that the changes elicited in the adaptive genetic composition and differentiation of fragmented populations vary with population size. By generating more variable evolutionary responses, the alteration of selective pressures during habitat fragmentation may affect future population persistence independently of, and perhaps long before, the effects of demographic and genetic stochasticity are manifest. PMID:25056619

Fraser, Dylan J; Debes, Paul V; Bernatchez, Louis; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

2014-09-01

97

Cerebral Ischemia Produces Laddered DNA Fragments Distinct From Cardiac Ischemia and Archetypal Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophoretic pattern of laddered DNA fragments which has been observed after cerebral ischemia is considered to indicate that neurons are dying by apoptosis. Herein the authors directly demonstrate using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction methods that 99% of the DNA fragments produced after either global or focal ischemia in adult rats, or produced after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats, have staggered

John P. MacManus; Henry Fliss; Edward Preston; Ingrid Rasquinha; Ursula Tuor

1999-01-01

98

A Mini-Library of Sequenced Human DNA Fragments: Linking Bench Experiments with Informatics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the development of a mini-library of human DNA fragments for use in an enquiry-based learning (EBL) undergraduate practical incorporating "wet-lab" and bioinformatics tasks. In spite of the widespread emergence of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the cloning and analysis of DNA fragments in "Escherichia coli" remains a fundamental…

Dalgleish, Raymond; Shanks, Morag E.; Monger, Karen; Butler, Nicola J.

2012-01-01

99

Salt dependence and thermodynamic interpretation of the thermal denaturation of small DNA restriction fragments.  

PubMed Central

The influence of cation concentration on the thermal denaturation of DNA restriction fragments from the E. coli lac regulatory region and from pVH51, ranging in size from 43- to 880- bp, is described. Upon increasing the ionic strength, the melting transitions broaden in a cooperative manner at salt concentrations characteristic for the specific fragment. For three fragments studied in detail, the salt concentration dependence at the midpoint varied between 0.03 and 0.19 M Na+. Along with the broadening, the melting transitions become more symmetrical. This result is discussed with respect to the irreversibility of melting transitions at low ionic strength. After a cooperative broadening, the shape of the melting curves remains constant up to salt concentrations of 0.5 M Na+. The dTM/dlog[Na+] values for three fragments fall between 15.7 and 16.7. An easily applicable approximation of the van't Hoff equation is used to evaluate the enthalpies of 13 transitions arising from the denaturation of 43 to 600 bp. The results of this analysis are compared to calculations of the expected enthalpies based on calorimetric measurements. The TMs of most transitions were directly related to the base composition, but several deviations from the predicted behavior were observed. The possible influences of fragment length and sequence on the thermal stability are discussed. The experimental and mathematical procedure to resolve a thermal denaturation transition with a width f 0.17 +/- 0.01 degrees and its distinction from another preceeding transition only approximately 0.15 degrees away in an 880-bp Hae III fragment from pVH51 is described. This transition is about half as wide as the smallest one reported to date.

Hillen, W; Goodman, T C; Wells, R D

1981-01-01

100

NEST SURVIVAL RELATIVE TO PATCH SIZE IN A HIGHLY FRAGMENTED SHORTGRASS PRAIRIE LANDSCAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the influences of habitat fragmentation on vertebrate populations is essential for the protection and ecological restoration of strategic sites for native species. We examined the effects of prairie fragmentation on avian reproductive success using artificial and natural nests on 26 randomly selected, privately owned patches of shortgrass prairie ranging in size from 7 to 454 ha within a cropland

SUSAN K. SKAGEN; AMY A. YACKEL ADAMS; ROD D. ADAMS

2005-01-01

101

Preparation of a phage DNA fragment library for whole genome shotgun sequencing.  

PubMed

The most efficient method to determine the genomic sequence of a dsDNA phage is to use a whole genome shotgun approach (WGSA). Preparation of a library where each genomic fragment has an equal chance of being represented is critical to the success of the WGSA. For many phages, there are regions of the genome likely to be under-represented in the shotgun library, which results in more gaps in the shotgun assembly than predicted by the Poisson distribution. However, as phage genomes are relatively small, this increased number of gaps does not present an insurmountable impediment to using the WGSA. This chapter will focus on construction of a high-quality random library and sequence analysis of this library in a 96-well format. Techniques are described for the mechanical fragmentation of genomic DNA into 2 kb average size fragments, preparation of the fragmented DNA for shotgun cloning, and advice on the choice of cloning vector for library preparation. Protocols for deepwell block culture, plasmid isolation, and sequencing in 96-well format are given. The rationale for determining the total number of random clones from a library to sequence for a 50 and 150 kb genome is explained. The steps involved in going from hundreds of shotgun sequencing traces to generating contigs will be outlined as well as how to close gaps in the sequence by primer walking on phage DNA and PCR-generated templates. Finally, examples will be given of how biological information about the phage genomic termini can be derived by analysis of the organization of individual clones in the shotgun sequence assembly. Specific examples are given for the circularly permuted termini of pac type phages, the direct terminal repeats found in most T7-like phages, variable host DNA at either end as in the Mu-like phages, and the 5' and 3' overhanging ends of cos type phages. The end result of these steps is the entire DNA sequence of a novel phage, ready for gene prediction. PMID:19082550

Summer, Elizabeth J

2009-01-01

102

Okazaki fragment processing: Modulation of the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase ? by the concerted action of replication protein A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and flap endonuclease-1  

PubMed Central

DNA polymerase (pol) ? is essential for both leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis during chromosomal replication in eukaryotes. Pol ? has been implicated in the Okazaki fragment maturation process for the extension of the newly synthesized fragment and for the displacement of the RNA/DNA segment of the preexisting downstream fragment generating an intermediate flap structure that is the target for the Dna2 and flap endonuclease-1 (Fen 1) endonucleases. Using a single-stranded minicircular template with an annealed RNA/DNA primer, we could measure strand displacement by pol ? coupled to DNA synthesis. Our results suggested that pol ? alone can displace up to 72 nucleotides while synthesizing through a double-stranded DNA region in a distributive manner. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) reduced the template dissociation rate of pol ?, thus increasing the processivity of both synthesis and strand displacement, whereas replication protein A (RP-A) limited the size of the displaced fragment down to 20–30 nucleotides, by generating a “locked” flap DNA structure, which was a substrate for processing of the displaced fragment by Fen 1 into a ligatable product. Our data support a model for Okazaki fragment processing where the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase ? is modulated by the concerted action of PCNA, RP-A and Fen 1.

Maga, Giovanni; Villani, Giuseppe; Tillement, Vanessa; Stucki, Manuel; Locatelli, Giada A.; Frouin, Isabelle; Spadari, Silvio; Hubscher, Ulrich

2001-01-01

103

Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures.  

PubMed

The use of transgenic crops as feeds for ruminant animals has prompted study of the possible uptake of transgene fragments by ruminal micro-organisms and/or intestinal absorption of fragments surviving passage through the rumen. The persistence in buffered ruminal contents of seven different recombinant DNA fragments from GM rapeseed expressing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) transgene was tracked using PCR. Parental and transgenic (i.e. glyphosphate-tolerant; Roundup Ready, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO, USA) rapeseed were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h as whole seeds, cracked seeds, rapeseed meal, and as pelleted, barley-based diets containing 65 g rapeseed meal/kg. The seven transgene fragments ranged from 179 to 527 bp and spanned the entire 1363 bp EPSPS transgene. A 180 bp ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit fragment and a 466 bp 16S rDNA fragment were used as controls for endogenous rapeseed DNA and bacterial DNA respectively. The limit of detection of the PCR assay, established using negative controls spiked with known quantities of DNA, was 12.5 pg. Production of gas and NH3 was monitored throughout the incubation and confirmed active in vitro fermentation. Bacterial DNA was detected in all sample types at all time points. Persistence patterns of endogenous (Rubisco) and recombinant (EPSPS) rapeseed DNA were inversely related to substrate digestibility (amplifiable for 48, 8 and 4 h in whole or cracked seeds, meal and diets respectively), but did not differ between parental and GM rapeseed, nor among fragments. Detection of fragments was representative of persistence of the whole transgene. No EPSPS fragments were amplifiable in microbial DNA, suggesting that transformation had not occurred during the 48 h incubation. Uptake of transgenic DNA fragments by ruminal bacteria is probably precluded or time-limited by rapid degradation of plant DNA upon plant cell lysis. PMID:15137918

Sharma, Ranjana; Alexander, Trevor W; John, S Jacob; Forster, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A

2004-05-01

104

Development of a fast and efficient ultrasonic-based strategy for DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Several ultrasound-based platforms for DNA sample preparation were evaluated in terms of effective fragmentation of DNA (plasmid and genomic DNA)-ultrasonic probe, sonoreactor, ultrasonic bath and the newest Vialtweeter device. The sonoreactor showed the best efficiency of DNA fragmentation while simultaneously assuring no cross-contamination of samples, and was considered the best ultrasonic tool to achieve effective fragmentation of DNA at high-throughput and avoid sample overheating. Several operation variables were studied-ultrasonication time and amplitude, DNA concentration, sample volume and sample pre-treatment-that allowed optimisation of a sonoreactor-based strategy for effective DNA fragmentation. Optimal operating conditions to achieve DNA fragmentation were set to 100% ultrasonic amplitude, 100microL sample volume, 8min ultrasonic treatment (2min/sample) for a DNA concentration of 100microgmL(-1). The proposed ultrasonication strategy can be easily implemented in any laboratory setup, providing fast, simple and reliable means for effective DNA sample preparation when fragmentation is critical for downstream molecular detection and diagnostics protocols. PMID:20298868

Larguinho, Miguel; Santos, Hugo M; Doria, Gonçalo; Scholz, H; Baptista, Pedro V; Capelo, José L

2010-05-15

105

Rapid assessment of the effect of ciprofloxacin on chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli using an in situ DNA fragmentation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular procedures, but these are not effective at the single-cell level. We assessed ciprofloxacin (CIP)-induced chromosomal DNA breakage in single-cell Escherichia coli by direct visualization of the DNA fragments that diffused

María Tamayo; Rebeca Santiso; Jaime Gosalvez; Germán Bou; José Luis Fernández

2009-01-01

106

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in the Tm2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed which allows the isolation of very high molecular weight DNA (>2 million bp) from leaf protoplasts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The DNA isolated in this manner was digested in agarose with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The size range of the reslting fragments was determined by hybridization to a number

Martin W. Ganal; Nevin D. Young; Steven D. Tanksley

1989-01-01

107

Specific-sized Hyaluronan Fragments Promote Expression of Human ?-Defensin 2 in Intestinal Epithelium*  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in the extracellular matrix of virtually all mammalian tissues. Recent work has suggested a role for small, fragmented HA polymers in initiating innate defense responses in immune cells, endothelium, and epidermis through interaction with innate molecular pattern recognition receptors, such as TLR4. Despite these advances, little is known regarding the effect of fragmented HA at the intestinal epithelium, where numerous pattern recognition receptors act as sentinels of an innate defense response that maintains epithelial barrier integrity in the presence of abundant and diverse microbial challenges. Here we report that HA fragments promote expression of the innate antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 (H?D2) in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with HA fragment preparations resulted in time- and dose-dependent up-regulated expression of H?D2 protein in a fragment size-specific manner, with 35-kDa HA fragment preparations emerging as the most potent inducers of intracellular H?D2. Furthermore, oral administration of specific-sized HA fragments promotes the expression of an H?D2 ortholog in the colonic epithelium of both wild-type and CD44-deficient mice but not in TLR4-deficient mice. Together, our observations suggest that a highly size-specific, TLR4-dependent, innate defense response to fragmented HA contributes to intestinal epithelium barrier defense through the induction of intracellular H?D2 protein.

Hill, David R.; Kessler, Sean P.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

2012-01-01

108

Efficient combination of large DNA in vitro: in gel site specific recombination (IGSSR) of PAC fragments containing alpha satellite DNA and the human HPRT gene locus.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to combine a cloned genomic copy of a selectable gene with different cloned centromeric sequences to develop mammalian artificial chromosomes (MAC) we used site specific recombination mediated by purified Cre recombinase acting on the loxP sequence in PAC vector DNA. A new method was required to purify highly concentrated, virtually 100% intact PAC DNA which could be stored for a long period. Here we show the efficient linking of linearized PACs containing alpha satellite DNA from chromosomes X and 17 with sizes of 125 and 140 kb, respectively, to a 95 kb restriction fragment derived from a 175 kb PAC containing the intact human HPRT gene locus.

Schindelhauer, D; Cooke, H J

1997-01-01

109

Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling.  

PubMed

We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA. PMID:8606929

Holley, W R; Chatterjee, A

1996-02-01

110

DFF, a Heterodimeric Protein That Functions Downstream of Caspase3 to Trigger DNA Fragmentation during Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified and purified from HeLa cytosol a protein that induces DNA fragmentation in coincubated nuclei after it is activated by caspase-3. This protein, designated DNA Fragmentation Factor (DFF), is a heterodimer of 40 kDa and 45 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa subunit, determined from its cDNA sequence, reveals it to be a novel

Xuesong Liu; Hua Zou; Clive Slaughter; Xiaodong Wang

1997-01-01

111

DNA fingerprinting of human cell lines using PCR amplification of fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods for monitoring cell line identification and authentication include species-specific immunofluorescence, isoenzyme\\u000a phenotyping, chromosome analysis, and DNA fingerprinting. Most previous studies of DNA fingerprinting of cell lines have used\\u000a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, we examined the utility of an alternative and simpler method\\u000a of cell line DNA fingerprinting—polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of fragment length polymorphisms.

Rui Yan; Mark Ottenbreit; Bharati Hukku; Michael Mally; Sharong Chou; Joseph Kaplan

1996-01-01

112

cDNA selection: efficient PCR approach for the selection of cDNAs encoded in large chromosomal DNA fragments.  

PubMed Central

Identification of coding segments in large fragments of genomic DNA is a recurrent problem in genome mapping and positional cloning studies. We have developed a rapid and efficient protocol to achieve this goal, based on hybridization of cDNA fragments to immobilized DNA and recovery of the selected cDNAs by the PCR. The procedure permits rapid cloning of cDNA fragments encoded by large genomic DNA fragments, groups of yeast artificial chromosomes, or cosmids and has the potential to directly enrich cDNAs encoded in chromosome segments. By this approach we have been able to identify several non-major histocompatibility complex class I clones from a yeast artificial chromosome that includes the HLA-A locus. Images

Parimoo, S; Patanjali, S R; Shukla, H; Chaplin, D D; Weissman, S M

1991-01-01

113

Specific cloning of DNA fragments unique to the dog Y chromosome.  

PubMed

A novel technique that enabled the specific cloning of a DNA fragment unique to the dog Y chromosome is described. The method involves competitive hybridization of DNA prepared from male dog lymphocytes with biotin-labeled DNA prepared from female dog lymphocytes. The biotinylated female-female and male-female hybrid DNA fragments were removed by capture with streptavidin-coated paramagnetic particles. Full-length double-stranded DNA was generated from the remaining fragments by using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, followed by direct cloning using a low-background ligation technique. Analysis of putative recombinant clones derived by this method has led to the identification of a fragment that hybridizes specifically to male dog DNA. The clones were selected initially on the basis of a differential signal obtained when hybridized to dilutions of male and female dog DNA immobilized on neural nylon membrane. To evaluate its suitability as a probe for trans-sexually grafted cells in transplantation studies, the fragment was labeled with digoxigenin and hybridized in situ to male and female dog tissue sections. The clone designated number 6.2 hybridized strongly to male dog nuclei. The cloning strategy employed could be extended to other studies in which competitive reassociation can be used to identify unique DNA sequences. PMID:8110481

Fletcher, S; Darragh, D; Fan, Y; Grounds, M D; Fisher, C J; Beilharz, M W

1993-01-01

114

DNA Gyrase: Purification and Catalytic Properties of a Fragment of Gyrase B Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein isolated from Escherichia coli complements the DNA gyrase A (NalA) protein to generate an activity that relaxes supercoiled DNA. Oxolinic acid, a known inhibitor of DNA gyrase, blocks this activity and causes double-strand cleavage of DNA at the same sites as are attacked by DNA gyrase. The protein, of molecular weight 50,000, appears to be a fragment of

Martin Gellert; L. Mark Fisher; Mary H. O'Dea

1979-01-01

115

High-resolution liquid chromatography of DNA fragments on non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles.  

PubMed Central

DNA restriction fragments and PCR products were separated by means of ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on alkylated non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles with a mean diameter of 2.1 microns. Optimum resolution was obtained by using an acetonitrile gradient in 100 mM of triethylammonium acetate and a column temperature of 50 degrees C. This allowed the separation of DNA fragments differing in chain length by 1-5% up to a size of 500 base pairs. PCR products could be analyzed directly in less than two minutes with a concentration sensitivity of at least 300 ng/ml. Compared with anion-exchange chromatography or gel electrophoresis no desaltation of the purified DNA molecules is required because the volatile buffer system can be readily evaporated. Subsequently, the method was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of the expression of multidrug resistance genes in mononuclear white blood cells. Images

Huber, C G; Oefner, P J; Preuss, E; Bonn, G K

1993-01-01

116

Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Duplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers as whole genome equivalents. Methodology/Principal Findings A model system was designed allowing for assessment of bias in a duplex real-time PCR research assay. We collected blood plasma samples from male donors in pools of 6 to 8 individuals. Circulatory plasma DNA was extracted and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Separated DNA was recovered from the gel in discrete size fractions and analyzed with different duplex real-time PCR Taqman assays detecting a Y chromosome-specific target and an autosomal target. The real-time PCR research assays used differed significantly in their ability to determine the correct copy number ratio of 0.5 between Y chromosome and autosome targets in DNA of male origin. Longer PCR targets did not amplify quantitatively in circulatory DNA, due to limited presence of full-length target sequence in the sample. Conclusions PCR targets of the same small size are preferred over longer targets when comparing fractional circulatory DNA concentrations by real-time PCR. As an example, a DYS14/18S duplex real-time PCR research assay is presented that correctly measures the fractional concentration of male DNA in a male/female mixture of circulatory, fragmented DNA.

Horlitz, Martin; Lucas, Annabelle; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus

2009-01-01

117

Compositional Bias and Size of Genomes of Human DNA Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes of 144 human DNA viruses were analyzed in the aspect of their compositional asymmetry. DNA viruses were divided into two groups according to their genome sizes. The analysis revealed that the level of guanine and cytosine (GC content) in the coding sequences of small genome DNA viruses was significantly lower than that of large genome DNA viruses. Because small

Jaturong Sewatanon; Sirawat Srichatrapimuk; Prasert Auewarakul

2007-01-01

118

Cloning of a DNA fragment from Streptomyces griseus which directs streptomycin phosphotransferase activity.  

PubMed

DNA from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12475 was partially digested with Sau3A and fragments were ligated into BglII-cleaved pIJ702. When the ligation mixture was used to transform protoplasts of Streptomyces lividans TK54, two transformants resistant to both thiostrepton and streptomycin were isolated. The hybrid plasmids pBV3 and pBV4 which they contained, carrying inserts of sizes 4.45 and 11.55 kbp respectively, each retransformed S. lividans to streptomycin resistance at high efficiency. Both plasmids hybridized to restriction digests of S. griseus chromosomal DNA in Southern blot experiments. In vitro deletion and sub-cloning experiments showed the sequence conferring streptomycin resistance to lie within a segment of 1.95 kbp. Extracts of TK54(pBV3) and TK54(pBV4) contained a streptomycin phosphotransferase similar to that in extracts of S. griseus. Streptomycin phosphotransferase activity appeared in extracts of S. griseus, TK54(pBV3) and TK54(pBV4) within 2 d of inoculation. When pBV3 and pBV4 were retransformed into S. griseus with selection for thiostrepton resistance, plasmid DNA of sizes corresponding to the incoming plasmids was found in the transformants. In these transformants the phosphotransferase appeared at 1.5 rather than 2 d, and reached a level over twice that of the original S. griseus strain. PMID:2995548

Vallins, W J; Baumberg, S

1985-07-01

119

A unique role of the DNA fragmentation factor in maintaining genomic stability  

PubMed Central

DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, the biological function of apoptotic DNA fragmentation remains unclear. Here, we show that DNA fragmentation factor plays an important role for maintaining genomic stability. Inhibition or loss of the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD), whose nuclease activity is responsible for digesting genomic DNA during apoptosis, led to significant increases in spontaneous or induced gene mutations, gene amplifications, and chromosomal instability in primary mouse cells and transformed human cell lines. The mechanism underlying genetic instability in DFF/CAD-deficient cells, at least in part, involves a small but significant elevation in the survival of cells exposed to ionizing radiation, suggesting that apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor contributes to genomic stability by ensuring the removal of cells that have suffered DNA damage. In support of this hypothesis are the observations of increased cellular transformation of mouse embryonic cells from the DFF/CAD-null mice and significantly enhanced susceptibility to radiation-induced carcinogenesis in these mice. These data, in combination with published reports on the existence of tumor-specific gene mutations/deletions in the DFF/CAD genes in human cancer samples, suggest that apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor is required for the maintenance of genetic stability and may play a role in tumor suppression.

Yan, Bin; Wang, Huili; Peng, Yuanlin; Hu, Ye; Wang, He; Zhang, Xiuwu; Chen, Qi; Bedford, Joel S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Li, Chuan-Yuan

2006-01-01

120

Size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA for noninvasive prenatal testing.  

PubMed

Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach that is based on the use of DNA fragment size as a diagnostic parameter. This approach is dependent on the fact that circulating fetal DNA molecules are generally shorter than the corresponding maternal DNA molecules. First, we performed plasma DNA size analysis using paired-end massively parallel sequencing and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma could be deduced from the overall size distribution of maternal plasma DNA. The fetal DNA fraction is a critical parameter affecting the accuracy of noninvasive prenatal testing using maternal plasma DNA. Second, we showed that fetal chromosomal aneuploidy could be detected by observing an aberrant proportion of short fragments from an aneuploid chromosome in the paired-end sequencing data. Using this approach, we detected fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 with 100% sensitivity (T21: 36/36; T18: 27/27) and 100% specificity (non-T21: 88/88; non-T18: 97/97). For trisomy 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% (20/21) and 99% (102/103), respectively. For monosomy X, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100% (10/10 and 8/8). Thus, this study establishes the principle of size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA. This approach has potential applications beyond noninvasive prenatal testing to areas such as oncology and transplantation monitoring. PMID:24843150

Yu, Stephanie C Y; Chan, K C Allen; Zheng, Yama W L; Jiang, Peiyong; Liao, Gary J W; Sun, Hao; Akolekar, Ranjit; Leung, Tak Y; Go, Attie T J I; van Vugt, John M G; Minekawa, Ryoko; Oudejans, Cees B M; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

2014-06-10

121

Size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA for noninvasive prenatal testing  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach that is based on the use of DNA fragment size as a diagnostic parameter. This approach is dependent on the fact that circulating fetal DNA molecules are generally shorter than the corresponding maternal DNA molecules. First, we performed plasma DNA size analysis using paired-end massively parallel sequencing and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma could be deduced from the overall size distribution of maternal plasma DNA. The fetal DNA fraction is a critical parameter affecting the accuracy of noninvasive prenatal testing using maternal plasma DNA. Second, we showed that fetal chromosomal aneuploidy could be detected by observing an aberrant proportion of short fragments from an aneuploid chromosome in the paired-end sequencing data. Using this approach, we detected fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 with 100% sensitivity (T21: 36/36; T18: 27/27) and 100% specificity (non-T21: 88/88; non-T18: 97/97). For trisomy 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% (20/21) and 99% (102/103), respectively. For monosomy X, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100% (10/10 and 8/8). Thus, this study establishes the principle of size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA. This approach has potential applications beyond noninvasive prenatal testing to areas such as oncology and transplantation monitoring.

Yu, Stephanie C. Y.; Chan, K. C. Allen; Zheng, Yama W. L.; Jiang, Peiyong; Liao, Gary J. W.; Sun, Hao; Akolekar, Ranjit; Leung, Tak Y.; Go, Attie T. J. I.; van Vugt, John M. G.; Minekawa, Ryoko; Oudejans, Cees B. M.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Lo, Y. M. Dennis

2014-01-01

122

The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that or planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68% of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1986-01-01

123

Genetic analyses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe dna2(+) reveal that dna2 plays an essential role in Okazaki fragment metabolism.  

PubMed

In this report, we investigated the phenotypes caused by temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant alleles of dna2(+) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a homologue of DNA2 of budding yeast, in an attempt to further define its function in vivo with respect to lagging-strand synthesis during the S-phase of the cell cycle. At the restrictive temperature, dna2 (ts) cells arrested at late S-phase but were unaffected in bulk DNA synthesis. Moreover, they exhibited aberrant mitosis when combined with checkpoint mutations, in keeping with a role for Dna2 in Okazaki fragment maturation. Similarly, spores in which dna2(+) was disrupted duplicated their DNA content during germination and also arrested at late S-phase. Inactivation of dna2(+) led to chromosome fragmentation strikingly similar to that seen when cdc17(+), the DNA ligase I gene, is inactivated. The temperature-dependent lethality of dna2 (ts) mutants was suppressed by overexpression of genes encoding subunits of polymerase delta (cdc1(+) and cdc27(+)), DNA ligase I (cdc17(+)), and Fen-1 (rad2(+)). Each of these gene products plays a role in the elongation or maturation of Okazaki fragments. Moreover, they all interacted with S. pombe Dna2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay, albeit to different extents. On the basis of these results, we conclude that dna2(+) plays a direct role in the Okazaki fragment elongation and maturation. We propose that dna2(+) acts as a central protein to form a complex with other proteins required to coordinate the multienzyme process for Okazaki fragment elongation and maturation. PMID:10880469

Kang, H Y; Choi, E; Bae, S H; Lee, K H; Gim, B S; Kim, H D; Park, C; MacNeill, S A; Seo, Y S

2000-07-01

124

High Resolution Size Analysis of Fetal DNA in the Urine of Pregnant Women by Paired-End Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal DNA in maternal urine, if present, would be a valuable source of fetal genetic material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. However, the existence of fetal DNA in maternal urine has remained controversial. The issue is due to the lack of appropriate technology to robustly detect the potentially highly degraded fetal DNA in maternal urine. Methodology We have used massively parallel paired-end sequencing to investigate cell-free DNA molecules in maternal urine. Catheterized urine samples were collected from seven pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancies. We detected fetal DNA by identifying sequenced reads that contained fetal-specific alleles of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The sizes of individual urinary DNA fragments were deduced from the alignment positions of the paired reads. We measured the fractional fetal DNA concentration as well as the size distributions of fetal and maternal DNA in maternal urine. Principal Findings Cell-free fetal DNA was detected in five of the seven maternal urine samples, with the fractional fetal DNA concentrations ranged from 1.92% to 4.73%. Fetal DNA became undetectable in maternal urine after delivery. The total urinary cell-free DNA molecules were less intact when compared with plasma DNA. Urinary fetal DNA fragments were very short, and the most dominant fetal sequences were between 29 bp and 45 bp in length. Conclusions With the use of massively parallel sequencing, we have confirmed the existence of transrenal fetal DNA in maternal urine, and have shown that urinary fetal DNA was heavily degraded.

Tsui, Nancy B. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Chow, Katherine C. K.; Su, Xiaoxi; Leung, Tak Y.; Sun, Hao; Chan, K. C. Allen; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Lo, Y. M. Dennis

2012-01-01

125

The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-?). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product of magma fragmentation at or close to the fragmentation level. Given the high abrasiveness of pumice, hemispherical clasts should be observed if clast break-up followed efficient clast abrasion. As a consequence, finer grained pyroclastic fall deposits do not necessarily proof efficient secondary fragmentation in the conduit but may rather reveal the influence of conduit length on 'What size of pyroclasts can be erupted'?

Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

2013-12-01

126

Joint effects of population size and isolation on genetic erosion in fragmented populations: finding fragmentation thresholds for management  

PubMed Central

Size and isolation of local populations are main parameters of interest when assessing the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation. However, their relative influence on the genetic erosion of local populations remains unclear. In this study, we first analysed how size and isolation of habitat patches influence the genetic variation of local populations of the Dupont's lark (Chersophilus duponti), an endangered songbird. An information-theoretic approach to model selection allowed us to address the importance of interactions between habitat variables, an aspect seldom considered in fragmentation studies, but which explained up to 65% of the variance in genetic parameters. Genetic diversity and inbreeding were influenced by the size of local populations depending on their degree of isolation, and genetic differentiation was positively related to isolation. We then identified a minimum local population of 19 male territories and a maximum distance of 30 km to the nearest population as thresholds from which genetic erosion becomes apparent. Our results alert on possibly misleading conclusions and suboptimal management recommendations when only additive effects are taken into account and encourage the use of most explanatory but easy-to-measure variables for the evaluation of genetic risks in conservation programmes.

Mendez, Maria; Vogeli, Matthias; Tella, Jose L; Godoy, Jose A

2014-01-01

127

Joint effects of population size and isolation on genetic erosion in fragmented populations: finding fragmentation thresholds for management.  

PubMed

Size and isolation of local populations are main parameters of interest when assessing the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation. However, their relative influence on the genetic erosion of local populations remains unclear. In this study, we first analysed how size and isolation of habitat patches influence the genetic variation of local populations of the Dupont's lark (Chersophilus duponti), an endangered songbird. An information-theoretic approach to model selection allowed us to address the importance of interactions between habitat variables, an aspect seldom considered in fragmentation studies, but which explained up to 65% of the variance in genetic parameters. Genetic diversity and inbreeding were influenced by the size of local populations depending on their degree of isolation, and genetic differentiation was positively related to isolation. We then identified a minimum local population of 19 male territories and a maximum distance of 30 km to the nearest population as thresholds from which genetic erosion becomes apparent. Our results alert on possibly misleading conclusions and suboptimal management recommendations when only additive effects are taken into account and encourage the use of most explanatory but easy-to-measure variables for the evaluation of genetic risks in conservation programmes. PMID:24822084

Méndez, María; Vögeli, Matthias; Tella, José L; Godoy, José A

2014-04-01

128

Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

1995-01-01

129

Nuclear-localized plastid DNA fragments in protozoa, metazoa and fungi.  

PubMed

We analyzed nuclear-localized plastid-like DNA (nupDNA) fragments in protozoa, metazoa and fungi. Most eukaryotes that do not have plastids contain 40-5000 bp nupDNAs in their nuclear genomes. These nupDNA fragments are mainly derived from repeated regions of plastids and distribute through the whole genomes. A majority of nupDNA fragments is located on coding regions with very important functions. Similar to plastids, these nupDNAs most possibly originate from cyanobacteria. Analysis of them suggests that through millions of years of universal endosymbiosis and gene transfer they may have occurred in ancient protists before divergence of plants and animals/fungi, and some transferred fragments have been reserved till now even in modern mammals. PMID:17425117

Yuan, Shu; Sun, Xin; Mu, Lin-Chun; Lei, Tao; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Jian-Hui; Du, Jun-Bo; Lin, Hong-Hui

2007-01-01

130

Separation of random fragments of DNA according to properties of their sequences.  

PubMed Central

The separation of DNA fragments by electrophoresis at high temperature in a denaturing gradient is independent of the length of the fragments. We have suggested that the basis of fragment separation is that each DNA molecule undergoes partial melting as it encounters a concentration of denaturants sufficient to melt its least stable sequence, while other sequences remain double stranded; in the partially melted configuration, DNA can continue migration only slowly. This model is consistent with the observation that fragments of lambda phage DNA cleaved by different restriction endonucleases reach the same final depth in the gel if they contain the same least-stable sequence. A unique set of bands is produced from the electrophoresis of randomly fragmented DNA; this would be expected if there were a limited number of melting centers occupying discrete genetic loci. An intact DNA molecule penetrates about as deeply into the gel as the uppermost band after fragmentation; this would be expected only if the least-stable sequence controls the final depth of the whole molecule. Images

Fischer, S G; Lerman, L S

1980-01-01

131

The release of high mobility group box 1 in apoptosis is triggered by nucleosomal DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initially identified as a non-histone chromosomal protein, which mainly functions as chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, has been recently reported to be secreted into extracellular milieu in necrosis and apoptosis, and act as a proinflammatory mediator. However, the mechanism by which apoptotic cells release HMGB1 is not clear. In this study, we found that staurosporine (apoptosis-inducer)-induced HMGB1 release was associated with nucleosomal DNA fragmentation catalyzed by caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in WEHI-231 cells. Importantly, this event was effectively attenuated by the treatment of a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, and by the inhibition of CAD-mediated DNA fragmentation by the expression of caspase-resistant inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-CR). In WEHI-231/ICAD-CR and WEHI-231/Puro cells, DNase ?-catalyzed nucleosomal DNA fragmentation occurred by anti-IgM antibody treatment was critical for HMGB1 release. Furthermore, in DNase ? stably-expressing HeLa S3 cells (HeLa S3/?), the release of HMGB1 accompanied with nucleosomal DNA fragmentation was more apparent than that in parental HeLa S3 cells in which DNA fragmentation was scarcely observed. Taken together, these date suggest that nucleosomal DNA fragmentation catalyzed by CAD or DNase ? plays a pivotal role in HMGB1 release. PMID:21093407

Yamada, Yoichiro; Fujii, Taku; Ishijima, Rei; Tachibana, Haruki; Yokoue, Natsuki; Takasawa, Ryoko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

2011-02-15

132

Investigations of Bacterial Inactivation and DNA Fragmentation Induced by Flowing Humid Argon Post-discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-contaminated surfaces were exposed to an atmospheric pressure flowing post-discharge, i.e. without direct contact of the plasma with the surface. The non-thermal plasma source was a dielectric barrier discharge. Using humid argon as a feed gas, a reduction of six orders of magnitude of survivors could be obtained for Escherichia coli. An investigation of bacterial inactivation mechanisms during the plasma induced treatment was conducted. For this purpose, DNA (plasmid and genomic DNA in aqueous solution) degradation by the plasma process was studied, assuming that the bacterial inactivation is obtained when the bacterial DNA is fragmented. According to the operating conditions (feed gas, reactor geometry and discharge input power), DNA fragmentation was evaluated in correlation with aqueous phase hydrogen peroxide concentration measurements. It appears that hydrogen peroxide is not the only factor responsible for DNA fragmentation and that short-lived species produced by water dissociation are major contributors.

Odic, Emmanuel; Limam, S.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dodet, B.; Salamitou, S.; DuBow, M. S.

133

Topographical analysis of yeast ribosomal DNA by cleavage with restriction endonucleases. II. The physical map of EcoRI fragments.  

PubMed Central

Yeast ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was digested with the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. Eight distinct fragments were obtained with a molecular weight of 4.35 (1), 1.75 (2), 1.45 (3), 1.07 (4), 0.42 (5), 0.37 (6), 0.26 (7) and 0.22 x 10(6) (8) daltons, respectively. Except for fragment 1 with a molecular weight of 4.35 x 10(6) daltons, all fragments are derived from the multiple ribosomal transcription units. The 'spacer' sequences, on the other hand, gave rise to digestion products which are very heterogeneous in size. By analysis of the partial digestion products which are very heterogeneous in size. By analysis of the partial digestion products, together with the data obtained by digestion with a combination of two restriction enzymes (EcoRI and Hind II or Hind III) and redigestion of the Hind II-and Hind III-fragments with EcoRI, the physical map of the EcoRI cleavage sites in the ribosomal transcription unit could be established.

Meyerink, J H; Retel, J

1976-01-01

134

Direct cleavage of the human DNA fragmentation factor-45 by granzyme B induces caspase-activated DNase release and DNA fragmentation  

PubMed Central

The protease granzyme B (GrB) plays a key role in the cytocidal activity during cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated programmed cell death. Multiple caspases have been identified as direct substrates for GrB, suggesting that the activation of caspases constitutes an important event during CTL-induced cell death. However, recent studies have provided evidence for caspase-independent pathway(s) during CTL-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate caspase-independent and direct cleavage of the 45 kDa unit of DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45) by GrB both in vitro and in vivo. Using a novel and selective caspase-3 inhibitor, we show the ability of GrB to process DFF45 directly and mediate DNA fragmentation in the absence of caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, studies with DFF45 mutants reveal that both caspase-3 and GrB share a common cleavage site, which is necessary and sufficient to induce DNA fragmentation in target cells during apoptosis. Together, our data suggest that CTLs possess alternative mechanism(s) for inducing DNA fragmentation without the requirement for caspases.

Sharif-Askari, Ehsan; Alam, Antoine; Rheaume, Eric; Beresford, Paul J.; Scotto, Christian; Sharma, Kamal; Lee, Dennis; DeWolf, Walter E.; Nuttall, Mark E.; Lieberman, Judy; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre

2001-01-01

135

Generators of reactive oxygen forms gamma-irradiation and ascorbic acid--cobalt metallocomplexes induced large-scale fragmentation and reparation of DNA in tumor cells.  

PubMed

It was demonstrated that ascorbate-cobalt phthalocyanine complex produces a time-dependent nuclease effect on leukemia K-562 cells is. Catalase added to the incubation medium prevented or blocked fragmentation of cell DNA. The size of large-scale fragments formed during irradiation and exposure to the above system varied from 2200 to 30 kbp. The fragments induced by the system recombined slower than the fragments induced by g-irradiation in a dose adequate by the level of DNA damage. This effect observed previously in HEp-2 carcinoma cells exposed to the action of the B12b+C vitamin system can be explained by generation of H(2)O(2) inducing more severe damage to DNA structure than gamma-radiation due to site-specific Fenton reaction. PMID:19145291

Medvedev, A I; Leschenko, V V

2008-05-01

136

DNA synthesis and fragmentation in bacteroids during Astragalus sinicus root nodule development.  

PubMed

Histo- and cytochemical techniques were used to study the DNA replication and fragmentation patterns in bacteroids formed by Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei in nodules of Astragalus sinicus. DNA replication was detected by the incorporation of 5-bromo deoxy-uridine. Signals denoting DNA synthesis were observed in plant nuclei within the nodule meristem and in bacteroids near the meristem. The TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) assay was used to measure DNA fragmentation. In nutrient-depleted 1-mpi (month(s) post inoculation) nodule sections, some bacteroids were in vacuoles, and DNA fragmentation signals were observed only in such bacteroids. In contrast, 1-mpi nodule sections without nutrient depletion showed neither bacteroid localization in vacuoles nor DNA fragmentation signals. The bacteroid translocation into vacuoles upon nutrient starvation might results from autophagy of the plant. In 2-mpi nodule sections, bacteroids with DNA fragmentation signals appeared within the cytoplasm of some nodule cells in the senescence zone. PMID:11330661

Kobayashi, H; Sunako, M; Hayashi, M; Murooka, Y

2001-03-01

137

DNA Fragmentation and DSB correlation Induced in Human Fibroblasts by Accelerated 56Fe Ions of Differing Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HZE particles from space radiation raise an important protection concern during long-term astronauts travels Although these particles are less abundant than protons they are more effective in damaging biological systems It is thought that this is due to the frequent production of spatially correlated DNA damaged sites particularly double strand breaks DSB since this correlation can strongly affect the repair capability of the cells In this work we have studied the DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by accelerated 56 Fe ions of four different energies i e 115 MeV u 414 MeV u 1 GeV u and 5 GeV u and by gamma-rays used as reference radiation DNA fragmentation was studied in various size ranges varying from 1 to 5700 kbp using Pulsed or Constant Field Gel Electrophoresis The DSB yields have been derived from fragmentation in the overall range as well as in the two ranges 1-23 and 23-5700 kbp The overall DSB yield slightly increased with the ion energy maily due to the contribution of the 23-5700 kbp fragments while that of small fragments 1-23 kbp was almost constant Accordingly the relative biological effectiveness RBE for DSB induction increased with energy from about 1 3 at 115 MeV u to about 1 8 at about 5 GeV u i e less than the RBE for chromosome aberration and cell inactivation The degree of spatial correlation of DSB was evaluated through the departure from the randomness of the fragment distribution with a simple theoretical tool that we have recently introduced To this aim a parameter R was used

Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Furusawa, Y.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M. A.

138

Dna2 on the road to Okazaki fragment processing and genome stability in eukaryotes.  

PubMed

DNA replication is a primary mechanism for maintaining genome integrity, but it serves this purpose best by cooperating with other proteins involved in DNA repair and recombination. Unlike leading strand synthesis, lagging strand synthesis has a greater risk of faulty replication for several reasons: First, a significant part of DNA is synthesized by polymerase alpha, which lacks a proofreading function. Second, a great number of Okazaki fragments are synthesized, processed and ligated per cell division. Third, the principal mechanism of Okazaki fragment processing is via generation of flaps, which have the potential to form a variety of structures in their sequence context. Finally, many proteins for the lagging strand interact with factors involved in repair and recombination. Thus, lagging strand DNA synthesis could be the best example of a converging place of both replication and repair proteins. To achieve the risky task with extraordinary fidelity, Okazaki fragment processing may depend on multiple layers of redundant, but connected pathways. An essential Dna2 endonuclease/helicase plays a pivotal role in processing common structural intermediates that occur during diverse DNA metabolisms (e.g. lagging strand synthesis and telomere maintenance). Many roles of Dna2 suggest that the preemptive removal of long or structured flaps ultimately contributes to genome maintenance in eukaryotes. In this review, we describe the function of Dna2 in Okazaki fragment processing, and discuss its role in the maintenance of genome integrity with an emphasis on its functional interactions with other factors required for genome maintenance. PMID:20131965

Kang, Young-Hoon; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2010-04-01

139

Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in developmental biology and in maintenance of the steady state in continuously renewing tissues. Cur- rently, its existence is inferred mainly from gel elec- trophoresis of a pooled DNA extract as PCD was shown to be associated with DNA fragmentation. Based on this observation, we describe here the devel- opment of a

Yael Gavrieli; Yoav Sherman; Shmuel A. Ben-Sasson

1992-01-01

140

Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash  

SciTech Connect

The assumption that distributions of mass versus size interval for fragmented materials fit the log normal distribution is empirically based and has historical roots in the late 19th century. Other often used distributions (e.g., Rosin-Rammler, Weibull) are also empirical and have the general form for mass per size interval: {ital n}({ital l})={ital kl}{sup {alpha}} exp(-{ital l}{beta}), where {ital n}({ital l}) represents the number of particles of diameter {ital l}, {ital l} is the normalized particle diameter, and {ital k}, {alpha}, and {beta} are constants. We describe and extend the sequential fragmentation distribution to include transport effects upon observed volcanic ash size distributions. The sequential fragmentation/transport (SFT) distribution is also of the above mathematical form, but it has a physical basis rather than empirical. The SFT model applies to a particle-mass distribution formed by a sequence of fragmentation (comminution) and transport (size sorting) events acting upon an initial mass {ital m}{prime}: {ital n}({ital x}, {ital m})={ital C} {integral}{integral} {ital n}({ital x}{prime}, {ital m}{prime}){ital p}({xi}) {ital dx}{prime} {ital dm}{prime}, where {ital x}{prime} denotes spatial location along a linear axis, {ital C} is a constant, and integration is performed over distance from an origin to the sample location and mass limits from 0 to {ital m}.

Wohletz, K.H. (Earth and Space Science Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (USA)); Sheridan, M.F. (Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe (USA)); Brown, W.K. (Math/Science Division, Lassen College, Susanville, California (USA))

1989-11-10

141

Early-replicating DNA from mosquito cells is associated with a distinct EcoRI fragment.  

PubMed

In an effort to define an origin of bi-directional DNA replication (OBR) in mosquito genomic DNA, we applied methods that take advantage of characteristic features of single-stranded DNA to methotrexate-resistant Aedes albopictus cells. The Mtx-5011-256 cells contained approximately 1000 copies of a 200 kb amplicon containing the dihydrofolate reductase locus, which likely contained one or more replication origins. When Mtx-5011-256 cells were synchronized by treatment with hydroxyurea, released into the S phase of the cell cycle, and labeled in vivo with tritiated DNA precursors, a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment was preferentially labeled in EcoRI-digested genomic DNA. Similarly, we detected a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment in DNA from wild type cells after cell cycle synchronization and in vivo labeling. In a complementary method, unlabeled single-stranded DNA was isolated from Mtx-5011-256 cells, labeled in vitro, and hybridized to EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from mosquito cells. The labeled probe hybridized preferentially to a 1.9 kb fragment. Finally, a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment was detected when nascent DNA was recovered from unsynchronized cells, made double-stranded by in vitro labeling, and digested with EcoRI. Taken together, these results suggest that in Aedes albopictus mosquito cells, many replication origins used at different times during S are flanked by EcoRI sites that define a 1.9 kb fragment, which has become more abundant in Mtx-5011-256 cells because it occurs in the dhfr amplicon. Tentative mapping of this origin to amplicon DNA remains ambiguous, further suggesting that a repeated sequence element occurs at or near the origin of replication. PMID:10070745

Wang, Z H; Fallon, A M

1999-01-01

142

Cleavage of Supercoiled Plasmid DNA by Autoantibody Fab Fragment: Application of the Flow Linear Dichroism Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly effective method consisting of two affinity chromatography steps and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography steps was developed for purification of autoantibodies from human sera with DNA-hydrolyzing activity. Antibody Fab fragment, which had been purified 130-fold, was shown to catalyze plasmid DNA cleavage. The flow linear dichroism technique was used for quantitative and qualitative studying of supercoiled plasmid DNA cleavage

Gennady V. Gololobov; Elena A. Chernova; Dmitry V. Schourov; Ivan V. Smirnov; Irina A. Kudelina; Alexander G. Gabibov

1995-01-01

143

Identification and sequence characterization of a 1.3 Kb EcoRI repeat fragment that harbors a DNA repair site of rat pachytene spermatocytes.  

PubMed

Introduction of well-programmed nicks and gaps and the associated DNA repair activity in the genome at the pachytene interval is a characteristic feature of the meiotic prophase in organisms as varied as lilium and mouse. In the present study we have shown that the DNA synthetic activity in rat pachytene spermatocytes is insensitive to aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, delta and epsilon, suggesting DNA beta-polymerase-mediated repair synthesis in these cells. We have developed a novel approach for the isolation of the DNA repair sites by combining two independent techniques. Following incorporation of BrdUrd into pachytene spermatocytes in the presence of aphidicolin, the repair sites were released as ssDNA fragments by treatment of nuclei with 30 mM NaOH. Subsequently, the BrdUrd containing ssDNA fragments were specifically isolated using polyclonal anti-BrdUrd antibodies. The DNA fragments released were of two size classes, namely 4-7S (major) and 9-12S (minor) and constituted approximately 1.75% of the pachytene genomic DNA. These DNA repair fragments were distinct from Okazaki fragments and other replicative intermediates isolated from rat bone marrow cells as evidenced by (a) their different size distribution and (b) little cross-hybridization. Southern hybridization of restriction enzyme digests of rat genomic DNA with probes made against BrdUrd-ssDNA fragments revealed that although the repair sites were distributed throughout the genome, strong hybridization signals were observed in EcoRI. (1.3 kb and 2.4 kb), BamH1 (9 kb) and HindIII (5 kb) repetetive DNA fragments. The EcoRI 1.3 kb family were cloned into M13 mp19, and a repair positive (1.3 A) and a repair negative (1.3 B) were identified and sequenced. The repair positive clone contained (a) (CA)22 repeat, (b) a (CAGA)6 repeat and (c) 4 sequences sharing high homology with various hypervariable minisatellite (HVMS) sequences. One of the HVMS sequence contained a GGCAGG motif known to be responsible for germline instability. The repair negative clone had (a) (CA)6 repeat and (b) a HVMS like sequence without GGCAGG. The significance of these motifs and their relevance to the events of DNA metabolism at pachytene interval have been discussed. PMID:7720415

Ramachandra, L; Rao, M R

1994-12-01

144

A glass fiber/diethylaminoethyl double filter binding assay that measures apoptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

A filter binding assay that measures internucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis is described. The assay is based on a novel principle that consists of using simultaneously two kinds of glass fiber filters to harvest [3H]thymidine-prelabeled cells following their incubation with inducers of apoptosis. One filter, which is neutral, traps intact chromatin and high-molecular-weight DNA. The other filter, which is positively charged with DEAE active groups, traps low-molecular-weight DNA fragments. DNA fragmentation is quantified by measuring the radioactivity retained by each of the filters. The assay was evaluated with the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 and the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, and doxorubicin. These agents caused a dose-dependent decrease of radioactivity in the neutral filter and a parallel increase of radioactivity in the DEAE filter. Irradiation-induced single strand breaks and topoisomerase-mediated primary DNA damage were not detected by this method. Consistent with the detection of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, the effects measured by this assay were prevented by the endonuclease inhibitor zinc acetate and by the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide. Results obtained using this assay were validated by observation of DNA ladders on agarose gels and by morphologic examination of apoptotic features. Evaluation of the assay in a mock screen demonstrated that the introduction of the DEAE filter increases the assay sensitivity and eliminates false positives. Thus, this assay may be used in high-throughput screening approaches to discover novel modulators of apoptosis. PMID:8937561

Erusalimsky, J D; John, J; Hong, Y; Moore, M

1996-11-15

145

The Trans-autostimulatory Activity of Rad27 Suppresses dna2 Defects in Okazaki Fragment Processing*  

PubMed Central

Dna2 and Rad27 (yeast Fen1) are the two endonucleases critical for Okazaki fragment processing during lagging strand DNA synthesis that have been shown to interact genetically and physically. In this study, we addressed the functional consequences of these interactions by examining whether purified Rad27 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the enzymatic activity of Dna2 and vice versa. For this purpose, we constructed Rad27DA (catalytically defective enzyme with an Asp to Ala substitution at amino acid 179) and found that it significantly stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild type Dna2, but failed to do so with Dna2?405N that lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids. This was an unexpected finding because dna2?405N cells were still partially suppressed by overexpression of rad27DA in vivo. Further analyses revealed that Rad27 is a trans-autostimulatory enzyme, providing an explanation why overexpression of Rad27, regardless of its catalytic activity, suppressed dna2 mutants as long as an endogenous wild type Rad27 is available. We found that the C-terminal 16-amino acid fragment of Rad27, a highly polybasic region due to the presence of multiple positively charged lysine and arginine residues, was sufficient and necessary for the stimulation of both Rad27 and Dna2. Our findings provide further insight into how Dna2 and Rad27 jointly affect the processing of Okazaki fragments in eukaryotes.

Munashingha, Palinda Ruvan; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Keol; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2012-01-01

146

The trans-autostimulatory activity of Rad27 suppresses dna2 defects in Okazaki fragment processing.  

PubMed

Dna2 and Rad27 (yeast Fen1) are the two endonucleases critical for Okazaki fragment processing during lagging strand DNA synthesis that have been shown to interact genetically and physically. In this study, we addressed the functional consequences of these interactions by examining whether purified Rad27 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the enzymatic activity of Dna2 and vice versa. For this purpose, we constructed Rad27DA (catalytically defective enzyme with an Asp to Ala substitution at amino acid 179) and found that it significantly stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild type Dna2, but failed to do so with Dna2?405N that lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids. This was an unexpected finding because dna2?405N cells were still partially suppressed by overexpression of rad27DA in vivo. Further analyses revealed that Rad27 is a trans-autostimulatory enzyme, providing an explanation why overexpression of Rad27, regardless of its catalytic activity, suppressed dna2 mutants as long as an endogenous wild type Rad27 is available. We found that the C-terminal 16-amino acid fragment of Rad27, a highly polybasic region due to the presence of multiple positively charged lysine and arginine residues, was sufficient and necessary for the stimulation of both Rad27 and Dna2. Our findings provide further insight into how Dna2 and Rad27 jointly affect the processing of Okazaki fragments in eukaryotes. PMID:22235122

Munashingha, Palinda Ruvan; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Keol; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2012-03-16

147

Multimerization-cyclization of DNA fragments as a method of conformational analysis.  

PubMed Central

Ligation of short DNA fragments results in the formation of linear and circular multimers of various lengths. The distribution of products in such a reaction is often used to evaluate fragment bending caused by specific chemical modification, by bound ligands or by the presence of irregular structural elements. We have developed a more rigorous quantitative approach to the analysis of such experimental data based on determination of j-factors for different multimers from the distribution of the reaction products. j-Factors define the effective concentration of one end of a linear chain in the vicinity of the other end. To extract j-factors we assumed that kinetics of the reaction is described by a system of differential equations where j-factors appear as coefficients. The assumption was confirmed by comparison with experimental data obtained here for DNA fragments containing A-tracts. At the second step of the analysis j-factors are used to determine conformational parameters of DNA fragments: the equilibrium bend angle, the bending rigidity of the fragment axis, and the total twist of the fragments. This procedure is based on empirical equations that connect the conformational parameters with the set of j-factors. To obtain the equations, we computed j-factors for a large array of conformational parameters that describe model fragments. The approach was tested on both simulated and actual experimental data for DNA fragments containing A-tracts. A-tract DNA bend angle determined here is in good agreement with previously published data. We have established a set of experimental conditions necessary for the data analysis to be successful.

Podtelezhnikov, A A; Mao, C; Seeman, N C; Vologodskii, A

2000-01-01

148

Nest survival relative to patch size in a highly fragmented shortgrass prairie landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the influences of habitat fragmentation on vertebrate populations is essential for the protection and ecological restoration of strategic sites for native species. We examined the effects of prairie fragmentation on avian reproductive success using artificial and natural nests on 26 randomly selected, privately owned patches of shortgrass prairie ranging in size from 7 to 454 ha within a cropland matrix in Washington County, Colorado, summer 2000. Survival trends of artificial and natural nests differed. Daily survival of artificial nests increased with patch size up to about 65 ha and differed little at larger patch sizes, whereas daily survival of Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) and Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) nests decreased with increasing size of the grassland patch. We hypothesize that our unexpected findings of lower survival of natural nests with increasing patch sizes and different trends between artificial and natural nests are due to the particular structure of predator communities in our study area and the ways in which individual predators respond to artificial and natural nests. We recommend that the value of small habitat patches in highly fragmented landscapes not be overlooked.

Skagen, S.K.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Adams, R.D.

2005-01-01

149

Flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus rickettsiae) characterized by a specific DNA fragment produced by restriction endonuclease digestion.  

PubMed Central

The DNA from flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii was characterized by using a specific DNA fragment produced by digestion with the enzyme BamHI. The DNA fragment was cloned into a plasmid vector and used to readily distinguish between available human- and flying squirrel-associated R. prowazekii DNAs derived from crude cytoplasmic extracts. Images

Regnery, R L; Fu, Z Y; Spruill, C L

1986-01-01

150

Large fragment Bst DNA polymerase for whole genome amplification of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent the largest source of archival biological material available for genomic studies of human cancer. Therefore, it is desirable to develop methods that enable whole genome amplification (WGA) using DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. Multiple-strand Displacement Amplification (MDA) is an isothermal method for WGA that uses the large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase. To date, MDA has been feasible only for genomic DNA isolated from fresh or snap-frozen tissue, and yields a representational distortion of less than threefold. Results We amplified genomic DNA of five FFPE samples of normal human lung tissue with the large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase. Using quantitative PCR, the copy number of 7 genes was evaluated in both amplified and original DNA samples. Four neuroblastoma xenograft samples derived from cell lines with known N-myc gene copy number were also evaluated, as were 7 samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors with known Skp2 gene amplification. In addition, we compared the array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based genome profiles of two NSCLC samples before and after Bst MDA. A median 990-fold amplification of DNA was achieved. The DNA amplification products had a very high molecular weight (> 23 Kb). When the gene content of the amplified samples was compared to that of the original samples, the representational distortion was limited to threefold. Array CGH genome profiles of amplified and non-amplified FFPE DNA were similar. Conclusion Large fragment Bst DNA polymerase is suitable for WGA of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues, with an expected maximal representational distortion of threefold. Amplified DNA may be used for the detection of gene copy number changes by quantitative realtime PCR and genome profiling by array CGH.

Aviel-Ronen, Sarit; Qi Zhu, Chang; Coe, Bradley P; Liu, Ni; Watson, Spencer K; Lam, Wan L; Tsao, Ming Sound

2006-01-01

151

Ionizing radiation-induced fragmentation of plasmid DNA Atomic force microscopy and biophysical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are closely correlated with radiation-induced cell killing and are the most critical lesions related to cellular endpoints like mutagenesis and transformation. High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation produces more severe and complex damage due to the fact that induced DSBs are not randomly distributed but clustered at different levels of DNA organization. In this paper, direct visualization of DSBs induced in a plasmid supercoiled DNA by low- and high-LET radiation is presented. Resulting DNA fragments distributions obtained by use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) are shown. Moreover, a biophysical model of spatially correlated DSBs formation in the framework of the Local Effect Model (LEM) is introduced and its predictions on DNA fragment formation are discussed.

Psonka, K.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Brons, S.; Elsässer, Th.; Heiss, M.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

152

Fragment size information from evolution of Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact fireballs  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used the CTH Eulerian shock physics code to perform 2-D and 3-D computational simulations of fragment penetration into Jupiter`s atmosphere and of the resulting fireball growth and evolution. These simulations have shown that information about the fragment diameters at the time of impact can be extracted from the trajectories of the fireballs, the maximum plume heights, and the size of the ejecta blanked. The fireball/plume evolution is dominated by the impact energy that is deposited above 50 km beneath the 1 bar level and is not sensitive to penetration depth. Fragments with diameters of 2-3 km at the time of impact produce fireballs similar to those that were observed, regardless of whether they were a single solid object or a low-density rubble pile. Uniform plume heights imply consistent diameters, but not necessarily equal masses.

Boslough, M.B.; Crawford, D.A.; Robinson, A.C.

1995-04-01

153

DNA fragmentation in developing lung fibroblasts exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) toxins.  

PubMed

Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) is a toxic mold that grows on water-damaged cellulose-based materials. Research has revealed also that inhalation of S. chartarum spores caused marked changes in respiratory epithelium, especially to developing lungs. We analyzed the epigenetic potential of S. chartarum spore toxins on developing rat lung fibroblasts using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Isolated fetal lung fibroblasts were exposed to S. chartarum spore toxins for 15 min, 3, 14, or 24 hr and control cells were exposed to saline under the same conditions. Cells were embedded in agarose, electrophoresed under alkaline conditions and silver stained. DNA damage was assessed in terms of fragmentation as measured by comet tail length (DNA migration) and intensity (% DNA contained within head and tail). Upon visual inspection, control fibroblasts showed no DNA fragmentation whereas S. chartarum-treated cells had definable comets of various degrees depending upon the time-course. Analyses of the comets revealed that exposure to S. chartarum spore toxins for at least 15 min to 14 hr, induced increased DNA fragmentation in a time-dependent manner. The fact that exposure to toxins for 24 hr showed less damage suggested that developing lung fibroblasts may have the capability of repairing DNA fragmentation. PMID:17534970

McCrae, K C; Rand, T G; Shaw, R A; Mantsch, H H; Sowa, M G; Thliveris, J A; Scott, J E

2007-07-01

154

BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of efficient methods to transfer large DNA fragments into plants will greatly facilitate the map-based cloning of genes. The recently developed BIBAC and TAC vectors have shown potential to deliver large DNA fragments into plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Here we report that BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium.

J. Song; J. M. Bradeen; S. K. Naess; J. P. Helgeson; J. Jiang

2003-01-01

155

Transport of fragmented DNA in apical dendrites of gerbil CA1 pyramidal neurons following transient forebrain ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of fragmented DNA in apical dendrites of the CA1 pyramidal neurons of gerbil hippocampus is observed in the apoptotic process following transient forebrain ischemia. The time-course of specific DNA fragmentation was examined after the ischemic insult by in situ nick-end-labeling method and fluorescence detection technique by DAPI. Although the role of the fragmented DNA movement is unclear, the transport

Akira Hara; Masayuki Niwa; Tomohiko Iwai; Masaya Nakashima; Hirohito Yano; Toshihiko Uematsu; Naoki Yoshimi; Hideki Mori

1998-01-01

156

DNA-Fragments Are Transcytosed across CaCo-2 Cells by Adsorptive Endocytosis and Vesicular Mediated Transport  

PubMed Central

Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB). After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >103 fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system.

Johannessen, Lene E.; Spilsberg, Bj?rn; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G.

2013-01-01

157

Cloning of a DNA fragment from the left-hand terminus of the adenovirus type 2 genome and its use in site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed Central

The HpaI E fragment (0-4.5 map units) of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) DNA was cloned in the plasmid vector pBR322. Excision of the viral insert with PstI and XbaI generated a fragment which comigrated with Ad2 XbaI-E (0-3.8 map units), and this fragment was ligated to the 3.8-100 fragment generated by XbaI cleavage of the DNA of the Ad5 mutant, dl309 (N. Jones and T. Shenk, Cell 17:683-689, 1979). Transfection with the ligation products resulted in the production of progeny virus which was able to replicate on both HeLa and line 293 cells, demonstrating the biological activity of the sequences rescued from the plasmid. Small deletions were introduced around the SmaI site (map position 2.8) within the cloned viral insert, and the altered DNA sequences were reintroduced into progeny virus as described above. The mutant viruses grew well on line 293 cells but plaqued with greatly reduced efficiency on HeLa cells, exhibiting a host range phenotype similar to previously described mutants with lesions located within this region of the genome. When plasmid-derived left-end fragments containing pBR322 DNA sequences to the left of map position 0 were ligated to the 3.8-100 fragment of dl309 DNA, the infectivity of the ligation products was not reduced. However, all progeny viruses examined yielded normal-size restriction enzyme fragments from their left-hand ends, indicating that the bulk of the pBR322 DNA sequences are removed either prior to or as a consequence of the replication of the transfecting DNA molecules. Images

Stow, N D

1981-01-01

158

The Flp double cross system a simple efficient procedure for cloning DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Background While conventional cloning methods using restriction enzymes and polynucleotide ligase are adequate for most DNAs, fragments made by the polymerase chain reaction are difficult to clone because the amplifying DNA polymerase tends to add untemplated nucleotides to the 3'-termini of the amplified strands. Conservative site-specific recombinases offer an efficient alternative to conventional cloning methods. Results In this paper I describe the use of the Flp site-specific recombinase for cloning PCR-amplified fragments. A DNA fragment is amplified with primers that contain at their ends inverted target sequences for Flp. Flp readily recombines these fragments in vitro into a vector that also contains two inverted Flp target sequences surrounding the ?-complementing region of the lacZ gene of E. coli. The recombinants are conveniently detected as white colonies by the familiar blue/white screening test for lacZ activity. A useful feature of the system is that both orientations of the inserted DNA are usually obtained. If the recipient vector is cut between the two inverted Flp targets, Flp "heals" the double-strand break by inserting a linear fragment flanked by Flp targets. Conclusion This system ("The Flp Double Cross System") should be useful for cloning multiple PCR fragments into many sites in several vectors. It has certain advantages over other available recombinase-based cloning procedures.

Sadowski, Paul D

2003-01-01

159

Organization of six early transcripts synthesized from a vaccinia virus EcoRI DNA fragment.  

PubMed Central

Four early transcripts and the polypeptides they encode have been mapped to the vaccinia virus EcoRI F DNA fragment, which spans the vaccinia HindIII J and H fragments. In addition, two transcripts for which no encoded polypeptides have been identified have also been mapped. Elucidation of the organization of these six transcripts by hybrid selection, S1 nuclease mapping, translation of size-fractionated RNA, and by filter hybridization demonstrates that approximately 90% of this DNA fragment is transcribed during early infection. All but one of these RNAs (1.35 kilobases [kb]) are transcribed in a rightward direction. The leftmost transcript of 0.6 to 0.7 kb encodes a 19,000-dalton (19K) polypeptide that has been determined to be thymidine kinase (D.E. Hruby and L.A. Ball, J. Virol. 43:403-409, 1982; G. Bajszar et al., J. Virol. 45:62-72, 1983). Immediately following the 3' end of this RNA is the 1.7-kb transcript encoding a 36K polypeptide. The 5' end of a 1.25-kb RNA encoding a 22K polypeptide is downstream of the 5' end of the 1.7-kb RNA, and its 3' end may be coterminal with the 3' end of the 1.7-kb RNA. The 2.45-kb transcript is coterminal at its 5' end with the message encoding thymidine kinase and is coterminal at its 3' end with the adjacent 1.7-kb mRNA. This RNA was not demonstrated to encode a polypeptide. Approximately 300 nucleotides from the 3' end of the 1.7-kb RNA is a 3.6-kb transcript encoding a 110K polypeptide. The 3' end of this large RNA lies several hundred nucleotides from the 3' end of the 1.35-kb RNA which is transcribed in the opposite direction. No splicing of RNA has been detected with the S1 nuclease mapping technique of Berk and Sharp. The organization of three late messages, which overlap these early transcripts, has been determined, and these results are discussed in the accompanying paper. Images

Mahr, A; Roberts, B E

1984-01-01

160

Cell Size and the Initiation of DNA Replication in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, DNA replication is coupled to the cell cycle through the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases and associated factors. In bacteria, the prevailing view, based primarily from work in Escherichia coli, is that growth-dependent accumulation of the highly conserved initiator, DnaA, triggers initiation. However, the timing of initiation is unchanged in Bacillus subtilis mutants that are ?30% smaller than wild-type cells, indicating that achievement of a particular cell size is not obligatory for initiation. Prompted by this finding, we re-examined the link between cell size and initiation in both E. coli and B. subtilis. Although changes in DNA replication have been shown to alter both E. coli and B. subtilis cell size, the converse (the effect of cell size on DNA replication) has not been explored. Here, we report that the mechanisms responsible for coordinating DNA replication with cell size vary between these two model organisms. In contrast to B. subtilis, small E. coli mutants delayed replication initiation until they achieved the size at which wild-type cells initiate. Modest increases in DnaA alleviated the delay, supporting the view that growth-dependent accumulation of DnaA is the trigger for replication initiation in E. coli. Significantly, although small E. coli and B. subtilis cells both maintained wild-type concentration of DnaA, only the E. coli mutants failed to initiate on time. Thus, rather than the concentration, the total amount of DnaA appears to be more important for initiation timing in E. coli. The difference in behavior of the two bacteria appears to lie in the mechanisms that control the activity of DnaA.

Hill, Norbert S.; Kadoya, Ryosuke; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.; Levin, Petra Anne

2012-01-01

161

Size and Base Composition of RNA in Supercoiled Plasmid DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average size and base composition of the covalently integrated RNA segment in supercoiled ColE1 DNA synthesized in Escherichia coli in the presence of chloramphenicol (CM-ColE1 DNA) have been determined by two independent methods. The two approaches yielded similar results, indicating that the RNA segment in CM-ColE1 DNA contains GMP at the 5' end and comprises on the average 25

Peter H. Williams; Herbert W. Boyer; Donald R. Helinski

1973-01-01

162

DNA fragmentation induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal analogue EA-4 in C2 C12 mouse and HL-60 human leukemic cells in vitro.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that retinoic acid induces micronucleation mainly via chromosome breakage (Alakhras et al. Cancer Lett 2011; 306: 15-26). To further study retinoic acid clastogenicity and evaluate DNA damaging potential we investigated the ability of (a) all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal analogue EA-4 to induce DNA fragmentation by using Comet assay under alkaline unwinding and neutral condition electrophoresis, and (b) the retinoids under study to induce small (0-1 kb) DNA fragments. Two cell lines, C2C12 mouse cells and HL-60 human leukemic cells were used in this study. We found that all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal analogue EA-4 (a) provoke DNA migration due to DNA fragmentation as it is shown by the increased values of Comet parameters, and (b) induce significantly small-size fragmented genomic DNA as indicated by the quantification of necrotic/apoptotic small DNA segments in both cell systems. A different response between the two cell lines was observed in relation to retinoid ability to increase the percentage of DNA in the tail as well as break DNA in to small fragments. Our findings confirm the ability of retinoic acid to provoke micronucleation by disrupting DNA into fragments, among which small pieces of double-stranded DNA up to 1 kb are identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23913437

Alakhras, Raghda S; Stephanou, Georgia; Demopoulos, Nikos A; Grintzalis, Konstantinos; Georgiou, Christos D; Nikolaropoulos, Sotirios S

2014-08-01

163

Sperm morphological abnormalities as indicators of DNA fragmentation and fertilization in ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the relationship between sperm morphological abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic\\u000a sperm injection (ICSI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sperm samples from 20 ICSI cycles were analysed. Morphology was assessed according to strict criteria, and DNA fragmentation\\u000a was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) using flow\\u000a cytometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A negative correlation was found between the percentage of

Barbara Dariš; Aleš Goropevšek; Nina Hojnik; Veljko Vlaisavljevi?

2010-01-01

164

A rapid RT-PCR based method to isolate complementary DNA fragments flanking retrovirus integration sites.  

PubMed Central

Proto-oncogenes in retrovirally induced myeloid mouse leukemias are frequently activated following retroviral insertion. The identification of common virus integration sites (VISs) and isolation of the transforming oncogene is laborious and time consuming. We established a rapid and simple PCR based procedure which facilitates the identification of VISs and novel proto-oncogenes. Complementary DNA fragments adjacent to retrovirus integration sites were selectively isolated by applying a reverse transcriptase (RT) reaction using an oligo(dT)-adaptor primer, followed by PCR using the adaptor sequence and a retrovirus long terminal repeat (LTR) specific primer. Multiple chimeric cDNA fragments suitable for Southern and northern blot analysis were isolated.

Valk, P J; Joosten, M; Vankan, Y; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

165

Directional cloning of DNA fragments using deoxyinosine-containing oligonucleotides and endonuclease V  

PubMed Central

Background DNA fragments carrying internal recognition sites for the restriction endonucleases intended for cloning into a target plasmid pose a challenge for conventional cloning. Results A method for directional insertion of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors has been developed. The target sequence is amplified from a template DNA sample by PCR using two oligonucleotides each containing a single deoxyinosine base at the third position from the 5? end. Treatment of such PCR products with endonuclease V generates 3? protruding ends suitable for ligation with vector fragments created by conventional restriction endonuclease reactions. Conclusions The developed approach generates terminal cohesive ends without the use of Type II restriction endonucleases, and is thus independent from the DNA sequence. Due to PCR amplification, minimal amounts of template DNA are required. Using the robust Taq enzyme or a proofreading Pfu DNA polymerase mutant, the method is applicable to a broad range of insert sequences. Appropriate primer design enables direct incorporation of terminal DNA sequence modifications such as tag addition, insertions, deletions and mutations into the cloning strategy. Further, the restriction sites of the target plasmid can be either retained or removed.

2013-01-01

166

A simple DNA extraction method for marijuana samples used in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.  

PubMed

As a first step in developing a molecular method for the individualization of marijuana samples, we evaluated a plant DNA extraction kit. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method uses a spin column format for recovery of DNA and is effective for obtaining high molecular weight DNA from leaf, flower (bud), and seed samples of marijuana. The average DNA yield was 125-500 ng per 100 milligrams of fresh plant tissue. The recovered DNA was of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality as measured by the ability to generate reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles. AFLP is a technique used to create a DNA profile for plant varieties and is being applied to marijuana samples by the authors to link growers and distributors of clonal material. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method was simple, efficient, and reproducible for processing small quantities of marijuana into DNA. PMID:12664992

Miller Coyle, Heather; Shutler, Gary; Abrams, Sharon; Hanniman, Janet; Neylon, Suzanne; Ladd, Carll; Palmbach, Timothy; Lee, Henry C

2003-03-01

167

Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous DNA fragments during transfer of DNA into mouse L cells.  

PubMed

To test the validity of various models for recombination between extrachromosomal DNAs in mammalian cells, we measured recombination between a plasmid containing a herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) gene with an internal BamHI linker insertion mutation (ptkB8) and a tk gene deleted at both ends (tk delta 3' delta 5'). The two DNAs shared 885 base pairs of perfect tk homology except for the interruption at the linker insertion site. Recombination events that restored the mutated insertion site to wild type were monitored by the generation of hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine-resistant colonies after cotransformation of Ltk- cells with the two DNAs. We found that cleavage of the ptkB8 DNA at the linker insertion site was essential for gene restoration. If the tk delta 3' delta 5' DNA was ligated into mp10 vector DNA, then recombination with the cleaved ptkB8 DNA was inefficient. In contrast, if it was excised from that vector by cleavage at flanking restriction sites, then recombination was stimulated about 150-fold. Using restriction site polymorphisms, we showed that most of the recombination events leading to restoration of the tk gene with the excised tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment involved three double-strand duplexes: two ptkB8 DNAs and one tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment. These results are much more readily explained by the single-strand annealing model of recombination than by the double-strand break repair model, and they suggest that the deficiency of the latter pathway for extrachromosomal mammalian recombination may be due, at least in part, to the obligate tripartite nature of the reaction. Finally, we measured the effect of DNA homology on the efficiency of the ptkB8-tk delta 3' delta 5' reaction. Our results showed a near-linear relationship between the efficiency of recombination and the amount of homology flanking either side of the linker insertion site. Moreover, we could detect thymidine kinase-positive transformants with as little as 10 base pairs of homology. PMID:2294397

Lin, F L; Sperle, K; Sternberg, N

1990-01-01

168

Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous DNA fragments during transfer of DNA into mouse L cells.  

PubMed Central

To test the validity of various models for recombination between extrachromosomal DNAs in mammalian cells, we measured recombination between a plasmid containing a herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) gene with an internal BamHI linker insertion mutation (ptkB8) and a tk gene deleted at both ends (tk delta 3' delta 5'). The two DNAs shared 885 base pairs of perfect tk homology except for the interruption at the linker insertion site. Recombination events that restored the mutated insertion site to wild type were monitored by the generation of hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine-resistant colonies after cotransformation of Ltk- cells with the two DNAs. We found that cleavage of the ptkB8 DNA at the linker insertion site was essential for gene restoration. If the tk delta 3' delta 5' DNA was ligated into mp10 vector DNA, then recombination with the cleaved ptkB8 DNA was inefficient. In contrast, if it was excised from that vector by cleavage at flanking restriction sites, then recombination was stimulated about 150-fold. Using restriction site polymorphisms, we showed that most of the recombination events leading to restoration of the tk gene with the excised tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment involved three double-strand duplexes: two ptkB8 DNAs and one tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment. These results are much more readily explained by the single-strand annealing model of recombination than by the double-strand break repair model, and they suggest that the deficiency of the latter pathway for extrachromosomal mammalian recombination may be due, at least in part, to the obligate tripartite nature of the reaction. Finally, we measured the effect of DNA homology on the efficiency of the ptkB8-tk delta 3' delta 5' reaction. Our results showed a near-linear relationship between the efficiency of recombination and the amount of homology flanking either side of the linker insertion site. Moreover, we could detect thymidine kinase-positive transformants with as little as 10 base pairs of homology. Images

Lin, F L; Sperle, K; Sternberg, N

1990-01-01

169

Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition  

SciTech Connect

Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2006-05-01

170

Size-selective assessment of agricultural workers' personal exposure to airborne fungi and fungal fragments.  

PubMed

Fungi are ubiquitous agents that cause human respiratory diseases. Very few studies have size-selectively assessed farmers' exposure to fungi and fungal fragments in agricultural settings. In this study, a two-stage bio-aerosol cyclone personal sampler was employed to collect airborne fungi and fungal fragments size-selectively at corn, swine, poultry, and mushroom farms. The collected air samples were analyzed for culturable fungi, fungal spores, viable fungi and (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan. The results show that the median concentrations ranged from 3.2 × 10(5) to 1.3 × 10(8)spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, from 1.3 × 10(5) to 5.1 × 10(7)spores/m(3) for total viable fungi, from 1.9 × 10(3) to 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/m(3) for total culturable fungi, and from 4.3 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(6)pg/m(3) for total (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan. The aerodynamic sizes of most of the collected fungal contaminants were larger than 1.8 ?m. Total (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan significantly correlated with total fungal spores (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), total viable fungi (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and total culturable fungi (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Total (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan significantly correlated with Aspergillus/Penicillium, Alternaria, and Cladosporium. Alternaria and Botrytis were also found to highly correlate with (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan at the size <1 ?m, which was less than the expected spore sizes (the mean measured aerodynamic sizes were 18.5 ?m for Alternaria and 6.1 ?m for Botrytis); therefore, Alternaria and Botrytis might release small fragments that could enter the deep lung and cause respiratory diseases. PMID:23973538

Lee, Shu-An; Liao, Chien-Hua

2014-01-01

171

Soil erosion and effluent particle size distribution under different initial conditions and rock fragment coverage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the presence of rock fragments on the soil surface and the soil's initial characteristics (moisture content, surface roughness, bulk density, etc.) are key factors influencing soil erosion dynamics and sediment delivery. In addition, the interaction of these factors increases the complexity of soil erosion patterns and makes predictions more difficult. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the effect of soil initial conditions and rock fragment coverage on soil erosion yields and effluent particle size distribution and (ii) to evaluate to what extent the rock fragment coverage controls this relationship. Three laboratory flume experiments with constant precipitation rate of 74 mm/h on a loamy soil parcel with a 2% slope were performed. Experiments with duration of 2 h were conducted using the 6-m × 2-m EPFL erosion flume. During each experiment two conditions were considered, a bare soil and a rock fragment-protected (with 40% coverage) soil. The initial soil surface state was varied between the three experiments, from a freshly re-ploughed and almost dry condition to a compacted soil with a well-developed shield layer and high moisture content. Experiments were designed so that rain splash was the primary driver of soil erosion. Results showed that the amount of eroded mass was highly controlled by the initial soil conditions and whether the steady-state equilibrium was un-, partially- or fully- developed during the previous event. Additionally, results revealed that sediment yields and particle size composition in the initial part of an erosion event are more sensitive to the erosion history than the long-time behaviour. This latter appears to be mainly controlled by rainfall intensity. If steady-state was achieved for a previous event, then the next event consistently produced concentrations for each size class that peaked rapidly, and then declined gradually to steady-state equilibrium. If steady state was not obtained, then different and more complex behaviour was observed in the next event, with large differences found between fine, medium and coarse size classes. The presence of rock fragments on the topsoil reduced the time needed to reach steady state compared with the bare soil. This was attributed to the reduction of rain splash erosion caused by the rapid development of the overland flow, as a result of rock fragments reducing the flow cross-sectional area.

Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Brovelli, A.; Heng, B. C. P.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.-Y.

2012-04-01

172

A Linear Relationship between Crystal Size and Fragment Binding Time Observed Crystallographically: Implications for Fragment Library Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection.  

PubMed

High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size. PMID:24988328

Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

2014-01-01

173

A Linear Relationship between Crystal Size and Fragment Binding Time Observed Crystallographically: Implications for Fragment Library Screening Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection  

PubMed Central

High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

2014-01-01

174

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Fragment Size Estimates: How Big was the Parent Body?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in July, 1994 was the largest, most energetic impact event on a planet ever witnessed. Because it broke up during a close encounter with Jupiter in 1992, it was bright enough to be discovered more than a year prior to impact, allowing the scientific community an unprecedented opportunity to assess the effects such an event would have. Many excellent observations were made from Earth-based telescopes, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Galileo spacecraft en route to Jupiter. In this paper, these observations are used in conjunction with computational simulations performed with the CTH shock-physics hydrocode to determine the sizes of the fifteen fragments that made discernible impact features on the planet. To do this, CTH was equipped with a radiative ablation model and a postprocessing radiative ray-trace capability that enabled light-flux predictions (often called the impact flash) for the viewing geometries of Galileo and ground-based observers. The five events recorded by Galileo were calibrated to give fragment size estimates. Compared against ground-based and HST observations, these estimates were extended using a least-squares analysis to assess the impacts of the remaining ten fragments. Some of the largest impacts (L, G, and K) were greater that 1 km in diameter, but the density of the fragments was low, about 0.25 g/cm(exp 3). The volume of the combined fifteen fragments would make a sphere 1.8 km in diameter. Assuming a prebreakup density of 0.5 g/cm(exp 3), the parent body of Shoemaker-Levy 9 had a probable diameter of 1.4 km. The total kinetic energy of all the impacts was equivalent to the explosive yield of 300 Gigatons of TNT.

Crawford, David A.

1997-01-01

175

The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA: A Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II.\\u000a2. The physical map of the restriction fragments of Eco RI, Hind III, Bam HI and Hap II is constructed on

A. M. Kroon; G. Pepe; H. Bakker; M. Holtrop; J. E. Bollen; E. F. J. van Bruggen; P. Cantatore; P. Terpstra; C. Saccone

1977-01-01

176

Electrostatic field of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I.  

PubMed

The electrostatic field of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) has been calculated by the finite difference procedure on a 2 A grid. The potential field is substantially negative at physiological pH (reflecting the net negative charge at this pH). The largest regions of positive potential are in the deep crevice of the C-terminal domain, which is the proposed binding site for the DNA substrate. Within the crevice, the electrostatic potential has a partly helical form. If the DNA is positioned to fulfil stereochemical requirements, then the positive potential generally follows the major groove and (to a lesser extent) the negative potential is in the minor groove. Such an arrangement could stabilize DNA configurations related by screw symmetry. The histidine residues of the Klenow fragment give the positive field of the groove a sensitivity to relatively small pH changes around neutrality. We suggest that the histidine residues could change their ionization states in response to DNA binding, and that this effect could contribute to the protein-DNA binding energy. PMID:3912509

Warwicker, J; Ollis, D; Richards, F M; Steitz, T A

1985-12-01

177

The Effect of Change in Population Size on DNA Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected number of segregating sites and the expectation of the average number of nucleotide differences among DNA sequences randomly sampled from a population, which is not in equilibrium, have been developed. The results obtained indicate that, in the case where the population size has changed drastically, the number of segregating sites is influenced by the size of the current

Fumio Tajima

178

A Monte Carlo study of the radiation quality dependence of DNA fragmentation spectra.  

PubMed

We simulated the irradiation of human fibroblasts with gamma rays, protons and helium, carbon and iron ions at a fixed dose of 5 Gy. The simulations were performed with the biophysical Monte Carlo code PARTRAC. From the output of the code, containing in particular the genomic positions of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), we obtained the DNA fragmentation spectra. Very small fragments, in particular those related to "complex lesions" (few tens of base pairs), are probably very important for the late cellular consequences, but their detection is not possible with the common experimental techniques. We paid special attention to the differences among the various ions in the production of these very small fragments; in particular, we compared the fragmentation spectra for ions of the same specific energy and for ions of the same LET (linear energy transfer). As found previously for iron ions, we found that the RBE (relative biological effectiveness) for DSB production was considerably higher than 1 for all high-LET radiations considered. This is at variance with the results obtainable from experimental data, and it is due to the ability to count the contribution of small fragments. It should be noted that for a given LET this RBE decreases with increasing ion charge, due mainly to the increasing mean energy of secondary electrons. A precise quantification of the DNA initial damage can be of great importance for both radiation protection, particularly in open-space long-term manned missions, and hadrontherapy. PMID:20199211

Alloni, D; Campa, A; Belli, M; Esposito, G; Facoetti, A; Friedland, W; Liotta, M; Mariotti, L; Paretzke, H G; Ottolenghi, A

2010-03-01

179

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis shows divergence among mer determinants from gram-negative soil bacteria indistinguishable by DNA-DNA hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Mercury resistant (Hgr) bacteria were isolated from four terrestrial sites: three containing high levels of mercury (sites T2, SE, and SO) and one uncontaminated site (SB). The frequencies of Hgr bacteria in the total cultivable populations were 0.05% (SB), 0.69% (SO), 4.8% (SE), and 25% (T2). Between 35 and 100% of the isolates from the four sites contained DNA sequences homologous to a DNA probe from the mercury resistance (mer) operon of the Tn501 Hgr determinant. The mer sequences of 10 Tn501-homologous Hgr determinants from each site were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed to consensus sequences of the mer determinants of Tn501, Tn21, and pMJ100, and were classified on the basis of the size of the amplified product and the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern. Two main groups of amplification product were identified. The first, represented by the T2 and SB isolates and one SE isolate, gave an amplification product indistinguishable in size from that amplified from Tn501 (approximately 1,010 bp). The second group, represented by the SO isolates and the majority of the SE isolates, produced larger amplification products of 1,040 or 1,060 bp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that each amplification product size group could be further subdivided into five subgroups. Images

Osborn, A M; Bruce, K D; Strike, P; Ritchie, D A

1993-01-01

180

Early prediction of therapy response in patients with acute myeloid leukemia by nucleosomal DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of nucleosomal DNA fragments can be detected in plasma and sera of patients with malignant diseases. Methods We investigated the course of nucleosomal DNA, thymidine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and leukocytes in sera of 25 patients with acute myeloid leukemia during the first cycle of induction chemotherapy and tested their power to distinguish between patients with complete remission and those with no remission. Results Almost all patients showed strongly decreasing levels of nucleosomal DNA during the first week, in some cases after initial peaks. In overall analysis of variance, DNA levels could clearly distinguish between patients with complete remission, who had higher DNA values, and those with insufficient response (p = 0.017). The area under the curve of DNA values of days 2–4 after start of therapy (AUC 2–4) discriminated between both groups with a sensitivity of 56% at a specificity of 100%. Further, pretherapeutic levels and AUC 2–4 of nucleosomal DNA correlated significantly with blast reduction after 16 days. A tendency to higher levels in patients with complete response was also found for thymidine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and leukocytes, however the difference did not reach the level of significance (p = 0.542, p = 0.260, and p = 0.144, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate that nucleosomal DNA fragments are valuable markers for the early prediction of therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Mueller, Susanne; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Stieber, Petra; Haferlach, Torsten; Schalhorn, Andreas; Braess, Jan; Nagel, Dorothea; Seidel, Dietrich

2006-01-01

181

Preparation of DNA and RNA Fragments Containing Guanine N2-Thioalkyl Tethers  

PubMed Central

This unit describes procedures for preparation of deoxyguanosine and guanosine derivatives in which the guanine N2 contains a thiopropyl tether, protected as a tert-butyl disulfide. After incorporation into a DNA or RNA fragment, this tether allows site-specific crosslinking to a thiol of a protein or another nucleic acid.

Hou, Xiaorong; Wang, Gang; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.

2010-01-01

182

Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semen quality of seven young adult boars was assessed for percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, abnormal sperm, cells positive to sHOST (short Hipoosmotic Swelling Test), HPNA cells (sHOST Positive with Normal Acrosome cells) and the percentage of sperm heads, which exhibited DNA fragmentation using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCD). These parameters were analysed in sperm samples both

Begoña Pérez-Llano; María Enciso; Pedro García-Casado; Rubén Sala; Jaime Gosálvez

2006-01-01

183

DNA Shuffling by Random Fragmentation and Reassembly: In vitro Recombination for Molecular Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations of the evolution of linear sequences have demonstrated the importance of recombination of blocks of sequence rather than point mutagenesis alone. Repeated cycles of point mutagenesis, recombination, and selection should allow in vitro molecular evolution of complex sequences, such as proteins. A method for the reassembly of genes from their random DNA fragments, resulting in in vitro recombination

Willem P. C. Stemmer

1994-01-01

184

Sperm DNA fragmentation: paternal effect on early post-implantation embryo development in ART  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The relationship between early embryo post-implantation development in couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) and sperm chromatin alterations has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation in IVF\\/ICSI patients, sperm parameters (concen- tration, motility and morphology) and ART outcome, especially with regard to clinical pregnancy and pregnancy loss

A. Borini; N. Tarozzi; D. Bizzaro; M. A. Bonu; L. Fava; C. Flamigni; G. Coticchio

2006-01-01

185

Computer simulation of the assembly of gold nanoparticles on DNA fragments via electrostatic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Monte Carlo simulation, we study the metallization of DNA fragments via the templating of gold nanoparticles. To represent the interaction between metal entities, a nanoparticle-nanoparticle interaction potential was derived on the basis of the many-body Gupta potential. The aggregation of the nanoparticles on the template surface is due to the additive effect of electrostatic attraction between the positive charges

Pavel V. Komarov; Lubov V. Zherenkova; Pavel G. Khalatur

2008-01-01

186

DNA restriction fragment analysis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.  

PubMed Central

The method of DNA restriction fragment analysis using gene probes for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene was employed to detect possible molecular variation in the POMC gene in schizophrenia and bipolar illness. No gross structural abnormalities in restriction fragments were observed with the set of restriction enzymes used. Two allelic restriction sites were observed giving rise to fragment length polymorphisms. One of these is a new polymorphism, not previously reported, which will be of value as a linkage marker. The associations between the two DNA polymorphisms that are closely linked to the POMC gene and both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were investigated. No association was found, thus adding weight to the evidence that there are no alterations in the POMC gene in schizophrenia and bipolar illness. Images Fig. 1

Feder, J; Gurling, H M; Darby, J; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

1985-01-01

187

Dust size distributions in coagulation/fragmentation equilibrium: numerical solutions and analytical fits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Grains in circumstellar disks are believed to grow by mutual collisions and subsequent sticking due to surface forces. Results of many fields of research involving circumstellar disks, such as radiative transfer calculations, disk chemistry, magneto-hydrodynamic simulations largely depend on the unknown grain size distribution. Aims: As detailed calculations of grain growth and fragmentation are both numerically challenging and computationally expensive, we aim to find simple recipes and analytical solutions for the grain size distribution in circumstellar disks for a scenario in which grain growth is limited by fragmentation and radial drift can be neglected. Methods: We generalize previous analytical work on self-similar steady-state grain distributions. Numerical simulations are carried out to identify under which conditions the grain size distributions can be understood in terms of a combination of power-law distributions. A physically motivated fitting formula for grain size distributions is derived using our analytical predictions and numerical simulations. Results: We find good agreement between analytical results and numerical solutions of the Smoluchowski equation for simple shapes of the kernel function. The results for more complicated and realistic cases can be fitted with a physically motivated “black box” recipe presented in this paper. Our results show that the shape of the dust distribution is mostly dominated by the gas surface density (not the dust-to-gas ratio), the turbulence strength and the temperature and does not obey an MRN type distribution.

Birnstiel, T.; Ormel, C. W.; Dullemond, C. P.

2011-01-01

188

Construction and expression of synthetic DNA fragments coding for polypeptides with elevated levels of essential amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypeptides, with elevated levels of essential amino acids, could be useful as partial protein supplements to food and feeds. To obtain DNA fragments coding for these polymers, oligonucleotides were constructed by random synthesis of a mixture of appropriate codon pairs and inserted into a bacterial plasmid in E. coli. Two of the isolated fragments were subjected to DNA sequence analysis

J. M. Jaynes; P. Langridge; K. Anderson; C. Bond; D. Sands; C. W. Newman; R. Newman

1985-01-01

189

G Protein-Mediated Neuronal DNA Fragmentation Induced by Familial Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Mutants of APP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missense mutations in the 695-amino acid form of the amyloid precursor protein (APP695) cosegregate with disease phenotype in families with dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. These mutations convert valine at position 642 to isoleucine, phenylalanine, or glycine. Expression of these mutant proteins, but not of normal APP695, was shown to induce nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in neuronal cells. Induction of DNA fragmentation

Tomoki Yamatsuji; Takashi Matsui; Takashi Okamoto; Katsumi Komatsuzaki; Shizu Takeda; Hiroaki Fukumoto; Takeshi Iwatsubo; Nobuhiro Suzuki; Asano Asami-Odaka; Scott Ireland; T. Bernard Kinane; Ugo Giambarella; Ikuo Nishimoto

1996-01-01

190

Indomethacin inhibits delayed DNA fragmentation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown a close association between reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation and that delayed neuronal death after transient forebrain ischemia manifests as DNA fragmentation-like apoptosis. We examined the effect of indomethacin on ischemic-induced delayed hippocampal neuronal death in gerbils using the TUNEL staining method, since indomethacin is neuroprotective in a variety of degenerative processes, such as Alzheimer's

Fumio Kondo; Yoichi Kondo; Marvin Gómez-Vargas; Norio Ogawa

1998-01-01

191

Combination of native and denaturing PAGE for the detection of protein binding regions in long fragments of genomic DNA.  

PubMed

In traditional electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) a single (32)P-labeled double-stranded DNA oligonucleotide or a restriction fragment bound to a protein is separated from the unbound DNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under nondenaturing conditions. An extension of this method uses a population of DNA restriction fragments derived from long genomic regions for the identification of fragments containing protein binding regions. Although the method allows simultaneous analysis of large fragments, it is relatively laborious and can be used to detect only fragments containing high affinity protein binding sites. Here we describe an alternative and straightforward strategy which is based on a combination of native and denaturing PAGE. With this strategy restriction fragments, derived from genomic DNA (<10 kb), containing high as well as low affinity protein binding regions may be easily identified. PMID:23436361

Kaer, Kristel; Speek, Mart

2013-01-01

192

Human fibroblasts undergo oxidative stress-induced apoptosis without internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the reliability of fibroblasts as a cell model for studying apoptosis, we tested the response of normal human fibroblasts to the oxidative stress inducers H(2)O(2) and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib). Our results showed that fibroblasts treated with dRib and H(2)O(2) are induced to undergo apoptosis as demonstrated by reduction in total cell number, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, activation of caspase-3 and 7, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei. However we only found a slight increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 region evaluated by flow cytometry, and we did not observe DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. Early in apoptosis, DNA cleavage generates high molecular weight (HMW) fragments which can be detected by TUNEL assay; successively followed by a pronounced DNA brake down into low molecular weight (LMW) fragments, detected as a "DNA ladder" by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and as an hypodiploid peak by propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay. Our results thus suggest that only HMW fragmentation occurs in fibroblasts exposed to dRib or H(2)O(2) and the lack of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation may depend on the peculiar characteristics of human fibroblasts themselves, irrespective of the apoptotic stimulus used. The existence of distinct events leading to cell death in different cell types makes it necessary to use a combination of strategies and techniques to evaluate the occurrence of apoptosis. PMID:16646085

Formichi, P; Radi, E; Battisti, C; Tarquini, E; Leonini, A; Di Stefano, A; Federico, A

2006-08-01

193

One-step assembly in yeast of 25 overlapping DNA fragments to form a complete synthetic Mycoplasma genitalium genome  

PubMed Central

We previously reported assembly and cloning of the synthetic Mycoplasma genitalium JCVI-1.0 genome in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by recombination of six overlapping DNA fragments to produce a 592-kb circle. Here we extend this approach by demonstrating assembly of the synthetic genome from 25 overlapping fragments in a single step. The use of yeast recombination greatly simplifies the assembly of large DNA molecules from both synthetic and natural fragments.

Gibson, Daniel G.; Benders, Gwynedd A.; Axelrod, Kevin C.; Zaveri, Jayshree; Algire, Mikkel A.; Moodie, Monzia; Montague, Michael G.; Venter, J. Craig; Smith, Hamilton O.; Hutchison, Clyde A.

2008-01-01

194

Bulky DNA adducts in human sperm associated with semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background DNA adducts are widely used marker of DNA damage induced by environmental pollutants. The present study was designed to explore whether sperm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts were associated with sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Methods A total of 433 Han Chinese men were recruited from an infertility clinic. Immunofluorescence was applied to analyze sperm PAH-DNA adducts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Results After adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression, sperm PAH-DNA adducts were negatively associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, and curvilinear velocity (VCL). In addition, a positive relationship between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and sperm DNA fragmentation was found. Conclusions Our findings suggested an inverse association between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and semen quality, and provided the first epidemiologic evidence of an adverse effect of PAH-DNA adducts on sperm DNA integrity.

2013-01-01

195

Genome size and endonuclear DNA replication in spiders.  

PubMed

Although genome sizes (C-values) are now available for 115 arachnid species (Gregory and Shorthouse [2003] J Hered 94:285-290), the extent of genome amplification (endonuclear DNA replication or polyploidization) accompanying tissue differentiation in this diverse and abundant class of invertebrates remains unknown. To explore this aspect of arachnid development, samples of hemolymph and other tissues were taken from wild-caught specimens as air-dried smears, stained with the Feulgen reaction for DNA, and assayed using both scanning and image analysis densitometry. Cells from midgut diverticula and Malpighian tubules of Argiope and Lycosa (=Pardosa) often showed giant nuclei with 50-100 pg of DNA per nucleus, reflecting at least four cycles of endonuclear DNA replication when compared to the DNA content of hemocytes or sperm from the same specimen. Nuclei with markedly elevated DNA levels also appeared, but far less frequently, in tissue samples from several other arachnid species (Antrodiaetus, Hypochilus, Latrodectus, Liphistus and Loxosceles), but revealed no correlation with differences in somatic cell (2C) genome sizes. Our data show that several DNA classes of polysomatic nuclei regularly arise during tissue differentiation in some species of spiders and may provide an interesting model system for further study of patterns of tissue-specific variation in DNA endoreduplication during development. PMID:15971267

Rasch, Ellen M; Connelly, Barbara A

2005-08-01

196

Types, Causes, Detection and Repair of DNA Fragmentation in Animal and Human Sperm Cells  

PubMed Central

Concentration, motility and morphology are parameters commonly used to determine the fertilization potential of an ejaculate. These parameters give a general view on the quality of sperm but do not provide information about one of the most important components of the reproductive outcome: DNA. Either single or double DNA strand breaks can set the difference between fertile and infertile males. Sperm DNA fragmentation can be caused by intrinsic factors like abortive apoptosis, deficiencies in recombination, protamine imbalances or oxidative stress. Damage can also occur due to extrinsic factors such as storage temperatures, extenders, handling conditions, time after ejaculation, infections and reaction to medicines or post-testicular oxidative stress, among others. Two singular characteristics differentiate sperm from somatic cells: Protamination and absence of DNA repair. DNA repair in sperm is terminated as transcription and translation stops post-spermiogenesis, so these cells have no mechanism to repair the damage occurred during their transit through the epididymis and post-ejaculation. Oocytes and early embryos have been shown to repair sperm DNA damage, so the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation depends on the combined effects of sperm chromatin damage and the capacity of the oocyte to repair it. In this contribution we review some of these issues.

Gonzalez-Marin, Clara; Gosalvez, Jaime; Roy, Rosa

2012-01-01

197

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp.

Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; Garcia, Nuria; Paabo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

2013-01-01

198

Observation of fast collinear partitioning of the Au197 + Au197 system into three and four fragments of comparable size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collisions of a very heavy nonfusing nuclear system Au197+Au197 were studied at an energy of 15 MeV\\/nucleon. An interesting process of violent reseparation of this heavy system into three or four fragments of comparable size was observed. In the case of ternary partitioning, either the projectile-like fragment (PLF) or target-like fragment (TLF) breaks up almost collinearly with the PLF-TLF separation

J. Wilczynski; I. Skwira-Chalot; K. Siwek-Wilczynska; A. Pagano; F. Amorini; A. Anzalone; L. Auditore; V. Baran; J. Brzychczyk; G. Cardella; S. Cavallaro; M. B. Chatterjee; M. Colonna; E. de Filippo; M. Di Toro; W. Gawlikowicz; E. Geraci; A. Grzeszczuk; P. Guazzoni; S. Kowalski; E. La Guidara; G. Lanzalone; J. Lukasik; C. Maiolino; Z. Majka; N. G. Nicolis; M. Papa; E. Piasecki; S. Pirrone; R. Planeta; G. Politi; F. Porto; F. Rizzo; P. Russotto; K. Schmidt; A. Sochocka; L. Swiderski; A. Trifirò; M. Trimarchi; J. P. Wieleczko; L. Zetta; W. Zipper

2010-01-01

199

Correlation between induction of DNA fragmentation in lung cells from rats and humans and carcinogenic activity.  

PubMed

Six chemicals, known to induce lung tumors in rats, were examined for their ability to induce DNA fragmentation in primary cultures of rat and human lung cells, and in the lung of intact rats. Significant dose-dependent increases in the frequency of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, were obtained in primary lung cells from male rats with the following, minimally toxic, concentrations of the six test compounds: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA; 2.5-10mM), hydrazine (HZ; 0.5-4mM), cadmium sulfate (CD; 31.2 and 62.5muM), 4,4'-methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MOCA; 31.2-125muM), isobutyl nitrite (IBN; 7.8-31.2muM) and tetranitromethane (TNM; 1.9-15.6muM). Similar degrees of DNA fragmentation were obtained in primary human lung cells; however, due to inter-donor differences, the minimum effective concentrations were in some donors lower and in others higher than in rats, and IBN induced DNA damage only in one of three donors. The DNA-damaging potency of HZ was higher in rats than in humans, and the opposite was true for MOCA. In agreement with these findings, statistically significant increases in the average frequency of DNA breaks were obtained in the lung of rats given a single oral dose (1/2 LD50) of the six test compounds. These findings give evidence that genotoxic lung carcinogens may be identified by use of the DNA fragmentation/Comet assay on rat lung cells as targets cells, and show that the six compounds tested produce in primary cultures of lung cells from human donors DNA-damaging effects substantially similar to those observed in rats. PMID:16690349

Robbiano, Luigi; Baroni, Debora; Novello, Luca; Brambilla, Giovanni

2006-06-16

200

Microscopic varicocelectomy significantly decreases the sperm DNA fragmentation index in patients with infertility.  

PubMed

Background. Varicocele is associated with high levels of DNA damage in spermatozoa due to oxidative stress and elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, which has been currently proposed to be an essential additional diagnostic test to be recommended for patients with clinical varicocele. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters of semen and the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Methods. The details of 92 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2012. The sperm samples were evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines. Sperm DNA damage, characterized as DFI, was evaluated by sperm chromatin structure assay using flow cytometry. Results. There was a statistically significant improvement in the semen concentration, the total motile count, the total normal sperm count, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI; the percentage of sperm with denatured DNA) after varicocelectomy. There was a large decrease in DFI from a preoperative mean of 42.6% to a postoperative mean of 20.5% (P < 0.001). A higher preoperative DFI was associated with a larger decrease in postoperative DFI, and significant negative correlations were observed between the DFI and sperm motility (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our data suggest that varicocelectomy can improve multiple semen parameters and sperm DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. The patients with preoperative defects in those parameters showed greater improvement postoperatively. Further research in this area is needed to understand the exact mechanisms of DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:24712000

Kadioglu, Teoman Cem; Aliyev, Emin; Celtik, Murad

2014-01-01

201

Microscopic Varicocelectomy Significantly Decreases the Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index in Patients with Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background. Varicocele is associated with high levels of DNA damage in spermatozoa due to oxidative stress and elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, which has been currently proposed to be an essential additional diagnostic test to be recommended for patients with clinical varicocele. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters of semen and the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in patients with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy. Methods. The details of 92 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2012. The sperm samples were evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines. Sperm DNA damage, characterized as DFI, was evaluated by sperm chromatin structure assay using flow cytometry. Results. There was a statistically significant improvement in the semen concentration, the total motile count, the total normal sperm count, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI; the percentage of sperm with denatured DNA) after varicocelectomy. There was a large decrease in DFI from a preoperative mean of 42.6% to a postoperative mean of 20.5% (P < 0.001). A higher preoperative DFI was associated with a larger decrease in postoperative DFI, and significant negative correlations were observed between the DFI and sperm motility (r = ?0.42, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our data suggest that varicocelectomy can improve multiple semen parameters and sperm DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele. The patients with preoperative defects in those parameters showed greater improvement postoperatively. Further research in this area is needed to understand the exact mechanisms of DNA damage in infertile men with varicocele.

Kadioglu, Teoman Cem; Aliyev, Emin; Celtik, Murad

2014-01-01

202

Impact of Soil Water Content and Core Sampler Diameter at Sampling for Dry Soil Fragment?Size Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil conditions at sampling and the dimensions of the sample are critical factors when soil aggregation is indirectly characterized by determining the distribution of soil fragments. Our objective was to determine the effects of gravimetric soil water content and core sampler diameter (16, 54, and 84 mm) at sampling on the dry?fragment?size distribution of two soils (Typic Paleudalf and Typic Hapludalf)

John H. Grove; Ed Perfect

2008-01-01

203

Estimation of effective population size and detection of a recent population decline coinciding with habitat fragmentation in a ground beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the impact of habitat fragmentation on the effective size (Ne) of local populations of the flightless ground beetle Carabus violaceus in a small (<25 ha) and a large (>80 ha) forest fragment separated by a highway. Ne was estimated based on the temporal variation of allele frequencies at 13 microsatellite loci using two different methods. In the smaller

I. K ELLER; L. EXCOFFIER; C. R. LARGIADER

2004-01-01

204

Chromatin Collapse during Caspase-dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Requires DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40-kDa Subunit-/Caspase-activated Deoxyribonuclease-mediated 3?-OH Single-strand DNA Breaks*  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic nuclear morphology and oligonucleosomal double-strand DNA fragments (also known as DNA ladder) are considered the hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. From a classic point of view, these two processes occur concomitantly. Once activated, DNA fragmentation factor, 40-kDa subunit (DFF40)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD) endonuclease hydrolyzes the DNA into oligonucleosomal-size pieces, facilitating the chromatin package. However, the dogma that the apoptotic nuclear morphology depends on DNA fragmentation has been questioned. Here, we use different cellular models, including MEF CAD?/? cells, to unravel the mechanism by which DFF40/CAD influences chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse during apoptosis. Upon apoptotic insult, SK-N-AS cells display caspase-dependent apoptotic nuclear alterations in the absence of internucleosomal DNA degradation. The overexpression of a wild-type form of DFF40/CAD endonuclease, but not of different catalytic-null mutants, restores the cellular ability to degrade the chromatin into oligonucleosomal-length fragments. We show that apoptotic nuclear collapse requires a 3?-OH endonucleolytic activity even though the internucleosomal DNA degradation is impaired. Moreover, alkaline unwinding electrophoresis and In Situ End-Labeling (ISEL)/In Situ Nick Translation (ISNT) assays reveal that the apoptotic DNA damage observed in the DNA ladder-deficient SK-N-AS cells is characterized by the presence of single-strand nicks/breaks. Apoptotic single-strand breaks can be impaired by DFF40/CAD knockdown, abrogating nuclear collapse and disassembly. In conclusion, the highest order of chromatin compaction observed in the later steps of caspase-dependent apoptosis relies on DFF40/CAD-mediated DNA damage by generating 3?-OH ends in single-strand rather than double-strand DNA nicks/breaks.

Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guinon, Estel; Sanchez-Osuna, Maria; Casanelles, Elisenda; Garcia-Belinchon, Merce; Comella, Joan X.; Yuste, Victor J.

2013-01-01

205

DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

2014-06-25

206

Computational analysis of DNA replicases in double-stranded DNA viruses: relationship with the genome size  

PubMed Central

Genome duplication in free-living cellular organisms is performed by DNA replicases that always include a DNA polymerase, a DNA sliding clamp and a clamp loader. What are the evolutionary solutions for DNA replicases associated with smaller genomes? Are there some general principles? To address these questions we analyzed DNA replicases of double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses. In the process we discovered highly divergent B-family DNA polymerases in phiKZ-like phages and remote sliding clamp homologs in Ascoviridae family and Ma-LMM01 phage. The analysis revealed a clear dependency between DNA replicase components and the viral genome size. As the genome size increases, viruses universally encode their own DNA polymerases and frequently have homologs of DNA sliding clamps, which sometimes are accompanied by clamp loader subunits. This pattern is highly non-random. The absence of sliding clamps in large viral genomes usually coincides with the presence of atypical polymerases. Meanwhile, sliding clamp homologs, not accompanied by clamp loaders, have an elevated positive electrostatic potential, characteristic of non-ring viral processivity factors that bind the DNA directly. Unexpectedly, we found that similar electrostatic properties are shared by the eukaryotic 9-1-1 clamp subunits, Hus1 and, to a lesser extent, Rad9, also suggesting the possibility of direct DNA binding.

Kazlauskas, Darius; Venclovas, Ceslovas

2011-01-01

207

Effects of various agents on DNA fragmentation and telomerase enzyme activities in adenocarcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Natural compounds such as resveratrol, tannic acid, and quercetin may help to treat cancer. Tamoxifen is a non-steroidal anti-estrogen drug widely used in the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of these natural compounds and tamoxifen in colon adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines, on telomerase enzyme activity, cell viability, number of cells and DNA fragmentation. In this study to determine telomerase enzyme activity was used PCR-ELISA kit. To determine cell viability and number of cells were used tripan blue stain. DNA fragmentation was determined by DNA ladder isolation kit. Tannic acid was more effective than resveratrol, with respect to reduction in telomerase activity, cell viability and cell count in breast adenocarcinoma. Tannic acid and tamoxifen was more effective than resveratrol and quercetin telomerase activity, cell viability and cell count in colon adenocarcinoma. Flavonoids such as resveratrol, tannic acid and quercetin which was studied on, has benefical effects on cancer therapy. These effects such as decreasing telomerase enzyme activity, cell viability and number of cells and inducing DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) must be studied for assist to develop new therapeutic pathways. There should be much more sudies in order to discover resveratrol, tannic acid and quercetin and other potential medicines. PMID:21104029

Cosan, Didem Turgut; Soyocak, Ahu; Basaran, Ayse; Degirmenci, Irfan; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Sahin, Fezan Mutlu

2011-04-01

208

Study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia.  

PubMed

This study investigated meiotic segregation in spermatozoa to determine if severe teratozoospermia should prevent the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of the high production of gametes with chromosomal aneuploidies and analysed DNA fragmentation in gametes from the same semen to determine if DNA integrity was worse in patients with severe teratozoospermia. Sperm samples from 12 infertile patients were studied by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 and by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling. Four patients with a majority of macrocephalic forms with multiple flagella had more than 99% spermatozoa with abnormal chromosomal content. The other patients (globozoospermia or other abnormalities concerning sperm heads) had no increased aneuploidy or a slightly significant increase (P<0.05). The rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in infertile patients than in the controls (P<0.001; 14.3% versus 1.20%, respectively) but presented important variability. Therefore, ICSI should not be attempted if men have macrocephalic gametes with multiple flagella but morphology is not always a good predictor of chromosomal content, depending upon the kind of teratozoospermia. Evaluation of the rate of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia is recommended. PMID:21233018

Perrin, A; Louanjli, N; Ziane, Y; Louanjli, T; Le Roy, C; Gueganic, N; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F

2011-02-01

209

Correlation between human clusterin in seminal plasma with sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Seminal proteins can be considered as factors that control fertilization. Clusterin is one such protein that has been implicated in many activities, including apoptosis inhibition, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and sperm maturation. In this study, the relationship between human secretory clusterin (sCLU) in seminal plasma with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency, and DNA fragmentation was investigated. Semen samples were collected from 63 Iranian men, and semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization criteria and computer aided semen analysis (CASA). The concentration of sCLU in seminal plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), protamine deficiency was determined by chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3 ), and sperm DNA fragmentation was checked by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. The level of sCLU in seminal fluid of fertile patients was 48.3 ± 38.6 ng/ml and in infertile patients was 15.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml; this difference was significant (P < 0.001). sCLU correlated negatively with protamine deficiency, sperm DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. In conclusion, seminal clusterin can be considered as a marker for the quick assessment of semen quality in male infertility studies. PMID:23740886

Salehi, Mohammad; Akbari, Hakimeh; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Molouki, Aidin; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Moeini, Hassan; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Aabed, Farhang; Taheri, Hossein; Fadaei, Fateme; Mohsenzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari, Mohammad; Pirouzi, Aliyar; Heidari, Reihane

2013-09-01

210

Cloning and characterization of an apoptosis-related DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) from oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis plays an important pathophysiological role in the homeostasis of immune systems. DNA fragmentation factors (DFFs) have been shown to be essential for DNA fragmentation, and the resultant DNA fragments follow a laddering pattern during apoptosis in vertebrates. In invertebrates, the functions of the DFF orthologs are not well characterized; therefore, we cloned and characterized a bivalve DFFA ortholog from the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis (designated ChDFFA). The full-length cDNA of ChDFFA is 1186 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 200 amino acids that contains an N-terminal CAD domain and a DFF-C domain at its C-terminus. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that ChDFFA is ubiquitously expressed in several tissues, and its highest expression is in gill. Following a 3- to 48-h challenge by microbial infection, the expression of ChDFFA increased in hemocytes. Using fluorescence microscopy, ChDFFA was localized in nuclei when exogenously expressed in HeLa cells. In addition, over-expression of ChDFFA inhibited the transcriptional activities of p53/p21-Luc reporter genes in HEK293T cells. These results suggest that ChDFFA may be involved in immune response reactions in the Hong Kong oyster C. hongkongensis. PMID:24642253

Xiang, Zhiming; Qu, Fufa; Qi, Lin; Ying, Tong; Li, Jun; Shu, Xiao; Yu, Ziniu

2014-05-01

211

DNA fragmentation kinetics and postthaw motility of flow cytometric-sorted white-tailed deer sperm.  

PubMed

This study examined DNA damage and postthaw motility of white-tailed deer sperm (n = 28) before and after sex selection and conventional sorting using MoFlo XDP SX flow cytometry. Semen samples from the same individuals were treated in 4 different ways: 1) chilled-extended sperm samples (without glycerol); 2) cryopreserved conventional samples, samples directly cryopreserved after the addition of extenders; 3) cryopreserved conventionally sorted samples, sorted samples to remove the dead sperm subpopulation; and 4) cryopreserved sex-sorted samples; sorted samples to remove the dead sperm subpopulation and separation of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. In all the cases (n = 6), conventional samples showed decreased postthaw motilities (43 ± 26%) when compared with X-sorted samples (59 ± 20%; P < 0.05) and Y-sorted samples (54 ± 20%; P > 0.05). The DNA fragmentation baseline was <5% for frozen-thawed conventional samples, but even less after sex sorting and conventional sorting: 2.4 and 1.7%, respectively. On the other hand, conventional samples showed greater (P < 0.05) DNA fragmentation than the sex-sorted sperm (n = 6) at 96 h (average of 4.8 ± 4.5% and 5.3 ± 4%, respectively). Conventionally sorted samples (n = 8) did not have greater (P > 0.05) DNA fragmentation when compared with the sex-sorted samples. Fragmentation of DNA on X-chromosome and Y-chromosome-bearing sorted sperm were not significantly different (n = 10, P > 0.05) after 96 h (2.6 ± 3.6% and 2.2 ± 0.5%, respectively). Future research should be implemented for examining the fertilizing potential of sex-sorted white-tailed deer sperm (e.g., AI fertility trials). PMID:21788426

Kjelland, M E; González-Marín, C; Gosálvez, J; López-Fernández, C; Lenz, R W; Evans, K M; Moreno, J F

2011-12-01

212

Reconstructing Pre-Fragmentation Bubble Size Distributions from Volcanic Ash using Stereo SEM Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted an analysis of bubble (BSD) and ash particle (PSD) size distributions for ashes from two contrasting eruptions. The first is the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (MSH), a dacitic plinian eruption that spread ash over a large area of the Western U.S. The second is the basaltic sub-plinian 1974 eruption of Fuego (Guatemala), which was confined to local deposition with less variation of ash PSDs. Four successive small explosive eruptions of Fuego produced less than 0.02 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) in a dispersal area of 80 km from the volcano. In contrast, the May 1980 plinian eruption of Mount St. Helens resulted in a distal fallout leading to a large subaerial ash deposit as far away as 325 km from the volcano. Pyroclastic flows added extensive fine material to the eruption column resulting in extensive ash dispersal. MSH samples were collected from a range of distances away from the vent, while collection of samples from Fuego was limited to nearer regions due to the lesser dispersal of the ash. Technique- Stereo SEM analysis of BSD of eruptions products (ash) to determine the pre-fragmentation properties of ash-producing magma bodies. This information is normally considered lost due to fragmentation of bubbles in late stages of eruptions. However, using SSEM, we have devised a technique to determine the pre-fragmentation BSDs that reflect the conduit processes of bubble nucleation and growth, and magma rise history. Using standard off-the-shelf software (Alicona MeX) to create Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of individual ash particles, we built a database of ash surface characteristics. These surfaces include imprints of bubbles that exploded during fragmentation. We use the curvature of these imprints to reconstruct the complete bubbles, using newly developed software we call “Bubblemaker” that extrapolates the measured DEMs using best-fit ellipsoids of revolution (not necessarily spherical). We have now reconstructed the bubble volumes. These data are used in turn to characterize the statistical parameters of the bubble population, including size distribution, distribution function type (log-normal), its moments, and bubble number density. Our results show that the silicic energetic MSH eruption ashes contain smaller bubbles and higher number densities than do the ashes collected from the more basaltic Fuego eruption. From these results, it is possible to speculate regarding eruption processes. It appears that within a single eruption, there is relatively little variability of bubble sizes as a function of depositional distance from the vent, although other ash characteristics such as PSD vary more strongly with distance.

Sahagian, D. L.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Genareau, K.

2010-12-01

213

Apoplastic and cytosolic expression of full-size antibodies and antibody fragments in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

We compared the expression of a functional recombinant TMV-specific full-size antibody (rAb29) in both the apoplast and cytosol of tobacco plants and a single chain antibody fragment (scFv29), derived from rAb29, was expressed in the cytosol. Cloned heavy and light chain cDNAs of full-size rAb29, which binds to TMV coat protein monomers, were integrated into the plant expression vector pSS. The full-size rAb29 was expressed in the cytosol and targeted to the apoplast by including the original murine antibody leader sequences. Levels of functional full-size rAb29 expression were high in the apoplast (up to 8.5 micrograms per gram leaf tissue), whereas cytosolic expression was low or at the ELISA detection limit. Sequences of the variable domains of rAb29 light and heavy chain were used to generate the single chain antibody of scFv29, which was expressed in the periplasmic space of E. coli and showed the same binding specificity as full-size rAb29. In addition, scFv29 was functionally expressed in the cytosol of tobacco plants and plant derived scFv29 maintained same binding specificity to TMV-coat protein monomers as rAb29. PMID:10621973

Schillberg, S; Zimmermann, S; Voss, A; Fischer, R

1999-08-01

214

Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

215

Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: Joining of correct and incorrect ends  

SciTech Connect

An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated form the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results form this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 x 10{sub {minus}3} break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. They misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between w and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Loebrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1995-12-19

216

Expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA and cloned DNA fragments in human lymphocytes following Sendai virus envelope-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed Central

Purified EBV DNA and cloned DNA fragments were trapped in Sendai virus (SV) envelopes during envelope reconstitution. The DNA-loaded reconstituted envelopes (RSVE/DNA) served as gene-transfer vehicles using the capability of RSVE to fuse with normal and tumor cells. The efficiency of RSVE-mediated EBV DNA transfer into lymphoid tumor cells and fresh human lymphocytes was 5-10% of the enveloped 3H-labeled EcoRI fragment B of EBV DNA. Purified intracellular EBV (B95-8 strain) DNA induced EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) in 0.2-1% of human lymphocytes, transiently stimulated cellular DNA synthesis, but did not fully transform cells. Cloned Sal I F1 fragment [approximately equal to 9 kilobase pairs (kbp)] and a smaller BamHI K (5.2 kbp) fragment from the same region of B95-8 EBV DNA induced EBNA in 2-4% of human lymphocytes but did not stimulate DNA synthesis nor transform cells. Cloned BamHI D1 fragment (approximately equal to 9 kbp) from AG-876 virus DNA, or a combination of cloned BamHI X and H fragments (approximately equal to 2 and 7 kbp, respectively) from the similar region of B95-8 virus DNA, significantly stimulated lymphocyte DNA synthesis, but EBNA could not be detected and transformation was not achieved. Early antigen and viral capsid antigen were not observed with any of the fragments tested. Our results suggest that the induction of EBNA and stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation are not controlled by the same region of EBV DNA. Images

Volsky, D J; Gross, T; Sinangil, F; Kuszynski, C; Bartzatt, R; Dambaugh, T; Kieff, E

1984-01-01

217

Ejecta from experimental impact craters: Particle size distribution and fragmentation energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particle size distribution (PSD) of impact crater ejecta is an important parameter that is useful for understanding the formation of natural craters, the distribution of space debris, the influence of impact events on climate and energy partitioning in impact events. 11 impact experiments into dry and water-saturated sandstone were performed and analyzed. The experiments span a range of impact velocities from 2.5 to 5.3 km s-1 using projectile sizes from 2.5 to 12 mm. Kinetic impact energies between 874 and 80,338 J were achieved. Ejecta of these experiments was collected and the PSD was measured and quantified with power law fits. The resulting power law exponents lie between 2.54 and 2.74. Our results do not show an influence of impact energy or impact velocity on the PSD of impact ejecta. A significant increase in the PSD values was found from dry to water-saturated sandstone targets. We suggest that water saturation of the target has multiple effects on ejecta fragmentation. A comparison of our experimental data with data from the literature shows no correlation between the target material lithology and the ejecta PSD. Interestingly, literature data for disruption experiments revealed a strong influence imparted energy density on the D-values. PSD values were used to calculate the energy spent for target fragmentation and show that the fraction of impact energy used for comminution is in the lower single-digit percentage.

Buhl, Elmar; Sommer, Frank; Poelchau, Michael H.; Dresen, Georg; Kenkmann, Thomas

2014-07-01

218

Correlation between muscle involvement, phenotype and D4Z4 fragment size in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate muscle involvement pattern and correlate the lesions on muscle imaging with clinical features and D4Z4 fragment size in 24 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The grading of the muscle image detected by computed tomography (CT) was based on a four-point semi-quantitative visual scale. On muscle CT, the most affected muscle was trapezium, followed by hamstrings. CT image identified hamstrings involvement rather than shoulder-girdle in clinically asymptomatic subjects. CT image also showed that axial muscle was affected in one-third of patients which appeared even earlier than clinical manifestation. Strong correlations between CT findings, serum creatine kinase level and clinical severity scores were also found. Asymmetric involvement was more evident on CT image than it identified in manual muscle strength testing. Inverse correlation between CT grade and D4Z4 fragment size was clearly demonstrated. These findings suggest muscle CT will be helpful for the process of early intervention in FSHD, even in subjects in a preclinical status. PMID:22153988

Wang, Chien-Hua; Leung, Mana; Liang, Wen-Chen; Hsieh, Tysh-Jyi; Chen, Tai-Heng; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

2012-04-01

219

The effect of CpG-rich DNA fragments on the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have investigated properties of blood plasma extracellular DNA (cell-free DNA, cfDNA) from patients with\\u000a essential arterial hypertension (AH). Concentration of cell-free DNA was basically the same as in healthy donors, however,\\u000a the content of the marker, CpG-rich cell-free DNA fragments (CpG-DNA) of the transcribed area of the ribosomal repeat (TArDNA,\\u000a CpG-DNA) was higher in AH patients.

N. N. Veiko; I. L. Konorova; M. E. Neverova; O. V. Fidelina; N. A. Mkrtumova; E. S. Ershova; M. S. Kon’kova; A. Yu. Postnov

2010-01-01

220

Covalent split protein fragment-DNA hybrids generated through N-terminus-specific modification of proteins by oligonucleotides.  

PubMed

Semisynthetic protein-DNA hybrid molecules have recently attracted much attention as valuable tools for bioanalytical chemistry and nanobiotechnology. Here we describe a synthetic method for conjugating oligonucleotides to the N-terminus of recombinant proteins. Our strategy involves the conversion of amine-terminated oligonucleotides to thioester-functionalized oligonucleotides by using a bifunctional reagent bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and benzyl thioester group, followed by native chemical ligation with proteins containing an N-terminal cysteine. We applied this technique to construct split luciferase fragment-DNA hybrid systems in which the catalytic activity of split luciferase is restored by the re-assembly of each fragment through a specific DNA-protein or DNA-DNA interaction. Split protein fragment-DNA hybrids will offer new opportunities to explore the potential of protein-DNA conjugates for various applications. PMID:18528581

Takeda, Shuji; Tsukiji, Shinya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

2008-06-21

221

Chromosome loss caused by DNA fragmentation induced in main nuclei and micronuclei of human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy, a change in the number of chromosomes, plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that a loss of a whole chromosome is induced in human lymphocytes by colcemid, a well-known aneugen. Here, to clarify the mechanism for colcemid-induced chromosome loss, we investigated the relationship between chromosome loss and DNA fragmentation in human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid (an aneugen) compared with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; a clastogen). We analyzed the number of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals targeted for a whole chromosome 2 in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated TK6 cells and WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid and MMS, and concurrently detected DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results revealed that DNA fragmentation occurred in 60% of all binucleated TK6 cells harboring colcemid-induced chromosome loss (30% of micronuclei and 30% of main nuclei). DNA fragmentation was observed in colcemid-induced micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not in MMS-induced micronuclei containing chromosome fragments. In contrast, colcemid-induced nondisjunction had no effect on induction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that DNA fragmentation was triggered by micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not by micronuclei containing chromosome fragments or nondisjunction. In addition, the frequency of binucleated cells harboring chromosome loss with DNA fragmentation in micronuclei or main nuclei was higher in wild-type p53 TK6 cells than in mutated-p53 WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid. Taken together, these present and previous results suggest that colcemid-induced chromosome loss is caused by DNA fragmentation, which is triggered by a micronucleus with a whole chromosome and controlled by the p53-dependent pathway. PMID:24582839

Yamamoto, Mika; Wakata, Akihiro; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Miyamae, Yoichi; Kodama, Seiji

2014-04-01

222

An efficient algorithm for DNA fragment assembly in MapReduce.  

PubMed

Fragment assembly is one of the most important problems of sequence assembly. Algorithms for DNA fragment assembly using de Bruijn graph have been widely used. These algorithms require a large amount of memory and running time to build the de Bruijn graph. Another drawback of the conventional de Bruijn approach is the loss of information. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes a parallel strategy to construct de Bruijin graph. Its main characteristic is to avoid the division of de Bruijin graph. A novel fragment assembly algorithm based on our parallel strategy is implemented in the MapReduce framework. The experimental results show that the parallel strategy can effectively improve the computational efficiency and remove the memory limitations of the assembly algorithm based on Euler superpath. This paper provides a useful attempt to the assembly of large-scale genome sequence using Cloud Computing. PMID:22960169

Xu, Baomin; Gao, Jin; Li, Chunyan

2012-09-28

223

Three dimensional imaging of DNA fragments during electrophoresis using a confocal detector  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the three dimensional distribution of DNA fragments within an electrophoretic band. The measurements were made using a confocal microscope and a photon counting photomultiplier detector. A DNA sequencing standard was loaded into glass microchannel plates containing polyacrylamide gel. The measurements were made by scanning the plates in three dimensions using a mechanical stage under computer control, while electrophoresis was taking place. We found that the distribution of DNA was the same for all the bands measured in the sequencing ladder with an approximate Gaussian distribution along all three axes. These measurements are important to understand what physical forces shape electrophoretic bands confined by a channel and also to aid in the design of high throughput DNA sequencers.

Brewer, L.R.; Davidson, C.; Balch, J.; Carrano, A.

1995-01-30

224

Reverse-phase HPLC of DNA restriction fragments and ribooligonucleotides on uncoated Kel-F powder.  

PubMed Central

Uncoated Kel-F powder offers some unique features as a support for reverse-phase HPLC of oligonucleotides and DNA restriction fragments. Compounds are eluted from the column by a gradient of acetonitrile (0 tto 18% v/v) in 0.1 M aqueous triethylammonium acetate. In contrast to RPC-5 chromatography, oligonucleotides are not eluted by aqueous salt solutions alone, and the separation of restriction fragments depends only on the chainlength. The packing material is cheap, easy to pack, chemically inert, and does not bleed, so that separations are highly reproducible. The DNA loading capacity for Kel-F is presently inferior to RPC-5, but recovery of microgram amounts of material is typically better than 50%. Images

Usher, D A

1979-01-01

225

Sperm ubiquitination and DNA fragmentation in men with occupational exposure and varicocele.  

PubMed

Assessment of sperm ubiquitination and DNA fragmentation as sperm functional markers are proposed to complement routine semen analysis. This study focuses on the evaluation of these markers in infertile men with varicocele or exposed to occupational background. The results were compared with normozoospermic men. Semen parameters in both groups were lower than those in the control group. Ubiquitination median, as a marker for functionality of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, was also lower in both groups. The ubiquitination median showed a significant positive correlation with motility in both groups, while it showed only a negative correlation with sperm morphology in the varicocele group. DNA fragmentation showed a significant correlation with semen parameters, in total varicocele and also total exposure groups. In conclusion, significant difference of sperm ubiquitination between normal and study groups further validates that sperm ubiquitination as a potential molecular marker for sperm evaluation in addition to routine semen analysis in clinical laboratories. PMID:23594355

Hosseinpour, E; Shahverdi, A; Parivar, K; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H; Salman Yazdi, R; Sharbatoghli, M; Tavalaee, M; Chehrazi, M

2014-05-01

226

Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

2001-09-15

227

Isolation of specific DNA fragments of Mycobacterium avium and their possible use in diagnosis.  

PubMed

We cloned and sequenced two DNA fragments (DT1 and DT6) from Mycobacterium avium serotype 2 for use in the identification of members of the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC). Reference strains of MAC belonging to serovars 1 to 28 were examined by using these DNA fragments as probes. The study revealed that the DT6 probe hybridized with DNAs from M. avium strains (serovars 1 to 6, 8 to 11, and 21), while the DT1 probe hybridized with DNAs from serovars 2, 3, 7, 12 to 20, and 23 to 25. DT1- and DT6-derived oligonucleotides were selected for use as primers in a polymerase chain reaction test. Amplification of the DT1 and DT6 sequences may provide the basis for a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of mycobacteria belonging to MAC. PMID:8501206

Thierry, D; Vincent, V; Clément, F; Guesdon, J L

1993-05-01

228

Oxidative stress mediates drug-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: a possible role of DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, diclofenac and ketoconazol are three important chemotherapeutic agents that are commonly associated with hepatotoxicity. This study was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism through which these drugs induce hepatotoxicity. Some of the possible mechanisms underlying such modulation were investigated. The hepatotoxic activity of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (800 mg kg(-1)); diclofenac (200 mg kg(-1)) and ketoconazol (100 mg kg(-1)) were investigated in vivo through the assessment of liver functions, lipid peroxidation and histopathological examination. It was found that all drugs have induced severe hepatic damage as evidenced by the elevation serum aminotransferase activities and confirmed by histological changes of liver. In addition, the drug-induced hepatotoxicity was also associated with massive liver DNA fragmentation and an increase in lipid peroxidation. These results strongly suggest a positive correlation between hepatotoxicity and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, this study also implicates calcium as a potential mediator of the drug-induced oxidative stress associated with hepatotoxicity. PMID:15695022

Amin, Amr; Hamza, Alaa A

2005-03-30

229

Cloned fragment of human alphoid DNA: molecular marker of pericentromeric region of 18th chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Two recombinant plasmids were isolated from the collection of cloned human DNA fragments which contain sequences of alphoid DNA. It was shown using in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes that both cloned sequences hybridize preferentially with the region of pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 18, less intensively with pericentric regions of chromosomes 2, 9, and 20, and are characterized by polymorphism according to number of copies in homologous chromosomes. These sequences may prove useful for cytogenetic analysis of chromosome reorganizations and study of polymorphism of regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin in human chromosomes.

Aleksandrov, I.A.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

1986-11-01

230

The role of the DNA sliding clamp in Okazaki fragment maturation in archaea and eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Efficient processing of Okazaki fragments generated during discontinuous lagging-strand DNA replication is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. In eukaryotes, a number of enzymes co-ordinate to ensure the removal of initiating primers from the 5'-end of each fragment and the generation of a covalently linked daughter strand. Studies in eukaryotic systems have revealed that the co-ordination of DNA polymerase ? and FEN-1 (Flap Endonuclease 1) is sufficient to remove the majority of primers. Other pathways such as that involving Dna2 also operate under certain conditions, although, notably, Dna2 is not universally conserved between eukaryotes and archaea, unlike the other core factors. In addition to the catalytic components, the DNA sliding clamp, PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen), plays a pivotal role in binding and co-ordinating these enzymes at sites of lagging-strand replication. Structural studies in eukaryotic and archaeal systems have revealed that PCNA-binding proteins can adopt different conformations when binding PCNA. This conformational malleability may be key to the co-ordination of these enzymes' activities. PMID:21265749

Beattie, Thomas R; Bell, Stephen D

2011-01-01

231

Maximizing DNA Loading on a Range of Gold Nanoparticle Sizes  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the variables that influence DNA coverage on gold nanoparticles. The effects of salt concentration, spacer composition, nanoparticle size, and degree of sonication have been evaluated. Maximum loading was obtained by salt aging the nanoparticles to ~0.7 M NaCl in the presence of DNA containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer. In addition, DNA loading was substantially increased by sonicating the nanoparticles during the surface loading process. Lastly, nanoparticles up to 250 nm in diameter were found have ~2 orders of magnitude higher DNA loading than smaller (13–30 nm) nanoparticles, a consequence of their larger surface area. Stable large particles are attractive for a variety of biodiagnostic assays.

Hurst, Sarah J.; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Mirkin, Chad A.

2008-01-01

232

Caspase3 activation and DNA fragmentation in primary hippocampal neurons following glutamate excitotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitotoxic glutamate CNS stimulation can result in neuronal cell death. Contributing mechanisms and markers of cell death are the activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. It remains to be resolved to which extent both cellular reactions overlap and\\/or indicate different processes of neurodegeneration. In this study, mixed neuronal cultures from newborn mice pubs (0–24 h) were stimulated with glutamate, and

Stephan Brecht; Mathias Gelderblom; Anu Srinivasan; Kirsten Mielke; Galina Dityateva; Thomas Herdegen

2001-01-01

233

Bacteria in bovine semen can increase sperm DNA fragmentation rates: A kinetic experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryopreserved straws of semen (n=228) from Holstein bulls (n=47) were examined for bacterial presence and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) dynamics. Commercial semen doses (representing six ejaculates per individual) were randomly selected from a bull stud in Spain. The dynamics of SDF were assessed after thawing (T0) and at 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96h of incubation at 37°C, using the

C. González-Marín; R. Roy; C. López-Fernández; B. Diez; M. J. Carabaño; J. L. Fernández; M. E. Kjelland; J. F. Moreno; J. Gosálvez

2011-01-01

234

A general method to modify BACs to generate large recombinant DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) has the capacity to clone DNA fragments in excess of 300 kb. It also has the considerable\\u000a advantages of stable propagation and ease of purification. These features make BAC suitable in genetic research, such as library\\u000a construction, transgenic mice production, and gene targeting constructs. Homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, a process named recombineering, has made the

Wei Shen; Yue Huang; Yi Tang; De-Pei Liu; Chih-Chuan Liang

2005-01-01

235

Seven novel Tay-Sachs mutations detected by chemical mismatch cleavage of PCR-amplified cDNA fragments.  

PubMed

Total RNA was isolated from cultured fibroblasts from 12 unrelated patients with Tay-Sachs disease, an autosomal recessive disorder due to beta-hexosaminidase A deficiency. beta-Hexosaminidase mRNA was amplified by cDNA-PCR in four overlapping segments spanning the entire coding sequence. In two patients, abnormal size cDNA-PCR fragments in which exons were removed resulted from splicing mutations that were characterized at the genomic DNA level: both were G to A transitions, at the first position of intron 2 and at the fifth position of intron 4. Five other mutations have been identified by cDNA-PCR chemical mismatch analysis and direct sequencing of an amplified fragment containing the mismatch site. One missense mutation alters the codon for Ser210 to Phe in exon 6 and the other one alters the codon for Arg504 to Cys in exon 13. A 3-bp deletion results in the deletion of a phenylalanine residue in exon 8. Two nonsense mutations in exon 3 (Arg137 to stop) and in exon 11 (Arg393 to stop) are associated with a marked decrease of mRNA abundance, probably because they result in mRNA instability. Three of the six single base mutations involve the conversion of a CpG dinucleotide in the sense strand to TpG. These results demonstrate the extreme molecular heterogeneity of mutations causing Tay-Sachs disease. The procedure described in this paper allows the rapid detection of any type of mutation, except those impairing the promoter function. Applicable even to patients with splicing or nonsense mutations and very low mRNA abundance, it has therefore a potentially broad application in human genetics, for both diagnostic and fundamental purposes. PMID:1837283

Akli, S; Chelly, J; Lacorte, J M; Poenaru, L; Kahn, A

1991-09-01

236

Fragmentation of condensed-phase DNA components by hyperthermal He+ impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed severe damage to films of DNA components (thymine, D-ribose, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, and thymidine) induced by 10to100eV He+ ions (2.5-25eV/amu) . The damage is attributed to the kinetic and potential energies, as well as the chemical reactivity of the He+ projectiles. Hyperthermal He+ ion impact on these films results in the complete destruction of the molecules via fragmentation, and direct and indirect (secondary fragment) reactive scattering, all of which leads to the desorption of abundant cation and anion fragments. The chemical composition of the fragments is identified, and the fragmentation patterns are compared to those produced by Ar+ irradiation. While the lower mass of He+ ions causes less efficient desorption of very heavy fragments, several reactive collisions are also observed, including hydrogen abstraction by incident He+ from any of the molecules studied to yield desorbing HeH+ . This process likely occurs via the formation of an intermediate molecular ion (He-H-R)*+ , which decays to HeH++R• . Compared to Ar+ , here a significant (×23) enhancement in H+ desorption is observed during He+ ion irradiation, which likely involves (a) the decay of the intermediate (He-H-R)*+ , or desorbing HeH+ , and (b) Auger or quasiresonant excitations of C, N, or O atom centers (or C-H, N-H, or O-H bonds) by the incident He+ ion. The formation of several molecular cations, e.g., H3O+ , also requires hydrogen abstraction from its parent or adjacent molecules by initial cation fragments prior to desorption.

Deng, Zongwu; Imhoff, Marjorie; Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Huels, Michael A.

2006-07-01

237

Size, shape, and flexibility of proteins and DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size, shape, and flexibility are the important topological parameters which characterize the functional specificity and different types of interactions in proteins and DNA. The size of proteins and DNA, often measured by the radius of gyration (RG), are determined from the coordinates of their respective structures available in Protein Data Bank and Nucleic Acid Data Bank. The mean square radius of gyration obeys Flory's scaling law given by ~N2? where N is the number of amino acid residues/nucleotides. The scaling exponent ? reflects the different characteristic features of nonglobular proteins, natively unstructured proteins, and DNA. The asymmetry in the shapes of proteins and DNA are investigated using the asphericity (?) parameter and the shape parameter (S), calculated from the eigenvalues of the moment of inertia tensor. The distributions of ? and S show that most nonglobular proteins and DNA are aspherical and prolate (S>0). Natively unstructured proteins are comparatively spherically symmetrical having both prolate and oblate shapes. The flexibility of these molecules is characterized by the persistence length (lp). Persistence length for natively unstructured proteins is determined by fitting the distance distribution function P(r) to the wormlike chain (WLC) model in the limit of r>>RG. For nonglobular proteins and DNA, lp may be computed from the Benoit-Doty approximation for unperturbed radius of gyration of the WLC. The flexibilities of the proteins and DNA increases with the chain length. This is due to an increase in the nonlocal interactions with the increase in N, needed to minimize the conformational fluctuations in the native state. The persistence length of these proteins has not yet been measured directly. Analysis of the two-body contacts for the proteins reveals that the nonglobular proteins are less densely packed compared to the natively unstructured proteins with least side-chain side chain contacts even though side-chain backbone contacts predominate in the two types of proteins.

Rawat, Nidhi; Biswas, Parbati

2009-10-01

238

Cell-free DNA fragmentation patterns in amniotic fluid identify genetic abnormalities and changes due to storage.  

PubMed

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N=36) and aneuploid (N=29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (-80 degrees C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L; Bianchi, Diana W; Terrin, Norma

2008-09-01

239

The Early Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation Targets a Small Number of Specific Open Chromatin Regions  

PubMed Central

We report here that early apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as obtained by using an entirely new approach, is the result of an attack at a small number of specific open chromatin regions of interphase nuclei. This was demonstrated as follows: (i) chicken liver was excised and kept in sterile tubes for 1 to 3 hours at 37°C; (ii) this induced apoptosis (possibly because of oxygen deprivation), as shown by the electrophoretic nucleosomal ladder produced by DNA preparations; (iii) low molecular-weight DNA fragments (?200 bp) were cloned, sequenced, and shown to derive predominantly from genes and surrounding 100 kb regions; (iv) a few hundred cuts were produced, very often involving the same chromosomal sites; (v) at comparable DNA degradation levels, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) also showed a general preference for genes and surrounding regions, but MNase cuts were located at sites that were quite distinct from, and less specific than, those cut by apoptosis. In conclusion, the approach presented here, which is the mildest and least intrusive approach, identifies a preferred accessibility landscape in interphase chromatin.

Di Filippo, Miriam; Bernardi, Giorgio

2009-01-01

240

Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDuplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers

Martin Horlitz; Annabelle Lucas; Markus Sprenger-Haussels; Jörg Hoheisel

2009-01-01

241

A promiscuous chloroplast DNA fragment is transcribed in plant mitochondria but the encoded RNA is not edited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA editing processes in chloroplasts and mitochondria of higher plants show several similarities which are suggestive of common components and\\/or biochemical steps between the two plant organelles. The existence of various promiscuous DNA fragments of chloroplast origin in plant mitochondrial genomes allowed us to test the possibility that chloroplast sequences are also edited in mitochondria. AnrpoB fragment transferred from

Patric Zeltz; Koh-ichi Kadowaki; Nakao Kubo; Rainer M. Maier; Atsushi Hirai; Hans Kössel

1996-01-01

242

Cadmium-induced dna fragmentation is inhibitable by zinc in porcine kidney LLC-PK 1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fragmentation was induced by the addition of cadmium (10 ?M) to cultured LLC-PK1 cells, resulting in cell death. The cells were able to survive exposures of 10 ?M cadmium without change in morphology, but most had rounded by 40 ?M. Other metals tested such as Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+ had much lower ability to induce DNA fragmentation in

Masami Ishido; Shino T. Homma; Po S. Leung; Chiharu Tohyama

1995-01-01

243

Fragmentation of DNA components by hyperthermal heavy ion (Ar+ and Xe+) impact in the condensed phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overriding environmental factor that presently limits human endeavors in space is exposure to heavy ion radiation. While knowledge of its damage to living tissue is essential for radiation protection and risk estimates for astronauts, very little data exists at the molecular level regarding the nascent DNA damage by the primary particle track, or by secondary species during subsequent reaction cascades. This persistent lack of a basic understanding of nascent damage induced by such low dose, high LET radiation, introduces unacceptable errors in radiation risk estimates (based mainly on extrapolation from high dose, low LET radiation), particularly for long term exposure. Mutagenic effects induced by heavy ion radiation to cells are largely due to DNA damage by secondary transient species, i.e. secondary ballistic ions, electrons and radicals generated along the ion tracks; the secondary ions have hyperthermal energies up to several 100 eV, which they will deposit within a few nm in the surrounding medium; thus their LET is very high, and yields lethal clustered DNA lesions. We present measurements of molecular damage induced in films of DNA components by ions with precisely such low energies (1-100 eV) and compare results to conventional electron impact measurements. Experiments are conducted in UHV using a mass selected low energy ion source, and a high-resolution quadrupole MS to monitor ion yields desorbing from molecular films. Among the major fragments, NH4 + is identified in the desorption mass spectra of irradiated films of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, indicating efficient deamination; in cells this results in pre-mutagenic lesions. Experiments with 5-amino-Uracil, and comparison to previous results on uracil and thymine show that deamination is a key step in the NH4 + fragment formation. For Adenine, we also observe formation of amine aducts in the films, viz. amination of Adenine, and global fragmentation in all ion impact mass spectra, attributed mainly to kinetic & potential ion scattering.[Funded by NSERC and the Canadian Space Agency].

Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Ms; Michaud, Marc; Deng, Zongwu; Huels, Michael A.

244

Pyrrolamide DNA Gyrase Inhibitors: Fragment-Based Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Screening To Identify Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme in bacteria, and its inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and, subsequently, cell death. The pyrrolamides are a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase. These compounds were identified by a fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the ATP pocket of DNA gyrase. A pyrrole hit with a binding constant of 1 mM formed the basis of the design and synthesis of a focused library of compounds that resulted in the rapid identification of a lead compound that inhibited DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3 ?M. The potency of the lead compound was further optimized by utilizing iterative X-ray crystallography to yield DNA gyrase inhibitors that also displayed antibacterial activity. Spontaneous mutants were isolated in Staphylococcus aureus by plating on agar plates containing pyrrolamide 4 at the MIC. The resistant variants displayed 4- to 8-fold-increased MIC values relative to the parent strain. DNA sequencing revealed two independent point mutations in the pyrrolamide binding region of the gyrB genes from these variants, supporting the hypothesis that the mode of action of these compounds was inhibition of DNA gyrase. Efficacy of a representative pyrrolamide was demonstrated against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse lung infection model. These data demonstrate that the pyrrolamides are a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors with the potential to deliver future antibacterial agents targeting multiple clinical indications.

Green, Oluyinka; Hales, Neil; Walkup, Grant K.; Bist, Shanta; Singh, Alok; Mullen, George; Bryant, Joanna; Embrey, Kevin; Gao, Ning; Breeze, Alex; Timms, Dave; Andrews, Beth; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Demeritt, Julie; Loch, James T.; Hull, Ken; Blodgett, April; Illingworth, Ruth N.; Prince, Bryan; Boriack-Sjodin, P. Ann; Hauck, Sheila; MacPherson, Lawrence J.; Ni, Haihong; Sherer, Brian

2012-01-01

245

Structures of minimal catalytic fragments of topoisomerase V reveals conformational changes relevant for DNA binding  

PubMed Central

Summary Topoisomerase V is an archaeal type I topoisomerase that is unique among topoisomerases due to presence of both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities in the same protein. It is organized as an N-terminal topoisomerase domain followed by 24 tandem helix hairpin helix (HhH) motifs. Structural studies have shown that the active site is buried by the (HhH) motifs. Here we show that the N-terminal domain can relax DNA in the absence of any HhH motifs and that the HhH motifs are required for stable protein-DNA complex formation. Crystal structures of various topoisomerase V fragments show changes in the relative orientation of the domains mediated by a long bent linker helix, and these movements are essential for the DNA to enter the active site. Phosphate ions bound to the protein near the active site helped model DNA in the topoisomerase domain and shows how topoisomerase V may interact with DNA.

Rajan, Rakhi; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mondragon, Alfonso

2010-01-01

246

Cloning of Lentinus edodes mitochondrial DNA fragment capable of autonomous replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the higher basidiomycetes Lentinus edodes with a molecular weight of about 69 kb was partially digested with Sau3AI, cloned with plasmid YIp32 (a hybrid of pBR322 and the yeast leu2 gene) and analyzed for sequences capable of autonomous replication (ARSs) in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One recombinant plasmid was isolated which contained 3.2 kb fragment of the mtDNA with ARS activity. This plasmid (named pSK52) exhibited a high-frequency yeast transformation and was found to be maintained within the cell as an extrachromosomal element. The stability and copy number properties of pSK52 were similar to those of the recombinant plasmid of YIp32 and S. cerevisiae mt-ARS constructed as a reference. Subcloning experiments were carried out to assess the localization of ARS on the above 3.2 kb fragment, revealing that the fragment contains at least two ARSs. PMID:3530252

Katayose, Y; Shishido, K; Ohmasa, M

1986-08-14

247

Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele  

PubMed Central

Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

Garcia-Peiro, Agustin; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, Maria J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

2014-01-01

248

Multiple determinations of sperm DNA fragmentation show that varicocelectomy is not indicated for infertile patients with subclinical varicocele.  

PubMed

Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

2014-01-01

249

Restriction fragment length polymorphism detected by cDNA and genomic DNA clones in Stylosanthes.  

PubMed

A DNA isolation method suitable for genomic library construction and RFLP analyses of the forage legume Stylosanthes was developed. Probes isolated using this method were used to investigate the feasibility of constructing RFLP-based genetic maps in this genus. Two hundred and seventy-one PstI genomic DNA and 134 cDNA clones were analysed against four Stylosanthes accessions, including two tetraploids and two diploids, with the use of two restriction enzymes, DraI and HindIII. The proportion of clones which detected single-copy sequences from the PstI genomic library was higher than that from the cDNA library, but the percentage of clones which detected low-copy sequences was doubled in the latter. There was no significant difference in the level of RFLPs detected by gDNA and cDNA probes, although the level of polymorphism was lower in the diploids. A large proportion of RFLPs seemed to have resulted from mutation/base substitution events, and this was especially the case in diploids. PMID:24170048

Liu, C J; Musial, J M

1995-12-01

250

Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Amyloid-? Peptides: Impact of Fragment Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease whose physiological characteristics include the accumulation of amyloid-containing deposits in the brain and consequent synapse and neuron loss. Unfortunately, most widely used drugs for the treatment can palliate the outer symptoms but cannot cure the disease itself. Hence, developing a new drug that can cure it. Most recently, the ``early aggregation and monomer'' hypothesis has become popular and a few drugs have been developed based on this hypothesis. Detailed understanding of the amyloid-? peptide structure can better help us to determine more effective treatment strategies; indeed, the structure of Amyloid has been studied extensively employing experimental and theoretical tools. Nevertheless, those studies have employed different fragment sizes of Amyloid and characterized its conformational nature in different media. Thus, the structural properties might be different from each other and provide a reason for the existing debates in the literature. Here, we performed all-atom MD simulations and present the structural and thermodynamic properties of A?1-16, A?1-28, and A?1-42 in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. Our studies show that the overall structures, secondary structures, and the calculated thermodynamic properties change with increasing peptide size. In addition, we find that the structural properties of those peptides are different from each other in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

Kitahara, T.; Wise-Scira, O.; Coskuner, O.

2010-10-01

251

Landscape division, splitting index, and effective mesh size: new measures of landscape fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic fragmentation of landscapes is known as a major reason for the loss of species in industrialized countries. Landscape fragmentation caused by roads, railway lines, extension of settlement areas, etc. ,f urther enhances the dispersion of pollutants and acoustic emissions and affects local climatic conditions, water balance, scenery, and land use. In this study, three new measures of fragmentation are

Jochen A. G. Jaeger

2000-01-01

252

Effect of leukocytospermia and processing by discontinuous density gradient on sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the effect of leukocytospermia and semen processing on sperm DNA and mitochondria. Methods Twenty-two patients with and 41 without leukocytospermia were included. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed by the Comet assay, and mitochondrial activity by a colorimetric method for active mitochondria. Semen was processed using Percoll, and motility, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial activity were analyzed pre- and post-processing. Results No differences were observed in age, abstinence, volume, sperm morphology, progressive motility, concentration, and vitality (p?>?0.10). Variables were grouped according to time (pre- vs post-processing) and group (leukocytospermia vs non-leukocytospermia) because no interactions could be observed. Leukocytospermia was associated to increased DNA fragmentation, while semen processing led to a decrease in DNA fragmentation and to increased mitochondrial activity. Conclusion While semen processing selects sperm with higher rates of DNA integrity independent of the presence or absence of leukocytes in semen, samples without leukocytospermia present more sperm without DNA fragmentation. Semen processing also selects sperm with higher mitochondrial activity.

Del Giudice, Paula Toni; Spaine, Deborah Montagnini; Fraietta, Renato; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira

2009-01-01

253

Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle.  

PubMed

A novel removing polymerase chain reaction (R-PCR) technique was developed, which can eliminate undesired genes, cycle by cycle, with efficiencies of 60.9% (cDNAs), 73.6% (genomic DNAs), and ~ 100% (four DNA fragments were tested). Major components of the R-PCR include drivers, a thermostable restriction enzyme - ApeKI, and a poly(dA) adapter with mismatched restriction enzyme recognition sites. Drivers were generated from the undesired genes. In each cycle of R-PCR, drivers anneal to complementary sequences and allow extension by Taq DNA polymerase. Thus, ApeKI restriction sites in the undesired genes are recovered, and adapters of these undesired DNA fragments are removed. Using R-PCR, we isolated maize upregulated defense-responsive genes and Blumeria graminis specialized genes, including key pathogenesis-related effectors. Our results show that after the R-PCR reaction, most undesired genes, including very abundant genes, became undetectable. The R-PCR is an easy and cost-efficient method to eliminate undesired genes and clone desired genes. PMID:23892515

Huan, Jiaojiao; Wan, Kangkang; Liu, Yunjun; Dong, Wubei; Wang, Guoying

2013-01-01

254

Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle  

PubMed Central

A novel removing polymerase chain reaction (R-PCR) technique was developed, which can eliminate undesired genes, cycle by cycle, with efficiencies of 60.9% (cDNAs), 73.6% (genomic DNAs), and ~ 100% (four DNA fragments were tested). Major components of the R-PCR include drivers, a thermostable restriction enzyme - ApeKI, and a poly(dA) adapter with mismatched restriction enzyme recognition sites. Drivers were generated from the undesired genes. In each cycle of R-PCR, drivers anneal to complementary sequences and allow extension by Taq DNA polymerase. Thus, ApeKI restriction sites in the undesired genes are recovered, and adapters of these undesired DNA fragments are removed. Using R-PCR, we isolated maize upregulated defense-responsive genes and Blumeria graminis specialized genes, including key pathogenesis-related effectors. Our results show that after the R-PCR reaction, most undesired genes, including very abundant genes, became undetectable. The R-PCR is an easy and cost-efficient method to eliminate undesired genes and clone desired genes.

Huan, Jiaojiao; Wan, Kangkang; Liu, Yunjun; Dong, Wubei; Wang, Guoying

2013-01-01

255

Influence of bovine sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress on early embryo in vitro development outcome.  

PubMed

Sperm chromatin fragmentation may be caused by a number of factors, the most significant of which is reactive oxygen species. However, little is known about the effect of sperm oxidative stress (OS) on DNA integrity, fertilization, and embryonic development in cattle. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of sperm OS susceptibility on the DNA fragmentation rate and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in a population of bulls. Groups of cryopreserved sperm samples were divided into four groups, based on their susceptibility to OS (G1, low OS; G2, average OS; G3, high OS; and G4, highest OS). Our results demonstrated that the sperm DNA integrity was compromised in response to increased OS susceptibility. Furthermore, semen samples with lower susceptibility to OS were also less susceptible to DNA damage (G1, 4.06%; G2, 6.09%; G3, 6.19%; and G4, 6.20%). In addition, embryo IVP provided evidence that the embryo cleavage rate decreased as the OS increased (G1, 70.18%; G2, 62.24%; G3, 55.85%; and G4, 50.93%), but no significant difference in the blastocyst rate or the number of blastomeres was observed among the groups. The groups with greater sensitivity to OS were also associated with a greater percentage of apoptotic cells (G1, 2.6%; G2, 2.76%; G3, 5.59%; and G4, 4.49%). In conclusion, we demonstrated that an increased susceptibility to OS compromises sperm DNA integrity and consequently reduces embryo quality. PMID:23940385

Simões, Renata; Feitosa, Weber Beringui; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Nichi, Marcilio; Paula-Lopes, Fabíola Freitas; Marques, Mariana Groke; Peres, Maria Angélica; Barnabe, Valquíria Hyppolito; Visintin, José Antônio; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

2013-01-01

256

Increase of fragmented DNA transport in apical dendrites of gerbil CA1 pyramidal neurons following transient forebrain ischemia by mild hypothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild hypothermia (38°C) accelerated transport of fragmented DNA in apical dendrites of the gerbil CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased dendrite-terminal fragmented DNA pooling in the apoptotic process following transient forebrain ischemia. The specific DNA fragmentation after the ischemic insult in gerbil hippocampus was examined by in situ nick-end-labeling method, and fluorescence DNA detection technique by DAPI was also performed. There

Akira Hara; Masayuki Niwa; Tomohiko Iwai; Hirohito Yano; Yasuo Bunai; Toshihiko Uematsu; Naoki Yoshimi; Hideki Mori

2000-01-01

257

A DNA fragment from Xq21 replaces a deleted region containing the entire FVIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors report the molecular characterization of a large deletion that removes the entire Factor VIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient. Accurate DNA analysis of the breakpoint region revealed that a large DNA fragment replaced the 300-kb one, which was removed by the deletion. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the size of the inserted fragment is about 550 kb. In situ hybridization demonstrated that part of the inserted region normally maps to Xq21 and to the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). In this patient this locus is present both in Xq21 and in Xq28, in addition to the Yp, being thus duplicated in the X chromosome. Sequence analysis of the 3` breakpoint suggested that an illegitimate recombination is probably the cause of this complex rearrangement. 52 refs., 7 figs.

Murru, S.; Casula, L.; Moi, P. [Insituto di Clinica e Biologia dell` Eta Evolutiva, Cagliari (Italy)] [and others] [Insituto di Clinica e Biologia dell` Eta Evolutiva, Cagliari (Italy); and others

1994-09-15

258

A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA  

PubMed Central

Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science.

Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

2012-01-01

259

Sequence context effects on 8-methoxypsoralen photobinding to defined DNA fragments  

SciTech Connect

The photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with DNA fragments of defined sequence was studied. The authors took advantage of the blockage by bulky adducts of the 3'-5'-exonuclease activity associated with the T4 DNA polymerase. The action of the exonuclease is stopped by biadducts as well as by monoadducts. The termination products were analyzed on sequencing gels. A strong sequence specificity was observed in the DNA photobinding of 8-MOP. The exonuclease terminates its digestion near thymine residues, mainly at potentially cross-linkable sites. There is an increasing reactivity of thymine residues in the order T < TT << TTT in a GC environment. For thymine residues in cross-linkable sites, the reactivity follows the order AT << TA approx. TAT << ATA < ATAT < ATATAA. Repeated A-T sequences are hot spots for the photochemical reaction of 8-MOP with DNA. Both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links are formed preferentially in 5'-TpA sites. The results highlight the role of the sequence and consequently of the conformation around a potential site in the photobinding of 8-MOP to DNA.

Sage, E.; Moustacchi, E.

1987-06-16

260

Sepcific fragmentation of DNA heteroduplex molecules of two bacteriophage lambda mutants with endonuclease Si from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed Central

Heteroduplex DNA molecules of two bacteriophage mutants (lambda b2 and lambda i434ct68) were obtained by the method of molecular hybridization. These heteroduplexes possessed two types of loops formed as a result of: a) deletion in one of the DNA strands; and b) substitution of a DNA fragment for nonhomological one. The digestion of heteroduplexes with single-stranded specific nuclease SI from Aspergillus oryzae produced two fragments at 37 degrees C and three ones at 55 degrees C. The separation of fragments and determination of their molecular weight were carried out by means of electrophoresis in agarose. The molecular weights both measured and preliminarily calculated proved to be close. One of the fragments was identificated by its biological activity in CaCl2-dependent infectious system with helperphage. Images

Ksenzenko, V N; Tikhomirova, L P; Matvienko, N I

1976-01-01

261

Increased Aneuploidy Rate in Sperm With Fragmented DNA as Determined by the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) Test and FISH Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that sperm DNA fragmen- tation may be associated with aneuploidy. However, currently available tests have not made it possible to simultaneously perform DNA fragmentation and chromosomal analyses on the same sperm cell. The recently introduced sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test allows users to determine this relationship. Semen samples from 16 males, including 4 fertile donors, 7 normozoospermic,

LOURDES MURIEL; VICENTE GOYANES; ENRIQUE SEGRELLES; JAIME GOSALVEZ; JUAN G. ALVAREZ; JOSELUIS FERNANDEZ

2007-01-01

262

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Regions Is Useful for Differentiating Strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty isolates of Tricophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 47 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, identified by morphological characteristics, were screened by restriction fragment length poly- morphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Sixty isolates (14 of 20 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates and 46 of 47 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates)

Takashi Mochizuki; Hiroshi Ishizaki; Richard C. Barton; Mary K. Moore; Colin J. Jackson; Steven L. Kelly; E. Glyn; V. Evans

2003-01-01

263

Spatio-temporal profile of DNA fragmentation and its relationship to patterns of epileptiform activity following focally evoked limbic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific electrographic activity responsible for seizure-induced DNA damage remains little explored. We therefore examined the regional and temporal appearance of DNA fragmentation and cell death and its relationship to specific electrographic seizure patterns in a rat model of focally evoked limbic epilepsy. Animals received intra-amygdaloid injection of kainic acid (KA) to induce seizures for 45 min during continuous electroencephalographic

David C. Henshall; Jennifer Sinclair; Roger P. Simon

2000-01-01

264

Effects of prey quality and predator body size on prey DNA detection success in a centipede predator.  

PubMed

Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA detection success in centipede predators. Due to metabolic rates increasing with body size, we hypothesized that prey DNA detection intervals will be shorter in large predators than in smaller ones. Moreover, we hypothesized that prey detection intervals of high-quality prey, defined by low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio will be shorter than in low-quality prey due to faster assimilation. Small, medium and large individuals of centipedes Lithobius spp. (Lithobiidae, Chilopoda) were fed Collembola and allowed to digest prey for up to 168 h post-feeding. To test our second hypothesis, medium-sized lithobiids were fed with either Diptera or Lumbricidae. No significant differences in 50% prey DNA detection success time intervals for a 272-bp prey DNA fragment were found between the predator size groups, indicating that body size does not affect prey DNA detection success. Post-feeding detection intervals were significantly shorter in Lumbricidae and Diptera compared to Collembola prey, apparently supporting the second hypothesis. However, sensitivity of diagnostic PCR differed between prey types, and quantitative PCR revealed that concentration of targeted DNA varied significantly between prey types. This suggests that both DNA concentration and assay sensitivity need to be considered when assessing prey quality effects on prey DNA detection success. PMID:24383982

Eitzinger, B; Unger, E M; Traugott, M; Scheu, S

2014-08-01

265

Effect of leukocytospermia and processing by discontinuous density gradient on sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the effect of leukocytospermia and semen processing on sperm DNA and mitochondria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-two patients with and 41 without leukocytospermia were included. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed by the Comet\\u000a assay, and mitochondrial activity by a colorimetric method for active mitochondria. Semen was processed using Percoll, and\\u000a motility, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial activity were analyzed pre- and post-processing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  No

Roberta Maria Fariello; Paula Toni Del Giudice; Deborah Montagnini Spaine; Renato Fraietta; Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla; Agnaldo Pereira Cedenho

2009-01-01

266

Simultaneous monitoring of DNA fragments separated by electrophoresis in a multiplexed array of 100 capillaries  

SciTech Connect

Various excitation schemes for distributing a laser beam to a large number of capillaries in an array are evaluated. This led to the construction of a multiplexed system for monitoring the electrophoresis of DNA fragments in 100 capillaries. The laser-excited fluorescence signals from each capillary are simultaneously recorded at the rate of 0.6 frame/s by a CCD camera. The reconstructed electropherograms show excellent reproducibility and minimal cross-talk. The system provides for two simultaneous excitation wavelengths so that it can be adapted for two-color, two-intensity DNA sequencing based on the commercial four-dye chemistry. Only 20 mW per laser line was employed. Further development of this system to accommodate up to 4096 independent sequencing channels at a time is discussed. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Ueno, Kyoji; Yeung, E.S. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

1994-05-01

267

Association of self-DNA mediated TLR9-related gene, DNA methyltransferase, and cytokeratin protein expression alterations in HT29-cells to DNA fragment length and methylation status.  

PubMed

To understand the biologic role of self-DNA bound to Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), we assayed its effect on gene and methyltransferase expressions and cell differentiation in HT29 cells. HT29 cells were incubated separately with type-1 (normally methylated/nonfragmented), type-2 (normally methylated/fragmented), type-3 (hypermethylated/nonfragmented), or type-4 (hypermethylated/fragmented) self-DNAs. Expression levels of TLR9-signaling and proinflammatory cytokine-related genes were assayed by qRT-PCR. Methyltransferase activity and cell differentiation were examined by using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, -3A, -3B) and cytokeratin (CK) antibodies. Treatment with type-1 DNA resulted in significant increase in TLR9 expression. Type-2 treatment resulted in the overexpression of TLR9-related signaling molecules (MYD88A, TRAF6) and the IL8 gene. In the case of type-3 treatment, significant overexpression of NFkB, IRAK2, and IL8 as well as downregulation of TRAF6 was detected. Using type-4 DNA, TRAF6 and MYD88A gene expression was upregulated, while MYD88B, IRAK2, IL8, and TNFSF10 were all underexpressed. CK expression was significantly higher only after type-1 DNA treatment. DNMT3A expression could also be induced by type-1 DNA treatment. DNA structure may play a significant role in activation of the TLR9-dependent and even independent proinflammatory pathways. There may be a molecular link between TLR9 signaling and DNMT3A. The mode of self-DNA treatment may influence HT29 cell differentiation. PMID:24459426

F?ri, István; Sipos, Ferenc; Spisák, Sándor; Kiszner, Gerg?; Wichmann, Barnabás; Schöller, Andrea; Tulassay, Zsolt; M?zes, Györgyi; Molnár, Béla

2013-01-01

268

Association of Self-DNA Mediated TLR9-Related Gene, DNA Methyltransferase, and Cytokeratin Protein Expression Alterations in HT29-Cells to DNA Fragment Length and Methylation Status  

PubMed Central

To understand the biologic role of self-DNA bound to Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), we assayed its effect on gene and methyltransferase expressions and cell differentiation in HT29 cells. HT29 cells were incubated separately with type-1 (normally methylated/nonfragmented), type-2 (normally methylated/fragmented), type-3 (hypermethylated/nonfragmented), or type-4 (hypermethylated/fragmented) self-DNAs. Expression levels of TLR9-signaling and proinflammatory cytokine-related genes were assayed by qRT-PCR. Methyltransferase activity and cell differentiation were examined by using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, -3A, -3B) and cytokeratin (CK) antibodies. Treatment with type-1 DNA resulted in significant increase in TLR9 expression. Type-2 treatment resulted in the overexpression of TLR9-related signaling molecules (MYD88A, TRAF6) and the IL8 gene. In the case of type-3 treatment, significant overexpression of NFkB, IRAK2, and IL8 as well as downregulation of TRAF6 was detected. Using type-4 DNA, TRAF6 and MYD88A gene expression was upregulated, while MYD88B, IRAK2, IL8, and TNFSF10 were all underexpressed. CK expression was significantly higher only after type-1 DNA treatment. DNMT3A expression could also be induced by type-1 DNA treatment. DNA structure may play a significant role in activation of the TLR9-dependent and even independent proinflammatory pathways. There may be a molecular link between TLR9 signaling and DNMT3A. The mode of self-DNA treatment may influence HT29 cell differentiation.

Furi, Istvan; Sipos, Ferenc; Spisak, Sandor; Kiszner, Gergo; Wichmann, Barnabas; Scholler, Andrea; Tulassay, Zsolt; Muzes, Gyorgyi; Molnar, Bela

2013-01-01

269

Transcription and DNA sequence of the BamHI L fragment of B95-8 Epstein-Barr virus.  

PubMed Central

The sequence of the BamHI L fragment of B95-8 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has been determined. The transcription starts of five promoters have been mapped to this fragment, using S1 mapping and either in vitro transcription or the primer extension technique. Dramatically increased levels of cytoplasmic poly(A) + RNAs, transcribed from these promoters, occur after treatment of B95-8 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). For three of these promoters addition of phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) inhibits the effect of TPA, indicating that they give rise to late lytic cycle RNAs. The other two promoters give rise to early RNAs. Northern blot analysis indicates that one of the late promoters initiates two transcripts whose size differences are due to different splicing patterns. These two RNAs code for the 350/300 and 250/200 kd envelope glycoproteins of EBV. The sequences of these proteins would be of use in the production of a synthetic vaccine to prevent EBV infection. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Biggin, M; Farrell, P J; Barrell, B G

1984-01-01

270

The intrinsic curvature of a 51 bp K-DNA fragment of Leishmania tarentolae: a molecular model.  

PubMed

DNA intrinsic structure and curvature is a subject of debate because of the importance of these attributes in processes such as DNA packaging, transcription, and gene regulation. X-ray crystallography of DNA single crystals has provided a wealth of information about the local, short range conformational features of DNA. On the other hand, gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA has not only uncovered the macroscopic curvature of DNA but it also provides most of the available data on DNA intrinsic curvature. However, gel electrophoresis can not identify features of DNA structure at the nucleotide or atomic level. In order to address the problem of DNA intrinsic curvature in an attempt to bridge the gap between X-ray crystallography and gel electrophoresis, we use the computational method of molecular dynamics (MD). In this study, we report the results of 2.0 ns MD simulations on a 51 bp fragment of the K-DNA of Leishmania tarentolae containing several A-tracts. The K-DNA double helix is very stable and remains in an intermediate state between the canonical A and B forms of the duplex. The magnitude of global curvature (75 degrees) agrees well with the experimental estimate (72 degrees) available. Analysis of local (every base triplet) and sublocal (every helix turn) curvature shows that the 51 bp K-DNA fragment has curvature features also present in the Wedge, Junction and Calladine's models of DNA intrinsic curvature. We further characterize the flexibility of individual nucleotides in the molecule and find the sugar flexibility within the A-tracts to be strongly correlated with the pattern of A-tract cleavage by the hydroxyl radical. Differential curvature and flexibility at the 5' and 3'junctions between A-tracts and general-sequence DNA are found to modulate the global curvature of the K-DNA fragment. PMID:9619513

Norberto de Souza, O; Goodfellow, J M

1998-04-01

271

Effect of size of radiolabeled antibody and fragments on tumor uptake and distribution in nephrectomized mice  

SciTech Connect

The importance of molecular size in tumor (T) uptake of intact monoclonal antibody (MAb) of MAb fragments (frag.) is difficult to assess because frag. are excreted by the kidney. To obviate this problem nephrectomized nude mice (M) bearing carcinoembryonic (CEA) secreting human colon (T) were used in the following experiments. Following nephrectomy 3 groups of M were injected intravenously with intact In-111 anti-CEA MAb and simultaneously with I-125 intact, F(ab')2 or Fab anti-CEA-MAb. Iodination was by chloramine T and In-111 labeling by bifunctional chelation. All M were killed 8 h after injection, T and normal tissues (NT) dissected, weighed, and counted against a standard of the injectate. The distribution of intact I-125 and In-111-MAb were nearly identical allowing In-111-MAb to be used for comparison with the I-125 frag. T concentration (conc.) of I-125-F(ab')2 were 25% greater and L conc. were 63% lower than for intact In-111-MAb. T conc. of I-125-Fab were 86% greater and L conc. 64% lower than for intact In-111-MAb. Large T, which produce higher serum CEA levels, increased the L conc. of intact MAb but not I-125 frag. The authors conclude that when renal excretion is prevented there is (a) an inverse relationship between size of a MAb moiety and its T conc. indicating that the improved T/NT ratios observed with frag. are not due only to renal excretion, and (b) the Fc portion of the MAb appears to be critical for L uptake of MAb or immune complexes.

Halpern, S.E.; Buchegger, F.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.

1984-01-01

272

Chromosomal location of PCR fragments as a source of DNA markers linked to aluminium tolerance genes in rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify and locate rye DNA sequences homologous to three wheat c-DNAs (wali1, wali2 and wali5) whose expression is induced by aluminium (Al) stress, we designed three pairs of specific primers. They were used in the\\u000a amplification of genomic DNA from wheat-rye disomic addition lines. The wali2 pair of primers amplified a 878-bp rye DNA fragment (rali2) located on chromosomes

F. J. Gallego; E. López-Solanilla; A. M. Figueiras; C. Benito

1998-01-01

273

The effects of chromium(III) on DNA replication across O{sup 6}. Methylguanine by DNA polymerase {beta} and E. coli DNA polymerase I-Klenow fragment  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the molecular mechanisms of how metal ions affect the fidelity of DNA replication. In our DNA replication system primed templates site-specifically modified with a model mutagenic lesion. O{sup 6}-methyldeoxyguanosine (O{sup 6}mG), are replicated in vitro by various purified DNA polymerases. O{sup 6}mG blocks DNA replication by human DNA polymerase {beta} but is less inhibitory to E. coli DNA Polymerase I-Klenow Fragment (KF) and its 3`-5` exonuclease deficient counterpart [KF (exo{sup {minus}})]. All three DNA polymerases exhibit a strong prelesion block and decreased rates of nucleotide extension. Polymerase {beta} exhibits discrimination against the incorporation of the right (dC) versus the wrong (dT) base. dT is incorporated in preference to dC opposite O{sup 6}mG-dT. KF (exo{sup {minus}}), on the other hand, extends the O{sup 6}mG-dT base pair more efficiently than O{sup 6}mG-dC. Thus individual polymerases may have opposing preferences for incorporation versus extension. Our previous studies have shown that chromium (III) [Cr(III)] increases DNA polymerase processivity and lowers the fidelity of DNA replication. At low final concentrations (about 0.1 {mu}M) Cr(III) stimulates the rate of nucleotide incorporation opposite O{sup 6}mG by KF(exo{sup {minus}}) and, to a lesser extent, by polymerase {beta}. Cr(III) does not affect incorporation of dT opposite dA, but decreases by 10-fold the K{sub M} for incorporation of dT opposite O{sup 6}mG. This constitutes an important mutagenic effect. Further experiments are underway to determine how Cr(III) affects the DNA binding and kinetic parameters of these exonuclease deficient DNA repair polymerases.

Singh, J.; Su, L.; Snow, E.T. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

274

Construction of long DNA molecules using long PCR-based fusion of several fragments simultaneously  

PubMed Central

A procedure for precise assembly of linear DNA constructs as long as 20 kb is proposed. The method, which we call long multiple fusion, has been used to assemble up to four fragments simultaneously (for a 10.8 kb final product), offering an additional improvement on the combination of long PCR and overlap extension PCR. The method is based on Pfu polymerase mix, which has a proofreading activity. We successfully assembled (and confirmed by sequencing) seven different linear constructs ranging from 3 to 20 kb, including two 20 kb products (from fragments of 11, 1.7 and 7.5 kb), two 10.8 kb constructs, and two constructs of 6.1 and 6.2 kb, respectively. Accuracy of the PCR fusion is greater than or equal to one error per 6.6 kb, which is consistent with the expected error rate of the PCR mix. The method is expected to facilitate various kinds of complex genetic engineering projects that require precise in-frame assembly of multiple fragments, such as somatic cell knockout in human cells or creation of whole genomes of viruses for vaccine research.

Shevchuk, Nikolai A.; Bryksin, Anton V.; Nusinovich, Yevgeniya A.; Cabello, Felipe C.; Sutherland, Margaret; Ladisch, Stephan

2004-01-01

275

Enhanced recovery and restriction mapping of DNA fragments cloned in a new lambda vector.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a modification to the lambda vector EMBL3 which greatly expedites the construction of restriction maps of cloned DNA sequences. In the modified vector, EMBL3cos, all the phage coding sequences are placed to the right of the cloning sites so that the left cohesive end is separated by only 200bp, rather than 20kb (as in conventional lambda vectors), from the inserted DNA fragment. We show that reliable restriction maps can be rapidly constructed from partial digests of clones made in this vector by labelling the left cohesive end with a complementary 32P-labelled oligonucleotide. In addition, we quantify the restriction of clones containing human DNA by the McrA and McrB systems of E. coli and show that the use of Mcr- plating strains can increase the yield of recombinant phage up to tenfold, to give cloning efficiencies of greater than or equal to 10(7) pfu/microgram of human DNA. Images

Whittaker, P A; Campbell, A J; Southern, E M; Murray, N E

1988-01-01

276

Prevalence of high DNA fragmentation index in male partners of unexplained infertile couples.  

PubMed

The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) parameter DNA fragmentation Index (DFI) is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Clinical data show that a DFI above 30% is associated with very low chance for achieving pregnancy by natural conception or by insemination. Already when DFI is above 20% the chance of natural pregnancy is reduced, this despite normal conventional semen parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of high DFI in male partners of unexplained infertile couples to further identification of male factors contributing to subfertility. Among 212 consecutive men under infertility investigation, 122 cases with the diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' were identified. For all but three, SCSA data were available. The percentage of couples with diagnosis 'unexplained infertility' in which the male partner has DFI >20% or DFI >30% was calculated. In the group diagnosed with 'unexplained infertility' 17.7% of the men (95% CI 10.8-24.5) presented with 20 ?DFI <30 and 8.4% (95% CI 3.40-13.4) had DFI ?30%. A significant part of men diagnosed as unexplained infertile according to traditional diagnostic methods has remarkably high degrees of fragmented sperm DNA. Apart from adding to our understanding of biology of infertility our finding has clinical implications. Couples in which the DFI of the male partner is high can avoid prolonged attempts to become spontaneously pregnant or referral for intrauterine insemination, both having low chances of leading to conception. PMID:23596042

Oleszczuk, K; Augustinsson, L; Bayat, N; Giwercman, A; Bungum, M

2013-05-01

277

DNA profiling of banana and plantain cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA from 57 Musa cultivars with 60 random 10-mer primers generated 605 polymorphic amplification products which were useful in unambiguous cultivar identifications. Unweighted pair-group method analysis of this data grouped the cultivars into specific clusters depending on their genomic similarities. The diploid ancestral species of cultivated banana and plantains, namely Musa acuminata sp malaccensis, an A genome donor and M. balbisiana, a B genome donor, were farthest apart from each other in the phenogram. The edible fruit yielding cultivars with the genomic constitutions AA, AAA, AB, AAB, ABB, and ABBB grouped in different clusters according to overall genetic homologies. The restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) prevalent among the cultivars were studied by hybridization of 19 random genomic clones to blots of HindIII, EcoRI and MspI digests. Cluster analysis of these data on 107 polymorphic alleles resulted in a phenogram comparable to the one obtained with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two multilocus probes useful in distinguishing all the 57 cultivars analyzed were also identified. The A and B types of cytoplasms in the cultivars were further distinguished by hybridization of heterologous chloroplast DNA probes. Results showed that use of different kinds of molecular markers in gene banks is essential for characterization and classification of germplasm collections. PMID:8582364

Bhat, K V; Jarret, R L; Rana, R S

1995-09-01

278

Methylation-dependent fragment separation: Direct detection of DNA methylation by capillary electrophoresis of PCR products from bisulfite-converted genomic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental to understanding the role of cytosine (C) methylation in genomic DNA (gDNA) is the need for robust analysis methods to determine the location and degree of this modification. We report a novel method for methylation detection by denaturing capillary electrophoresis (CE) using standard fragment analysis conditions. Bisulfite treatment of gDNA will selectively deaminate C but not 5-methylcytosine (5mC). Amplicons

Victoria L. Boyd; Kristina I. Moody; Achim E. Karger; Kenneth J. Livak; Gerald Zon; John W. Burns

2006-01-01

279

Phenotypic changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian introduced by sperm-mediated transgenesis of rearranged homologous DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Common carp, specifically the Jian variety (Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical variations, thus optimizing artificially engineered carp stocks with Jian variety and native stock varieties. Random rearrangement of homologous DNA fragments from parent specimens of C. carpiovar var. Jian were attained by digestion of genomic DNA with MspI followed by religation and redigestion with EcoR I to specifically rearrange homologous DNA fragments of myostatin and microsatellite genes. Based on known characteristics of myostatin gene function, growth pattern changes in resultant carp mutant varieties was expected. DNA fragments were introduced into metaphase-II oocytes, resulting in one to several dozen insertions of homologous fragments into the host genome by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Introduction of rearranged homologous DNA fragments often resulted in phenotypic changes in C. carpiovar var. Jian, including significant phenotypic changes linked to growth rate at 4 months. PMID:23824532

Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao

2013-09-01

280

Smoking influence on sperm vitality, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species and zinc in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the influence of smoking duration and intensity on sperm vitality, sperm DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and zinc (Zn) levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 246 men were investigated who were divided into OAT nonsmokers, OAT smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. In their semen, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, sperm DNA fragmentation test, seminal ROS and seminal Zn were assessed. The results demonstrated significantly decreased HOS test, seminal Zn level and significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS levels in OAT smokers with Vx more than OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade demonstrated significant negative correlations with sperm motility, HOS test percentage and significant positive correlations with sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS level. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm progressive motility, HOS test, seminal Zn and positive impact on sperm DNA fragmentation, semen ROS level that are exaggerated if Vx is associated being correlated with smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade. PMID:23866014

Taha, E A; Ezz-Aldin, A M; Sayed, S K; Ghandour, N M; Mostafa, T

2014-08-01

281

Fragment size information from evolution of Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact fireballs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have used the CTH Eulerian shock physics code to perform 2-D and 3-D computational simulations of fragment penetration into Jupiter`s atmosphere and of the resulting fireball growth and evolution. These simulations have shown that information about the fragment diameters at the time of impact can be extracted from the trajectories of the fireballs, the maximum plume heights, and

M. B. Boslough; D. A. Crawford; A. C. Robinson

1995-01-01

282

Effects of patch size and type of coffee matrix on ithomiine butterfly diversity and dispersal in cloud-forest fragments.  

PubMed

Determining the permeability of different types of landscape matrices to animal movement is essential for conserving populations in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of habitat patch size and matrix type on diversity, isolation, and dispersal of ithomiine butterflies in forest fragments surrounded by coffee agroecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Because ithomiines prefer a shaded understory, we expected the highest diversity and abundance in large fragments surrounded by shade coffee and the lowest in small fragments surrounded by sun coffee. We also thought shade coffee would favor butterfly dispersal and immigration into forest patches. We marked 9675 butterflies of 39 species in 12 forest patches over a year. Microclimate conditions were more similar to the forest interior in the shade-coffee matrix than in the sun-coffee matrix, but patch size and matrix type did not affect species richness and abundance in forest fragments. Furthermore, age structure and temporal recruitment patterns of the butterfly community were similar in all fragments, independent of patch size or matrix type. There were no differences in the numbers of butterflies flying in the matrices at two distances from the forest patch, but their behavior differed. Flight in the sun-coffee matrix was rapid and directional, whereas butterflies in shade-coffee matrix flew slowly. Seven out of 130 recaptured butterflies immigrated into patches in the shade-coffee matrix, and one immigrated into a patch surrounded by sun coffee. Although the shade-coffee matrix facilitated movement in the landscape, sun-coffee matrix was not impermeable to butterflies. Ithomiines exhibited behavioral plasticity in habitat use and high mobility. These traits favor their persistence in heterogeneous landscapes, opening opportunities for their conservation. Understanding the dynamics and resource requirements of different organisms in rural landscapes is critical for identifying management options that address both animals' and farmers' needs. PMID:19627322

Muriel, Sandra B; Kattan, Gustavo H

2009-08-01

283

DNA sequence variation and phylogenetic relationships among strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae inferred from restriction site maps and restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA among 53 strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from beans, and the rest were isolated from 11 other hosts. Southern blots of DNA digested with EcoRI or HindIII were hybridized to two random probes from a cosmid library of P. syringae pv. syringae and a hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) cluster cloned from P. syringae pv. syringae. The size of hybridizing fragments was determined, and a similarity matrix was constructed by comparing strains on a pairwise basis for the presence or absence of fragments. The proportion of shared fragments was then used to estimate sequence divergence. Dendrograms were produced by using the unweighted pair group method with averages and the neighbor-joining method. For the hrp region, BamHI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HindIII restriction sites were mapped for six representative bean strains and used to construct EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps for all 30 strains pathogenic on beans. Restriction mapping revealed the presence of a 3-kb insertion in nine bean strains and a probable second insertion or deletion event on the left-hand side of the hrp cluster that biased estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence from fragment comparisons. This demonstrated that the determination of phylogenetic relationships among bacteria by using restriction fragment length polymorphism data requires mapping restriction sites to remove the effect of insertion or deletion events on the analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Legard, D E; Aquadro, C F; Hunter, J E

1993-01-01

284

Significance of the dissociation of Dna2 by flap endonuclease 1 to Okazaki fragment processing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Okazaki fragments are initiated by short RNA/DNA primers, which are displaced into flap intermediates for processing. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and Dna2 are responsible for flap cleavage. Replication protein A (RPA)-bound flaps inhibit cleavage by FEN1 but stimulate Dna2, requiring that Dna2 cleaves prior to FEN1. Upon cleavage, Dna2 leaves a short flap, which is then cut by FEN1 forming a nick for ligation. Both enzymes require a flap with a free 5'-end for tracking to the cleavage sites. Previously, we demonstrated that FEN1 disengages the tracking mechanism of Dna2 to remove it from the flap. To determine why the disengagement mechanism evolved, we measured FEN1 dissociation of Dna2 on short RNA and DNA flaps, which occur during flap processing. Dna2 tracked onto these flaps but could not cleave, presenting a block to FEN1 entry. However, FEN1 disengaged these nonproductively bound Dna2 molecules, proceeding on to conduct proper cleavage. These results clarify the importance of disengagement. Additional results showed that flap substrate recognition and tracking by FEN1, as occur during fragment processing, are required for effective displacement of the flap-bound Dna2. Dna2 was recently shown to dissociate flap-bound RPA, independent of cleavage. Using a nuclease-defective Dna2 mutant, we reconstituted the sequential dissociation reactions in the proposed RPA/Dna2/FEN1 pathway showing that, even without cutting, Dna2 enables FEN1 to cleave RPA-coated flaps. In summary, RPA, Dna2, and FEN1 have evolved highly coordinated binding properties enabling one protein to succeed the next for proper and efficient Okazaki flap processing. PMID:19179330

Stewart, Jason A; Campbell, Judith L; Bambara, Robert A

2009-03-27

285

Increases in DNA fragmentation and induction of a senescence-specific nuclease are delayed during corolla senescence in ethylene-insensitive (etr1-1) transgenic petunias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmed senescence of flower petals has been shown to involve the fragmentation of nuclear DNA. Nuclear DNA fragmentation, as determined by the TUNEL assay, was detected in Petunia3hybrida corol- las during both pollination-induced and age-related senescence. DNA fragmentation was detected late in the lifespan of the flower when corollas were wilting and producing ethylene. The induction of a 43

Brennick J. Langston; Shuangyi Bai; Michelle L. Jones

2004-01-01

286

DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).  

PubMed

The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the presence of the desired DNA segments, and then submitted for fluorescent fragment length analysis (FLA) using capillary electrophoresis. DNA from armadillo passaged bacteria with a known number of repeat copies for each locus is used as a positive control. The FLA chromatograms are then examined using Peak Scanner software and fragment length is converted to number of VNTR copies (allele). Finally, the VNTR haplotypes are analyzed for patterns, and when combined with patient clinical data can be used to track distribution of strain types. PMID:21775969

Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2011-01-01

287

DNA Fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae Strains Using Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) - Fragment Length Analysis (FLA)  

PubMed Central

The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO1, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year.2 The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped3,4 and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites).5 Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci.5,6,7 Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)5 analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing7,8,9, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA)10 has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China11,12, Malawi8, the Philippines10,13, and Brazil14. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS).10 The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions.10 The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the presence of the desired DNA segments, and then submitted for fluorescent fragment length analysis (FLA) using capillary electrophoresis. DNA from armadillo passaged bacteria with a known number of repeat copies for each locus is used as a positive control. The FLA chromatograms are then examined using Peak Scanner software and fragment length is converted to number of VNTR copies (allele). Finally, the VNTR haplotypes are analyzed for patterns, and when combined with patient clinical data can be used to track distribution of strain types.

Jensen, Ronald W.; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

2011-01-01

288

Gel electrophoretic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA derived from individual nematodes, using the PhastSystem.  

PubMed

The DNA sequences constituting the internal transcribed spacer region, located between 18S and 26S rDNA genes within the rRNA operon, derived from single nematodes of two genera (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to digestion by four restriction enzymes. The digests were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) gel electrophoresis on the PhastSystem, using 7.5%T, 5%C(Bis) polyacrylamide. The downscaling from conventional agarose to PhastSystem gels permitted the analysis to be done on individual nematodes, rather than on mixed samples with average properties. The analysis time was reduced so as to allow for the electrophoretic separation on 200 samples/workday. The resulting patterns of DNA fragments differed from those obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis under conventional conditions by an increased number of detected fragments. The PhastSystem gel analysis provides the basis for taxonomical revisions. PMID:10380768

Triga, D; Pamjav, H; Vellai, T; Fodor, A; Buzás, Z

1999-06-01

289

[Restriction fragment length differences (RFLDs) of genomic DNA from different geographical strains of Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus].  

PubMed

Total DNA was extracted from three geographical strains of Anopheles sinensis and two geographical strains of Anopheles anthropophagus and digested respectively with three restriction endonucleases (Bgl II, Hae III and Pst I). The restriction fragment length differences (RFLDs) of repetitive DNA detected after agarose gel electrophoretic separation and ethidium bromide staining were compared among the above-mentioned geographical strains of both An. sinensis and An. anthropohagus. The results indicated that the band patterns are species- specific and strain-specific, their main bands being similar while their minor bands being distinctly different. Pst I digestion produced unique fragments for three geographical strains of An. sinensis while Bgl II digestion produced unique fragments for two geographical strains of An. anthropophagus. In view of the variation in repetitive DNA of different geographical strains of both An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus presented, the RFLDs could be used as a means to distinguish various closely related geographical strains of anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:1982859

Li, B W; Lu, H L; Yao, K T; Liu, D

1990-01-01

290

Novel apparatus to measure hyperthermal heavy ion damage to DNA: Strand breaks, base loss, and fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel apparatus that allows us to irradiate nonvolatile organic films of high mass (1-100 {mu}g range) spread out over a large surface area (42 cm{sup 2}) with low energy (kT-100 eV) heavy ions and to quantitatively analyze the film substance via standard biochemical techniques afterwards. Here we discuss the details of the apparatus and method and show that it allows us to measure substantial damage to double stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) and its fundamental subunits induced by heavy ions with unprecedented low energies, i.e., 2.5 eV/amu; these energies correspond to track end energies of stopping ions or secondary ions created along primary ion tracks. We find that hyperthermal Ar{sup +} ions interacting with plasmid DNA will lead to the formation of single and double strand breaks, as well as fragmentation of nucleosides, which also involve chemical modifications and site specific rupture along the N1-C1 glycosidic bond, resulting in base release. In cells, such localized clustered damage will enhance the severity of DNA strand lesions, thus making them harder to repair.

Sellami, L.; Lacombe, S.; Hunting, D.; Wagner, R. J.; Huels, M. A. [Ion Reaction Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

2007-08-15

291

DNA Sequence Fragment Containing C to A Mutation as a Convenient Mutation Standard for DHPLC Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) is a high throughput approach for screening DNA sequence variations. To assess oven calibration, cartridge performance, buffer composition and stability, the WAVE Low and High Range Mutation Standards are employed to ensure reproducibility and accuracy of the chromatographic analysis. The purpose of this study was to provide a cost-effective homemade mutation standard for DHPLC analysis. Materials and Methods: DHPLC was performed to evaluate different elution temperatures of a 374 bp DNA fragment with C>A mutation at position of 59 to achieve a peak profile similar to the Low Mutation Standard. In order to verify the reproducibility of the homemade mutation standard using DHPLC, 15 different experiments were performed to compare the homemade mutation standard, the WAVE Low Range Mutation Standard with a positive DNA control sample. Results: We identified a comparable elution temperature and a peak profile with the WAVE Low Range Mutation Standard. Conclusion: This study confirmed the reproducibility of the peak profile of our homemade mutation standard compared to the Low Mutation Standard using DHPLC analysis.

Dastsooz, Hassan; Vahedi, Nazanin; Fardaei, Majid

2013-01-01

292

A model to predict the conditions for liquid drop breakup and the resultant mean fragment size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential significance of drop fragmentation in sprays and other propulsion-related multiphase flows has been noted in the literature. This has motivated recent experimental and theoretical works to: better understand the fundamentals of physics of drop breakup processes, and develop models of drop fragmentation suitable for use in multiphase flow codes. The works summarized below aim to contribute to both sides of this two-pronged attack.

Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.

1994-01-01

293

Fragmentation process of size-selected aluminum cluster anions in collision with a silicon surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical processes involved in the collision of aluminum cluster anions, Al?N (4?N?25), with a silicon surface were investigated. Intact and fragment cluster anions, Al?n (n?N), were produced upon the collision. The surf02ace-tangent and surface-normal recoil velocity components of these product a0n0ions were determined. The tangential recoil velocities of the fragment cluster anions were considerably slow, ranging from 5% to 30%

Akira Terasaki; Tatsuya Tsukuda; Hisato Yasumatsu; Toshiki Sugai; Tamotsu Kondow

1996-01-01

294

Plant DNA Flow Cytometry and Estimation of Nuclear Genome Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background DNA flow cytometry describes the use of flow cytometry for estimation of DNA quantity in cell nuclei. The method involves preparation of aqueous suspensions of intact nuclei whose DNA is stained using a DNA fluorochrome. The nuclei are classified according to their relative fluorescence intensity or DNA content. Because the sample preparation and analysis is convenient and rapid,

JAROSLAV DOLE; Z ZEL; JAN BARTO

2005-01-01

295

Crystal- and fragment- size distributions of quartz and zircon in pumice: growth and fragmentation conditions in large and small-volume magma chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe an acid (HF and HBF4) technique to extract phenocrysts from individual vesiculated pumice clasts, coupled with camera- and computer-assisted measurements of phenocryst length, width, 3D shape, and vol abundance. CSDs of quartz and zircon are presented for several well-known voluminous ash-flow tuffs and small-volume lavas: Bishop, Lava Creek, Lower Bandelier, Toba, Katmai, and Timber Mt. Measured CSDs of quartz and zircon from these clasts provide a quenched "snapshot" view of growth conditions in preclimactic magma chambers. A common feature of CSDs of unfragmented phenocrysts is a concave-down, lognormal shape in contrast to the reported linear CSDs in more mafic systems.In addition, there are no crystals smaller than a threshold size. These features in silicic magmas are interpreted to be a general result of surface-controlled crystal growth (with growth rate dispersion) by layer nucleation. CSD slopes on log-linear frequency- size graphs in large volume tuffs, and smaller volume intracaldera lavas are similar, and do not simply correlate to the eruptive volume, or SHRIMP-determined zircon ages. CSDs of quartz in clasts with known stratigraphic positions document single evolving reservoir, fingerprint different magma batches (L Bandelier and Lava Creek), and overgrowth and gravitational redistribution (Bishop). Fragment size distributions (FSDs) in the same clasts document fragmentation due to 1) decrepitation of melt inclusions decompression- and heating-induced), and 2)syneruptive breakage. FSDs are treated with lognormal, Weibull, and fractal distributions. Among studied clasts, asymptotic and fractal FSDs are found to be more common. However, the genesis mechanisms (e.g. fractal, scale-invariant vs. size-dependent lognormal) inferred from CSD or FSD should be treated with caution. Decrepitation results in a smaller number of fragments (2-6) than crushing and in shapes that can be distinguished on perimeter/area vs. length diagrams. CSD and FSD have potential implications as fingerprinting tools to identify/correlate different magma batches in ash-flow tuffs. FSD serves as a novel tool for trace elemental and isotopic exchange in magma chambers.

Bindeman, I.

2003-12-01

296

Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

Although mechanisms for chromosomal instability in tumors have been described in animal and in vitro models, little is known about these processes in man. To explore cytogenetic evolution in human tumors, chromosomal breakpoint profiles were constructed for 102 pancreatic carcinomas and 140 osteosarcomas, two tumor types characterized by extensive genomic instability. Cases with few chromosomal alterations showed a preferential clustering of breakpoints to the terminal bands, whereas tumors with many changes showed primarily interstitial and centromeric breakpoints. The terminal breakpoint frequency was negatively correlated to telomeric TTAGGG repeat length, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric TTAGGG probes consistently indicated shortened telomeres and >10% of chromosome ends lacking telomeric signals. Because telomeric dysfunction may lead to formation of unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes, mitotic figures were also evaluated. Anaphase bridges were found in all cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated extensive structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with terminal transferase detection showing fragmented DNA in 5–20% of interphase cells. Less than 2% of cells showed evidence of necrosis or apoptosis, and telomerase was expressed in the majority of cases. Telomeric dysfunction may thus trigger chromosomal fragmentation through persistent bridge-breakage events in pancreatic carcinomas and osteosarcomas, leading to a continuous reorganization of the tumor genome. Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival.

Gisselsson, David; Jonson, Tord; Petersen, ?sa; Strombeck, Bodil; Dal Cin, Paola; Hoglund, Mattias; Mitelman, Felix; Mertens, Fredrik; Mandahl, Nils

2001-01-01

297

A DNA Metabarcoding Study of a Primate Dietary Diversity and Plasticity across Its Entire Fragmented Range  

PubMed Central

In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i) describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii) evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the distribution and the dispersal ability of this species.

Quemere, Erwan; Hibert, Fabrice; Miquel, Christian; Lhuillier, Emeline; Rasolondraibe, Emmanuel; Champeau, Julie; Rabarivola, Clement; Nusbaumer, Louis; Chatelain, Cyrille; Gautier, Laurent; Ranirison, Patrick; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Taberlet, Pierre; Chikhi, Lounes

2013-01-01

298

Genetic identification of cloned fragments of bacteriophage T4 DNA and complementation by some clones containing early T4 genes.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage T4 DNA containing cytosine has been obtained from cells infected with phage mutant in genes 42, 56, denA and denB. This DNA can be cut by a number of restriction endonucleases. Fragments obtained by digestion of this DNA with EcoRI have been cloned using the vector plasmid pCR1. Clones containing T4 DNA were identified by hybridization with radioactive early and late T4 RNA. A simple marker rescue technique is described for the genetic identification of the cloned T4 fragments. Some of the T4-hybrid plasmids which contain entire T4 genes can complement temperature sensitive and amber mutants of T4. PMID:927440

Mattson, T; Van Houwe, G; Bolle, A; Selzer, G; Epstein, R

1977-09-01

299

The effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on stone size or fragmentation after long-term treatment with biliary stenting for large stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Endoscopic biliary stenting is often used for large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, but the effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on size or fragmentation of stones after long-term treatment with biliary stenting has not been formally established. We compared the stone size or fragmentation of common bile duct stones after a long period of biliary stenting. Methods: Endoscopic

P. Katsinelos; I. Galanis; I. Pilpilidis; G. Paroutoglou; P. Tsolkas; B. Papaziogas; S. Dimiropoulos; E. Kamperis; D. Katsiba; M. Kalomenopoulou; A. Papagiannis

2003-01-01

300

An IS6110-targeting fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism alternative to IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and highly discriminatory DNA fingerprinting methodology which produces data that can be easily interpreted, compared and transported is the ultimate goal for studying the epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel TaqI fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) approach to M. tuberculosis DNA fingerprinting that targeted the variable IS6110 marker was developed in this study. The new method was tested for specificity and reproducibility, and compared with the standard reference IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for a panel of 78 isolates. Clustering conflicts between the two methods were resolved using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) data. Comparison with an in-silico digestion of strain H37Rv showed that fAFLP-detected fragments were highly specific in vitro. The reproducibility of repeated digestions of strain H37Rv was 100%. Clustering results obtained by fAFLP and RFLP were highly congruent, with fAFLP allocating 97% of RFLP-clustered isolates to the same eight clusters as RFLP. Two single-copy isolates that had been clustered by RFLP were not clustered by fAFLP, but the MIRU-VNTR patterns of these isolates were different, indicating that the RFLP data had falsely clustered these isolates. Analysis by fAFLP will allow rapid screening of isolates to confirm or refute epidemiological links, and thereby provide insights into the frequency, conservation and consequences of specific transposition events. PMID:17803750

Thorne, N; Evans, J T; Smith, E G; Hawkey, P M; Gharbia, S; Arnold, C

2007-10-01

301

Storing DNA, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To store DNA, you need unusual storage containers. Organisms such as bacteria and viruses were the Human Genome Project's unconventional libraries and duplicating systems. "DNA libraries" give researchers a way to store and access genes of interest. These libraries consist of large numbers of DNA vectors each containing a different DNA fragment. Different vectors are used for DNA fragments of different sizes.

2008-10-06

302

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy with EcoRI/BlnI fragment size of more than 32 kb.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with the deletion of a variable number of 3.3-kb subunits of a tandemly arranged repeat (D4Z4) on chromosome 4q35. EcoRI/BlnI fragments in the range of 10-35 kb are currently defined as disease-associated. Diagnosis of FSHD is frequently complicated by interchromosomal exchange with a homologous locus on 10q26. We present clinical and laboratory data of six subjects from two unrelated families with a marked FSHD phenotype and EcoRI/BlnI fragments of 39 and 33 kb, respectively. Origin on chromosome 4q35 was confirmed by haplotype analysis in the first family and was supported by pulsed field gel electrophoresis data in the second family. Our data further confirm the existence of a region of overlap of normal and pathological fragments. Fragments from this region can obviously be associated with marked FSHD phenotypes. Furthermore, application of linked markers and resolution of all EcoRI/BlnI fragments by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in addition to routine laboratory tests considerably augments the information obtained from molecular tests, upon which genetic counselling can then be based. PMID:11932972

Vielhaber, Stefan; Jakubiczka, Sibylle; Schröder, J Michael; Sailer, Michael; Feistner, Helmut; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Wieacker, Peter; Bettecken, Thomas

2002-04-01

303

The antiapoptotic protein AAC-11 interacts with and regulates Acinus-mediated DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

The nuclear factor Acinus has been suggested to mediate apoptotic chromatin condensation after caspase cleavage. However, this role has been challenged by recent observations suggesting a contribution of Acinus in apoptotic internucleosomal DNA cleavage. We report here that AAC-11, a survival protein whose expression prevents apoptosis that occurs on deprivation of growth factors, physiologically binds to Acinus and prevents Acinus-mediated DNA fragmentation. AAC-11 was able to protect Acinus from caspase-3 cleavage in vivo and in vitro, thus interfering with its biological function. Interestingly, AAC-11 depletion markedly increased cellular sensitivity to anticancer drugs, whereas its expression interfered with drug-induced cell death. AAC-11 possesses a leucine-zipper domain that dictates, upon oligomerization, its interaction with Acinus as well as the antiapoptotic effect of AAC-11 on drug-induced cell death. A cell permeable peptide that mimics the leucine-zipper subdomain of AAC-11, thus preventing its oligomerization, inhibited the AAC-11-Acinus complex formation and potentiated drug-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. Our results, therefore, show that targeting AAC-11 might be a potent strategy for cancer treatment by sensitization of tumour cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:19387494

Rigou, Patricia; Piddubnyak, Valeria; Faye, Audrey; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Michel, Laurence; Calvo, Fabien; Poyet, Jean-Luc

2009-06-01

304

Capillary electrophoresis of double-stranded DNA fragments using a new fluorescence intercalating dye EvaGreen.  

PubMed

EvaGreen is a new DNA intercalating dye successfully used in quantitative real-time PCR. In the present work, we firstly apply EvaGreen to the analysis of dsDNA by CE with LIF detection. Comparisons of EvaGreen dye with the commonly used dyes SYBR Green I and SYBR Gold were preformed in dsDNA analysis by CE. The linear range of dsDNA using EvaGreen was slightly wider than that using SYBR Gold and SYBR Green I, and the detection limits of dsDNA were not significantly different for the three dyes. Good separations of dsDNA fragments were obtained using the three dyes. Reproducibility of migration time and the peak area of dsDNA fragments with EvaGreen were better than those for SYBR Green I and SYBR Gold. The RSD values were 0.24-0.27% for migration time and 3.45-7.59% for peak area within the same day, 1.35-1.63% for migration time and 6.72-12.05% for peak area for three days. Our data demonstrated that EvaGreen is well suited for the dsDNA analysis by CE with LIF detection. PMID:16833086

Sang, Fuming; Ren, Jicun

2006-06-01

305

Effect of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Clinical Outcome of Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and on Blastocyst Formation  

PubMed Central

During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET) (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI) and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET) (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI) were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ?30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40%) were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ?30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles.

Ni, Wuhua; Xiao, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiufang; Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Li, Yan; Fei, Qianjin; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

306

Use of cloned DNA fragments for event-specific quantification of genetically modified organisms in pure and mixed food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

An event-specific PCR method for detection and quantification of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) is described in this article. The complete DNA sequence at both the right and left integration sites of this genetically modified organism has recently been determined. Based on these sequence data, transformation event-specific primer pairs were developed. These primers amplify a fragment of the unique

Isabel Taverniers; Pieter Windels; Erik Van Bockstaele; Marc De Loose

2001-01-01

307

Study of mechanisms of some caffeine biological effects via computer simulation of its interactions with DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To approach atomic level mechanisms of caffeine biological activity, molecular mechanics computations of interactions between caffeine molecule and DNA duplex fragments, containing four nucleotide pairs, have been performed. The calculations reveal a set of energy minima referring to rather compact caffeine arrangement in both major and minor grooves of the helix. The set includes the minima correspondent to the H-bond

A. S. Deriabina; T. I. Grokhlina; N. A. Polteva; E. González; V. I. Poltev

2006-01-01

308

Genetic fingerprinting of grape plant (Vitis vinifera) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and dynamic size-sieving capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Dynamic size-sieving capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (DSCE-LIF) was combined with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to demonstrate the feasibility of the genetic analysis of grape plant varieties and clones within a variety. Parameters of the genomic DNA extraction process, as well as those of the RAPD analysis, were optimized specifically for this application. Polymorphic DNA fragments were generated for four different grape plant varieties including Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Chardonnay. Relative to slab gel electrophoresis (SGE) with ethidium bromide staining, DSCE-LIF provided superior separation efficiency and detection limits in the analysis of DNA polymorphic bands. Optimal DSCE-LIF analyses were achieved using a 10-fold RAPD sample dilution, hydrodynamic sample injection, and 100 ng/mL of YO-PRO-1 DNA intercalator in the dynamic size-sieving buffer solution. In addition, the reproducibility of both the DSCE-LIF and RAPD analyses were demonstrated. PMID:11312766

Siles, B A; O'Neil, K A; Fox, M A; Anderson, D E; Kuntz, A F; Ranganath, S C; Morris, A C

2000-12-01

309

Preparation and size control of monodispersed surface charged polystyrene nanoparticles by reversible addition fragmentation transfer reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly monodispersed polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were prepared via reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) living radical emulsion polymerization technique. Two types of novel sur-iniferters with different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) values, 4-diethythiocarbonylsulfanylmethyl-benzoic acid and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioicacid benylether, were synthesized for the PS RAFT reaction and their chemical synthesis was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope and dynamic light scattering

Jusung Kim; Juho Kwak; Young Chul Kim; Dukjoon Kim

2006-01-01

310

Nitric oxide-mediated expression of Bax protein and DNA fragmentation during hypoxia in neuronal nuclei from newborn piglets.  

PubMed

The present study tests the hypothesis that nitric oxide mediates the hypoxia-induced increase in expression of Bax and in DNA fragmentation in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets, and that administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (NNLA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, will prevent a change in hypoxia-induced expression of apoptotic genes and DNA damage. Piglets were assigned to normoxic, hypoxic, or NNLA-pretreated hypoxic groups. Cerebral tissue hypoxia was documented biochemically by measuring ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels. Cerebral cortical neuronal nuclei were isolated and nuclear proteins were separated electrophoretically and probed with specific antibodies against Bcl-2 or Bax proteins. Neuronal nuclear DNA from normoxic, hypoxic, and NNLA-pretreated hypoxic animals was isolated, separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Cerebral hypoxia resulted in an increase in nuclear membrane Bax protein levels from 121.33+/-47.7 optical density (OD)xmm(2) in normoxic to 273.67+/-67.3 ODxmm(2) in hypoxic group (P<0.05 vs. normoxic), but levels in NNLA-pretreated hypoxic group were 155.78+/-48.3 ODxmm(2) (P<0.05 vs. hypoxic, P=NS vs. normoxic). Similarly, cerebral hypoxia resulted in the density of DNA fragments increasing from 1530.3+/-309.8 OD/mm(2) in the normoxic group to 5383.3+/-775 OD/mm(2) in the hypoxic group (P<0.05), while levels in NNLA-pretreated hypoxic group were 3574.0+/-952 OD/mm(2) (P<0.05 compared to hypoxic and normoxic groups). The data show that NNLA-pretreatment prevents the hypoxia-induced increase in Bax expression and DNA fragmentation demonstrating that the hypoxia-induced Bax gene expression and the DNA fragmentation are NO-mediated. PMID:12393233

Zubrow, Alan B; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria; Ashraf, Qazi M; Ballesteros, Juan R; Fritz, Karen I; Mishra, Om P

2002-11-01

311

Both subtelomeric regions are required and sufficient for specific DNA fragmentation during macronuclear development in Stylonychia lemnae  

PubMed Central

Background: Programmed DNA-reorganization and DNA-elimination events take place frequently during cellular differentiation. An extreme form of such processes, involving DNA reorganization, DNA elimination and DNA fragmentation, is found during macronuclear differentiation in hypotrichous ciliates. Ciliated protozoa can therefore serve as a model system to analyze the molecular basis of these processes during cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. Results: Using a biological approach to identify cis-acting sequences involved in DNA fragmentation, we show that in the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae sequences required for specific DNA processing are localized in the 3'- and the 5'-subtelomeric regions of the macronuclear precursor sequence. They can be present at various positions in the two subtelomeric regions, and an interaction between the two regions seems to occur. Sequence comparison revealed a consensus inverted repeat in both subtelomeric regions that is almost identical to the putative Euplotes chromosome breakage sequence (E-Cbs), also identified by sequence comparison. When this sequence was mutagenized, a processed product could no longer be detected, demonstrating that the sequence plays a crucial role in DNA processing. By injecting a construct into the developing macronucleus, which exclusively contains the subtelomeric regions of the Stylonychia ?l-tubulin gene, we show that subtelomeric regions are not only required but are also sufficient for DNA processing in Stylonychia. Conclusions: Our results indicate that an inverted repeat with the core sequence 5'-TGAA present in both subtelomeric regions acts as a Cbs in Stylonychia. The results allow us to propose a mechanistic model for DNA processing in this ciliate.

Jonsson, Franziska; Steinbruck, Gunther; Lipps, Hans J

2001-01-01

312

Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and ...

K. B. Jacobson M. V. Buchanan C. H. Chen M. J. Doktycz S. A. McLuckey

1993-01-01

313

Efficiency of genomic DNA extraction dependent on the size of magnetic nanoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the efficiency of genomic DNA extraction as a function of particle size and quantity. For DNA extraction, we synthesized magnetic nanoclusters of various sizes and coated the surface of these magnetic nanoclusters with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. We showed that the nanoclusters had a tight particle size distribution and high crystallinity. Furthermore, we observed that the three types of magnetic nanoclusters studied exhibited ferrimagnetic behavior and that larger nanoclusters showed larger saturation magnetization values. The resultant efficiency of DNA extraction is inversely proportional to particle size in the range of nanoclusters tested, due to the fact that the surface-to-volume ratio decreases as particle size increases.

Cho, Hyun Ah; Hyun Min, Ji; Hua Wu, Jun; Woo Jang, Jin; Lim, Chae-Seung; Keun Kim, Young

2014-05-01

314

DNA large restriction fragment patterns of sporadic and epidemic nosocomial strains of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus.  

PubMed Central

Large restriction fragment (LRF) pattern analysis of genomic DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on three reference strains, 32 sporadic isolates, and 92 nosocomial isolates from 12 epidemics of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Only 17 of 30 (57%) unrelated strains of M. abscessus, compared with 10 of 11 (91%) of M. chelonae strains, gave satisfactory DNA extractions, with the remainder resulting in highly fragmented DNA. DraI, AsnI, XbaI, and SpeI gave satisfactory LRF patterns. Sporadic isolates of the two species had highly variable LRF patterns, except for one reference strain and one sporadic isolate of M. chelonae that differed by only two to five bands. Evaluation of repeat isolates from five patients monitored for 8 months to 13 years (mean, 5.8 years) revealed LRF patterns to be stable, with changes of not more than two bands. LRF analysis of the seven nosocomial outbreaks with evaluable DNA revealed identical patterns in most or all of the patient isolates and in three outbreaks revealed identity with environmental isolates. These outbreaks included endoscope contamination, postinjection abscesses, and surgical wound infections. LRF analysis of genomic DNA is a useful technique for epidemiologic studies of M. abscessus and M. chelonae, although improved technology is needed for the approximately 50% of strains of M. abscessus with unsatisfactory DNA extractions. Images

Wallace, R J; Zhang, Y; Brown, B A; Fraser, V; Mazurek, G H; Maloney, S

1993-01-01

315

Human sperm DNA fragmentation: correlation of TUNEL results as assessed by flow cytometry and optical microscopy.  

PubMed

An association between DNA fragmentation in sperm determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the incidence of reproductive failure has been reported, either using flow cytometry or optical microscopy. However, the results obtained using each of these two approaches are different. Since there is a relative lack of studies standardizing these two approaches, the direct comparison of the results described in the different articles is difficult at present. To allow the comparison of the TUNEL results obtained using flow cytometry and optical microscopy, we applied these two approaches in a total of 66 human sperm samples. A positive correlation is detected in the TUNEL results as measured by flow cytometry and optical microscopy (Spearman; r = 0.720, P < 0.001). The percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa assessed by flow cytometry is 2.6 times higher than that detected in optical microscopy (39.7% +/- 23.1% versus 15.3% +/- 10.3%). Although there is a good correlation of the TUNEL results obtained by flow cytometry and optical microscopy, the percentages obtained with either technique are different. Therefore, the TUNEL results described in the present work should be valuable to compare the results described in many independent articles, using either optical microscopy or flow cytometry. PMID:17972316

Domínguez-Fandos, David; Camejo, María Isabel; Ballescà, José Luis; Oliva, Rafael

2007-12-01

316

Genetic characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains by random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD).  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants subjected to strict quarantine regulations worldwide. Previous studies showed that the population of E. amylovora in Romania is homogenous in its biochemical and serological characteristics, despite the different strains' geographical and host origin. The aim of the present study was to establish and test a typing method to quantify genetic diversity among the Romanian strains of this plant pathogen. Fourteen strains isolated from different hosts and geographical locations in Romania were examined by random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) fragment analysis with two ten-base primers. This molecular method has not revealed any polymorphism, producing the same amplification patterns for all tested strains. Clustering of strains in the resulting dendrogram was not correlated with host, or region of isolation. The RAPD technique did not allow the detection of genetic markers in E. amylovora strains isolated in Romania and proved not to be discriminating among strains of this pathogen. The results presented in this study suggest that the population of E. amylovora in Romania is homogenous. PMID:20361537

M?ru?escu, Lumini?a; Manole, Filofteia; Sesan, Tatiana

2009-01-01

317

Universal Multiplex PCR: a novel method of simultaneous amplification of multiple DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Background Multiplex PCR has been successfully applied in many areas since it was first reported in 1988; however, it suffers from poor universality. Results A novel method called Universal Multiplex PCR (UM-PCR) was created, which simultaneously amplifies multiple target fragments from genomic DNA. The method has two steps. First, the universal adapter-F and universal adapter-R are connected to the forward primers and the reverse primers, respectively. Hairpin structures and cross dimers of five pairs of adapter-primers are detected. Second, UM-PCR amplification is implemented using a novel PCR procedure termed “Two Rounds Mode” (three and 28–32 cycles). The first round (the first three cycles) is named the “One by One Annealing Round”. The second round (28–32 cycles) combines annealing with extension. In the first two cycles of the first round, primers only amplify the specific templates; there are no templates for the universal adapters. The templates of universal adapters begin to be synthesized from the second cycle of the first round, and universal adapters and primers commence full amplification from the third cycle of the first round. Conclusions UM-PCR greatly improves the universality of multiplex PCR. UM-PCR could rapidly detect the genetic purity of maize seeds. In addition, it could be applied in other areas, such as analysis of polymorphisms, quantitative assays and identifications of species.

2012-01-01

318

Comparison of the DNA Fragmentation and the Sperm Parameters after Processing by the Density Gradient and the Swim up Methods  

PubMed Central

Introduction The swim up and the density-gradient centrifugation are the two main techniques which are used to separate the viable motile sperm fraction in the assisted reproductive technology. However, there are several published studies about these methods, but there is no sufficient evidence for recommending the superiority of one of them. This study was designed to study the efficiency of the swim-up and the density gradient techniques to recover the spermatozoa with a high degree of motility, a normal morphology and a low level of DNA fragmentation. Material and Methods A total of 35 semen samples were included in the study. The semen samples were collected, one part of the semen was spread on a slide and the remainder was prepared by using the swim-up or the density gradient techniques. The recovered spermatozoa were evaluated for concentration, motility, and normal morphology. A comet assay was carried out to assay the DNA fragmentation in all the samples. Results There were significant differences in the sperm parameters between the density gradient and the swim up techniques. Also, the swim-up technique showed a significantly higher level of DNA fragmentation as compare to the density gradient technique. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated several benefits of the gradients method in the separation of normal and motile spermatozoa with healthy DNA, in comparison to the swim up method.

Amiri, Iraj; Ghorbani, Marzieh; Heshmati, Safora

2012-01-01

319

Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant.

Lopez, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramon; Brassesco, Mario

2013-01-01

320

Cloning and characterization of a highly reiterated 5.8-kilobase pair nucleolar EcoRI DNA fragment found in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells.  

PubMed

The DNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells was found to contain a 3.6-megadalton EcoRI restriction fragment, referred to as EcoRI fragment A (Parker et al., 1979). C0t analyses demonstrated an enrichment of fragment A sequences in Novikoff hepatoma genome relative to normal rat liver DNA. This fragment was cloned in lambda gtWES to determine its molecular structure and sequence organization. The DNA from a positive clone was labeled by nick translation and hybridized to a Southern blot of EcoRI digested Novikoff DNA. Distinct hybrids formed with the region corresponding to fragment A. The greater degree of hybridization to the nucleolar fraction suggested a nucleolar enrichment of fragment A. Fragment A has a PstI site approximately 300 base pairs from one terminus which was used to generate mono-5'-32P-labeled fragments. The larger PStI subfragment, 5500 base pairs, labeled at a single terminus, was used to evolve a restriction enzyme map. The 300 base pair fragment was partially sequenced, revealing the presence of a repetitive sequence "island", TT(GTCT)8(GAAT)5G-. C0t analysis, utilizing the purified clone as a probe, confirmed the enrichment of fragment A sequences in the tumor relative to the normal rat liver control. PMID:6260140

Parker, D L; Busch, H; Rothblum, L I

1981-02-17

321

Protective roles of Gadd45 and MDM2 in blueberry anthocyanins mediated DNA repair of fragmented and non-fragmented DNA damage in UV-irradiated HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45) and MDM2 proteins, together with p21 and p53, play important roles in cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, and genome integrity maintenance. Gadd45 and MDM2 were activated and transcribed instantly by UV irradiation, whereas blueberry anthocyanins (BA) decreased the gene and protein expression levels in HepG2 cells for up to 24 h, and gradually restored the UV-induced fragmented and non-fragmented DNA damage of the nucleus at a time point of 12 h. Nevertheless, UV-irradiated HepG2 cell arrests occurred mainly in the G1 phase, which indicated G1 as a checkpoint. The proteins, p21 and p53, retain cellular integrity, suppressing the oncogenic transformation by interruption of the G1 phase of the cellular cycle, giving time for repairing the damage to DNA, or apoptosis induction if the damage is too severe to be repaired, while MDM2 and Gadd45 concomitantly ensure the presence of p53 and p21. Thus, we conclude that repair, together with Gadd45 and MDM2 genes, were involved in light and dark reaction mechanisms, however, BA could interfere and assist the repair through restoration, although further studies of the complex of the gene cascades triggered and responded to in BA-assisted DNA repair are needed. PMID:24177565

Liu, Wei; Lu, Xiangyi; He, Guangyang; Gao, Xiang; Xu, Maonian; Zhang, Jingkai; Li, Meiling; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Likui; Luo, Cheng

2013-01-01

322

Single stranded DNA stabilization and assembly of Au nanoparticles of different sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding affinity of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) for Au nanoparticles was found to be strongly size dependent. The data clearly indicate that the interaction is not due to a charge screening effect. The smaller particles (5nm) showed the most pronounced effect and inhibited the hybridization of complementary DNA sequences adsorbed on the Au nanoparticle surface. An experimental procedure was

J. Yang; Jim Yang Lee; Heng-Phon Too; Gan-Moog Chow; Leong M. Gan

2006-01-01

323

Evidence for Variation in the Effective Population Size of Animal Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has recently been shown that levels of diversity in mitochondrial DNA are remarkably constant across animals of diverse census population sizes and ecologies, which has led to the suggestion that the effective population of mitochondrial DNA may be relatively constant. Results: Here we present several lines of evidence that suggest, to the contrary, that the effective population size

Gwenael Piganeau; Adam Eyre-Walker

2009-01-01

324

Relationship of Mineral Habit to Size Characteristics for Tremolite Cleavage Fragments and Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines report describes a study conducted to determine the relationship of mineral habit to particle size and shape characteristics for prismatic, acicular, fibrous, and asbestiform varieties of tremolite. Particle measurements were made with...

W. J. Campbell E. B. Steel R. L. Virta M. H. Eisner

1979-01-01

325

Genome size and «C-heterochromatic-DNA» in man and the african apes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sizes and the amounts of DNA after C-banding pretreatments (C-heterochromatic DNA) were measured by quantitative cytochemical methods in man and the African apes,Gorilla gorilla andPan troglodytes. As evaluated by flow cytometry on propidium-iodide-stained lymphocytes, gorilla and chimpanzee have genome sizes larger\\u000a than man. On the basis of the different resistance of metaphase chromosome DNA to the C-banding procedure,

C. Pellicciari; E. Ronchetti; D. Formenti; R. Stanyon; M. G. Manfredi Romanini

1990-01-01

326

Evidence for Variation in the Effective Population Size of Animal Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has recently been shown that levels of diversity in mitochondrial DNA are remarkably constant across animals of diverse census population sizes and ecologies, which has led to the suggestion that the effective population of mitochondrial DNA may be relatively constant.ResultsHere we present several lines of evidence that suggest, to the contrary, that the effective population size of mtDNA does

Gwenael Piganeau; Adam Eyre-Walker; Neil John Gemmell

2009-01-01

327

Sequence-specific modification of a beta-thalassemia locus by small DNA fragments in human erythroid progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Gene therapy has been proposed as a definitive cure of beta-thalassemia. We applied a gene targeting approach, based on the introduction of small DNA fragments (SDF) into erythroid progenitor cells, to specifically modify the beta-globin gene sequence at codon 39. The strategy was first tested in normal individuals by delivering mutant SDF that were able to produce the beta-39 (C->T) mutation. Secondly, wild-type SDF were electroporated into target cells of beta-3i9/beta-39 b-thalassemic patients to correct the endogenous mutation. In both cases, gene modification was assayed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA and mRNA, by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by direct sequencing. PMID:17229648

Colosimo, Alessia; Guida, Valentina; Antonucci, Ivana; Bonfini, Tiziana; Stuppia, Liborio; Dallapiccola, Bruno

2007-01-01

328

Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy for imaging apoptotic DNA fragmentation at the single-cell level in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The major characteristic of cell death by apoptosis is the loss of nuclear DNA integrity by endonucleases, resulting in the formation of small DNA fragments. The application of confocal imaging to in vivo monitoring of dynamic cellular events, like apoptosis, within internal organs and tissues has been limited by the accessibility to these sites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) to image in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation in surgically exteriorized sheep corpus luteum in the living animal. Following intra-luteal administration of a fluorescent DNA-staining dye, YO-PRO-1, DNA cleavage within nuclei of apoptotic cells was serially imaged at the single-cell level by FCFM. This imaging technology is sufficiently simple and rapid to allow time series in situ detection and visualization of cells undergoing apoptosis in the intact animal. Combined with endoscope, this approach can be used for minimally invasive detection of fluorescent signals and visualization of cellular events within internal organs and tissues and thereby provides the opportunity to study biological processes in the natural physiological environment of the cell in living animals.

Al-Gubory, Kais H. [Unite de Biologie du Developpement et de la Reproduction, Departement de Physiologie Animale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex (France)]. E-mail: kais.algubory@jouy.inra.fr

2005-11-01

329

Efficient synthesis of DNA dumbbells using template-induced chemical ligation in double-stranded polynucleotides closed by minihairpin fragments.  

PubMed

The chemical ligation of 17 50-54-membered nicked DNA dumbbells with different closing fragments, nick positions, and nucleotides facing the nick were investigated. T4, T5, GTA4C, GCGA2GC, and GCGA3GC sequences were chosen as the closing fragments. The nicks were placed in the center of the duplex stem or were adjacent to the closing fragments. N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and cyanogen bromide were used as the condensing agents. We showed that the ligation efficiency is 10%-90% depending on the sequence of the closing fragments, nick position, and nucleotides facing the nick. Coupling yields of 80%-90% were observed when the nick was situated in the middle of the molecule between two T residues or was adjacent to GCGA2GC or GCGA3GC minihairpins. In the last case, the reacting 3'-phosphate and 5'-hydroxy groups were brought close together by only two base pair minihairpins. The coupling yields did not depend on the nature of the condensing agent. On the basis of the results obtained, we believe a rational design of nicked DNA dumbbells has been developed for efficient chemical synthesis of closed dumbbells. PMID:10192294

Kuznetsova, S A; Merenkova, I N; Kanevsky, I E; Shabarova, Z A; Blumenfeld, M

1999-02-01

330

Isolation of a specific DNA fragment and development of a PCR-based method for the detection of Mycobacterium genavense.  

PubMed

The rise of Mycobacterium genavense infections is making identification ever more important for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, isolation and identification of M. genavense are made difficult by the lack of growth on solid media and by its low generation rate in BACTEC liquid media. Thus, amplification by PCR or similar techniques represents the only possibility of detecting and identifying M. genavense from tissue samples. In order to set up a simple and species-specific method based on the use of PCR and non-radioactive hybridization technique, we decided to search for and clone a specific DNA fragment of this bacterial species. In the present study, a 1734-bp fragment was isolated. This fragment was found to be highly specific for M. genavense strains. A species-specific pair of primers (MG22 and MG23) and two oligonucleotide probes (MG18 and MG19) were selected. They were successfully used to amplify and detect a 155-bp DNA fragment from the 13 available strains of M. genavense which were isolated from clinical specimens or from birds. Conversely, the primers and probes did not hybridize with DNA from any of the 20 other mycobacterial species tested. It is worth noting that the chosen primers and probes did not hybridize with DNA of M. simiae, although it is closely related to M. genavense. The present PCR technique uses species-specific primers for M. genavense. Followed by a non-radioactive hybridization technique on microplates it is able to distinguish M. genavense from other mycobacteria in one step, without sequencing or restriction analysis. On the basis of the Southern blot hybridization, PCR and sandwich hybridization results, we concluded that the isolated 1.7-kb sequence was specific for the M. genavense chromosome. The method developed here for M. genavense identification uses a simple methodology and commonly available reagents. Furthermore it can be easily automated. PMID:10219597

Chevrier, D; Oprisan, G; Maresca, A; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Guesdon, J L

1999-03-01

331

Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of dnaJ Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method that analyzes a part of the dnaJ gene was designed for the rapid and accurate identification of Staphylococcus spp. XapI or Bsp143I digestion of the PCR-generated products rendered distinctive RFLP patterns that allowed 41 reference species and subspecies to be identified with a high degree of specificity. The novel method was validated

Tomasz Hauschild; Srdjan Stepanovic

332

A 125-base-pair CEN6 DNA fragment is sufficient for complete meiotic and mitotic centromere functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres contain a conserved region ranging from 111 to 119 base pairs (bp) in length, which is characterized by the three conserved DNA elements CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII. We isolated a 125-bp CEN6 DNA fragment (named ML CEN6) containing only these conserved elements and assayed it completely separated from its chromosomal context on circular minichromosomes and on a large linear chromosome fragment. The results show that this 125-bp CEN6 DNA fragment is by itself sufficient for complete mitotic and meiotic centromere functions. Images

Cottarel, G; Shero, J H; Hieter, P; Hegemann, J H

1989-01-01

333

Cell size does not always correspond to genome size: Phylogenetic analysis in geckos questions optimal DNA theories of genome size evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

At higher taxonomic levels, a significant correlation between genome size (GS) and erythrocyte size (ES) has been reported for many taxa. Under optimal DNA theories, several mechanisms presuming a causative link between GS and ES have been proposed to explain this seemingly general pattern. The correlation between GS and ES has been rarely tested among closely related organisms within an

Zuzana Starostová; Lukáš Kratochvíl; Martin Flajšhans

2008-01-01

334

Cloning and expression of a Clostridium thermocellum DNA fragment that encodes a protein related to cellulosome component SL.  

PubMed

Antibodies raised against the SL subunit of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome were used to screen a library of C. thermocellum chromosomal DNA fragments constructed in the vector lambda gt11. A DNA fragment that encoded a polypeptide that crossreacted with the anti-SL antibodies was isolated and its restriction map elucidated. No similarity with other previously cloned DNA fragments has been found. The anti-SL crossreacting polypeptide was isolated from recombinant Escherichia coli and found to have a mol mass of 37,000 Da and to possess low levels of CMCase and Avicelase activity. Using CMC as the substrate, a temperature optimum of 55 degrees C and a pH optimum of 6.6 were observed. These properties were compared to those of C. thermocellum SL isolated by electroelution from an SDS gel, which was also found to possess low levels of CMCase and Avicelase activities. In addition, the SL proteins produced in C. thermocellum and E. coli were able to interact positively against Avicel with an endoglucanase (Ss) purified from the C. thermocellum crude cellulase preparation, and with a recombinant protein that crossreacted with anti-Ss antibodies. PMID:1799288

Romaniec, M P; Kobayashi, T; Fauth, U; Gerngross, U T; Demain, A L

1991-11-01

335

Physical map and strand polarity of specific fragments of adenovirus-associated virus DNA produced by endonuclease R-EcoRI.  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of adenovirus-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) DNA linear duplex monomers with the restriction endonuclease R-EcoRI yielded three fragments, A, B, and C, having approximate mol wt of 1.6 X 10(6), 1.1 X 10(6), and 1.3 X 10(5), respectively. Radioactive labeling the 5' termini of AAV DNA before cleavage with R-EcoRI showed that A and B were terminal fragments and C was internal. Separation of the complementary strands of fragments A and B showed that A contained the 5' terminus of the minus strand and the 3' terminus of the plus strand, and conversely for fragment B. The physical map of the AAV R-EcoRI fragments can thus be unambiguously determined and is drawn with B at the left-hand and A at the right-hand end. On this map, transcription of stable AAV mRNA from the minus strand proceeds from left to right, beginning in fragment B and terminating in fragment A. The asymmetry in distribution of thymidine between the AAV DNA plus and minus strands is preferentially located in fragment A, which represents the right-hand half of the duplex molecule. These experiments enable preparative separation of all four single-strand termini of AAV DNA and provide a basis for orientation of fragment maps derived by cleavage with other restriction enzymes.

Carter, B J; Khoury, G; Denhardt, D T

1975-01-01

336

Rapid fabrication of a microfluidic device with integrated optical waveguides for DNA fragment analysis.  

PubMed

The fabrication and performance of a microfluidic device with integrated liquid-core optical waveguides for laser induced fluorescence DNA fragment analysis is presented. The device was fabricated through poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft lithography and waveguides are formed in dedicated channels through the addition of a liquid PDMS pre-polymer of higher refractive index. Once a master has been fabricated, microfluidic chips can be produced in less than 3 h without the requirement for a cleanroom, yet this method provides an optical system that has higher performance than a conventional confocal optical assembly. Optical coupling was achieved through the insertion of optical fibers into fiber-to-waveguide couplers at the edge of the chip and the liquid-fiber interface results in low reflection and scattering losses. Waveguide propagation losses are measured to be 1.8 dB cm(-1) (532 nm) and 1.0 dB cm(-1) (633 nm). The chip displays an average total coupling loss of 7.6 dB due to losses at the optical fiber interfaces. In the electrophoretic separation and detection of a BK virus PCR product, the waveguide system achieves an average signal-to-noise ratio of 570 +/- 30 whereas a commercial confocal benchtop electrophoresis system achieves an average SNR of 330 +/- 30. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a waveguide-based system has been demonstrated to have a SNR comparable to a commercially available confocal-based system for microchip capillary electrophoresis. PMID:17896011

Bliss, Christopher L; McMullin, James N; Backhouse, Christopher J

2007-10-01

337

Is thioredoxin reductase involved in the defense against DNA fragmentation in varicocele?  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the role of thioredoxin reductase (TR) and inducible heat shock protein 70 (iHsp70) and their relationship with sperm quality in varicocele (VAR) patients. Semen samples were obtained from 16 subfertile men diagnosed as VAR and 10 fertile men who applied to the Andrology Laboratory of Istanbul Medical Faculty of Istanbul University. The sperm TR and iHsp 70 expression levels were determined using Western blot analysis. The TR activity of the sperm was assayed spectrophometrically. The sperm quality was evaluated both by conventional sperm analysis and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique that assayed DNA-fragmented spermatozoa in semen samples. The percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa in the VAR group (16.3%±5.6%) was higher than that in the fertile group (5.5%±1.9%). Significant inverse correlations were detected between the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells and both the concentration (r=?0.609; P=0.001) and motility (r=?0.550; P=0.004) of spermatozoa. Both the TR expression and activity were increased significantly in the VAR group (U=22.0; P=0.001 and U=33.5; P=0.012, respectively) as analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U Wilcoxon rank sum W test. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were found between TR expression and activity (r=0.406; P=0.040) and between TR expression and the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells (r=0.665; P=0.001). Sperm iHsp70 expression did not differ between the VAR and fertile groups. In conclusion, increased sperm TR expression might be a defense mechanism against apoptosis in the spermatozoa of men with VAR.

Ozdemirler Erata, Gul; Kucukgergin, Canan; Aktan, Gulsan; Kadioglu, Ates; Uysal, Mujdat; Kocak-Toker, Necla

2013-01-01

338

Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 with a biodegradable branched polycationic polymer in a critical-size rat cranial defect model.  

PubMed

This study investigated the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the form of polyplexes with a biodegradable branched triacrylate/amine polycationic polymer (TAPP) that were complexed with gelatin microparticles (GMPs) loaded within a porous tissue engineering scaffold. More specifically, the study investigated the interplay between TAPP degradation, gelatin degradation, pDNA release, and bone formation in a critical-size rat cranial defect model. The pDNA release kinetics in vitro were not affected by the crosslinking density of the GMPs but depended, rather, on the degradation rates of the TAPPs. Besides the initial release of polyplexes not bound to the GMPs and the minimal release of polyplexes through diffusion or dissociation from the GMPs, the pDNA was likely released as naked pDNA or as part of an incomplete polyplex, after the degradation of fragments of the polycationic polymer. After 30 days, significantly higher amounts of pDNA were released (93%-98%) from composite scaffolds containing naked pDNA or pDNA complexed with P-AEPZ (synthesized with 1-[2-aminoethyl]piperazine, a faster degrading TAPP) compared with those containing pDNA complexed with P-DED (synthesized with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine, a slower degrading TAPP) (74%-82%). Composite scaffolds containing GMPs complexed with TAPP/pDNA polyplexes did not result in enhanced bone formation, as analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology, in a critical-size rat cranial defect at 12 weeks postimplantation compared with those loaded with naked pDNA. The results demonstrate that polycationic polymers with a slow degradation rate can prolong the release of pDNA from the composite scaffolds and suggest that a gene delivery system comprising biodegradable polycationic polymers should be designed to release the pDNA in an intact polyplex form. PMID:20964581

Chew, Sue Anne; Kretlow, James D; Spicer, Patrick P; Edwards, Austin W; Baggett, L Scott; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

2011-03-01

339

Delivery of Plasmid DNA Encoding Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Biodegradable Branched Polycationic Polymer in a Critical-Size Rat Cranial Defect Model  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the form of polyplexes with a biodegradable branched triacrylate/amine polycationic polymer (TAPP) that were complexed with gelatin microparticles (GMPs) loaded within a porous tissue engineering scaffold. More specifically, the study investigated the interplay between TAPP degradation, gelatin degradation, pDNA release, and bone formation in a critical-size rat cranial defect model. The pDNA release kinetics in vitro were not affected by the crosslinking density of the GMPs but depended, rather, on the degradation rates of the TAPPs. Besides the initial release of polyplexes not bound to the GMPs and the minimal release of polyplexes through diffusion or dissociation from the GMPs, the pDNA was likely released as naked pDNA or as part of an incomplete polyplex, after the degradation of fragments of the polycationic polymer. After 30 days, significantly higher amounts of pDNA were released (93%–98%) from composite scaffolds containing naked pDNA or pDNA complexed with P-AEPZ (synthesized with 1-[2-aminoethyl]piperazine, a faster degrading TAPP) compared with those containing pDNA complexed with P-DED (synthesized with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine, a slower degrading TAPP) (74%–82%). Composite scaffolds containing GMPs complexed with TAPP/pDNA polyplexes did not result in enhanced bone formation, as analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology, in a critical-size rat cranial defect at 12 weeks postimplantation compared with those loaded with naked pDNA. The results demonstrate that polycationic polymers with a slow degradation rate can prolong the release of pDNA from the composite scaffolds and suggest that a gene delivery system comprising biodegradable polycationic polymers should be designed to release the pDNA in an intact polyplex form.

Chew, Sue Anne; Kretlow, James D.; Spicer, Patrick P.; Edwards, Austin W.; Baggett, L. Scott; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kasper, F. Kurtis

2011-01-01

340

Molecular-Sized DNA or RNA Sequencing Machine  

Cancer.gov

Current high-throughput DNA sequencing methods suffer from several limitations. Many methods require multiple fluid handling steps, fixing of molecules on beads or a 2D surface, and provide very short read-lengths. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute's Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory offer a potential DNA or RNA sequencing device that drastically simplifies the process by combining all elements for sequence detection in a single molecule.

341

Size fractionation of Trypanosoma brucei DNA: localization of the 177-bp repeat satellite DNA and a variant surface glycoprotein gene in a mini-chromosomal DNA fraction.  

PubMed Central

We have size-fractionated intact DNA from Trypanosoma brucei into a major large DNA fraction (greater than 350S) and minor middle-sized (60-250S) and small (less than 60S) DNA fractions. Large DNA contains the rRNA genes, the basic copy genes for several variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), including one which lies near a telomer, and the expression-linked copies of the two VSG genes. The middle-sized DNA contains at least one VSG gene, but the hybridization of this fraction with probes for the conserved repetitive sequences that mark the edges of the transposed segments of VSG genes, suggests that it may contain many VSG genes. The 177-bp repeat satellite DNA is also exclusively found in this fraction. Images

Sloof, P; Menke, H H; Caspers, M P; Borst, P

1983-01-01

342

Dynamical screening effects in surface ionization of mono(di)atomic fragmentation: A finite size approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atomic particle ejected with kinetic energy K from a sample is not perfectly followed by the electron screen neutralizing it in the sample. We study this phenomenon on a limited-size sample with six atoms and electrons. We use a complete determinant basis model, already presented in a previous paper, more accurate than the usual Hartree-Fock one-determinant method. We calculate

R.-J. Tarento; P. Joyes; J. van de Walle

2002-01-01

343

Dynamical screening effects in surface ionization of mono(di)atomic fragmentation: A finite size approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atomic particle ejected with kinetic energy K from a sample is not perfectly followed by the electron screen neutralizing it in the sample. We study this phenomenon on a limited-size sample with six atoms and electrons. We use a complete determinant basis model, already presented in a previous paper, more accurate than the usual Hartree–Fock one-determinant method. We calculate

R.-J Tarento; P Joyes; J Van de Walle

2002-01-01

344

Distinct Complexes of DNA Polymerase I (Klenow Fragment) for Base and Sugar Discrimination during Nucleotide Substrate Selection*  

PubMed Central

During each catalytic cycle, DNA polymerases select deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrates complementary to a templating base with high fidelity from a pool that includes noncomplementary dNTPs and both complementary and noncomplementary ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs). The Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (KF) achieves this through a series of conformational transitions that precede the chemical step of phosphodiester bond formation. Kinetic evidence from fluorescence and FRET experiments indicates that discrimination of the base and sugar moieties of the incoming nucleotide occurs in distinct, sequential steps during the selection pathway. Here we show that KF-DNA complexes formed with complementary rNTPs or with noncomplementary nucleotides can be distinguished on the basis of their properties when captured in an electric field atop the ?-hemolysin nanopore. The average nanopore dwell time of KF-DNA complexes increased as a function of complementary rNTP concentration. The increase was less than that promoted by complementary dNTP, indicating that the rNTP complexes are more stable than KF-DNA binary complexes but less stable than KF-DNA-dNTP ternary complexes. KF-DNA-rNTP complexes could also be distinguished from KF-DNA-dNTP complexes on the basis of ionic current amplitude. In contrast to complementary rNTPs, noncomplementary dNTPs and rNTPs diminished the average nanopore dwell time of KF-DNA complexes in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that binding of a noncomplementary nucleotide keeps the KF-DNA complex in a less stable state. These results imply that nucleotide selection proceeds through a series of complexes of increasing stability in which substrates with the correct moiety promote the forward transitions.

Garalde, Daniel R.; Simon, Christopher A.; Dahl, Joseph M.; Wang, Hongyun; Akeson, Mark; Lieberman, Kate R.

2011-01-01

345

Land use vs. fragment size and isolation as determinants of small mammal composition and richness in Atlantic Forest remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remaining Atlantic Forest fragments are structurally isolated by a matrix of pastures, plantations, or urban areas, and most remnants are small (<100ha). Island biogeography theory has been used to predict the effects of such fragmentation in the remaining fragments, but human activities and land use around fragments may be equally important. A related question is which aspects of land

Marcus V. Vieira; Natalie Olifiers; Ana C. Delciellos; Vanina Z. Antunes; Luis R. Bernardo; Carlos E. V. Grelle; Rui Cerqueira

2009-01-01

346

Antibody fragments  

PubMed Central

The antibody molecule is modular and separate domains can be extracted through biochemical or genetic means. It is clear from review of the literature that a wave of novel, antigen-specific molecular forms may soon enter clinical evaluation. This report examines the developmental histories of therapeutics derived from antigen-specific fragments of antibodies produced by recombinant processes. Three general types of fragments were observed, antigen-binding fragments (Fab), single chain variable fragments (scFv) and “third generation” (3G), each representing a successive wave of antibody fragment technology. In parallel, drug developers have explored multi-specificity and conjugation with exogenous functional moieties in all three fragment types. Despite high hopes and an active pipeline, enthusiasm for differentiating performance of fragments should, perhaps, be tempered as there are yet few data that suggest these molecules have distinct clinical properties due only to their size.

2010-01-01

347

Pif1 helicase lengthens some Okazaki fragment flaps necessitating Dna2 nuclease/helicase action in the two-nuclease processing pathway.  

PubMed

We have developed a system to reconstitute all of the proposed steps of Okazaki fragment processing using purified yeast proteins and model substrates. DNA polymerase delta was shown to extend an upstream fragment to displace a downstream fragment into a flap. In most cases, the flap was removed by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), in a reaction required to remove initiator RNA in vivo. The nick left after flap removal could be sealed by DNA ligase I to complete fragment joining. An alternative pathway involving FEN1 and the nuclease/helicase Dna2 has been proposed for flaps that become long enough to bind replication protein A (RPA). RPA binding can inhibit FEN1, but Dna2 can shorten RPA-bound flaps so that RPA dissociates. Recent reconstitution results indicated that Pif1 helicase, a known component of fragment processing, accelerated flap displacement, allowing the inhibitory action of RPA. In results presented here, Pif1 promoted DNA polymerase delta to displace strands that achieve a length to bind RPA, but also to be Dna2 substrates. Significantly, RPA binding to long flaps inhibited the formation of the final ligation products in the reconstituted system without Dna2. However, Dna2 reversed that inhibition to restore efficient ligation. These results suggest that the two-nuclease pathway is employed in cells to process long flap intermediates promoted by Pif1. PMID:19605347

Pike, Jason E; Burgers, Peter M J; Campbell, Judith L; Bambara, Robert A

2009-09-11

348

Genetic characterization of Epimedium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diagnosis.  

PubMed

Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of seven Epimedium species grown in different places in Japan. Their genetic characterization was performed by DNA analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 32 random primers having 10 base sequences, and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). E. sagittatum and E. koreanum were easily distinguished by a representative amplified band pattern. It became evident that E. sagittatum had extremely different genetic composition compared to the other species. A dendrogram obtained from the similarity matrix by cluster analysis indicates that E. sagittatum can be completely isolated from the other species. Moreover, it became evident that E. grandiflorum var. higoense, E. trifoliatobinatum and E. koreanum are independent species, contrary to the previous assumption that they are subspecies or a variety. The geographical variation of E. sempervirens was confirmed by cluster analysis. E. diphyllum showed wide genetic variations, in spite of sampling from the same area. PMID:8820914

Nakai, R; Shoyama, Y; Shiraishi, S

1996-01-01

349

Analysis of Endonuclease R?EcoRI Fragments of DNA from Lambdoid Bacteriophages and Other Viruses by Agarose-Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

By means of agarose-gel electrophoresis, endonuclease R·EcoRI-generated fragments of DNA from various viruses were separated, their molecular weights were determined, and complete or partial fragment maps for lambda, ?80, and hybrid phages were constructed. Images

Helling, Robert B.; Goodman, Howard M.; Boyer, Herbert W.

1974-01-01

350

Caspase3 is not essential for DNA fragmentation in MCF7 cells during apoptosis induced by the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine, PBOX-6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effector caspases-3, -6 and -7 are responsible for producing the morphological features associated with apoptosis, such as DNA fragmentation. The present study demonstrates that a member of a novel series of pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines, PBOX-6, induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which lack caspase-3. Apoptosis was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspase-7, but not caspases-3 and -6. Inhibition of caspase-7

Margaret M Mc Gee; Edel Hyland; Giuseppe Campiani; Anna Ramunno; Vito Nacci; Daniela M Zisterer

2002-01-01

351

Gene-sized macronuclear DNA molecules are clustered in micronuclear chromosomes of the ciliate Oxytricha nova.  

PubMed Central

Following the sexual phase of its life cycle, the hypotrichous ciliate Oxytricha nova transforms a copy of its chromosomal micronucleus into a macronucleus containing short, linear DNA molecules with an average size of 2.2 kilobase pairs. In addition, more than 90% of the DNA sequences in the micronuclear genome are eliminated during this process. We have examined the organization of macronuclear DNA molecules in the micronuclear chromosomes. Macronuclear DNA molecules were found to be clustered and separated by less than 550 base pairs in two cloned segments of micronuclear DNA. Recombinant clones of two macronuclear DNA molecules that are adjacent in the micronucleus were also isolated and examined by DNA sequencing. The two macronuclear DNA molecules were found to be separated by only 90 base pairs in the micronuclear genome. Images

Klobutcher, L A; Vailonis-Walsh, A M; Cahill, K; Ribas-Aparicio, R M

1986-01-01

352

Genome size expansion and the relationship between nuclear DNA content and spore size in the Asplenium monanthes fern complex (Aspleniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Homosporous ferns are distinctive amongst the land plant lineages for their high chromosome numbers and enigmatic genomes. Genome size measurements are an under exploited tool in homosporous ferns and show great potential to provide an overview of the mechanisms that define genome evolution in these ferns. The aim of this study is to investigate the evolution of genome size and the relationship between genome size and spore size within the apomictic Asplenium monanthes fern complex and related lineages. Results Comparative analyses to test for a relationship between spore size and genome size show that they are not correlated. The data do however provide evidence for marked genome size variation between species in this group. These results indicate that Asplenium monanthes has undergone a two-fold expansion in genome size. Conclusions Our findings challenge the widely held assumption that spore size can be used to infer ploidy levels within apomictic fern complexes. We argue that the observed genome size variation is likely to have arisen via increases in both chromosome number due to polyploidy and chromosome size due to amplification of repetitive DNA (e.g. transposable elements, especially retrotransposons). However, to date the latter has not been considered to be an important process of genome evolution within homosporous ferns. We infer that genome evolution, at least in some homosporous fern lineages, is a more dynamic process than existing studies would suggest.

2013-01-01

353

Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical methodology for estimating dataset size requirements for classifying microarray data using learning curves is introduced. The goal is to use existing classié cation results to estimate dataset size requirements for future classié cation experiments and to evaluate the gain in accuracy and signié cance of classié ers built with additional data. The method is based on é tting

Sayan Mukherjee; Pablo Tamayo; Simon Rogers; Ryan M. Rifkin; Anna Engle; Colin Campbell; Todd R. Golub; Jill P. Mesirov

2003-01-01

354

Proof of Principle In Vitro Study of a Prototype Ultrasound Technology to Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments evaluated a prototype ultrasound technology to size kidney stone fragments. Materials and Methods Nineteen human stones were measured using manual calipers. A 10-MHz, 1/8? (10F) ultrasound transducer probe pinged each stone on a kidney tissue phantom submerged in water using two methods. In Method 1, the instrument was aligned such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. In Method 2, the instrument was aligned partially over the stone such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through water. Results For Method 1, the correlation between caliper- and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2?=?0.71 (P?size with good accuracy and precision. This technology may be possible to incorporate into ureteroscopy.

Teichman, Joel M.H.; Bailey, Michael R.

2009-01-01

355

DNA Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the revolutionary changes that have occurred in biology since 1970 can be attributed directly to the ability to manipulate DNA in defined ways. The principal tools for this recombinant DNA technology are enzymes that can "cut and "paste" DNA. Restriction enzymes are the "chemical scissors" of the molecular biologist; these enzymes cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. A sample of someone's DNA, incubated with restriction enzymes, is reduced to millions of DNA fragments of varying sizes. A DNA sample from a different person would have a different nucleotide sequence and would thus be enzymatically "chopped up" into a very different collection of fragments. We have been asked to apply DNA fingerprinting to determine which suspect should be charged with a crime perpetrated in our city.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Suzanne Black N:Black;Suzanne ORG:Inglemoor High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

356

Is sperm DNA fragmentation a good marker for field AI bull fertility?  

PubMed

This paper aimed at investigating the potential use of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) to improve the routine screening of infertility of Holstein bulls. Cryopreserved sperm samples from 201 Holstein bulls provided by an AI center were used in the analyses of SDF at 0 (SDF_0) and 6 (SDF_6) h of incubation at 37°C. A refinement of the sperm chromatin dispersion test implemented in the Sperm-Halomax kit was employed to measure SDF. Records on routinely collected semen traits (volume, concentration, mass and individual motility evaluated in the fresh ejaculate, and individual motility in post-thawed semen straws) were provided by the AI center. Artificial insemination bull fertility was obtained from official field recording as successful or failed insemination. The results show that the average SDF was low (around 3.5%) at 0 and 6 h of incubation. A moderate effect of inbreeding depression was found. Estimated heritability for SDF traits were moderately high (0.41 and 0.29 for SDF_0 and SDF_6, respectively) and estimated repeatability of SDF measures in the same animal were high (0.73 and 0.70 for SDF_0 and SDF_6, respectively). An overall estimated service bull value (ESBV) obtained through statistical modeling that allowed for adjustment of systematic environmental effects not specific to a bull and of the female contribution to fertility, and the estimated genetic values (EGV) were obtained from field-recorded AI information. The ESBV and EGV were also obtained for all semen traits. Moderately large and negative Pearson correlation coefficients were observed between SDF traits and male fertility ranging from (-0.43 to -0.50; P <0.001). Results of stepwise regression analyses showed that SDF_6 had the largest partial r(2) (0.15 to 0.26) among all semen characteristics. Overall, the selected semen traits explained 25% and 31% of the observed variability in bull fertility measured as EGV and ESBV, respectively. When looking at the predictive ability of bull fertility categories, the results of discriminant and logistic regression analyses showed that low-fertility bulls (those in the 10th or lower percentile in the fertility distribution) can be accurately identified by using measures of SDF alone or in combination with sperm motility. Values of SDF around 7% to 10% could be used as indicators of low AI success. PMID:22367070

Karoui, S; Díaz, C; González-Marín, C; Amenabar, M E; Serrano, M; Ugarte, E; Gosálvez, J; Roy, R; López-Fernández, C; Carabaño, M J

2012-08-01

357

Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production. PMID:20646164

Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

2010-08-01

358

Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is able to use hemoglobin as a sole source of heme, and heme-repressible hemoglobin binding to the cell surface has been demonstrated. Using an affinity purification methodology, a hemoglobin-binding protein of approximately 120 kDa was isolated from H. influenzae type b strain HI689 grown in heme-restricted but not in heme-replete conditions. The isolated protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and the derived amino acid sequence was used to design corresponding oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were used to probe a Southern blot of EcoRI-digested HI689 genomic DNA. A hybridizing band of approximately 4.2 kb was successfully cloned into pUC19. Using a 1.9-kb internal BglII fragment of the 4.2-kb clone as a probe, hybridization was seen in both typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae but not in other bacterial species tested. Following partial nucleotide sequencing of the 4.2-kb insert, a putative open reading frame was subcloned into an expression vector. The host Escherichia coli strain in which the cloned fragment was expressed bound biotinylated human hemoglobin, whereas binding of hemoglobin was not detected in E. coli with the vector alone. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the DNA fragment encoding an approximately 120-kDa heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding protein mediates one step in the acquisition of hemoglobin by H. influenzae in vivo.

Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

1996-01-01

359

Mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphisms in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracts from 13 isolatesof Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.niveum, including 12 from widely separated geographic regions within the United States and representing the three races, and one\\u000a race 2 isolate from Israel, were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA and were also subjected to restriction endonucleases\\u000a analysis. None of the mtDNA from any isolate had a copurifying

D. H. kim; R. D. martyn; C. W. magill

1991-01-01

360

Electroporation of Alcaligenes eutrophus with (mega) plasmids and genomic DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Electroporation was used as a tool to explore the genetics of the heavy-metal-resistant strain Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. A 12.9-kb A. eutrophus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pMOL850, was constructed to optimize electroporation conditions. This vector is derived from the E. coli plasmid pSUP202 and contains the replication region of the A. eutrophus megaplasmid pMOL28. Electroporation was used to transform A. eutrophus CH34 derivatives with megaplasmids (sizes up to 240 kb), and transformants were selected for resistance to heavy metals. Electroporation was also performed with endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. Transformation of markers affecting lysine biosynthesis (lysA194) and biosynthesis of the siderophore alcaligin E were observed. Transfer of the nonselected markers pheB332 and aro-333, linked to lysA194, confirmed the intervention of homologous recombination. However, during transformation of ale::Tn5-Tc, illegitimate recombination and transposition were also observed as an alternative for the inheritance of the Tn5-Tc markers. PMID:7986037

Taghavi, S; van der Lelie, D; Mergeay, M

1994-10-01

361

Genetic Analyses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe dna21 Reveal That Dna2 Plays an Essential Role in Okazaki Fragment Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we investigated the phenotypes caused by temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant alleles of dna21 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a homologue of DNA2 of budding yeast, in an attempt to further define its function in vivo with respect to lagging-strand synthesis during the S-phase of the cell cycle. At the restrictive temperature, dna2 (ts) cells arrested at late S-phase but were

Ho-Young Kang; Eunjoo Choi; Sung-Ho Bae; Kyoung-Hwa Lee; Byung-Soo Gim; Hee-Dai Kim; Stuart A. MacNeill; Yeon-Soo Seo

362

Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy." Geophysical Research Letters 38.24 (2011). C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). 'Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time' Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Charalambous, C., Pike, W. T., Goetz, W., Hecht, M. H., & Staufer, U. (2011, December). 'A Digital Martian Soil based on In-Situ Data.' In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1669). Golombek, M., & Rapp, D. (1997). 'Size-frequency distributions of rocks on Mars and Earth analog sites: Implications for future landed missions.' Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(E2), 4117-4129. Golombek, M., Huertas, A., Kipp, D., & Calef, F. (2012). 'Detection and characterization of rocks and rock size-frequency distributions at the final four Mars Science Laboratory landing sites.' Mars, 7, 1-22.

Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

2013-12-01

363

The genetic organization of a 2,966 basepair DNA fragment of a single capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from Trichoplusia ni.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the genomic organization of the Trichoplusia ni Single Capsid Nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV), a 2,966 basepairs (bp) genomic fragment was sequenced. The fragment was found to contain five open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to baculovirus genes, including p26, fibrillin (p10), AcMNPV ORF-29, late expression factor 6 (lef-6) and the C-terminal portion of p74, on either strand of DNA. Predicted amino acid sequences for the ORFs were compared and identity values of between 12% and 54% were observed. TnSNPV has previously been tentatively identified as a member of the Group II NPVs. Clustering and arrangement of the TnSNPV genes were similar to the clustering reported for SeMNPV, confirming TnSNPV as a Group II NPV. PMID:12206306

Fielding, Burtram Clinton; Khan, Sehaam; Wang, Weizhou; Kruger, Courtney; Abrahams, Rayaana; Davison, Sean

2002-01-01

364

Mitochondrial DNA of Clathrina clathrus (Calcarea, Calcinea): six linear chromosomes, fragmented rRNAs, tRNA editing, and a novel genetic code.  

PubMed

Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a large and ancient group of morphologically simple but ecologically important aquatic animals. Although their body plan and lifestyle are relatively uniform, sponges show extensive molecular and genetic diversity. In particular, mitochondrial genomes from three of the four previously studied classes of Porifera (Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha) have distinct gene contents, genome organizations, and evolutionary rates. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome of Clathrina clathrus (Calcinea, Clathrinidae), a representative of the fourth poriferan class, the Calcarea, which proves to be the most unusual. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of six linear chromosomes 7.6-9.4 kb in size and encodes at least 37 genes: 13 protein codings, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and 24 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Protein genes include atp9, which has now been found in all major sponge lineages, but no atp8. Our analyses further reveal the presence of a novel genetic code that involves unique reassignments of the UAG codons from termination to tyrosine and of the CGN codons from arginine to glycine. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial rRNAs are encoded in three (srRNA) and ?6 (lrRNA) fragments distributed out of order and on several chromosomes. The encoded tRNAs contain multiple mismatches in the aminoacyl acceptor stems that are repaired posttranscriptionally by 3'-end RNA editing. Although our analysis does not resolve the phylogenetic position of calcareous sponges, likely due to their high rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, it confirms mtDNA as a promising marker for population studies in this group. The combination of unusual mitochondrial features in C. clathrus redefines the extremes of mtDNA evolution in animals and further argues against the idea of a "typical animal mtDNA." PMID:23223758

Lavrov, Dennis V; Pett, Walker; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Forget, Lise; Lang, B Franz; Kayal, Ehsan

2013-04-01

365

Nuclear DNA content of Hydrastis canadensis L. and genome size stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the genome size is an important step towards deciding and planning for genome sequencing of a given species. Using\\u000a flow cytometry, nuclear DNA content of Hydrastis canadensis was estimated, and genome size stability of its in vitro regenerated plantlets were assessed. The nuclear DNA content of\\u000a H. canadensis was estimated to be 2.62 ± 0.020 pg\\/2C. This is the first report to

Samuel G. Obae; Todd P. West

2010-01-01

366

DNA fragmentation: manifestation of target cell destruction mediated by cytotoxic T-cell lines, lymphotoxin-secreting helper T-cell clones, and cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatant  

SciTech Connect

A Lyt-2/sup +/, trinitrophenyl-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting, cytotoxic T-cell line, PCl 55, mediates the digestion of target cell DNA into discretely sized fragments. This phenomenon manifests itself within 30 min after effector cell encounter as measured by the release of /sup 3/H counts from target cells prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)deoxythymidine and occurs even at very low effector to target cell ratios (0.25:1). A Lyt-1/sup +/, ovalbumin-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting T-helper cell clone, 5.9.24, is also able to mediate fragmentation of target cell DNA over a time course essentially indistinguishable from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated hit. Cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatants also cause release of DNA from targets, although they require a longer time course, on the order of 24 hr. In contrast, lysis of cells by antibody plus complement or Triton X-100 does not result in DNA release even after extended periods of incubation (24 hr). All three treatments that result in the release of DNA from cells cause fragmentation of that DNA into discretely sized pieces that are multiples of 200 base pairs. The results thus suggest that cytotoxic T cells, lymphotoxin-secreting helper clones with cytolytic activity, and lymphotoxin all effect target cell destruction by means of a similar mechanism and that observed differences in time course and the absence of target cell specificity in killing mediated by lymphotoxin may simply reflect differences in the mode of toxin delivery.

Schmid, D.S.; Tite, J.P.; Ruddle, N.H.

1986-03-01

367

Population density, sex ratio, body size and fluctuating asymmetry of Ceroglossus chilensis (Carabidae) in the fragmented Maulino forest and surrounding pine plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat fragmentation results in new environmental conditions that may stress resident populations. Such stress may be reflected in demographical or morphological changes in the individuals inhabiting those landscapes. This study evaluates the effects of fragmentation of the Maulino forest on population density, sex ratio, body size, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the endemic carabid Ceroglossus chilensis. Individuals of C. chilensis were collected during 2006 in five locations at Los Queules National Reserve (continuous forest), in five forest fragments and in five areas of surrounding pine plantations (matrix). In each location, once a season, 40 pitfall traps (20 in the centre, 20 in the edge), were opened for 72 h. Population density of C. chilensis was higher in the small fragments than in the pine matrix, with intermediate densities in the continuous forest; sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1 in the three habitats. Individuals from the centre of fragments were smaller than those from the centre of continuous forest, and FA did not vary significantly among habitats. These results suggest that small forest fragments maintain dense populations of C. chilensis and therefore they must be considered in conservation strategies. Although the decrease of the body size suggests that small remnants should be connected by managing the structure of the surrounding matrix, facilitating the dispersion of this carabid across the landscape and avoiding possible antagonistic interactions inside small fragments.

Henríquez, Paula; Donoso, Denise S.; Grez, Audrey A.

2009-11-01

368

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of a Diagnostic 452-Base-Pair DNA Fragment Discriminates between Cryptosporidium parvum and C. meleagridis and between C. parvum Isolates of Human and Animal Origin  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNAs from human Cryptosporidium isolates previously typed by analysis of the 18S ribosomal DNA locus (Cryptosporidium parvum bovine genotype, C. parvum human genotype, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium felis) were used to amplify the diagnostic fragment described by Laxer et al. (M. A. Laxer, B. K. Timblin, and R. J. Patel, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 45:688-694, 1991). The obtained 452-bp amplified fragments were sequenced and aligned with the homologous Cryptosporidium wrairi sequence. Polymorphism was exploited to develop a restriction fragment length polymorphism method able to discriminate Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum genotypes.

Guyot, K.; Follet-Dumoulin, A.; Recourt, C.; Lelievre, E.; Cailliez, J. C.; Dei-Cas, E.

2002-01-01

369

Continuous distribution of Mycoplasma genome sizes.  

PubMed

Genome sizes of eleven strains of eight species of Mollicutes Mycoplasmataceae were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Mycoplasma genomic sizes were determined from the sum of the sizes of fragments obtained after digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases. The sizes of the fragments were determined by comparison of their electrophoretic mobilities with those of lambda DNA concatemers. Specific restriction endonucleases were chosen so that after digestion three to ten fragments were obtained. The values for genome size derived by this method showed a continuous distribution that ranged from approximately 650 kb for Mycoplasma hyorhinis BTS-7 to 1600 kb for Acholeplasma laidlawii FHM. PMID:1841633

Barlev, N A; Borchsenius, S N

1991-01-01

370

DNA delivery by phage as a strategy for encapsulating toroidal condensates of arbitrary size into liposomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a strategy for encapsulating and condensing DNA. When T5 phage binds to its membrane protein receptor, FhuA, its double stranded DNA (120,000 bp) is progressively released base pair after base pair in the surrounding medium. Using cryoelectron microscopy, we have visualized the structures formed after T5 phage DNA is released into neutral unilamellar proteoliposomes reconstituted with the receptor FhuA. In the presence of spermine, toroidal condensates of circumferentially wrapped DNA were formed. Most significantly, the sizes of these toroids were shown to vary, from 90 to 200 nm in their outer diameters, depending on the number of DNA stands transferred. We have also analyzed T5 DNA release in bulk solution containing the detergent-solubilized FhuA receptor. After DNA release in a spermine containing solution, huge DNA condensates with a diameter of about 300 nm were formed containing the DNAs from as many as 10-20 capsids. At alkaline pH, the condensates appeared as large hollow cylinders with a diameter of 200 nm and a height of 100-200 nm. Overall, the striking feature of our experiments is that, because of the progressive release of DNA from the phage capsid, the mechanism of toroid formation is fundamentally different from that in the classical studies in which highly dilute, "naked" DNA is condensed by direct addition of polyvalent cations; as a consequence, our method leads to toroids of arbitrary size.

Lambert, Olivier; Letellier, Lucienne; Gelbart, William M.; Rigaud, Jean-Louis

2000-06-01

371

Structure functions of rod-like DNA fragment and polystyrenesulfonate solutions in the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial structure functions of aqueous solutions of rod-like DNA fragments and polystyrenesulfonic acid are calculated in the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The cylindrical cell model appropriate for linear polyelectrolyte solutions with monovalent counterions and without any added salt is utilized. The predicted results are compared with the corresponding results from the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory, and experimental small angle neutron scattering data obtained in the monomer concentration range 0.05-0.2 mol/dm 3. It is seen that both the modified Poisson-Boltzmann and the Poisson-Boltzmann results lead to a very good fit to the experimental structure functions.

Bhuiyan, L. B.; Outhwaite, C. W.; van der Maarel, J. R. C.

1996-02-01

372

Molecular Identification of Bacteria from a Coculture by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S Ribosomal DNA Fragments as a Tool for Isolation in Pure Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular information about the bacterial composition of a coculture capable of sulfate reduction after exposure to oxic and microoxic conditions was used to identify and subsequently to isolate the components of the mixture in pure culture. PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA fragments from the coculture, analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulted in two distinct 16S ribosomal DNA bands,

ANDREAS TESKE; PAVEL SIGALEVICH; YEHUDA COHEN; ANDGERARD MUYZER; Moshe Shilo; Alexander Silberman

1996-01-01

373

Tandem Mass Spectrometry-based Detection of C4?-Oxidized Abasic Sites at Specific Positions in DNA Fragments  

PubMed Central

Oxidative damage to DNA has been linked to aging, cancer, and other biological processes. Reactive oxygen species and various antitumor agents including bleomycin and ionizing radiation have been shown to cause oxidative DNA sugar damage. Detection of DNA lesions is important for understanding the toxicological or therapeutic consequences associated with such agents. C4?-oxidized abasic sites (C4-AP) are produced by the antitumor drug bleomycin and ionizing radiation. The currently available methods for detection of C4-AP cannot provide both structural and sequence information. We have developed an LC- ESI-MS based approach for specific detection and mapping of C4-AP from a mixture of lesions. We show using Fe-bleomycin-damaged DNA, that C4-AP can be detected at cytosine and thymine sites by direct mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. Our results reveal that collision-induced dissociation of C4-AP-containing oligonucleotides results in preferential fragmentation at C4-AP sites with the formation of the unique a* ions (18 a.m.u more than the a-B ions) that allow mapping of the C4-AP sites. Various chemical modification strategies (e.g. reduction with NaBH4 and NaBD4 and derivatization with methoxyamine and hydrazine, followed by liquid-chromatography (LC)-MS analysis) were also used for unambiguous detection of C4-AP sites. Finally, we show that the methods described here can detect the presence of C4-AP at specific sites in a complex sample such as hydroxyl radical-damaged DNA. The LC-MS approach was also used for the simultaneous detection of the other C4?-oxidation end product, 3?-phosphoglycolate (3PG) at a specific site in hydroxyl radical-damaged DNA. Thus, LCMS provides a rapid and direct approach for the detection and mapping of oxidative DNA lesions.

Chowdhury, Goutam; Guengerich, F. Peter

2013-01-01

374

Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of dnaJ Gene?  

PubMed Central

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method that analyzes a part of the dnaJ gene was designed for the rapid and accurate identification of Staphylococcus spp. XapI or Bsp143I digestion of the PCR-generated products rendered distinctive RFLP patterns that allowed 41 reference species and subspecies to be identified with a high degree of specificity. The novel method was validated by the identification of 23 clinical staphylococcal strains, and the results were compared with those obtained by other genotypic identification methods. A 100% concordance of the results was shown. Therefore, PCR-RFLP analysis of the dnaJ gene is proposed as a reliable and reproducible method for the identification of Staphylococcus spp.

Hauschild, Tomasz; Stepanovic, Srdjan

2008-01-01

375

Specific Fragmentation of DNA of Adenovirus Serotypes 3, 5, 7, and 12, and Adeno-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Virus Ad2+ND1 by Restriction Endonuclease R? EcoRI  

PubMed Central

The products of complete digestion of duplex DNA of each of seven human adenoviruses with restriction endonuclease R· EcoRI ranged from two fragments for adenovirus 7 DNA (Ad7) to six fragments for Ad12 and Ad2 DNA. Viral serotypes from the same subgroups appeared to have related cleavage sites; Ad3 DNA and Ad7 (cl E46-LL) DNA were each cleaved into three fragments, and Ad7 (cl 19) DNA lacked one of the cleavage sites present in Ad3 and Ad7 (cl E46-LL) DNA. One of the cleavage sites in Ad2 DNA was deleted in the DNA? of adeno-SV40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND1, and three of the cleavage sites in Ad2 DNA were missing in Ad5 DNA. Thus, Ad2+ND1 DNA was cleaved into five and Ad5 DNA into three fragments. Each fragment represented a unique segment of viral DNA since each fragment was obtained in equimolar amounts and since the sum of the molecular weights of the fragments equaled the molecular weight of the homologous intact adenovirus DNA. Images

Mulder, Carel; Sharp, Phillip A.; Delius, Hajo; Pettersson, Ulf

1974-01-01

376

Investigating a Eukaryotic Genome: Cloning and Sequencing a Fragment of Yeast DNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting students into the laboratory early in their college careers is quite important, and science educators can use this helpful resource to do just that. Created by Professor Sarah Elgin at Washington University, this lab exercise and guide introduces students to the molecular biology techniques used to clone a gene. Over the course of this activity, students sequence a small fragment of the yeast genome and then determine what genes, control elements, or repetitive sequences this fragment contains. The file contains pages for the instructor detailing how to conduct the activity and a selection of pages for students designed to test and interrogate what they have learned through this process of scientific inquiry.

Elgin, Sarah C.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen

2012-02-24

377

Temporal profile of nuclear DNA fragmentation in situ in gerbil hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the time course of nuclear DNA damage in the gerbil hippocampus following transient ischemia, brain sections 48, 72, 96 h and 7 days following 5 min ischemia were evaluated by a specific in situ labeling method of DNA breaks. After 72 h, only the neurons located in the medial part of the CA1 sector were labeled. And then,

Tomohiko Iwai; Akira Hara; Masayuki Niwa; Masakatsu Nozaki; Toshihiko Uematsu; Noboru Sakai; Hiromu Yamada

1995-01-01

378

Genome specificity of rDNA spacer fragments from Oryza sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intergenic spacer derived from a cloned rDNA unit from a cultivated rice was dissected into several subclones, which were used as probes to analyze sequence homologies between rDNA spacers from wild rice belonging to genome types AA, BB, CC, EE, FF, BBCC, and CCDD. This analysis allowed us to detect several regions with different degrees of homology. A series

F. Cordesse; F. Grellet; A. S. Reddy; M. Delseny

1992-01-01

379

Calculation of restriction fragment lengths by image processing.  

PubMed

The image processing system, LabEye Profile, calculates the size of DNA restriction fragments according to the formula MD = f(x); x = 1/log bp. The migration distances (MD) of known fragment sizes are interpolated by the use of cubic